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Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430)[1] was an early Christian theologian
Christian theologian
and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in Western Christianity
Christianity
for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God, On Christian Doctrine
On Christian Doctrine
and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith".[note 1] In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism, later to neo-Platonism. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity
Christianity
in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives.[2] Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made seminal contributions to the development of just war theory. When the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
began to disintegrate, Augustine imagined the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City.[3] His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople[4] closely identified with Augustine's On the Trinity. Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Christian Church, and the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
and as a preeminent Doctor of the Church. He is also the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.[5] Many Protestants, especially Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace.[6][7][8] Lutherans, and Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in particular, have held Augustine in preeminence (after the Bible
Bible
and St. Paul). Luther himself was, from 1505 to 1521, a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites. In the East, his teachings are more disputed, and were notably attacked by John Romanides.[9] But other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
have shown significant appropriation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky.[10] The most controversial doctrine associated with him, the filioque,[11] was rejected by the Orthodox Church.[12] Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, and predestination.[11] Nevertheless, though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, and has even had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Saint Gregory Palamas.[13] In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 15 June.[11][14] Historian Diarmaid MacCulloch
Diarmaid MacCulloch
has written: "[Augustine's] impact on Western Christian thought can hardly be overstated; only his beloved example Paul of Tarsus, has been more influential, and Westerners have generally seen Paul through Augustine's eyes."[15]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Background 1.2 Childhood and education 1.3 Move to Carthage, Rome, Milan 1.4 Christian conversion and priesthood 1.5 Death and veneration

1.5.1 Relics

2 Views and thought

2.1 Theology

2.1.1 Christian anthropology 2.1.2 Creation 2.1.3 Ecclesiology 2.1.4 Eschatology 2.1.5 Mariology 2.1.6 Natural knowledge and biblical interpretation 2.1.7 Original sin 2.1.8 Predestination 2.1.9 Sacramental theology

2.2 Philosophy

2.2.1 Astrology 2.2.2 Epistemology 2.2.3 Just war 2.2.4 Free will

2.3 Sociology, morals and ethics

2.3.1 Slavery 2.3.2 Jews 2.3.3 Sexuality 2.3.4 Pedagogy

3 Works 4 Influence

4.1 In philosophy 4.2 In theology 4.3 Oratorio

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Notes 6.2 Sources 6.3 Further reading

7 External links

7.1 General 7.2 Bibliography 7.3 Works by Augustine 7.4 Biography and criticism

Life[edit] Background[edit] Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/,[1] /əˈɡʌstɪn/,[16] or /ˈɔːɡʌstɪn/;[17] Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis;[note 2] 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine, Saint Austin,[18] (/ˈɔːstɪn/ or /ˈɑːstɪn/),[19] is known by various cognomens throughout the Christian world across its many denominations including Blessed Augustine,[20] and the Doctor of Grace[21] (Latin: Doctor gratiae) Hippo Regius, where Augustine was the bishop, was in modern-day Annaba, Algeria, located in Numidia. Childhood and education[edit]

The Saint Augustine Taken to School by Saint Monica. by Niccolò di Pietro 1413–15

Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the municipium of Thagaste (now Souk Ahras, Algeria) in the Roman province of Numidia.[22] His mother, Monica or Monnica,[23] was a devout Christian; his father Patricius was a Pagan who converted to Christianity
Christianity
on his deathbed.[24] Augustine considered the mother a central figure and considered the father like a stranger.[25] Scholars generally agree that Augustine and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa,[26][27][28][29] but that they were heavily Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of pride and dignity.[26] In his writings, Augustine leaves some information as to the consciousness of his African heritage. For example, he refers to Apuleius
Apuleius
as "the most notorious of us Africans,"[26][30] to Ponticianus as "a country man of ours, insofar as being African,"[26][31] and to Faustus of Mileve as "an African Gentleman".[26][32] Augustine's family name, Aurelius, suggests that his father's ancestors were freedmen of the gens Aurelia given full Roman citizenship by the Edict of Caracalla in 212. Augustine's family had been Roman, from a legal standpoint, for at least a century when he was born.[33] It is assumed that his mother, Monica, was of Berber origin, on the basis of her name,[34][35] but as his family were honestiores, an upper class of citizens known as honorable men, Augustine's first language is likely to have been Latin.[34] At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus (now M'Daourouch), a small Numidian city about 19 miles (31 km) south of Thagaste. There he became familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan beliefs and practices.[36] His first insight into the nature of sin occurred when he and a number of friends stole fruit they did not want from a neighborhood garden. He tells this story in his autobiography, The Confessions. He remembers that he did not steal the fruit because he was hungry, but because "it was not permitted."[37] His very nature, he says, was flawed. 'It was foul, and I loved it. I loved my own error—not that for which I erred, but the error itself."[37] From this incident he concluded the human person is naturally inclined to sin, and in need of the grace of Christ. At the age of 17, through the generosity of his fellow citizen Romanianus,[38] Augustine went to Carthage
Carthage
to continue his education in rhetoric. It was while he was a student in Carthage
Carthage
that he read Cicero's dialogue Hortensius (now lost), which he described as leaving a lasting impression and sparking his interest in philosophy.[39] Although raised as a Christian, Augustine left the church to follow the Manichaean religion, much to his mother's despair.[40] As a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lifestyle for a time, associating with young men who boasted of their sexual exploits. The need to gain their acceptance forced inexperienced boys like Augustine to seek or make up stories about sexual experiences.[41] It was during this period that he uttered his famous prayer, "Grant me chastity and continence, but not yet."[42] At about the age of 17, Augustine began an affair with a young woman in Carthage. Though his mother wanted him to marry a person of his class, the woman remained his lover[43] for over fifteen years[44] and gave birth to his son Adeodatus (b. 372 - d. 388),[45] who was viewed as extremely intelligent by his contemporaries. In 385, Augustine ended his relationship with his lover in order to prepare himself to marry a ten-year-old heiress. (He had to wait for two years because the legal age of marriage for women was twelve.) By the time he was able to marry her, however, he instead decided to become a celibate priest.[44][46] Augustine was from the beginning a brilliant student, with an eager intellectual curiosity, but he never mastered Greek[47]—he tells us that his first Greek teacher was a brutal man who constantly beat his students, and Augustine rebelled and refused to study. By the time he realized that he needed to know Greek, it was too late; and although he acquired a smattering of the language, he was never eloquent with it. However, his mastery of Latin was another matter. He became an expert both in the eloquent use of the language and in the use of clever arguments to make his points. Move to Carthage, Rome, Milan[edit]

The earliest known portrait of Saint Augustine in a 6th-century fresco, Lateran, Rome

Augustine taught grammar at Thagaste
Thagaste
during 373 and 374. The following year he moved to Carthage
Carthage
to conduct a school of rhetoric and would remain there for the next nine years.[38] Disturbed by unruly students in Carthage, he moved to establish a school in Rome, where he believed the best and brightest rhetoricians practiced, in 383. However, Augustine was disappointed with the apathetic reception. It was the custom for students to pay their fees to the professor on the last day of the term, and many students attended faithfully all term, and then did not pay. Manichaean friends introduced him to the prefect of the City of Rome, Symmachus, who while traveling through Carthage
Carthage
had been asked by the imperial court at Milan[48] to provide a rhetoric professor. Augustine won the job and headed north to take his position in Milan
Milan
in late 384. Thirty years old, he had won the most visible academic position in the Latin world at a time when such posts gave ready access to political careers. Although Augustine showed some fervour for Manichaeism, he was never an initiate or "elect", but an "auditor", the lowest level in the sect's hierarchy.[48] While still at Carthage
Carthage
a disappointing meeting with the Manichaean Bishop, Faustus of Mileve, a key exponent of Manichaean theology, started Augustine's scepticism of Manichaeanism.[48] In Rome, he reportedly turned away from Manichaeanism, embracing the scepticism of the New Academy
New Academy
movement. Because of his education, Augustine had great rhetorical prowess and was very knowledgeable of the philosophies behind many faiths.[49] At Milan, his mother's religiosity, Augustine's own studies in Neoplatonism, and his friend Simplicianus all urged him towards Christianity.[38] Initially Augustine was not strongly influenced by Christianity
Christianity
and its ideologies, but after coming in contact with Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan, Augustine reevaluated himself and was forever changed. Like Augustine, Ambrose
Ambrose
was a master of rhetoric, but older and more experienced.[50] Augustine was very much influenced by Ambrose, even more than by his own mother and others he admired. Augustine arrived in Milan
Milan
and was immediately taken under the wing by Ambrose. Within his Confessions, Augustine states, "That man of God received me as a father would, and welcomed my coming as a good bishop should."[51] Soon, their relationship grew, as Augustine wrote, "And I began to love him, of course, not at the first as a teacher of the truth, for I had entirely despaired of finding that in thy Church—but as a friendly man."[51] Augustine visited Ambrose
Ambrose
in order to see if Ambrose
Ambrose
was one of the greatest speakers and rhetoricians in the world. More interested in his speaking skills than the topic of speech, Augustine quickly discovered that Ambrose
Ambrose
was a spectacular orator. Eventually, Augustine says that he was spiritually led into the faith of Christianity.[51] Augustine's mother had followed him to Milan
Milan
and arranged a marriage for him. Although Augustine accepted this marriage, for which he had to abandon his concubine, he was deeply hurt by the loss of his lover. He wrote, "My mistress being torn from my side as an impediment to my marriage, my heart, which clave to her, was racked, and wounded, and bleeding." Augustine confessed that he was not a lover of wedlock so much as a slave of lust, so he procured another concubine since he had to wait two years until his fiancée came of age. However, his emotional wound was not healed, even began to fester.[52] There is evidence that Augustine may have considered this former relationship to be equivalent to marriage.[53] In his Confessions, he admitted that the experience eventually produced a decreased sensitivity to pain. Augustine eventually broke off his engagement to his eleven-year-old fiancée, but never renewed his relationship with either of his concubines. Alypius of Thagaste
Thagaste
steered Augustine away from marriage, saying that they could not live a life together in the love of wisdom if he married. Augustine looked back years later on the life at Cassiciacum, a villa outside of Milan
Milan
where he gathered with his followers, and described it as Christianae vitae otium – the leisure of Christian life.[54] Christian conversion and priesthood[edit]

Ordination
Ordination
history of Augustine of Hippo

History

Priestly ordination

Date of ordination 391

Place of ordination Hippo Regius, Africa, Roman Empire

Episcopal consecration

Consecrated by Megalius

Date of consecration 396

Source(s): [55][56]

The Conversion of St. Augustine by Fra Angelico[57]

In late August of 386,[58] at the age of 31, after having heard and been inspired and moved by the story of Ponticianus's and his friends' first reading of the life of Saint Anthony of the Desert, Augustine converted to Christianity. As Augustine later told it, his conversion was prompted by a childlike voice he heard telling him to "take up and read" (Latin: tolle, lege), which he took as a divine command to open the Bible
Bible
and read the first thing he saw. Augustine read from Paul's Epistle to the Romans
Epistle to the Romans
– the "Transformation of Believers" section, consisting of chapters 12 to 15 – wherein Paul outlines how the Gospel transforms believers, and the believers' resulting behaviour. The specific part to which Augustine opened his Bible
Bible
was Romans chapter 13, verses 13 and 14, to wit:

Not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying, but put on the Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and make no provision for the flesh to fulfill the lusts thereof.[59]

He later wrote an account of his conversion – his very transformation, as Paul described – in his Confessions (Latin: Confessiones), which has since become a classic of Christian theology and a key text in the history of autobiography. This work is an outpouring of thanksgiving and penitence. Although it is written as an account of his life, the Confessions also talks about the nature of time, causality, free will, and other important philosophical topics.[60] The following is taken from that work:

Late have I loved Thee, O Lord; and behold, Thou wast within and I without, and there I sought Thee. Thou was with me when I was not with Thee. Thou didst call, and cry, and burst my deafness. Thou didst gleam, and glow, and dispell my blindness. Thou didst touch me, and I burned for Thy peace. For Thyself Thou hast made us, And restless our hearts until in Thee they find their ease. Late have I loved Thee, Thou Beauty ever old and ever new.[60]

Ambrose
Ambrose
baptized Augustine, along with his son Adeodatus, in Milan
Milan
on Easter Vigil, April 24–25, 387.[61] A year later, in 388, Augustine completed his apology On the Holiness of the Catholic Church.[48] That year, also, Adeodatus and Augustine returned home to Africa.[38] Augustine's mother Monica died at Ostia, Italy, as they prepared to embark for Africa.[62] Upon their arrival, they began a life of aristocratic leisure at Augustine's family's property.[63][64] Soon after, Adeodatus, too, died.[65] Augustine then sold his patrimony and gave the money to the poor. The only thing he kept was the family house, which he converted into a monastic foundation for himself and a group of friends.[38] In 391 Augustine was ordained a priest in Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
(now Annaba), in Algeria. He became a famous preacher (more than 350 preserved sermons are believed to be authentic), and was noted for combating the Manichaean religion, to which he had formerly adhered.[48] In 395, he was made coadjutor Bishop
Bishop
of Hippo, and became full Bishop shortly thereafter,[66] hence the name "Augustine of Hippo"; and he gave his property to the church of Thagaste.[67] He remained in that position until his death in 430. He wrote his autobiographical Confessions in 397–398. His work The City of God
The City of God
was written to console his fellow Christians shortly after the Visigoths
Visigoths
had sacked Rome in 410. Augustine worked tirelessly in trying to convince the people of Hippo to convert to Christianity. Though he had left his monastery, he continued to lead a monastic life in the episcopal residence. He left a regula for his monastery that led to his designation as the "patron saint of regular clergy".[68] Much of Augustine's later life was recorded by his friend Possidius, bishop of Calama (present-day Guelma, Algeria), in his Sancti Augustini Vita. Possidius
Possidius
admired Augustine as a man of powerful intellect and a stirring orator who took every opportunity to defend Christianity
Christianity
against its detractors. Possidius
Possidius
also described Augustine's personal traits in detail, drawing a portrait of a man who ate sparingly, worked tirelessly, despised gossip, shunned the temptations of the flesh, and exercised prudence in the financial stewardship of his see.[69] Death and veneration[edit] Shortly before Augustine's death, the Vandals, a Germanic tribe that had converted to Arianism, invaded Roman Africa. The Vandals
Vandals
besieged Hippo in the spring of 430, when Augustine entered his final illness. According to Possidius, one of the few miracles attributed to Augustine, the healing of an ill man, took place during the siege.[69]:43 According to Possidius, Augustine spent his final days in prayer and repentance, requesting that the penitential Psalms
Psalms
of David
David
be hung on his walls so that he could read them. He directed that the library of the church in Hippo and all the books therein should be carefully preserved. He died on 28 August 430.[69]:57 Shortly after his death, the Vandals
Vandals
lifted the siege of Hippo, but they returned not long thereafter and burned the city. They destroyed all of it but Augustine's cathedral and library, which they left untouched.[70] Augustine was canonized by popular acclaim, and later recognized as a Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church
in 1298 by Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII.[71] His feast day is 28 August, the day on which he died. He is considered the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.[5] The city of St. Augustine, Florida, is named after him. Relics[edit] According to Bede's True Martyrology, Augustine's body was later translated or moved to Cagliari, Sardinia, by the Catholic bishops expelled from North Africa by Huneric. Around 720, his remains were transported again by Peter, bishop of Pavia
Pavia
and uncle of the Lombard king Liutprand, to the church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro
San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro
in Pavia, in order to save them from frequent coastal raids by Muslims. In January 1327, Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII
issued the papal bull Veneranda Santorum Patrum, in which he appointed the Augustinians
Augustinians
guardians of the tomb of Augustine (called Arca), which was remade in 1362 and elaborately carved with bas-reliefs of scenes from Augustine's life. In October 1695, some workmen in the Church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro in Pavia
Pavia
discovered a marble box containing some human bones (including part of a skull). A dispute arose between the Augustinian hermits (Order of Saint Augustine) and the regular canons (Canons Regular of Saint Augustine) as to whether these were the bones of Augustine. The hermits did not believe so; the canons affirmed that they were. Eventually Pope Benedict XIII
Pope Benedict XIII
(1724–1730) directed the Bishop
Bishop
of Pavia, Monsignor
Monsignor
Pertusati, to make a determination. The bishop declared that, in his opinion, the bones were those of Saint Augustine.[72] The Augustinians
Augustinians
were expelled from Pavia
Pavia
in 1700, taking refuge in Milan
Milan
with the relics of Augustine, and the disassembled Arca, which were removed to the cathedral there. San Pietro fell into disrepair, but was finally rebuilt in the 1870s, under the urging of Agostino Gaetano Riboldi, and reconsecrated in 1896 when the relics of Augustine and the shrine were once again reinstalled.[73][74] Views and thought[edit]

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Augustine's large contribution of writings covered diverse fields including theology, philosophy and sociology. Along with John Chrysostom, Augustine was among the most prolific scholars of the early church by quantity of surviving writings. Theology[edit] Christian anthropology[edit] Augustine was one of the first Christian ancient Latin authors with a very clear vision of theological anthropology.[75] He saw the human being as a perfect unity of two substances: soul and body. In his late treatise On Care to Be Had for the Dead, section 5 (420 AD) he exhorted to respect the body on the grounds that it belonged to the very nature of the human person.[76] Augustine's favourite figure to describe body-soul unity is marriage: caro tua, coniunx tua – your body is your wife.[77][78][79] Initially, the two elements were in perfect harmony. After the fall of humanity they are now experiencing dramatic combat between one another. They are two categorically different things. The body is a three-dimensional object composed of the four elements, whereas the soul has no spatial dimensions.[80] Soul
Soul
is a kind of substance, participating in reason, fit for ruling the body.[81] Augustine was not preoccupied, as Plato
Plato
and Descartes
Descartes
were, with going too much into details in efforts to explain the metaphysics of the soul-body union. It sufficed for him to admit that they are metaphysically distinct: to be a human is to be a composite of soul and body, and the soul is superior to the body. The latter statement is grounded in his hierarchical classification of things into those that merely exist, those that exist and live, and those that exist, live, and have intelligence or reason.[82][83] Like other Church Fathers
Church Fathers
such as Athenagoras,[84] Tertullian,[85] Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
and Basil of Caesarea,[86] Augustine "vigorously condemned the practice of induced abortion", and although he disapproved of an abortion during any stage of pregnancy, he made a distinction between early abortions and later ones.[87] He acknowledged the distinction between "formed" and "unformed" fetuses mentioned in the Septuagint
Septuagint
translation of Exodus 21:22–23, which is considered as wrong translation of the word "harm" from the original Hebrew text as "form" in the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
and based in Aristotelian distinction "between the fetus before and after its supposed 'vivification'", and did not classify as murder the abortion of an "unformed" fetus since he thought that it could not be said with certainty that the fetus had already received a soul.[87][88] Augustine held that "the timing of the infusion of the soul was a mystery known to God alone".[89] However, he considered procreation as one of the goods of marriage; abortion figured as a means, along with drugs which cause sterility, of frustrating this good. It lay along a continuum which included infanticide as an instance of ‘lustful cruelty’ or ‘cruel lust.’ Augustine called the use of means to avoid the birth of a child an ‘evil work:’ a reference to either abortion or contraception or both."[90] Creation[edit] See also: Allegorical interpretations of Genesis In City of God, Augustine rejected both the immortality of the human race proposed by pagans, and contemporary ideas of ages (such as those of certain Greeks and Egyptians) that differed from the Church's sacred writings.[91] In The Literal Interpretation of Genesis, Augustine took the view that everything in the universe was created simultaneously by God, and not in seven calendar days like a literal interpretation of Genesis would require. He argued that the six-day structure of creation presented in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
represents a logical framework, rather than the passage of time in a physical way – it would bear a spiritual, rather than physical, meaning, which is no less literal. One reason for this interpretation is the passage in Sirach
Sirach
18:1, creavit omnia simul ("He created all things at once"), which Augustine took as proof that the days of Genesis 1 had to be taken non-literally.[92] As an additional support for describing the six days of creation as a heuristic device, Augustine thought that the actual event of creation would be incomprehensible by humans and therefore need to be translated.[93] Augustine also does not envision original sin as causing structural changes in the universe, and even suggests that the bodies of Adam
Adam
and Eve were already created mortal before the Fall.[94] Ecclesiology[edit] See also: Ecclesiology

St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli

Augustine developed his doctrine of the Church principally in reaction to the Donatist
Donatist
sect. He taught that there is one Church, but that within this Church there are two realities, namely, the visible aspect (the institutional hierarchy, the Catholic sacraments, and the laity) and the invisible (the souls of those in the Church, who are either dead, sinful members or elect predestined for Heaven). The former is the institutional body established by Christ on earth which proclaims salvation and administers the sacraments, while the latter is the invisible body of the elect, made up of genuine believers from all ages, and who are known only to God. The Church, which is visible and societal, will be made up of "wheat" and "tares", that is, good and wicked people (as per Mat. 13:30), until the end of time. This concept countered the Donatist
Donatist
claim that only those in a state of grace were the "true" or "pure" church on earth, and that priests and bishops who were not in a state of grace had no authority or ability to confect the sacraments.[7]:28 Augustine's ecclesiology was more fully developed in City of God. There he conceives of the church as a heavenly city or kingdom, ruled by love, which will ultimately triumph over all earthly empires which are self-indulgent and ruled by pride. Augustine followed Cyprian
Cyprian
in teaching that the bishops and priests of the Church are the successors of the Apostles,[7] and that their authority in the Church is God-given. Eschatology[edit] Augustine originally believed in premillennialism, namely that Christ would establish a literal 1,000-year kingdom prior to the general resurrection, but later rejected the belief, viewing it as carnal. He was the first theologian to expound a systematic doctrine of amillennialism, although some theologians and Christian historians believe his position was closer to that of modern postmillennialists. The mediaeval Catholic church built its system of eschatology on Augustinian amillennialism, where Christ rules the earth spiritually through his triumphant church.[95] During the Reformation
Reformation
theologians such as John Calvin
John Calvin
accepted amillennialism. Augustine taught that the eternal fate of the soul is determined at death,[96][97] and that purgatorial fires of the intermediate state purify only those that died in communion with the Church. His teaching provided fuel for later theology.[96] Mariology[edit] Although Augustine did not develop an independent Mariology, his statements on Mary surpass in number and depth those of other early writers.[98] Even before the Council of Ephesus, he defended the Ever-Virgin Mary as the Mother of God, believing her to be "full of grace" (following earlier Latin writers such as Jerome) on account of her sexual integrity and innocence.[99] Likewise, he affirmed that the Virgin Mary "conceived as virgin, gave birth as virgin and stayed virgin forever".[100] Natural knowledge and biblical interpretation[edit] Augustine took the view that, if a literal interpretation contradicts science and our God-given reason, the Biblical text should be interpreted metaphorically. While each passage of Scripture has a literal sense, this "literal sense" does not always mean that the Scriptures are mere history; at times they are rather an extended metaphor.[101] Original sin[edit] See also: Original sin

Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, 17th century

Augustine taught that the sin of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
was either an act of foolishness (insipientia) followed by pride and disobedience to God or that pride came first.[note 3] The first couple disobeyed God, who had told them not to eat of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen 2:17).[102] The tree was a symbol of the order of creation.[103] Self-centeredness made Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
eat of it, thus failing to acknowledge and respect the world as it was created by God, with its hierarchy of beings and values.[note 4] They would not have fallen into pride and lack of wisdom, if Satan hadn't sown into their senses "the root of evil" (radix Mali).[104] Their nature was wounded by concupiscence or libido, which affected human intelligence and will, as well as affections and desires, including sexual desire.[note 5] In terms of metaphysics, concupiscence is not a being but bad quality, the privation of good or a wound.[105] Augustine's understanding of the consequences of original sin and the necessity of redeeming grace was developed in the struggle against Pelagius
Pelagius
and his Pelagian disciples, Caelestius and Julian of Eclanum,[7] who had been inspired by Rufinus of Syria, a disciple of Theodore of Mopsuestia.[106] They refused to agree that original sin wounded human will and mind, insisting that the human nature was given the power to act, to speak, and to think when God created it. Human nature cannot lose its moral capacity for doing good, but a person is free to act or not to act in a righteous way. Pelagius
Pelagius
gave an example of eyes: they have capacity for seeing, but a person can make either good or bad use of it.[107]:355–356[108] Like Jovinian, Pelagians
Pelagians
insisted that human affections and desires were not touched by the fall either. Immorality, e.g. fornication, is exclusively a matter of will, i.e. a person does not use natural desires in a proper way. In opposition to that, Augustine pointed out the apparent disobedience of the flesh to the spirit, and explained it as one of the results of original sin, punishment of Adam
Adam
and Eve's disobedience to God.[109] Augustine had served as a "Hearer" for the Manichaeans
Manichaeans
for about nine years,[110] who taught that the original sin was carnal knowledge.[111] But his struggle to understand the cause of evil in the world started before that, at the age of nineteen.[112] By malum (evil) he understood most of all concupiscence, which he interpreted as a vice dominating person and causing in men and women moral disorder. Agostino Trapè insists that Augustine's personal experience cannot be credited for his doctrine about concupiscence. He considers Augustine's marital experience to be quite normal, and even exemplary, aside from the absence of Christian wedding rites.[113] As J. Brachtendorf showed, Augustine used Ciceronian Stoic concept of passions, to interpret Paul's doctrine of universal sin and redemption.[114]

St. Augustine by Peter Paul Rubens

The view that not only human soul but also senses were influenced by the fall of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
was prevalent in Augustine's time among the Fathers of the Church.[115] It is clear that the reason for Augustine's distancing from the affairs of the flesh was different from that of Plotinus, a neo-Platonist[note 6] who taught that only through disdain for fleshly desire could one reach the ultimate state of mankind.[116] Augustine taught the redemption, i.e. transformation and purification, of the body in the resurrection.[117] Some authors perceive Augustine's doctrine as directed against human sexuality and attribute his insistence on continence and devotion to God as coming from Augustine's need to reject his own highly sensual nature as described in the Confessions. But in view of his writings it is apparently a misunderstanding.[107]:312[note 7] Augustine taught that human sexuality has been wounded, together with the whole of human nature, and requires redemption of Christ. That healing is a process realized in conjugal acts. The virtue of continence is achieved thanks to the grace of the sacrament of Christian marriage, which becomes therefore a remedium concupiscentiae – remedy of concupiscence.[118][119] The redemption of human sexuality will be, however, fully accomplished only in the resurrection of the body.[120] The sin of Adam
Adam
is inherited by all human beings. Already in his pre-Pelagian writings, Augustine taught that Original Sin is transmitted to his descendants by concupiscence,[121] which he regarded as the passion of both, soul and body,[note 8] making humanity a massa damnata (mass of perdition, condemned crowd) and much enfeebling, though not destroying, the freedom of the will.[96]:1200–1204 Augustine's formulation of the doctrine of original sin was confirmed at numerous councils, i.e. Carthage
Carthage
(418), Ephesus (431), Orange (529), Trent (1546) and by popes, i.e. Pope Innocent I (401–417) and Pope Zosimus (417–418). Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury
established in his Cur Deus Homo the definition that was followed by the great 13th-century Schoolmen, namely that Original Sin is the "privation of the righteousness which every man ought to possess", thus separating it from concupiscence, with which some of Augustine's disciples had defined it[107]:371[122] as later did Luther and Calvin.[96]:1200–1204 In 1567, Pope Pius V
Pope Pius V
condemned the identification of Original Sin with concupiscence.[96]:1200–1204 Predestination[edit] See also: Predestination Augustine taught that God orders all things while preserving human freedom.[123]:44 Prior
Prior
to 396, he believed that predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of whether individuals would believe, that God's grace was "a reward for human assent".[123]:48–49 Later, in response to Pelagius, Augustine said that the sin of pride consists in assuming that "we are the ones who choose God or that God chooses us (in his foreknowledge) because of something worthy in us", and argued that God's grace causes individual act of faith.[123]:47–48 Scholars are divided over whether Augustine's teaching implies double predestination, or the belief that God chooses some people for damnation as well as some for salvation. Catholic scholars tend to deny that he held such a view while some Protestants and secular scholars have held that Augustine did believe in double predestination.[124] Some Protestant theologians, such as Justo L. González[7]:44 and Bengt Hägglund,[6] interpret Augustine's teaching that grace is irresistible, results in conversion, and leads to perseverance. In On Rebuke and Grace (De correptione et gratia), Augustine wrote: "And what is written, that He wills all men to be saved, while yet all men are not saved, may be understood in many ways, some of which I have mentioned in other writings of mine; but here I will say one thing: He wills all men to be saved, is so said that all the predestinated may be understood by it, because every kind of men is among them."[8] Sacramental theology[edit]

St. Augustine in His Study by Vittore Carpaccio, 1502

Also in reaction against the Donatists, Augustine developed a distinction between the "regularity" and "validity" of the sacraments. Regular sacraments are performed by clergy of the Catholic Church, while sacraments performed by schismatics are considered irregular. Nevertheless, the validity of the sacraments do not depend upon the holiness of the priests who perform them (ex opere operato); therefore, irregular sacraments are still accepted as valid provided they are done in the name of Christ and in the manner prescribed by the Church. On this point Augustine departs from the earlier teaching of Cyprian, who taught that converts from schismatic movements must be re-baptised.[7] Augustine taught that sacraments administered outside the Catholic Church, though true sacraments, avail nothing. However, he also stated that baptism, while it does not confer any grace when done outside the Church, does confer grace as soon as one is received into the Catholic Church. Augustine upheld the early Christian understanding of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, saying that Christ's statement, "This is my body" referred to the bread he carried in his hands,[125][126] and that Christians must have faith that the bread and wine are in fact the body and blood of Christ, despite what they see with their eyes.[127] Against the Pelagians, Augustine strongly stressed the importance of infant baptism. About the question whether baptism is an absolute necessity for salvation, however, Augustine appears to have refined his beliefs during his lifetime, causing some confusion among later theologians about his position. He said in one of his sermons that only the baptized are saved.[128] This belief was shared by many early Christians. However, a passage from his City of God, concerning the Apocalypse, may indicate that Augustine did believe in an exception for children born to Christian parents.[129] Philosophy[edit] Astrology[edit] Augustine's contemporaries often believed astrology to be an exact and genuine science. Its practitioners were regarded as true men of learning and called mathemathici. Astrology
Astrology
played a prominent part in Manichaean doctrine, and Augustine himself was attracted by their books in his youth, being particularly fascinated by those who claimed to foretell the future. Later, as a bishop, he used to warn that one should avoid astrologers who combine science and horoscopes. (Augustine's term "mathematici", meaning "astrologers", is sometimes mistranslated as "mathematicians".) According to Augustine, they were not genuine students of Hipparchus
Hipparchus
or Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
but "common swindlers".[130][107]:63[131][132] Epistemology[edit] Epistemological concerns shaped Augustine's intellectual development. His early dialogues [Contra academicos (386) and De Magistro (389)], both written shortly after his conversion to Christianity, reflect his engagement with sceptical arguments and show the development of his doctrine of divine illumination. The doctrine of illumination claims that God plays an active and regular part in human perception (as opposed to God designing the human mind to be reliable consistently, as in, for example, Descartes' idea of clear and distinct perceptions) and understanding by illuminating the mind so that human beings can recognize intelligible realities that God presents. According to Augustine, illumination is obtainable to all rational minds, and is different from other forms of sense perception. It is meant to be an explanation of the conditions required for the mind to have a connection with intelligible entities.[133] Augustine also posed the problem of other minds throughout different works, most famously perhaps in On the Trinity
Trinity
(VIII.6.9), and developed what has come to be a standard solution: the argument from analogy to other minds.[134] In contrast to Plato
Plato
and other earlier philosophers, Augustine recognized the centrality of testimony to human knowledge and argued that what others tell us can provide knowledge even if we don't have independent reasons to believe their testimonial reports.[135] Just war[edit] See also: Just war theory Augustine asserted that Christians should be pacifists as a personal, philosophical stance.[136] However, peacefulness in the face of a grave wrong that could only be stopped by violence would be a sin. Defence of one's self or others could be a necessity, especially when authorized by a legitimate authority. While not breaking down the conditions necessary for war to be just, Augustine coined the phrase in his work The City of God.[137] In essence, the pursuit of peace must include the option of fighting for its long-term preservation.[138] Such a war could not be pre-emptive, but defensive, to restore peace.[139] Thomas Aquinas, centuries later, used the authority of Augustine's arguments in an attempt to define the conditions under which a war could be just.[140][141] Free will[edit] Included in Augustine's theodicy is the claim that God created humans and angels as rational beings possessing free will. Free will
Free will
was not intended for sin, meaning it is not equally predisposed to both good and evil. A will defiled by sin is not considered as "free" as it once was because it is bound by material things, which could be lost or be difficult to part with, resulting in unhappiness. Sin impairs free will, while grace restores it. Only a will that was once free can be subjected to sin's corruption.[142] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
considers Augustine's teaching to be consistent with free will.[143] He often said that anyone can be saved if they wish.[143] While God knows who will and won't be saved, with no possibility for the latter to be saved in their lives, this knowledge represents God's perfect knowledge of how humans will freely choose their destinies.[143] Sociology, morals and ethics[edit] Slavery[edit] Augustine led many clergy under his authority at Hippo to free their slaves "as an act of piety".[144] He boldly wrote a letter urging the emperor to set up a new law against slave traders and was very much concerned about the sale of children. Christian emperors of his time for 25 years had permitted sale of children, not because they approved of the practice, but as a way of preventing infanticide when parents were unable to care for a child. Augustine noted that the tenant farmers in particular were driven to hire out or to sell their children as a means of survival.[145] In his book, The City of God, he presents the development of slavery as a product of sin and as contrary to God's divine plan. He wrote that God "did not intend that this rational creature, who was made in his image, should have dominion over anything but the irrational creation – not man over man, but man over the beasts". Thus he wrote that righteous men in primitive times were made shepherds of cattle, not kings over men. "The condition of slavery is the result of sin", he declared.[146] In The City of God, Augustine wrote he felt slavery was not a punishment. He wrote: "Slavery is not penal in character and planned by that law which commands the preservation of the natural order and forbids disturbance." Jews[edit] Against certain Christian movements, some of which rejected the use of Hebrew Scripture, Augustine countered that God had chosen the Jews
Jews
as a special people,[147] and he considered the scattering of Jewish people by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to be a fulfillment of prophecy.[148] He rejected homicidal attitudes, quoting part of the same prophecy, namely "Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Thy law" (Psalm 59:11). Augustine, who believed Jewish people would be converted to Christianity
Christianity
at "the end of time", argued that God had allowed them to survive their dispersion as a warning to Christians; as such, he argued, they should be permitted to dwell in Christian lands.[149] The sentiment sometimes attributed to Augustine that Christians should let the Jews
Jews
"survive but not thrive" (it is repeated by author James Carroll in his book Constantine's Sword, for example)[150][151] is apocryphal and is not found in any of his writings.[152] Sexuality[edit] For Augustine, the evil of sexual immorality was not in the sexual act itself, but rather in the emotions that typically accompany it. In On Christian Doctrine Augustine contrasts love, which is enjoyment on account of God, and lust, which is not on account of God.[153] Augustine claims that, following the Fall, sexual passion has become necessary for copulation (as required to stimulate male erection), sexual passion is an evil result of the Fall, and therefore, evil must inevitably accompany sexual intercourse (On marriage and concupiscence 1.19). Therefore, following the Fall, even marital sex carried out merely to procreate the species inevitably perpetuates evil (On marriage and concupiscence 1.27; A Treatise against Two Letters of the Pelagians
Pelagians
2.27). For Augustine, proper love exercises a denial of selfish pleasure and the subjugation of corporeal desire to God. The only way to avoid evil caused by sexual intercourse is to take the "better" way (Confessions 8.2) and abstain from marriage (On marriage and concupiscence 1.31). Sex within marriage is not, however, for Augustine a sin, although necessarily producing the evil of sexual passion. Based on the same logic, Augustine also declared the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome to be innocent because they did not intend to sin nor enjoy the act.[154][155] Before the Fall, Augustine believed that sex was a passionless affair, "just like many a laborious work accomplished by the compliant operation of our other limbs, without any lascivious heat"; the penis would have been engorged for sexual intercourse "simply by the direction of the will, not excited by the ardour of concupiscence" (On marriage and concupiscence 2.29; cf. City of God 14.23). After the Fall, by contrast, the penis cannot be controlled by mere will, subject instead to both unwanted impotence and involuntary erections: "Sometimes the urge arises unwanted; sometimes, on the other hand, it forsakes the eager lover, and desire grows cold in the body while burning in the mind... It arouses the mind, but it does not follow through what it has begun and arouse the body also" (City of God 14.16). Augustine believed that Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
had both already chosen in their hearts to disobey God's command not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge before Eve took the fruit, ate it, and gave it to Adam.[156][157] Accordingly, Augustine did not believe that Adam
Adam
was any less guilty of sin.[156][158] Augustine does praise women and their role in society and in the Church. In his Tractates on the Gospel of John, Augustine, commenting on the Samaritan
Samaritan
woman from John 4:1–42, uses the woman as a figure of the Church in agreement with the New Testament teaching that the Church is the bride of Christ. "Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her." [159] Pedagogy[edit]

Saint Augustine in His Study by Sandro Botticelli, 1494, Uffizi Gallery

Augustine is considered an influential figure in the history of education. A work early in Augustine's writings is De Magistro (On the Teacher), which contains insights about education. His ideas changed as he found better directions or better ways of expressing his ideas. In the last years of his life Saint Augustine wrote his Retractationes, reviewing his writings and improving specific texts. Henry Chadwick believes an accurate translation of "retractationes" may be "reconsiderations". Reconsiderations can be seen as an overarching theme of the way Saint Augustine learned. Augustine's understanding of the search for understanding, meaning, and truth as a restless journey leaves room for doubt, development, and change.[160] Augustine was a strong advocate of critical thinking skills. Because written works were still rather limited during this time, spoken communication of knowledge was very important. His emphasis on the importance of community as a means of learning distinguishes his pedagogy from some others. Augustine believed that dialectic is the best means for learning and that this method should serve as a model for learning encounters between teachers and students. Saint Augustine's dialogue writings model the need for lively interactive dialogue among learners.[160] He recommended adapting educational practices to fit the students' educational backgrounds:

the student who has been well-educated by knowledgeable teachers; the student who has had no education; and the student who has had a poor education, but believes himself to be well-educated.

If a student has been well educated in a wide variety of subjects, the teacher must be careful not to repeat what they have already learned, but to challenge the student with material which they do not yet know thoroughly. With the student who has had no education, the teacher must be patient, willing to repeat things until the student understands, and sympathetic. Perhaps the most difficult student, however, is the one with an inferior education who believes he understands something when he does not. Augustine stressed the importance of showing this type of student the difference between "having words and having understanding" and of helping the student to remain humble with his acquisition of knowledge. Under the influence of Bede, Alcuin, and Rabanus Maurus, De catechizandis rudibus came to exercise an important role in the education of clergy at the monastic schools, especially from the eighth century onwards.[161] Augustine believed that students should be given an opportunity to apply learned theories to practical experience. Yet another of Augustine's major contributions to education is his study on the styles of teaching. He claimed there are two basic styles a teacher uses when speaking to the students. The mixed style includes complex and sometimes showy language to help students see the beautiful artistry of the subject they are studying. The grand style is not quite as elegant as the mixed style, but is exciting and heartfelt, with the purpose of igniting the same passion in the students' hearts. Augustine balanced his teaching philosophy with the traditional Bible-based practice of strict discipline. Works[edit] Main article: Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
bibliography

Saint Augustine painting by Antonio Rodríguez

Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors in terms of surviving works, and the list of his works consists of more than one hundred separate titles.[162] They include apologetic works against the heresies of the Arians, Donatists, Manichaeans
Manichaeans
and Pelagians; texts on Christian doctrine, notably De Doctrina Christiana
De Doctrina Christiana
(On Christian Doctrine); exegetical works such as commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms
Psalms
and Paul's Letter to the Romans; many sermons and letters; and the Retractationes, a review of his earlier works which he wrote near the end of his life. Apart from those, Augustine is probably best known for his Confessions, which is a personal account of his earlier life, and for De civitate Dei (The City of God, consisting of 22 books), which he wrote to restore the confidence of his fellow Christians, which was badly shaken by the sack of Rome by the Visigoths
Visigoths
in 410. His On the Trinity, in which he developed what has become known as the 'psychological analogy' of the Trinity, is also considered to be among his masterpieces, and arguably one of the greatest theological works of all time.[citation needed] He also wrote On Free Choice of the Will (De libero arbitrio), addressing why God gives humans free will that can be used for evil. Influence[edit]

Saint Augustine Disputing with the Heretics painting by Verges Group

In both his philosophical and theological reasoning, Augustine was greatly influenced by Stoicism, Platonism
Platonism
and Neoplatonism, particularly by the work of Plotinus, author of the Enneads, probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus (as Pierre Hadot
Pierre Hadot
has argued). Although he later abandoned Neoplatonism, some ideas are still visible in his early writings.[163] His early and influential writing on the human will, a central topic in ethics, would become a focus for later philosophers such as Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. He was also influenced by the works of Virgil
Virgil
(known for his teaching on language), and Cicero
Cicero
(known for his teaching on argument).[133] In philosophy[edit] Philosopher
Philosopher
Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
was impressed by Augustine's meditation on the nature of time in the Confessions, comparing it favourably to Kant's version of the view that time is subjective.[164] Catholic theologians generally subscribe to Augustine's belief that God exists outside of time in the "eternal present"; that time only exists within the created universe because only in space is time discernible through motion and change. His meditations on the nature of time are closely linked to his consideration of the human ability of memory. Frances Yates in her 1966 study The Art of Memory
Memory
argues that a brief passage of the Confessions, 10.8.12, in which Augustine writes of walking up a flight of stairs and entering the vast fields of memory[165] clearly indicates that the ancient Romans were aware of how to use explicit spatial and architectural metaphors as a mnemonic technique for organizing large amounts of information.

Saint Augustine Meditates on the Trinity
Trinity
when the Child Jesus
Jesus
Appears before him by Vergós Group

Augustine's philosophical method, especially demonstrated in his Confessions, had continuing influence on Continental philosophy throughout the 20th century. His descriptive approach to intentionality, memory, and language as these phenomena are experienced within consciousness and time anticipated and inspired the insights of modern phenomenology and hermeneutics.[166] Edmund Husserl writes: "The analysis of time-consciousness is an age-old crux of descriptive psychology and theory of knowledge. The first thinker to be deeply sensitive to the immense difficulties to be found here was Augustine, who laboured almost to despair over this problem."[167] Martin Heidegger
Martin Heidegger
refers to Augustine's descriptive philosophy at several junctures in his influential work Being and Time.[note 9] Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt
began her philosophical writing with a dissertation on Augustine's concept of love, Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin (1929): "The young Arendt attempted to show that the philosophical basis for vita socialis in Augustine can be understood as residing in neighbourly love, grounded in his understanding of the common origin of humanity."[168] Jean Bethke Elshtain in Augustine and the Limits of Politics tried to associate Augustine with Arendt in their concept of evil: "Augustine did not see evil as glamorously demonic but rather as absence of good, something which paradoxically is really nothing. Arendt ... envisioned even the extreme evil which produced the Holocaust as merely banal [in Eichmann in Jerusalem]."[169] Augustine's philosophical legacy continues to influence contemporary critical theory through the contributions and inheritors of these 20th-century figures. Seen from a historical perspective, there are three main perspectives on the political thought of Augustine: first, political Augustinianism; second, Augustinian political theology; and third, Augustinian political theory.[170] In theology[edit] Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
was influenced heavily by Augustine. On the topic of original sin, Aquinas proposed a more optimistic view of man than that of Augustine in that his conception leaves to the reason, will, and passions of fallen man their natural powers even after the Fall, without "supernatural gifts".[96]:1203 While in his pre-Pelagian writings Augustine taught that Adam's guilt as transmitted to his descendants much enfeebles, though does not destroy, the freedom of their will, Protestant reformers Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and John Calvin affirmed that Original Sin completely destroyed liberty (see total depravity).[96]:1200–1204 According to Leo Ruickbie, Augustine's arguments against magic, differentiating it from miracle, were crucial in the early Church's fight against paganism and became a central thesis in the later denunciation of witches and witchcraft. According to Professor Deepak Lal, Augustine's vision of the heavenly city has influenced the secular projects and traditions of the Enlightenment, Marxism, Freudianism
Freudianism
and eco-fundamentalism.[171] Post-Marxist philosophers Antonio Negri
Antonio Negri
and Michael Hardt rely heavily on Augustine's thought, particularly The City of God, in their book of political philosophy Empire. Augustine has influenced many modern-day theologians and authors such as John Piper. Hannah Arendt, an influential 20th-century political theorist, wrote her doctoral dissertation in philosophy on Augustine, and continued to rely on his thought throughout her career. Ludwig Wittgenstein extensively quotes Augustine in Philosophical Investigations for his approach to language, both admiringly, and as a sparring partner to develop his own ideas, including an extensive opening passage from the Confessions. Contemporary linguists have argued that Augustine has significantly influenced the thought of Ferdinand de Saussure, who did not 'invent' the modern discipline of semiotics, but rather built upon Aristotelian and Neoplatonist knowledge from the Middle Ages, via an Augustinian connection: "as for the constitution of Saussurian semiotic theory, the importance of the Augustinian thought contribution (correlated to the Stoic one) has also been recognized. Saussure did not do anything but reform an ancient theory in Europe, according to the modern conceptual exigencies."[172] In his autobiographical book Milestones, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
claims Augustine as one of the deepest influences in his thought. Oratorio[edit]

The Consecration of Saint Augustine
The Consecration of Saint Augustine
by Jaume Huguet

Much of Augustine's conversion is dramatized in the oratorio La conversione di Sant'Agostino (1750) composed by Johann Adolph Hasse. The libretto for this oratorio, written by Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria, draws upon the influence of Metastasio (the finished libretto having been edited by him) and is based off an earlier five-act play Idea perfectae conversionis dive Augustinus written by the Jesuit priest Franz Neumayr.[173] In the libretto Augustine's mother Monica is presented as a prominent character that is worried that Augustine might not convert to Christianity. As Dr. Andrea Palent[174] says:

Maria Antonia Walpurgis revised the five-part Jesuit drama into a two-part oratorio liberty in which she limits the subject to the conversion of Augustine and his submission to the will of God. To this was added the figure of the mother, Monica, so as to let the transformation appear by experience rather than the dramatic artifice of deus ex machina.

Throughout the oratorio Augustine shows his willingness to turn to God, but the burden of the act of conversion weighs heavily on him. This is displayed by Hasse through extended recitative passages. See also[edit]

Saints portal

Alexander of San Elpidio Mar Ammo Augustinian hypothesis Augustinian Institute Augustinian Studies Augustinian theodicy Augustinians Domingo Bañez Thomas Bradwardine Confessions (Augustine) Constantinian shift Council of Orange (529) Ecclesiology Jonathan Edwards Filioque Free will Gregory of Rimini Michael Horton Incurvatus in se Cornelius Jansen Jansenism Just war theory Johannes Klenkok Abraham
Abraham
Kuijper John Gresham Machen Order of Saint Augustine Original sin Otium Neo-Calvinism Blaise Pascal Francis Landey Patton Pelagianism Philosophy of history Philosophy of religion Predestination Johann Pupper Problem of evil Reformed Scholasticism Semipelagianism Theology
Theology
of John Calvin Truth Bennet Tyler B. B. Warfield

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Jerome
Jerome
wrote to Augustine in 418: "You are known throughout the world; Catholics honour and esteem you as the one who has established anew the ancient Faith" (conditor antiquae rursum fidei). Cf. Epistola 195; TeSelle, Eugene (1970). Augustine the Theologian. London. p. 343. ISBN 0-223-97728-4.  March 2002 edition: ISBN 1-57910-918-7. ^ The nomen Aurelius is virtually meaningless, signifying little more than Roman citizenship (see: Salway, Benet (1994). "What's in a Name? A Survey of Roman Onomastic Practice from c. 700 B.C. to A.D. 700" (PDF). The Journal of Roman Studies. Society
Society
for the Promotion of Roman Studies. 84: 124–145. doi:10.2307/300873. ISSN 0075-4358. JSTOR 300873. ). ^ He explained to Julian of Eclanum that it was a most subtle job to discern what came first: Sed si disputatione subtilissima et elimatissima opus est, ut sciamus utrum primos homines insipientia superbos, an insipientes superbia fecerit. (Contra Julianum, V, 4.18; PL 44, 795) ^ Augustine explained it in this way: "Why therefore is it enjoined upon mind, that it should know itself? I suppose, in order that, it may consider itself, and live according to its own nature; that is, seek to be regulated according to its own nature, viz., under Him to whom it ought to be subject, and above those things to which it is to be preferred; under Him by whom it ought to be ruled, above those things which it ought to rule. For it does many things through vicious desire, as though in forgetfulness of itself. For it sees some things intrinsically excellent, in that more excellent nature which is God: and whereas it ought to remain steadfast that it may enjoy them, it is turned away from Him, by wishing to appropriate those things to itself, and not to be like to Him by His gift, but to be what He is by its own, and it begins to move and slip gradually down into less and less, which it thinks to be more and more." ("On the Trinity" (De Trinitate), 5:7; CCL 50, 320 [1–12]) ^ In one of Augustine's late works, Retractationes, he made a significant remark indicating the way he understood difference between spiritual, moral libido and the sexual desire: " Libido
Libido
is not good and righteous use of the libido" ("libido non est bonus et rectus usus libidinis"). See the whole passage: Dixi etiam quodam loco: «Quod enim est cibus ad salutem hominis, hoc est concubitus ad salutem generis, et utrumque non est sine delectatione carnali, quae tamen modificata et temperantia refrenante in usum naturalem redacta, libido esse non potest». Quod ideo dictum est, quoniam "libido non est bonus et rectus usus libidinis". Sicut enim malum est male uti bonis, ita bonum bene uti malis. De qua re alias, maxime contra novos haereticos Pelagianos, diligentius disputavi. Cf. De bono coniugali, 16.18; PL 40, 385; De nuptiis et concupiscentia, II, 21.36; PL 44, 443; Contra Iulianum, III, 7.16; PL 44, 710; ibid., V, 16.60; PL 44, 817. See also Idem (1983). Le mariage chrétien dans l'oeuvre de Saint Augustin. Une théologie baptismale de la vie conjugale. Paris: Études Augustiniennes. p. 97.  ^ Although Augustine praises him in the Confessions, 8.2., it is widely acknowledged that Augustine's attitude towards that pagan philosophy was very much of a Christian apostle, as T.E. Clarke SJ writes: Towards Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
there was throughout his life a decidedly ambivalent attitude; one must expect both agreement and sharp dissent, derivation but also repudiation. In the matter which concerns us here, the agreement with Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
(and with the Platonic tradition in general) centers on two related notions: immutability as primary characteristic of divinity, and likeness to divinity as the primary vocation of the soul. The disagreement chiefly concerned, as we have said, two related and central Christian dogmas: the Incarnation of the Son of God and the resurrection of the flesh. Clarke, SJ, T. E. "St. Augustine and Cosmic Redemption". Theological Studies. 19 (1958): 151.  Cf. É. Schmitt's chapter 2: L'idéologie hellénique et la conception augustinienne de réalités charnelles in: Idem (1983). Le mariage chrétien dans l'oeuvre de Saint Augustin. Une théologie baptismale de la vie conjugale. Paris: Études Augustiniennes. pp. 108–123.  O'Meara, J.J. (1954). The Young Augustine: The Growth of St. Augustine's Mind up to His Conversion. London. pp. 143–151 and 195f.  Madec, G. Le "platonisme" des Pères. p. 42.  in Idem (1994). Petites Études Augustiniennes. «Antiquité» 142. Paris: Collection d'Études Augustiniennes. pp. 27–50.  Thomas Aq. STh I q84 a5; Augustine of Hippo, City of God (De Civitate Dei), VIII, 5; CCL 47, 221 [3–4]. ^ Gerald Bonner's comment explains a little bit why there are so many authors who write false things about Augustine's views: "It is, of course, always easier to oppose and denounce than to understand." ^ In 393 or 394 he commented: Moreover, if unbelief is fornication, and idolatry unbelief, and covetousness idolatry, it is not to be doubted that covetousness also is fornication. Who, then, in that case can rightly separate any unlawful lust whatever from the category of fornication, if covetousness is fornication? And from this we perceive, that because of unlawful lusts, not only those of which one is guilty in acts of uncleanness with another's husband or wife, but any unlawful lusts whatever, which cause the soul making a bad use of the body to wander from the law of God, and to be ruinously and basely corrupted, a man may, without crime, put away his wife, and a wife her husband, because the Lord makes the cause of fornication an exception; which fornication, in accordance with the above considerations, we are compelled to understand as being general and universal. ("On the Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount", De sermone Domini in monte, 1:16:46; CCL 35, 52) ^ For example, Heidegger's articulations of how "Being-in-the-world" is described through thinking about seeing: "The remarkable priority of 'seeing' was noticed particularly by Augustine, in connection with his Interpretation of concupiscentia." Heidegger then quotes theConfessions: "Seeing belongs properly to the eyes. But we even use this word 'seeing' for the other senses when we devote them to cognizing... We not only say, 'See how that shines', ... 'but we even say, 'See how that sounds'". Being and Time, Trs. Macquarrie & Robinson. New York: Harpers, 1964, p. 171.

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1.31–32 ^ Brown, Peter. Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967. ISBN 0-520-00186-9, 35 ^ "The Manichaean Version of Genesis 2–4". Archived from the original on 29 October 2005. Retrieved 25 March 2008. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) . Translated from the Arabic text of Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist, as reproduced by G. Flügel in Mani: Seine Lehre und seine Schriften (Leipzig, 1862; reprinted, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1969) 58.11–61.13. ^ Augustine of Hippo, De libero arbitrio 1,9,1. ^ Trapè, A. S. Agostino: Introduzione alla Dottrina della Grazia. I – Natura e Grazia. pp. 113–114.  ^ Brachtendorf, J. (1997). " Cicero
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33:1:10 [405] ^ Augustine of Hippo, Sermons 227 [411] ^ Augustine of Hippo, Sermons 272 ^ Augustine of Hippo, A Sermon
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Today (2001-01-09). Retrieved on 2013-04-28. ^ Augustine of Hippo. Crusades-encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2013-04-28. ^ St. Augustine of Hippo, Crusades-Encyclopedia ^ "Saint Augustine and the Theory of Just War". Jknirp.com (2007-01-23). Retrieved on 2013-04-28. ^ "The Just War". Catholiceducation.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-28. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. (1984). The Story of Christianity. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 006185588X.  ^ Meister, Chad; Copan, Paul, eds. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion. Routledge Philosophy Companions (2nd ed.). London. ISBN 9780415782944.  ^ a b c Portalié, Eugène. "Teaching of St. Augustine of Hippo" The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company (1907). Retrieved 30 September 2011 ^ Augustine, "Of the Work of Monks", p. 25, Vol. 3, Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Eerdman's, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Reprinted 1986 ^ The Saints, Pauline Books & Media, Daughters of St. Paul, Editions du Signe (1998), p. 72 ^ Augustine, The City of God, Ch. 15, p. 411, Vol. II, Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Eerdman's, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Reprinted 1986 ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch. The Reformation: A History (Penguin Group, 2005) p 8. ^ Augustine of Hippo, City of God, book 18, chapter 46. ^ Edwards, J. (1999) The Spanish Inquisition, Stroud, pp. 33–35, ISBN 0752417703. ^ James Carroll, Constantine's Sword (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002), p. 219. ^ See also Paula Fredriksen, interviewed by David
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on Love and the Political: Love, Friendship, and Citizenship". The Review of Politics. 57 (3): 505–535 (507). doi:10.1017/S0034670500019720. JSTOR 1408599.  ^ Tinder, Glenn; Elshtain, Jean Bethke (1997). "Augustine and the Limits of Politics, by Jean Bethke Elshtain". American Political Science Review. 91 (2): 432–433. doi:10.2307/2952372.  ^ Woo, B. Hoon (2015). "Pilgrim's Progress in Society—Augustine's Political Thought in The City of God". Political Theology. 16 (5): 421–441. doi:10.1179/1462317X14Z.000000000113.  ^ Lal, D. (March 2002) " Morality
Morality
and Capitalism: Learning from the Past". Working Paper Number 812, Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles. ^ Munteanu, E. 'On the Object-Language / Metalanguage Distinction in Saint Augustine's Works. De Dialectica and de Magistro.', p. 65. In Cram, D., Linn, A. R., & Nowak, E. (Eds.). History of Linguistics 1996: Volume 2: From Classical to Contemporary Linguistics. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Retrieved April 16, 2015, from https://books.google.com/books?id=IWtCAAAAQBAJ. ^ Smither, Howard E. (1977-01-01). A History of the Oratorio. UNC Press Books. ISBN 9780807812747.  ^ Hasse, Johann Adolf (1993). La conversione Di Sant' Agostino. CD Booklet: Marcus Creed's recording of La conversion di Sant' Agostino with the RIAS Kammerchor; 10 389/90.: Capriccio Digital. p. 13. 

Library resources about Augustine of Hippo

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Further reading[edit]

Ancient Christian Writers: The Works of the Fathers in Translation. New York: Newman Press. 1978.  Augustine, Saint (1974). Vernon Joseph Bourke, ed. The Essential Augustine (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Hackett.  Ayres, Lewis (2010). Augustine and the Trinity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83886-3.  Bourke, Vernon Joseph (1945). Augustine's Quest of Wisdom. Milwaukee: Bruce.  Bourke, Vernon Joseph (1984). Wisdom From St. Augustine. Houston: Center for Thomistic Studies.  Brachtendorf J. " Cicero
Cicero
and Augustine on the Passions". Revue des Études Augustiniennes. 43 (1997): 289–308. hdl:2042/23075.  Brown, Peter (1967). Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-00186-9.  Burke, Cormac (1990). "St. Augustine and Conjugal Sexuality". Communio. IV (17): 545–565.  Burnaby, John (1938). Amor Dei: A Study of the Religion
Religion
of St. Augustine. The Canterbury Press Norwich. ISBN 1-85311-022-1.  Chadwick, Henry. Augustine: A Very Short Introduction (2013). Chadwick, Henry. Augustine of Hippo: A Life (2010). Clark, Mary T. (1994). Augustine. Geoffrey Chapman. ISBN 978-0-225-66681-6.  Deane, Herbert A. (1963). The Political and Social Ideas of St. Augustine. New York: Columbia University Press.  de Paulo, Craig J. N. (2011). Augustinian Just War
War
Theory and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq: Confessions, Contentions and the Lust
Lust
for Power. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-1-4331-1232-4.  Doull, James A. (1979). "Augustinian Trinitarianism and Existential Theology". Dionysius. III: 111–159.  Doull, James A. (1988). "What is Augustinian "Sapientia"?". Dionysius. XII: 61–67.  Fitzgerald, Allan D., O.S.A., General Editor (1999). Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8028-3843-X. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Gilson, Etienne (1960). The Christian Philosophy of St. Augustine. L. E. M. Lynch, trans. New York: Random House.  Green, Bradley G. Colin Gunton and the Failure of Augustine: The Theology
Theology
of Colin Gunton in the Light of Augustine, James Clarke and Co. (2012), ISBN 9780227680056 Kolbet, Paul R. (2010). Augustine and the Cure of Souls: Revising a Classical Ideal. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 978-0268033217.  Lawless, George P. (1987). Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
and His Monastic
Monastic
Rule. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  LeMoine, Fannie; Kleinhenz, Christopher, eds. (1994). Saint Augustine the Bishop: A Book
Book
of Essays. Garland Medieval Casebooks. 9. New York: Garland.  Lubin, Augustino (1659). Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum ordinis eremitarum Sancti Augustini – chorographica et topographica descriptio. Paris. Archived from the original on 21 March 2005. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Mackey, Louis (2011). Faith
Faith
Order Understanding: Natural Theology
Theology
in the Augustinian Tradition. Totonto: PIMS. ISBN 978-0-88844-421-9.  Markus, R. A., ed. (1972). Augustine: A Collection of Critical Essays. Garden City, New York: Anchor.  Matthews, Gareth B. (2005). Augustine. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23348-2.  Mayer, Cornelius P. (ed.). Augustinus-Lexikon. Basel: Schwabe AG.  Miles, Margaret R. (2012). Augustine and the Fundamentalist's Daughter, Lutterworth Press, ISBN 9780718892623. Nash, Ronald H (1969). The Light of the Mind: St Augustine's Theory of Knowledge. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Nelson, John Charles (1973). " Platonism
Platonism
in the Renaissance". In Wiener, Philip. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 3. New York: Scribner. pp. 510–515 (vol. 3). ISBN 0-684-13293-1. (...) Saint Augustine asserted that Neo-Platonism
Neo-Platonism
possessed all spiritual truths except that of the Incarnation. (...)   O'Daly, Gerard (1987). Augustine's Philosophy of the Mind. Berkeley: University of California Press.  O'Donnell, James (2005). Augustine: A New Biography. New York: ECCO. ISBN 0-06-053537-7.  Pagels, Elaine (1989). Adam, Eve, and the Serpent: Sex and Politics in Early Christianity. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.  Park, Jae-Eun (2013), "Lacking Love or Conveying Love? The Fundamental Roots of the Donatists
Donatists
and Augustine's Nuanced Treatment of Them", The Reformed
Reformed
Theological Review, 72 (2): 103–121 . Plumer, Eric Antone (2003). Augustine's Commentary on Galatians. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924439-1.  Pollman, Karla (2007). Saint Augustine the Algerian. Göttingen: Edition Ruprecht. ISBN 3-89744-209-4.  Pottier, René (2006). Saint Augustin le Berbère (in French). Fernand Lanore. ISBN 2-85157-282-2.  Règle de St. Augustin pour les religieuses de son ordre; et Constitutions de la Congrégation des Religieuses du Verbe-Incarné et du Saint- Sacrament
Sacrament
(Lyon: Chez Pierre Guillimin, 1662), pp. 28–29. Cf. later edition published at Lyon (Chez Briday, Libraire,1962), pp. 22–24. English edition, (New York: Schwartz, Kirwin, and Fauss, 1893), pp. 33–35. Siecienski, Anthony Edward (2010). The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195372045.  Starnes, Colin (1990). Augustine's Conversion: A Guide to the Arguments of Confessions I–IX. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.  Tanquerey, Adolphe (2001). The Spiritual Life: A Treatise on Ascetical and Mystical Theology. Rockford, Illinois: Tan Books & Publishers. p. 37). ISBN 0-89555-659-6.  Trapè, A. (1990). S. Agostino: Introduzione alla Dottrina della Grazia. Collana di Studi Agostiniani 4. I – Natura e Grazia. Rome: Città Nuova. p. 422. ISBN 88-311-3402-7.  von Heyking, John (2001). Augustine and Politics as Longing in the World. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1349-9.  Woo, B. Hoon (2013). "Augustine's Hermeneutics
Hermeneutics
and Homiletics in De doctrina christiana". Journal of Christian Philosophy. 17: 97–117.  Woo, B. Hoon (2015). "Pilgrim's Progress in Society
Society
– Augustine's Political Thought in The City of God". Political Theology. 16.5 (5): 421–441. doi:10.1179/1462317x14z.000000000113.  Zumkeller O.S.A., Adolar (1986). Augustine's Ideal of the Religious Life. New York: Fordham University
Fordham University
Press. ISBN 0-8232-1105-3.  Zumkeller O.S.A., Adolar (1987). Augustine's Rule. Villanova: Augustinian Press. ISBN 0-941491-06-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Augustine of Hippo

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Augustine of Hippo

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Augustine of Hippo.

General[edit]

"Complete Works of Saint Augustine (in English)" from Augustinus.it "Complete Works of Saint Augustine (in French)" from Abbey Saint Benoît de Port-Valais "Complete Works of Saint Augustine (in Spanish)" from Mercaba, Catholic leaders' website "Works by Saint Augustine" from CCEL.org Works by Augustine at Perseus Digital Library Mendelson, Michael. "Saint Augustine". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  "Augustine". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  "Augustine's Political and Social Philosophy". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  "St. Augustine, Bishop
Bishop
and Confessor, Doctor of the Church", Butler's Lives of the Saints Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
edited by James J. O'Donnell
James J. O'Donnell
– texts, translations, introductions, commentaries, etc. Augustine's Theory of Knowledge "Saint Augustine of Hippo" at the Christian Iconography website "The Life of St. Austin, or Augustine, Doctor" from the Caxton translation of the Golden Legend David
David
Lindsay: Saint Augustine – Doctor Gratiae St. Augustine – A Male Chauvinist? [1], Fr. Edmund Hill, OP. Talk given to the Robert Hugh Benson
Robert Hugh Benson
Graduate Society
Society
at Fisher House, Cambridge, on 22 November 1994. St. Augustine Timeline – Church History Timelines Giovanni Domenico Giulio: Nachtgedanken des heiligen Augustinus. Trier 1843 Digitized

Bibliography[edit]

Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
at EarlyChurch.org.uk – extensive bibliography and on-line articles Bibliography on St. Augustine Started by T.J. van Bavel O.S.A., continued at the Augustinian historical Institute in Louvain, Belgium

Works by Augustine[edit]

Works by Aurelius Augustine at Project Gutenberg Works by Saint Augustine at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Saint Augustine at Internet Archive Works by Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) St. Augustine at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Augustine against Secundinus in English. Aurelius Augustinus at "IntraText Digital Library" – texts in several languages, with concordance and frequency list Augustinus.it – Latin, Spanish and Italian texts Sanctus Augustinus at Documenta Catholica Omnia – Latin City of God, Confessions, Enchiridion, Doctrine audio books Saint Augustine (2008). The Happy Life; Answer to Sceptics; Divine Providence and the Problem of Evil; Soliloquies. US: CUA Press. ISBN 978-0-8132-1551-8.  Digitized manuscript created in France between 1275 and 1325 with extract of Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
works at SOMNI Expositio Psalmorum beati Augustini – digitized codex created between 1150 and 1175, also known as "Enarrationes in Psalmos. 1–83", at SOMNI Aurelii Agustini Hipponae episcopi super loannem librum – digitized codex created in 1481; his sermons about John's Gospel at SOMNI Sententiae ex omnibus operibus Divi Augustini decerptae – digitized codex created in 1539; at Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Lewis E 213 Rule of Saint Augustine; Sermon
Sermon
on Matthew 25:6 at OPenn Lewis E 21 De sermone domini in monte habito (On the sermon on the mount) and other treatises; De superbia (On pride) and other treatises; Expositio dominice orationis (Exposition on the lord's prayer) at OPenn

Biography and criticism[edit]

Order of St Augustine Blessed Augustine of Hippo: His Place in the Orthodox Church Augustine's World: An Introduction to His Speculative Philosophy by Donald Burt, OSA, member of the Augustinian Order, Villanova University Tabula in librum Sancti Augustini De civitate Dei by Robert Kilwardby, digitized manuscript of 1464 at SOMNI

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Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
(2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop
Bishop
emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology
Mariology
of the popes Mariology
Mariology
of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66806872 LCCN: n80126290 ISNI: 0000 0001 2137 6443 GND: 118505114 SELIBR: 174788 SUDOC: 027280896 BNF: cb14319984z (data) BIBSYS: 90579045 ULAN: 500104317 MusicBrainz: af70e766-6f46-43c7-a23e-6266e3909f0d NLA: 35010207 NDL: 00431905 NKC: xx0003884 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV04595 BNE: XX978

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