SPRINGFIELD is the third-largest city in the state of
* 1 History
* 1.1 Incorporation
Trail of Tears
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 2010 census * 3.2 2000 census
* 3.3 Neighborhoods
* 3.3.1 Registered * 3.3.2 Affiliated neighborhood groups
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Top employers
* 5 Government * 6 Education * 7 Recreation * 8 Sports
* 9 Culture
* 10 Transportation
* 10.1 Highways
* 10.1.1 History * 10.1.2 Future plans
* 10.2 Airport * 10.3 Trains
* 11 Healthcare * 12 Living conditions * 13 Media * 14 Notable people * 15 Sister cities * 16 See also * 17 Notes * 18 References * 19 Further reading * 20 External links
The land that made up
TRAIL OF TEARS
In 1838, the U.S governments' forcible relocation of the
The Old Wire Road, then known as the Military Road, served until the mid-1840s as a connection between Springfield and the garrison at Fort Smith, Arkansas . By 1858, the Butterfield Overland Stage began using the road for passage to California. Two years later, the region's first telegraph line was strung along the road and dubbed the Telegraph or Wire Road. The road proved vital during the Civil War, and its most historic connection is to the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas. Parts of the road still exist, the most easily accessible within Wilson's Creek National Battlefield.
The 1849 charter of the
The origin of the city's name is unclear, but the most common view is that it was named for Springfield, Massachusetts . One account holds that James Wilson, who lived in the then unnamed city, offered free whiskey to anyone who would vote for the name Springfield, after his hometown of Springfield, Massachusetts.
But in 1883, historian R. I. Holcombe wrote:
"The town took its name from the circumstance of there being a _spring_ under the hill, on the creek, while on top of the hill, where the principal portion of the town lay, there was a _field_."
The editor of the _Springfield Express,_ Mr. J. G. Newbill, disagreed in the November 11, 1881 issue:
"It has been stated that this city got_ _its name from the fact of a
spring and field being near by just west of town. But such is not a
correct version. When the authorized persons met and adopted the title
of the "Future Great" of the Southwest, several of the earliest
settlers had handed in their favorite names, among whom was Kindred
Rose, who presented the winning name, "Springfield," in honor of his
former home town, Springfield,
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American Civil War imminent and
First Battle of Springfield , or Zagonyi's Charge, occurred on
October 25, 1861. It was the only Union victory that year in
southwestern Missouri. The fighting led to increased military activity
For the next year, possession of the city seesawed. Then on January 8, 1863, Confederate forces under General John S. Marmaduke advanced toward the town square and the Second Battle of Springfield ensued. As evening approached, the Confederates withdrew. The next morning, Marmaduke sent a message to Union forces asking for proper burials for Confederate casualties. The city stayed under Union control until the end of the war.
Two years after the war ended,
Springfield National Cemetery was
created. The dead of both the North and the South were interred there,
though separated by a low stone wall (later removed). In 1960, the
National Park Service
WILD BILL HICKOK SHOOTOUT
Main article: Wild Bill Hickok – Davis Tutt shootout
On July 21, 1865, Springfield helped give birth to the Wild West era
when the town square was the site of the Wild Bill Hickok–Davis Tutt
shootout , a "quick-draw" duel between
Wild Bill Hickok
On April 14, 1906, a mob broke into the town jail, then lynched two
black men, Horace Duncan and Fred Coker, for allegedly sexually
assaulting Mina Edwards, a white woman. Later they returned to the
jail and lynched another black man, Will Allen, accused of murder. The
victims were hanged and burned by a mob more than 2,000 in the town
square. The men were hanged from the Gottfried Tower, which held a
replica of the
Statue of Liberty
BIRTHPLACE OF ROUTE 66
It was in Springfield on April 30, 1926, that officials first proposed the name of the new Chicago-to-Los Angeles highway, leading to its conventional recognition as the "Birthplace of US Route 66 ".
John T. Woodruff of Springfield was elected as the first president of
U.S. Highway 66 Association , organized in
Tulsa, Oklahoma in
1927. Its purpose was to get U.S. 66 paved from end to end and to
promote tourism on the highway. In 1938, Route 66 became the first
A placard in Park Central Square was dedicated to the city by the
Route 66 Association of Missouri, and traces of the Mother Road are
still visible in downtown Springfield along Kearney Street, Glenstone
Avenue, College and
St. Louis streets and on
Satellite view of Springfield
Springfield is at 37°11′42″N 93°17′10″W / 37.19500°N
93.28611°W / 37.19500; -93.28611 (37.195098, −93.286213), on
the Springfield Plateau of the
The city of Springfield is mainly flat with rolling hills and cliffs
surrounding its south, east, and north sections. Springfield is on the
Springfield Plateau, which reaches from Northwest Arkansas to Central
Missouri. Most of the plateau is characterized by forest, pastures and
shrub-scrub habitats. Many streams and tributaries such as the James
River , Galloway Creek and Jordan Creek flow within or near the city.
Nearby lakes include
Table Rock Lake ,
Stockton Lake ,
McDaniel Lake ,
Fellows Lake , Lake Springfield , and
Pomme de Terre Lake .
Springfield is near the population center of the
Lightning over downtown Springfield
Springfield has four distinct seasons. It experiences an average
surface wind velocity comparable to
Springfield lies in the northern limits of a humid subtropical climate (_Cfa_), as defined by the Köppen climate classification system. As such, it experiences times of exceptional humidity; especially in late summer. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 32.6 °F (0.3 °C) in January to 78.2 °F (25.7 °C) in July. On average, there are 39 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, 2.0 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs, 16 days where the high fails to rise above freezing, and 2.5 nights of lows at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) per year. It has an average annual precipitation of 45.6 inches (1,160 mm), including an average 17.0 inches (43 cm) of snow. Extremes in temperature range from −29 °F (−34 °C) on February 12, 1899 up to 113 °F (45 °C) on July 14, 1954.
According to a 2007 story in _
CLIMATE DATA FOR SPRINGFIELD–BRANSON NATIONAL AIRPORT , MISSOURI (1981−2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1888−PRESENT )
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 76 (24) 84 (29) 92 (33) 93 (34) 95 (35) 101 (38) 113 (45) 108 (42) 104 (40) 93 (34) 83 (28) 77 (25) 113 (45)
MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 65.6 (18.7) 71.1 (21.7) 78.8 (26) 83.7 (28.7) 86.9 (30.5) 92.4 (33.6) 96.9 (36.1) 98.2 (36.8) 92.3 (33.5) 84.2 (29) 75.0 (23.9) 66.3 (19.1) 99.6 (37.6)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 42.9 (6.1) 48.2 (9) 57.5 (14.2) 67.2 (19.6) 75.3 (24.1) 83.8 (28.8) 88.8 (31.6) 89.0 (31.7) 80.3 (26.8) 69.0 (20.6) 56.7 (13.7) 44.9 (7.2) 67.1 (19.5)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 22.4 (−5.3) 26.1 (−3.3) 35.2 (1.8) 44.3 (6.8) 54.4 (12.4) 63.1 (17.3) 67.6 (19.8) 66.6 (19.2) 57.7 (14.3) 46.5 (8.1) 35.4 (1.9) 25.0 (−3.9) 45.5 (7.5)
MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 3.0 (−16.1) 7.2 (−13.8) 16.3 (−8.7) 27.8 (−2.3) 39.3 (4.1) 50.2 (10.1) 57.1 (13.9) 54.6 (12.6) 40.0 (4.4) 29.4 (−1.4) 18.4 (−7.6) 5.0 (−15) −3 (−19)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) −19 (−28) −29 (−34) −8 (−22) 16 (−9) 29 (−2) 42 (6) 44 (7) 44 (7) 30 (−1) 18 (−8) 4 (−16) −16 (−27) −29 (−34)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 2.47 (62.7) 2.52 (64) 3.62 (91.9) 4.32 (109.7) 5.10 (129.5) 4.85 (123.2) 3.68 (93.5) 3.55 (90.2) 4.61 (117.1) 3.59 (91.2) 4.22 (107.2) 3.04 (77.2) 45.57 (1,157.5)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 5.4 (13.7) 3.6 (9.1) 2.4 (6.1) trace 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) trace 0.7 (1.8) 4.9 (12.4) 17.0 (43.2)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 8.2 7.8 10.5 10.5 12.0 10.6 8.4 7.9 7.6 9.5 9.4 8.9 111.3
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 3.5 2.9 1.4 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.7 2.8 11.5
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 68.3 68.5 65.2 64.5 70.7 72.3 70.4 69.5 72.9 68.2 69.6 70.9 69.3
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 167.6 157.4 208.7 236.4 268.0 282.7 321.6 292.1 237.6 217.3 155.1 145.9 2,690.4
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 54 52 56 60 61 64 72 70 64 62 51 49 60
EST. 2016 167,319
As of the 2010 census , there were 159,498 people, 69,754 households, and 35,453 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,951.8 inhabitants per square mile (753.6/km2). There were 77,620 housing units at an average density of 949.8 per square mile (366.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.7% White , 4.1% African American , 0.8% Native American , 1.9% Asian , 0.2% Pacific Islander , 1.2% from other races , and 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.7% of the population.
There were 69,754 households of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.4% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 49.2% were non-families. 37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.81.
The median age in the city was 33.2 years. 18.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 18.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26% were from 25 to 44; 22.7% were from 45 to 64; and 14.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female.
According to the 2000
There were 64,691 households out of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city 19.9% were under the age of 18, 17.4% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.9% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,563, and the median income for a family was $38,114. Males had a median income of $27,778 versus $20,980 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,711. About 9.9% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line , including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.
Registered neighborhoods include:
* Bissett * Bradford Park * Doling * Grant Beach * Heart of the Westside * Midtown * Oak Grove * Parkcrest * Phelps Grove * Robberson * Rountree * Tom Watkins * Weller * West Central * Westside Community Betterment * Woodland Heights
Affiliated Neighborhood Groups
Affiliated neighborhood groups unregistered with the city include:
* Cinnamon On The Hill * Cinnamon Square * Cooper Estates * Fox Grape * Kay Pointe * Kingsbury Forest * Lakewood Village * Mission Hills * National Place * Parkwest Village * Parkwood Survival * Quail Creek * Ravenwood South * Sherman Ave Project Area * Spring Creek * Coachlight
Springfield's economy is based on health care, manufacturing, retail, education, and tourism. With a Gross Metropolitan Product of $13.66 billion in 2004, Springfield's economy makes up 6.7% of the Gross State Product of Missouri.
Total retail sales exceed $4.1 billion annually in Springfield and $5.8 billion in the Springfield MSA. Its largest shopping mall is Battlefield Mall . According to the Springfield Convention & Visitors Bureau, an estimated 3,000,000 overnight visitors and day-trippers annually visit the city. The city has more than 60 lodging facilities and 6,000 hotel rooms. The Convention & Visitors Bureau spends more than $1,000,000 annually marketing the city as a travel destination.
Positronic , Bass Pro Shops , John Q. Hammons Hotels & Resorts, BKD , Noble "> Jordan Valley Park
Springfield city government is based on the council-manager system.
By charter, the city has eight council members, each elected for a
four-year term on a nonpartisan basis, and a mayor elected for a
two-year term. The mayor is Ken McClure. Council members include
Phyllis Ferguson (Zone 1), Dr. Thomas Prater (Zone 2), Mike Schilling
(Zone 3), Craig Fishel (Zone 4), Jan Fisk (General A), Craig Hosmer
(General B), Kristi Fulnecky (General C) and Richard Ollis (General
D). Greg Burris, the city manager, appointed by the council to be the
city's chief executive and administrative officer, enforces the laws
as required by the city charter. The presiding officer at council
meetings is the mayor. Council meetings are held every other Monday
The Springfield Public School District is the largest district in the
Springfield has several colleges and universities. Founded in 1905 as
the Fourth District Normal School,
Staged at the Jewell Theatre (demolished in 1961), _Ozark Jubilee_
was the first national country music TV show to feature top stars and
attract a significant viewership. _Five Star Jubilee_, produced from
Landers Theatre , was the first network color television series to
originate outside of New York
The ABC ,
THE OZARK HILLBILLY MEDALLION
The Springfield Chamber of Commerce once presented visiting
dignitaries with an "Ozark
Hillbilly Medallion" and a certificate
proclaiming the honoree a "hillbilly of the Ozarks." On June 7, 1953,
MUSEUMS AND OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST
* Air text-align:left; vertical-align:top;">
* History Museum on the Square
NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
For a complete list, see National Register of Historic Places in
Abou Ben Adhem Shrine Mosque
* Netter-Ullman Building * D.M. Oberman Manufacturing Co. Building * Old Calaboose * Palace Hotel * Pearl Apartments and Windsor Apartments * Pearson Creek Archeological District * Producers Produce Company Plant * Pythian Castle * Rail Haven Motel * Rock Fountain Court Historic District * Route 66 Steak \'n Shake * St. John\'s Mercy Hospital Building * St. Paul Block * Henry Schneider Building * South Avenue Commercial Historic District * South-McDaniel-Patton Commercial Historic District * Springfield Furniture Company * Springfield Grocer Company Warehouse * Springfield National Cemetery * Springfield Public Square Historic District * Springfield Seed Co. Office and Warehouse * Springfield Warehouse and Industrial Historic District * Stone Chapel * U.S. Customhouse and Post Office * Walnut Street Commercial Historic District * Walnut Street Historic District * West Walnut Street Commercial Historic District * E. M. Wilhoit Building * Edward M. and Della C. Wilhoit House * Wise Feed Company Building * Woods-Evertz Stove Company Historic District
Springfield is served by Interstate 44, which connects the city with
St. Louis and
Tulsa, Oklahoma . Route 13 (Kansas Expressway) carries
traffic north towards Kansas
Major streets include Glenstone Avenue, Sunshine Street (Missouri Route 413 ), National Avenue, Division Street, Campbell Avenue, Kansas Expressway, Battlefield Road, Republic Road, West Bypass, Chestnut Expressway and Kearney Street. Highway 65 leading to I-44
Springfield is also the site of the first diverging diamond
interchange within the United States, at the intersection of I-44 and
MO-13 (Kansas Expressway) (at 37°15′01″N 93°18′39″W /
37.2503°N 93.3107°W / 37.2503; -93.3107 (Springfield,
U.S. Route 66 and U.S. Route 166 formerly passed through Springfield, and sections of historic US 66 can still be seen in the city. US 166's eastern terminus was once in the northeast section of the city, and US 60 (westbound) originally ended in downtown Springfield. US 60 now goes through town on James River Freeway .
In mid-November 2013, the city began discussing plans to upgrade sections of Schoolcraft Freeway (Highway 65) and James River Freeway (Highway 60) through the city to Interstate 244. The main reason is to minimize confusion should there be an incident on I-44 as a detour route.
Springfield-Branson National Airport (SGF) serves the city with direct flights to 10 cities. It is the principal air gateway to the Springfield region. The Downtown Airport is also a public-use airport located near downtown. In May 2009, the Springfield-Branson airport opened a new passenger terminal. Financing included $97 million in revenue bonds issued by the airport and $20 million of discretionary federal aviation funds, with no city taxes used. The building includes 275,000 square feet (25,500 m2), 10 gates (expandable to 60) and 1,826 parking spaces. Direct connections from Springfield are available to Atlanta, Charlotte, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Destin/Ft. Walton Beach, Ft. Myers, Houston, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Orlando, Phoenix and Tampa. No international flights have regular service into Springfield-Branson, but it does serve international charters.
Passenger trains have not served Springfield since 1967, but more
than 65 freight trains travel to, from, and through the city each day.
Springfield was once home to the headquarters and main shops of the
St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad (Frisco) . The Frisco was absorbed by
Burlington Northern (BN) in 1980, and in 1994 the BN merged with
the Santa Fe, creating the current
Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF)
Railway. BNSF has three switch yards (two small) in Springfield.
Mainlines to and from Kansas City, St. Louis, Memphis and Tulsa
converge at the railroad's yard facility in the northern part of the
city. In October 2006, BNSF announced plans to upgrade its Tulsa and
Memphis mainlines into Springfield to handle an additional four to six
daily intermodal freight trains between the West Coast and the
The entrance to the
Springfield is a regional medical center with six hospitals and more
than 2,200 beds. The city's health care system offers every specialty
listed by the
American Medical Association . Two of the top 100
hospitals in the U.S. (
CoxHealth and Mercy Health System) are in
Springfield, and both are in the midst of expansion projects. The
industry employs 30,000 people in the Springfield metro area. The
In 2008, America\'s Promise Alliance ranked Springfield among its
"100 Best Communities for Young People" for the third year in a row,
and on June 11, 2009, Next Generation Consulting ranked Springfield
17th on its "Next Cities" list. In 2008 _
Best Life _ ranked
Springfield the 10th worst city in the nation in which to raise a
family, using information from the U.S.
In 2007, The Milken Institute ranked Springfield as a "Best Performing City" for creating and sustaining jobs, and _Expansion Management_ magazine listed Springfield among "Top 20 Mid-Sized Metros for Recruitment and Attraction." Also that year, the World Health Organization designated Springfield as a "Safe Community"; and in 2008, Worldwide ERC named Springfield among "The Best Cities for Relocating Families."
The city's major daily newspaper is the _ Springfield News-Leader _. Other newspapers for Springfield include _Daily Events_ (daily), _Community Free Press_ (bi-weekly), _Springfield Business Journal_ (weekly), _The Standard_ (weekly), and _TAG Magazine_ (monthly).
Television stations broadcast in Springfield include KYTV
The radio stations received in Springfield are:
Main article: List of people from Springfield,
* ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. * ^ Official records for Springfield were kept at downtown from January 1888 to December 1939, Downtown Airport from January 1940 to July 1940, and at Springfield–Branson National Airport since August 1940. For more information, see ThreadEx.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "US Gazetteer files 2010".
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