Coordinates : 37°4′55″N 22°25′25″E / 37.08194°N
22.42361°E / 37.08194; 22.42361
Σπάρτα / Λακεδαίμων
Lambda was used by the
Spartan army as a symbol of Lacedaemon
Territory of ancient
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Mantinea
Annexed by Achaea
Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
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Hollow Lacedaemon. Site of the Menelaion, the ancient shrine to
Menelaus constructed in the
Bronze Age city that stood on
the hill of
Therapne on the left bank of the
Eurotas River overlooking
the future site of Dorian Sparta. Across the valley the successive
ridges of Mount
Taygetus are in evidence.
Doric Greek : Σπάρτα, Spártā;
Attic Greek :
Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece .
In antiquity the city-state was known as LACEDAEMON
(Λακεδαίμων, Lakedaímōn), while the name
to its main settlement on the banks of the
Eurotas River in
Peloponnese . Around 650 BC, it rose to become the
dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.
Given its military pre-eminence,
Sparta was recognized as the overall
leader of the combined Greek forces during the
Greco-Persian Wars .
Between 431 and 404 BC,
Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens
Peloponnesian War , from which it emerged victorious,
though at a great cost of lives lost. Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the
Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece.
However, it maintained its political independence until the Roman
conquest of Greece in 146 BC . It then underwent a long period of
decline, especially in the
Middle Ages , when many Spartans moved to
Mystras . Modern
Sparta is the capital of the Greek regional
Laconia and a center for the processing of goods such as
citrus and olives.
Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and
constitution , which configured their entire society to maximize
military proficiency at all costs, and completely focused on military
training and excellence. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates
(Spartan citizens, who enjoyed full rights), mothakes (non-Spartan
free men raised as Spartans), perioikoi (free residents, literally
"dwellers around"), and helots (state-owned serfs, enslaved
non-Spartan local population).
Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge
training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanges were widely
considered to be among the best in battle. Spartan women enjoyed
considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the
classical antiquity .
Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in
Western culture following the revival of classical learning. This
love or admiration of
Sparta is known as Laconism or
Laconophilia . At
its peak around 500 BC the size of the city would have been some
20,000–35,000 citizens, plus numerous helots and perioikoi. The
likely total of 40,000–50,000 made
Sparta one of the largest Greek
cities; however, according to Thucydides, the population of Athens
in 431 BC was 360,000–610,000, making it unlikely that
Sparta in 5th century BC. The French classicist
François Ollier in his 1933 book Le mirage spartiate ("The Spartan
Mirage") warned that a major scholarly problem regarding
that all the surviving accounts were written by non-Spartans who often
presented an excessively idealized image of Sparta. Ollier's views
have been widely accepted by scholars.
* 1 Names
* 2 Geography
* 3 Mythology
* 4 Archaeology of the classical period
* 4.1 Menelaion
* 5 History
* 5.1 Prehistory, "dark age" and archaic period
* 5.2 Classical
* 5.3 Hellenistic and Roman
* 5.4 Postclassical and modern
* 6 Structure of Classical Spartan society
* 6.2 Citizenship
* 6.3 Non citizens
* 6.3.2 Perioikoi
* 6.4 Economy
* 7 Life in Classical
* 7.1 Birth and death
* 7.2 Education
* 7.3 Military life
* 7.4 Agriculture, food, and diet
* 7.5 Marriage
* 8 Role of women
* 8.1 Political, social, and economic equality
* 8.2 Historic women
* 10 Notable ancient Spartans
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes and references
* 13 Sources
* 14 External links
The earliest attested term referring to Lacedaemon is the Mycenaean
Greek 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀖𐀛𐀍, ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo, "Lacedaimonian",
Linear B syllabic script, being the equivalent of the
written in the Greek alphabet, latter Greek,
Λακεδαιμόνιος, Lakedaimonios (
Latin : Lacedaemonius).
The ancient Greeks used one of three words to refer to the home
location of the Spartans. The first refers primarily to the main
cluster of settlements in the valley of the
Eurotas River : Sparta.
The second word was Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων); this was also
used sometimes as an adjective and is the name commonly used in the
Homer and the historians
Thucydides . Herodotus
seems to denote by it the
Mycenaean Greek citadel at
Therapne , in
contrast to the lower town of Sparta. It could be used synonymously
with Sparta, but typically it was not. It denoted the terrain on which
Sparta was situated. In
Homer it is typically combined with epithets
of the countryside: wide, lovely, shining and most often hollow and
broken (full of ravines). The hollow suggests the
Sparta on the other hand is the country of lovely women, a people
The name of the population was often used for the state of
Lacedaemon: the Lacedaemonians. This epithet utilized the plural of
the adjective Lacedaemonius (Greek: Λακεδαιμὀνιοι;
Latin: Lacedaemonii, but also Lacedaemones). If the ancients wished to
refer to the country more directly, instead of Lacedaemon, they could
use a back-formation from the adjective: Lacedaemonian country. As
most words for "country" were feminine, the adjective was in the
feminine: Lacedaemonia (Λακεδαιμονία, Lakedaimonia).
Eventually, the adjective came to be used alone.
"Lacedaemonia" was not in general use during the classical period and
before. It does occur in Greek as an equivalent of
Messenia during the Roman and early Byzantine periods, mostly in
ethnographers and lexica glossing place names. For example, Hesychius
Alexandria 's Lexicon (5th century AD) defines Agiadae as a "place
in Lacedaemonia" named after Agis. The actual transition may be
Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville 's Etymologiae (7th century AD), an
etymological dictionary. He relied heavily on
Orosius ' Historiarum
Adversum Paganos (5th century AD) and
Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea 's
Chronicon (early 5th century AD) as did Orosius. The latter defines
Sparta to be Lacedaemonia Civitas but Isidore defines Lacedaemonia as
founded by Lacedaemon, son of Semele, relying on Eusebius. There is a
rare use, perhaps the earliest of Lacedaemonia, in
Diodorus Siculus ,
but probably with Χὠρα ("country") suppressed.
The immediate area around the town of Sparta, the plateau east of the
Taygetos mountains, was generally referred as Laconice
(Λακωνική). This term was sometimes used to refer to all the
regions under direct Spartan control, including Messenia .
Lakedaimona was until 2006 the name of a province in the modern Greek
Sparta is located in the region of Laconia, in the south-eastern
Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas
River , the main river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of
fresh water. The valley of the
Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded
to the west by Mt.
Taygetus (2407 m) and to the east by Mt. Parnon
(1935 m). To the north,
Laconia is separated from
Arcadia by hilly
uplands reaching 1000 m in altitude. These natural defenses worked to
Sparta's advantage and contributed to
Sparta never having been sacked.
Sparta had a harbor,
Gytheio , on the Laconian
Lacedaemon (Greek: Λακεδαίμων) was a mythical king of
Laconia. The son of
Zeus by the nymph
Taygete , he married
the daughter of
Eurotas , by whom he became the father of Amyclas ,
Eurydice , and Asine. He named the country after himself and the city
after his wife. He was believed to have built the sanctuary of the
Charites , which stood between
Amyclae , and to have given
to those divinities the names of
Cleta and Phaenna. A shrine was
erected to him in the neighborhood of Therapne.
ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
The theater of ancient
Sparta with Mt.
Taygetus in the
Suppose the city of
Sparta to be deserted, and nothing left but the
temples and the ground-plan, distant ages would be very unwilling to
believe that the power of the Lacedaemonians was at all equal to their
fame. Their city is not built continuously, and has no splendid
temples or other edifices; it rather resembles a group of villages,
like the ancient towns of Hellas, and would therefore make a poor
Until the early 20th century, the chief ancient buildings at Sparta
were the theatre, of which, however, little showed above ground except
portions of the retaining walls ; the so-called Tomb of
Leonidas , a
quadrangular building, perhaps a temple, constructed of immense blocks
of stone and containing two chambers; the foundation of an ancient
bridge over the
Eurotas ; the ruins of a circular structure; some
remains of late Roman fortifications; several brick buildings and
The remaining archaeological wealth consisted of inscriptions,
sculptures, and other objects collected in the local museum, founded
by Stamatakis in 1872 and enlarged in 1907. Partial excavation of the
round building was undertaken in 1892 and 1893 by the American School
Athens . The structure has been since found to be a semicircular
retaining wall of Hellenic origin that was partly restored during the
Ruins from the ancient site
In 1904, the
British School at Athens began a thorough exploration of
Laconia , and in the following year excavations were made at Thalamae,
Geronthrae, and Angelona near
Monemvasia . In 1906, excavations began
A small circus described by Leake proved to be a theatre-like
building constructed soon after AD 200 around the altar and in front
of the temple of
Artemis Orthia . Here musical and gymnastic contests
took place as well as the famous flogging ordeal (diamastigosis ). The
temple, which can be dated to the 2nd century BC, rests on the
foundation of an older temple of the 6th century, and close beside it
were found the remains of a yet earlier temple, dating from the 9th or
even the 10th century. The votive offerings in clay, amber, bronze,
ivory and lead found in great profusion within the precinct range,
dating from the 9th to the 4th centuries BC, supply invaluable
evidence for early Spartan art.
In 1907, the sanctuary of Athena "of the Brazen House" (Chalkioikos)
was located on the acropolis immediately above the theatre, and though
the actual temple is almost completely destroyed, the site has
produced the longest extant archaic inscription of Laconia, numerous
bronze nails and plates, and a considerable number of votive
offerings. The Greek city-wall , built in successive stages from the
4th to the 2nd century, was traced for a great part of its circuit,
which measured 48 stades or nearly 10 km (6 miles) (Polyb. 1X. 21).
The late Roman wall enclosing the acropolis, part of which probably
dates from the years following the Gothic raid of AD 262, was also
investigated. Besides the actual buildings discovered, a number of
points were situated and mapped in a general study of Spartan
topography, based upon the description of Pausanias .
The Menelaion is a shrine associated with Menelaus, located east of
Sparta, by the river Eurotas, on the hill Profitis Ilias (Coordinates
: 37°03′57″N 22°27′13″E / 37.0659°N 22.4536°E /
37.0659; 22.4536 ). Built early 8th century BC it was believed by
Spartans to be the home of Menelaus. In 1970 the British School in
Athens started excavations in an attempt to locate Mycenaean remains
in the area around Menelaion. Among other findings, they uncovered the
remains of two Mycenaean mansions and found the first offerings
dedicated to Helen and Menelaus. These mansions were destroyed by
earthquake and fire, and archaeologists consider them the possible
Menelaus himself. Excavations made from the early 1990s to
the present suggest that the area around Menelaion in the southern
part of the
Eurotas valley seems to have been the center of Mycenaean
Laconia. The Mycenaean settlement was roughly triangular in shape,
with its apex pointed towards the north. Its area was approximately
equal to that of the "newer" Sparta, but denudation has wreaked havoc
with its buildings and nothing is left save ruined foundations and
History of Sparta
PREHISTORY, "DARK AGE" AND ARCHAIC PERIOD
The prehistory of
Sparta is difficult to reconstruct because the
literary evidence is far removed in time from the events it describes
and is also distorted by oral tradition. However, the earliest
certain evidence of human settlement in the region of
of pottery dating from the Middle
Neolithic period, found in the
vicinity of Kouphovouno some two kilometres (1.2 miles)
south-southwest of Sparta. These are the earliest traces of the
original Mycenaean Spartan civilisation, as represented in Homer's
This civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late
Bronze Age , when, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the
Dorians by those they conquered) marched into
Peloponnese and, subjugating the local tribes, settled there. The
Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan
territory almost before they had established their own state. They
fought against the
Dorians to the east and southeast, and also
the Arcadian Achaeans to the northwest. The evidence suggests that
Sparta, relatively inaccessible because of the topography of the
Taygetan plain, was secure from early on: it was never fortified.
Nothing distinctive in the archaeology of the
Eurotas River Valley
Dorians or the Dorian Spartan state. The prehistory of
the Neolithic, the
Bronze Age and the Dark Age (the Early Iron Age) at
this moment must be treated apart from the stream of Dorian Spartan
The legendary period of Spartan history is believed to fall into the
Dark Age. It treats the mythic heroes such as the
Heraclids and the
Perseids , offering a view of the occupation of the Peloponnesus that
contains both fantastic and possibly historical elements. The
subsequent proto-historic period, combining both legend and historical
fragments, offers the first credible history.
Between the 8th and 7th centuries BC the Spartans experienced a
period of lawlessness and civil strife, later attested by both
Herodotus and Thucydides. As a result, they carried out a series of
political and social reforms of their own society which they later
attributed to a semi-mythical lawgiver, Lycurgus . These reforms mark
the beginning of the history of Classical Sparta.
Second Messenian War ,
Sparta established itself as a local
power in Peloponnesus and the rest of Greece. During the following
centuries, Sparta's reputation as a land-fighting force was
unequalled. In 480 BC a small force of Spartans, Thespians, and
Thebans led by King
Leonidas (approximately 300 were full Spartiates,
700 were Thespians, and 400 were Thebans although these numbers do not
reflect casualties incurred prior to the final battle), made a
legendary last stand at the
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae against the massive
Persian army, inflicting very high casualties on the Persian forces
before finally being encircled. The superior weaponry, strategy, and
bronze armour of the Greek hoplites and their phalanx again proved
their worth one year later when
Sparta assembled at full strength and
led a Greek alliance against the Persians at the battle of Plataea .
The decisive Greek victory at Plataea put an end to the Greco-Persian
War along with Persian ambition of expanding into Europe. Even though
this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who
besides being the protagonist at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the
de facto leader of the entire Greek expedition.
In later Classical times,
Sparta along with
Athens , Thebes , and
Persia had been the main powers fighting for supremacy against each
other. As a result of the
Peloponnesian War , Sparta, a traditionally
continental culture, became a naval power. At the peak of its power
Sparta subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed to
overpower the elite Athenian navy. By the end of the 5th century BC it
stood out as a state which had defeated the
Athenian Empire and had
invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia, a period which marks the
Spartan Hegemony .
Sparta faced a coalition of the leading
Greek states: Thebes ,
Athens , Corinth , and
Argos . The alliance was
initially backed by Persia, whose lands in
Anatolia had been invaded
Sparta and which feared further Spartan expansion into Asia.
Sparta achieved a series of land victories, but many of her ships were
destroyed at the battle of Cnidus by a Greek-Phoenician mercenary
Persia had provided to Athens. The event severely damaged
Sparta's naval power but did not end its aspirations of invading
further into Persia, until
Conon the Athenian ravaged the Spartan
coastline and provoked the old Spartan fear of a helot revolt.
After a few more years of fighting, in 387 BC the Peace of Antalcidas
was established, according to which all Greek cities of
return to Persian control, and Persia's Asian border would be free of
the Spartan threat. The effects of the war were to reaffirm Persia's
ability to interfere successfully in Greek politics and to affirm
Sparta's weakened hegemonic position in the Greek political system.
Sparta entered its long-term decline after a severe military defeat to
Epaminondas of Thebes at the
Battle of Leuctra . This was the first
time that a
Spartan army lost a land battle at full strength.
As Spartan citizenship was inherited by blood,
increasingly faced a helot population that vastly outnumbered its
citizens. The alarming decline of Spartan citizens was commented on by
HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN SPARTA
Sparta never fully recovered from the losses that the Spartans
suffered at Leuctra in 371 BC and the subsequent helot revolts .
Nonetheless, it was able to continue as a regional power for over two
centuries. Neither Philip II nor his son
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great attempted
Even during its decline,
Sparta never forgot its claim to be the
"defender of Hellenism" and its Laconic wit . An anecdote has it that
when Philip II sent a message to
Sparta saying "If I enter Laconia, I
will raze Sparta", the Spartans responded with the single, terse
reply: αἴκα, "if".
When Philip created the league of the Greeks on the pretext of
unifying Greece against Persia, the Spartans chose not to join, since
they had no interest in joining a pan-Greek expedition unless it were
under Spartan leadership. Thus, upon the conquest of Persia, Alexander
the Great sent to
Athens 300 suits of Persian armour with the
following inscription: Alexander, son of Philip, and all the Greeks
EXCEPT THE SPARTANS, give these offerings taken from the foreigners
who live in Asia .
During Alexander's campaigns in the east, the Spartan king, Agis III
sent a force to
Crete in 333 BC with the aim of securing the island
for Sparta. Agis next took command of allied Greek forces against
Macedon, gaining early successes, before laying siege to Megalopolis
in 331 BC. A large Macedonian army under general
Antipater marched to
its relief and defeated the Spartan-led force in a pitched battle.
More than 5,300 of the Spartans and their allies were killed in
battle, and 3,500 of Antipater's troops. Agis, now wounded and unable
to stand, ordered his men to leave him behind to face the advancing
Macedonian army so that he could buy them time to retreat. On his
knees, the Spartan king slew several enemy soldiers before being
finally killed by a javelin. Alexander was merciful, and he only
forced the Spartans to join the League of Corinth, which they had
previously refused to join.
Sparta was an ally of the
Roman Republic .
Spartan political independence was put to an end when it was
eventually forced into the
Achaean League after its defeat in the
decisive Laconian War by a coalition of other Greek city-states and
Rome and the resultant overthrow of its final king
Nabis . Sparta
played no active part in the
Achaean War in 146 BC when the Achaean
League was defeated by the Roman general Lucius Mummius .
Sparta become a free city in the Roman sense, some of
the institutions of Lycurgus were restored and the city became a
tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic
POSTCLASSICAL AND MODERN SPARTA
According to Byzantine sources, some parts of the Laconian region
remained pagan until well into the 10th century AD. Doric -speaking
populations survive today in
Tsakonia . In the Middle Ages, the
political and cultural center of
Laconia shifted to the nearby
Mystras , and
Sparta fell further in even local
Sparti was re-founded in 1834, by a decree of King
Otto of Greece .
STRUCTURE OF CLASSICAL SPARTAN SOCIETY
Main article: Spartan
Constitution Structure of the Spartan
Sparta was an oligarchy . The state was ruled by two hereditary kings
of the Agiad and Eurypontid families , both supposedly descendants of
Heracles and equal in authority, so that one could not act against the
power and political enactments of his colleague.
The duties of the kings were primarily religious, judicial, and
military. They were the chief priests of the state and also maintained
communication with the Delphian sanctuary, which always exercised
great authority in Spartan politics. In the time of Herodotus, about
450 BC, their judicial functions had been restricted to cases dealing
with heiresses, adoptions and the public roads.
the kingship at
Sparta as "a kind of unlimited and perpetual
generalship" (Pol. iii. I285a), while
Isocrates refers to the
Spartans as "subject to an oligarchy at home, to a kingship on
campaign" (iii. 24).
Civil and criminal cases were decided by a group of officials known
as the ephors , as well as a council of elders known as the gerousia .
The gerousia consisted of 28 elders over the age of 60, elected for
life and usually part of the royal households, and the two kings.
High state policy decisions were discussed by this council who could
then propose action alternatives to the damos, the collective body of
Spartan citizenry, who would select one of the alternatives by voting
The royal prerogatives were curtailed over time. Dating from the
period of the Persian wars, the king lost the right to declare war and
was accompanied in the field by two ephors. He was supplanted also by
the ephors in the control of foreign policy. Over time, the kings
became mere figureheads except in their capacity as generals. Real
power was transferred to the ephors and to the gerousia.
The origins of the powers exercised by the assembly of the citizens
Apella are virtually unknown because of the lack of
historical documentation and Spartan state secrecy.
Not all inhabitants of the Spartan state were considered to be
citizens. Only those who had undertaken the Spartan education process
known as the agoge were eligible. However, usually the only people
eligible to receive the agoge were
Spartiates , or people who could
trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of the city.
There were two exceptions.
Trophimoi or "foster sons" were foreign
students invited to study. The Athenian general
Xenophon , for
example, sent his two sons to
Sparta as trophimoi. The other exception
was that the son of a helot could be enrolled as a syntrophos if a
Spartiate formally adopted him and paid his way. If a syntrophos did
exceptionally well in training, he might be sponsored to become a
Spartiate. Spartans who could not afford to pay the expenses of the
agoge could lose their citizenship.
These laws meant that
Sparta could not readily replace citizens lost
in battle or otherwise and eventually proved near fatal to the
continuance of the state as the number of citizens became greatly
outnumbered by the non-citizens and, even more dangerously, the
Others in the state were the perioikoi , who were free inhabitants of
Spartan territory but were non-citizens, and the helots , the
state-owned serfs . Descendants of non-Spartan citizens were not able
to follow the agoge.
The Spartans were a minority of the Lakonian population. The largest
class of inhabitants were the helots (in Classical Greek
Εἵλωτες / Heílôtes).
The helots were originally free Greeks from the areas of Messenia and
Lakonia whom the Spartans had defeated in battle and subsequently
enslaved. In contrast to populations conquered by other Greek cities
(e.g. the Athenian treatment of Melos), the male population was not
exterminated and the women and children turned into chattel slaves.
Instead, the helots were given a subordinate position in society more
comparable to serfs in medieval Europe than chattel slaves in the rest
Helots did not have voting rights, although compared to non-Greek
chattel slaves in other parts of Greece they were relatively
privileged. The Spartan poet Tyrtaios refers to
Helots being allowed
to marry and retaining 50% of the fruits of their labor. They also
seem to have been allowed to practice religious rites and, according
to Thucydides, own a limited amount of personal property. Some 6,000
helots accumulated enough wealth to buy their freedom, for example, in
In other Greek city-states, free citizens were part-time soldiers
who, when not at war, carried on other trades. Since Spartan men were
full-time soldiers, they were not available to carry out manual
labour. The helots were used as unskilled serfs , tilling Spartan
Helot women were often used as wet nurses .
travelled with the
Spartan army as non-combatant serfs. At the last
stand of the
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae , the Greek dead included not just
the legendary three hundred Spartan soldiers but also several hundred
Thespian and Theban troops and a number of helots.
Relations between the helots and their Spartan masters were sometimes
strained. There was at least one helot revolt (ca. 465–460 BC), and
Thucydides remarked that "Spartan policy is always mainly governed by
the necessity of taking precautions against the helots." On the
other hand, the Spartans trusted their helots enough in 479 BC to take
a force of 35,000 with them to Plataea, something they could not have
risked if they feared the helots would attack them or run away. Slave
revolts occurred elsewhere in the Greek world, and in 413 BC 20,000
Athenian slaves ran away to join the Spartan forces occupying Attica.
What made Sparta's relations with her slave population unique was that
the helots, precisely because they enjoyed privileges such as family
and property, retained their identity as a conquered people (the
Messenians) and also had effective kinship groups that could be used
to organize rebellion.
Spartiate population declined and the helot population
continued to grow, the imbalance of power caused increasing tension.
According to Myron of Priene of the middle 3rd century BC:
"They assign to the
Helots every shameful task leading to disgrace.
For they ordained that each one of them must wear a dogskin cap
(κυνῆ / kunễ) and wrap himself in skins (διφθέρα /
diphthéra) and receive a stipulated number of beatings every year
regardless of any wrongdoing, so that they would never forget they
were slaves. Moreover, if any exceeded the vigour proper to a slave's
condition, they made death the penalty; and they allotted a punishment
to those controlling them if they failed to rebuke those who were
Plutarch also states that Spartans treated the
Helots "harshly and
cruelly": they compelled them to drink pure wine (which was considered
dangerous – wine usually being cut with water) "...and to lead them
in that condition into their public halls, that the children might see
what a sight a drunken man is; they made them to dance low dances, and
sing ridiculous songs..." during syssitia (obligatory banquets).
Each year when the
Ephors took office they ritually declared war on
the helots, thereby allowing Spartans to kill them without the risk of
ritual pollution. This seems to have been done by kryptes (sing.
κρύπτης), graduates of the agoge who took part in the
mysterious institution known as the
"The helots were invited by a proclamation to pick out those of their
number who claimed to have most distinguished themselves against the
enemy, in order that they might receive their freedom; the object
being to test them, as it was thought that the first to claim their
freedom would be the most high spirited and the most apt to rebel. As
many as two thousand were selected accordingly, who crowned themselves
and went round the temples, rejoicing in their new freedom. The
Spartans, however, soon afterwards did away with them, and no one ever
knew how each of them perished."
The Perioikoi came from similar origins as the helots but occupied a
significantly different position in Spartan society. Although they did
not enjoy full citizen-rights, they were free and not subjected to the
same restrictions as the helots. The exact nature of their subjection
to the Spartans is not clear, but they seem to have served partly as a
kind of military reserve, partly as skilled craftsmen and partly as
agents of foreign trade. Perioikoic hoplites served increasingly with
the Spartan army, explicitly at the
Battle of Plataea , and although
they may also have fulfilled functions such as the manufacture and
repair of armour and weapons, they were increasingly integrated into
the combat units of the
Spartan army as the
Name vase of the Spartan artist known as the Rider Painter
(black-figured kylix , ca. 550–530 BC)
Spartan citizens were debarred by law from trade or manufacture,
which consequently rested in the hands of the Perioikoi. The Periokoi
monopoly on trade and manufacturing in one of the richest territories
of Greece explains in large part the loyalty of the perioikoi to the
Spartan state. Lacedaemon was rich in natural resources, fertile and
blessed with a number of good natural harbors. The periokoi could
exploit these resources for their own enrichment, and did.
Spartiates, on the other hand, were forbidden (in theory) from
engaging in menial labor or trade, although there is evidence of
Spartan sculptors, and Spartans were certainly poets, magistrates,
ambassadors, and governors as well as soldiers. Allegedly, Spartans
were prohibited from possessing gold and silver coins, and according
to legend Spartan currency consisted of iron bars to discourage
hoarding. It was not until the 260s or 250s BC that
Sparta began to
mint its own coins.
The conspicuous display of wealth appears to have been discouraged,
although this did not preclude the production of very fine, highly
decorated bronze, ivory and wooden works of art and the production of
jewellery. Archeology has produced many examples of all these objects,
some of which are exquisite.
Allegedly in connection with the Lycurgan Reforms (e.g. in the
mid-8th Century BC), property had been divided into 9,000 equal
portions as part of a massive land reform. Each citizen received one
estate, a kleros, and thereafter was expected to derive his wealth
from it. The land itself was worked by helots, who retained half the
yield. From the other half, the
Spartiate was expected to pay his mess
(syssitia) fees, and the agoge fees for his children. However, we know
nothing about whether land could be bought and sold, whether it could
be inherited, if so by what system (primogeniture or equally divided
among heirs), whether daughters received dowries and much more. What
is clear is that from early on there were marked differences of wealth
within the state, and these became even more serious after the law of
Epitadeus , passed at some time after the
Peloponnesian War , removed
the legal prohibition of the gift or bequest of land. By the mid-5th
century, land had become concentrated in the hands of a tiny elite,
and the notion of all Spartan citizens being "equals" had become a
farce. By Aristotle's day (384–322 BC) citizenship had been reduced
from 9,000 to less than 1,000, and then further decreased to 700 at
the accession of
Agis IV in 244 BC. Attempts were made to remedy this
situation by creating new laws. Certain penalties were imposed upon
those who remained unmarried or who married too late in life. These
laws, however, came too late and were ineffective in reversing the
LIFE IN CLASSICAL SPARTA
BIRTH AND DEATH
Sparta was above all a militarist state, and emphasis on military
fitness began virtually at birth. Shortly after birth, a mother would
bathe her child in wine to see whether the child was strong. If the
child survived it was brought before the
Gerousia by the child's
Gerousia then decided whether it was to be reared or not.
It is commonly stated that if they considered it "puny and deformed",
the baby was thrown into a chasm on Mount Taygetos known
euphemistically as the Apothetae (Gr., ἀποθέται, "Deposits").
This was, in effect, a primitive form of eugenics .
Sparta is often
portrayed as being unique in this matter; however, there is
considerable evidence that the killing of unwanted children was
practiced in other Greek regions, including Athens. There is
controversy about the matter in Sparta, since excavations in the chasm
only uncovered adult remains, likely belonging to criminals.
When Spartans died, marked headstones would only be granted to
soldiers who died in combat during a victorious campaign or women who
died either in service of a divine office or in childbirth.
Bronze appliqué of Spartan manufacture,
Orestes , 550–525 BC (
Getty Villa )
When male Spartans began military training at age seven, they would
enter the agoge system. The agoge was designed to encourage discipline
and physical toughness and to emphasize the importance of the Spartan
state. Boys lived in communal messes and, according to Xenophon, whose
sons attended the agoge, the boys were fed "just the right amount for
them never to become sluggish through being too full, while also
giving them a taste of what it is not to have enough." In addition
they were trained to survived in times of privation, even if it meant
stealing. Besides physical and weapons training, boys studied
reading, writing, music and dancing.
Special punishments were imposed
if boys failed to answer questions sufficiently 'laconically' (i.e.
briefly and wittily).
There is some evidence that in late-Classical and Hellenistic Sparta
boys were expected to take an older male mentor, usually an unmarried
young man. However, there is no evidence of this in archaic Sparta.
According to some sources, the older man was expected to function as a
kind of substitute father and role model to his junior partner;
however, others believe it was reasonably certain that they had sexual
relations (the exact nature of Spartan pederasty is not entirely
clear). It is notable, however, that the only contemporary source
with direct experience of the agoge, Xenophon, explicitly denies the
sexual nature of the relationship.
Post 465 BC, some Spartan youth apparently became members of an
irregular unit known as the
Krypteia . The immediate objective of this
unit was to seek out and kill vulnerable helot Laconians as part of
the larger program of terrorising and intimidating the helot
Less information is available about the education of Spartan girls,
but they seem to have gone through a fairly extensive formal
educational cycle, broadly similar to that of the boys but with less
emphasis on military training. In this respect, classical
unique in ancient Greece. In no other city-state did women receive any
kind of formal education.
Spartan army and
Marble statue of a
helmed hoplite (5th century BC),
Archaeological Museum of Sparta ,
At age 20, the Spartan citizen began his membership in one of the
syssitia (dining messes or clubs), composed of about fifteen members
each, of which every citizen was required to be a member. Here each
group learned how to bond and rely on one another. The Spartans were
not eligible for election for public office until the age of 30. Only
native Spartans were considered full citizens and were obliged to
undergo the training as prescribed by law, as well as participate in
and contribute financially to one of the syssitia.
Sparta is thought to be the first city to practice athletic nudity,
and some scholars claim that it was also the first to formalize
pederasty. According to these sources, the Spartans believed that the
love of an older, accomplished aristocrat for an adolescent was
essential to his formation as a free citizen. The agoge , the
education of the ruling class, was, they claim, founded on pederastic
relationships required of each citizen, with the lover responsible
for the boy's training.
However, other scholars question this interpretation. Xenophon
explicitly denies it, but not Plutarch.
Spartan men remained in the active reserve until age 60. Men were
encouraged to marry at age 20 but could not live with their families
until they left their active military service at age 30. They called
themselves "homoioi" (equals), pointing to their common lifestyle and
the discipline of the phalanx , which demanded that no soldier be
superior to his comrades. Insofar as hoplite warfare could be
perfected, the Spartans did so.
Thucydides reports that when a Spartan man went to war, his wife (or
another woman of some significance) would customarily present him with
his hoplon (shield) and say: "With this, or upon this" (Ἢ τὰν
ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς, Èi tàn èi èpì tàs), meaning that true
Spartans could only return to
Sparta either victorious (with their
shield in hand) or dead (carried upon it). Unfortunately, poignant as
this image may be, it is almost certainly propaganda. Spartans buried
their battle dead on or near the battle field; corpses were not
brought back on their hoplons. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that
it was less of a disgrace for a soldier to lose his helmet,
breastplate or greaves than his hoplon, since the former were designed
to protect one man, whereas the hoplon also protected the man on his
left. Thus the shield was symbolic of the individual soldier's
subordination to his unit, his integral part in its success, and his
solemn responsibility to his comrades in arms – messmates and
friends, often close blood relations.
According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually
short-sighted and ineffective. He observed:
It is the standards of civilized men not of beasts that must be kept
in mind, for it is good men not beasts who are capable of real
courage. Those like the Spartans who concentrate on the one and ignore
the other in their education turn men into machines and in devoting
themselves to one single aspect of city's life, end up making them
inferior even in that.
Aristotle was a harsh critic of the Spartan constitution and way of
life. There is considerable evidence that the Spartans, certainly in
the archaic period, were not educated as one-sidedly as Aristotle
asserts. In fact, the Spartans were also rigorously trained in logic
One of the most persistent myths about
Sparta that has no basis in
fact is the notion that Spartan mothers were without feelings toward
their off-spring and helped enforce a militaristic lifestyle on their
sons and husbands. The myth can be traced back to Plutarch, who
includes no less than 17 "sayings" of "Spartan women," all of which
paraphrase or elaborate on the theme that Spartan mothers rejected
their own offspring if they showed any kind of cowardice. In some of
these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely
for surviving a battle. These sayings purporting to be from Spartan
women were far more likely to be of Athenian origin and designed to
portray Spartan women as unnatural and so undeserving of pity.
AGRICULTURE, FOOD, AND DIET
Sparta's agriculture consisted mainly of barley, wine, cheese, grain,
and figs. These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizens
kleros and were tended to by helots. Spartan citizens were required to
donate a certain amount of what they yielded from their kleros to
their syssitia, or mess. These donations to the syssitia were a
requirement for every Spartan citizen. All the donated food was then
redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia. The
helots who tended to the lands were fed using a portion of what they
Plutarch reports the peculiar customs associated with the Spartan
The custom was to capture women for marriage(...) The so-called
'bridesmaid' took charge of the captured girl. She first shaved her
head to the scalp, then dressed her in a man's cloak and sandals, and
laid her down alone on a mattress in the dark. The bridegroom – who
was not drunk and thus not impotent, but was sober as always – first
had dinner in the messes, then would slip in, undo her belt, lift her
and carry her to the bed.
The husband continued to visit his wife in secret for some time after
the marriage. These customs, unique to the Spartans, have been
interpreted in various ways. One of them decidedly supports the need
to disguise the bride as a man in order to help the bridegroom
consummate the marriage, so unaccustomed were men to women's looks at
the time of their first intercourse. The "abduction" may have served
to ward off the evil eye , and the cutting of the wife's hair was
perhaps part of a rite of passage that signaled her entrance into a
ROLE OF WOMEN
Women in ancient Sparta
POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC EQUALITY
Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and
respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world. The
higher status of females in Spartan society started at birth; unlike
Athens, Spartan girls were fed the same food as their brothers. Nor
were they confined to their father's house and prevented from
exercising or getting fresh air as in Athens, but exercised and even
competed in sports. Most important, rather than being married off at
the age of 12 or 13, Spartan law forbade the marriage of a girl until
she was in her late teens or early 20s. The reasons for delaying
marriage were to ensure the birth of healthy children, but the effect
was to spare Spartan women the hazards and lasting health damage
associated with pregnancy among adolescents. Spartan women, better fed
from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of
reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the
median age for death was 34.6 years or roughly 10 years below that of
Unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were
rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses (peplos)
slit up the side to allow freer movement and moved freely about the
city, either walking or driving chariots. Girls as well as boys
exercised, possibly in the nude, and young women as well as young men
may have participated in the
Gymnopaedia ("Festival of Nude Youths").
Another practice that was mentioned by many visitors to
the practice of “wife-sharing”. In accordance with the Spartan
belief that breeding should be between the most physically fit
parents, many older men allowed younger, more fit men, to impregnate
their wives. Other unmarried or childless men might even request
another man’s wife to bear his children if she had previously been a
strong child bearer. For this reason many considered Spartan women
polygamous or polyandrous . This practice was encouraged in order
that women bear as many strong-bodied children as they could. The
Spartan population was hard to maintain due to the constant absence
and loss of the men in battle and the intense physical inspection of
Spartan women were also literate and numerate, a rarity in the
ancient world. Furthermore, as a result of their education and the
fact that they moved freely in society engaging with their fellow
(male) citizens, they were notorious for speaking their minds even in
public. Plato, in the middle of the fourth century, described women's
Sparta as consisting of gymnastics and mousike (music
Plato goes on to praise Spartan women's ability when it
came to philosophical discussion.
Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they
controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands. It is
estimated that in later Classical Sparta, when the male population was
in serious decline, women were the sole owners of at least 35% of all
land and property in Sparta. The laws regarding a divorce were the
same for both men and women. Unlike women in Athens, if a Spartan
woman became the heiress of her father because she had no living
brothers to inherit (an epikleros ), the woman was not required to
divorce her current spouse in order to marry her nearest paternal
Spartan women acquired so much wealth that in
Aristotle ’s analysis
of the laws and history of
Sparta he attributed its precipitous fall
(which happened during his lifetime) from being the master of Greece
to a second rate power in less than 50 years to the fact that Sparta
had become a gynecocracy whose intemperate women loved luxury. These
tendencies became worse after the huge influx of wealth following the
Spartan victory of the Peloponnesian War, leading to the eventual
downfall of Sparta.
Many women played a significant role in the history of
Queen Gorgo , heiress to the throne and the wife of
Leonidas I , was
an influential and well-documented figure.
Herodotus records that as a
small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe. She was
later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian
forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not
decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the
wax, revealing the warning. Plutarch's
Moralia contains a collection
of "Sayings of Spartan Women", including a laconic quip attributed to
Gorgo: when asked by a woman from
Attica why Spartan women were the
only women in the world who could rule men, she replied "Because we
are the only women who are mothers of men".
Laconophilia is love or admiration of
Sparta and of the Spartan
culture or constitution.
Sparta was subject of considerable admiration
in its day, even in its rival,
Athens . In ancient times "Many of the
noblest and best of the Athenians always considered the Spartan state
nearly as an ideal theory realised in practice." Many Greek
philosophers, especially Platonists, would often describe
Sparta as an
ideal state, strong, brave, and free from the corruptions of commerce
Young Spartans Exercising by
Edgar Degas (1834–1917)
With the revival of classical learning in
Renaissance Europe ,
Laconophilia re-appears, for examples in the writings of
The Elizabethan English constitutionalist John Aylmer compared the
mixed government of Tudor England to the Spartan republic, stating
that "Lacedemonia , the noblest and best city governed that ever
was". He commended it as a model for England. The Swiss-French
Jean-Jacques Rousseau contrasted
Sparta favourably with
Athens in his
Discourse on the Arts and Sciences , arguing that its
austere constitution was preferable to the more cultured nature of
Sparta was also used as a model of social purity by
Revolutionary and Napoleonic France.
Certain early Zionists, and particularly the founders of Kibbutz
movement in Israel, had been influenced by Spartan ideals,
particularly as a model for education. Tabenkin, for example, a
founding father of the
Kibbutz and the
Palmach , was influenced by
Spartan education. He prescribed that education for warfare "should
begin from the nursery", that children should from kindergarten age be
taken to "spend nights in the mountains and valleys".
A new element of
Karl Otfried Müller , who linked
Spartan ideals to the supposed racial superiority of the Dorians, the
ethnic sub-group of the Greeks to which the Spartans belonged. Adolf
Hitler praised the Spartans, recommending in 1928 that Germany should
imitate them by limiting "the number allowed to live". He added that
"The Spartans were once capable of such a wise measure... The
subjugation of 350,000
Helots by 6,000 Spartans was only possible
because of the racial superiority of the Spartans." The Spartans had
created "the first racialist state".
In the modern times, the adjective "spartan" is used to imply
simplicity, frugality, or avoidance of luxury and comfort. The term
laconic phrase describes a very terse and concise way of speaking that
was characteristic of the Spartans.
Sparta also features prominently in modern popular culture (see
Sparta in popular culture ), particularly the Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture ).
NOTABLE ANCIENT SPARTANS
Agis I – king
Agis II – king
Agesilaus II – king
Cleomenes I – king
Leonidas I (c. 520–480 BC) – king, famous for his actions at
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
Cleomenes III – king and reformer
Lysander (5th–4th century BC) – general
* Lycurgus (10th century BC) – lawgiver
* Chionis (7th century BC) – athlete
Cynisca (4th century BC) – princess and athlete
* Chilon – philosopher
* Gorgo – queen and politician
* Helen – of the Trojan War, Queen of Sparta
Menelaus – King of
Sparta during the Trojan War
Xanthippus of Carthage – Spartan mercenary, of the first Punic
Clearchus of Sparta – Spartan mercenary in the army of the Ten
Thousand (Greek mercenaries) .
Nabis – King
List of Kings of Sparta
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ For the nature of this development, see the article on
* ^ According to Thucydides, the Athenian citizens at the beginning
Peloponnesian War (5th century BC) numbered 40,000, making with
their families a total of 140,000 people in all. The metics, i.e.
those who did not have citizen rights and paid for the right to reside
in Athens, numbered a further 70,000, whilst slaves were estimated at
between 150,000 to 400,000.
* ^ Found on the following tablets : TH Fq 229, TH Fq 258, TH Fq
275, TH Fq 253, TH Fq 284, TH Fq 325, TH Fq 339, TH Fq 382. There are
also words like 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀖𐀛𐀍𐀄𐀍,
ra-ke-da-mo-ni-jo-u-jo – found on the TH Gp 227 tablet – that
could perhaps mean "son of the Spartan". Moreover, the attested
words 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀜 , ra-ke-da-no and 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀜𐀩,
ra-ke-da-no-re could possibly be
Linear B forms of Lacedaemon itself;
the latter, found on the MY Ge 604 tablet, is considered to be the
dative case form of the former which is found on the MY Ge 603 tablet.
It is considered much more probable though that ra-ke-da-no and
ra-ke-da-no-re correspond to the anthroponym Λακεδάνωρ,
Lakedanor, though the latter is thought to be related etymologically
* ^ Especially the Diamastigosis at the Sanctuary of Artemis
Orthia, Limnai outside Sparta. There an amphitheatre was built in the
3rd century CE to observe the ritual whipping of Spartan youths.
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 91
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 174
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 192
* ^ Morris, Ian (December 2005), The growth of Greek cities in the
first millennium BC. v.1 (PDF), Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in
* ^ Nielsen, Thomas Heine (29 December 2017). "Once Again: Studies
Ancient Greek Polis". Franz Steiner Verlag – via Google
* ^ Wilson, Nigel Guy, ed. (2006). Encyclopedia Of Ancient Greece.
Routledge (UK). pp. 214–15. ISBN 0-415-97334-1 .
* ^ A B Hodkinson, Stephen "The Imaginary Spartan Politeria" pp.
22–81 from The Imaginary Polis: Symposium, January 7–10, 2004
edited by Mogens Herman Hansen, Copenhagen: Danske Videnskabernes
Selskab, 2005 p. 222.
* ^ "The
Linear B word ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo". Palaeolexicon. Word
study tool of Ancient languages.
* ^ A B C "TH 229 Fq (305)". "TH Fq 258 (305)". "TH 275 Fq
(305)". "TH 253 Fq (305)". "TH 284 Fq (305)". "TH 325 Fq (305)".
"TH 339 Fq (305)". "TH 382 Fq (305)". "TH 227 Gp (306)". "MY 603 Ge
+ frr. (58a)". "MY 604 Ge (58a)". DĀMOS Database of Mycenaean at
University of Oslo
University of Oslo .
* ^ Thompson, Rupert (2010). "Mycenaean Greek". In Bakker, Egbert
J. A Companion to the
Ancient Greek Language. Blackwell Companions to
the Ancient World. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4051-5326-3 .
* ^ Beekes, R.S.P. (2010). "s.v. υἱός". Etymological
Dictionary of Greek. 2. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek.
Leiden, Boston: Brill. p. 1528. ISBN 9789004174184 .
* ^ Raymoure, K.A. "ra-ke-da-no". Minoan
Linear A & Mycenaean
Linear B. Deaditerranean.
* ^ Jasanoff, Jay H.; Nussbaum, Alan (1996). Lefkowitz, Mary R.;
Rogers Maclean, Guy, eds. Black Athena Revisited. The University of
North Carolina Press. p. 193. ISBN 0807845558 .
* ^ LIddell & Scott 1940 , Λακεδαιμόνιος, s.v.
* ^ Lacedaemonius, s.v. Lacedaemon. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles
Latin Dictionary on
Perseus Project .
* ^ LIddell & Scott 1940 , Σπάρτη.
* ^ Liddell Johnson, Samuel (1773). "Lacedaemon". A Dictionary of
Ancient Geography London: G. Robinson .
* ^ Autenrieth 1891 , Λακεδαίμων.
* ^ Schmidt, Maurice, ed. (1863). "s.v. Ἀγιάδαι". Hesychii
Alexandrini Lexicon (in Greek). Jena: Frederick Mauk. . At the
* ^ Wiener, Leo (1920). Contributions toward a History of
Arabico-Gothic Culture. V. III: Tacitus' Germania & Other Forgeries.
Philadelphia: Innes & Sones. p. 20.
* ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library, 19.70.2.
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 4
* ^ A B Pausanias 1918 , Description of Greece, ΙΙΙ.1.2.
* ^ Thucydides, i. 10
* ^ The British School at Athens, Home.
* ^ "The Mycenaean presence in the southeastern
Vouno Panagias and Ayios Georgios", by Emilia Banou.
* ^ A B Herodot, Book I, 56.3
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 28
* ^ A B Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 31
* ^ Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 36
* ^ Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 33
* ^ "A Historical Commentary on Thucydides"—David Cartwright, p.
* ^ Green 1998 , p. 10
* ^ Britannica ed. 2006, "Sparta"
* ^ "Dictionary of Ancient in Greek.
* ^ "
Agis III – Livius". www.livius.org.
* ^ Badian, E. (29 December 1967). "Agis III". Hermes. 95 (2):
JSTOR 4475455 – via JSTOR.
* ^ Diodorus, World History
* ^ Diodorus, World History, 17.62.1–63.4;tr. C.B. Welles
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great and his time By Agnes Savill Page 44 ISBN
* ^ Cartledge & Spawforth 2001 , p. 82
Cicero (1918). "II.34". In Pohlenz, M. Tusculanae Disputationes
(in Latin). Leipzig: Teubner. At the Perseus Project.
* ^ Michell, Humfrey (1964). Sparta. Cambridge University Press. p.
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 89
* ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences,
Literature and ... p. 611. primary and secondary source
* ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences,
Literature and ... p. 611. primary secondary source
* ^ The Greeks at War By Philip De Souza, Waldemar Heckel, Lloyd
Llewellyn-Jones, Victor Davis Hanson
* ^ The Politics By Aristotle, Thomas Alan Sinclair, Trevor J.
* ^ A companion to Greek studies By Leonard Whibley
* ^ σύντροφος in Liddell and Scott .
* ^ The Greek World By Anton Powell
Ancient Greece By
Sarah B. Pomeroy , Stanley M. Burstein,
Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts
Herodotus (IX, 28–29)
* ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, III, 3, 5
* ^ West 1999 , p. 24
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 141
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 140
* ^ Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 159
Thucydides (IV, 80); the Greek is ambiguous
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 211
Thucydides (VII, 27)
* ^ Talbert, p. 26.
* ^ Apud Athenaeus, 14, 647d = FGH 106 F 2. Trans. by Cartledge, p.
* ^ Life of Lycurgus 28, 8–10. See also, Life of Demetrios, 1, 5;
Constitution of the Lacedemonians 30; De Cohibenda Ira 6; De
Commmunibus Notitiis 19.
* ^ (Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus 28, 7)
* ^ Powell 2001 , p. 254
Thucydides (Book IV 80.4).
* ^ Classical historian Anton Powell has recorded a similar story
El Salvador . Cf. Powell, 2001, p. 256
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , pp. 153–55
* ^ Cartledge 2002 , pp. 158, 178
* ^ "Population Patterns in Late Archaic and Classical Sparta" by
Thomas Figueira, Transactions of the American Philological Association
116 (1986), pp. 165–213
* ^ Paul Cartledge, "
Sparta and Lakonia," Routledge, London, 1979,
* ^ Conrad Stibbe, "Das Andere Sparta," Verlag Philipp von Zabern,
Mainz, 1996, pp. 111–27
* ^ Excel HSC Ancient History By Peter Roberts, ISBN 1-74125-178-8
, ISBN 978-1-74125-178-4
* ^ Greene, Robert (2000),
The 48 Laws of Power ,
Penguin Books ,
p. 420, ISBN 0-14-028019-7
* ^ Hodkinson, Stephen (2000), Property and Wealth in Classical
Sparta, p. 154
* ^ Conrad Stibbe, Das Andere Sparta, Verlag Philipp von Zabern,
* ^ A.H.M. Jones, "Sparta," Basel Blackwell and Mott Ltd.,1967, pp.
* ^ Stephen Hodkinson, Property and Wealth in Classical Sparta, The
Classical Press of Wales, Swansea, 2000. See also Paul Cartledge's
discussion of property in
Sparta in "
Sparta and Lakonia," pp.
* ^ Social Conflict in
Ancient Greece By Alexander Fuks, ISBN
965-223-466-4 , ISBN 978-965-223-466-7
* ^ A B Cartledge 2001 , p. 84
Plutarch 2005 , p. 20
* ^ Buxton 2001 , p. 201
* ^ Ancient
Sparta – Research Program of Keadas Cavern Theodoros
* ^ Plutarch, Lycurgus 27.2–3. However this may be conflating
later practice with that of the classical period. See Not the
Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art
ed. Beth Cohen, p. 263, note 33, 2000, Brill.
* ^ A B C Xenophon, Spartan Society, 2
* ^ Kagan, Donald; Ozment, Steven; Frank, Turner; Frank, Alison
(2013). "The Rise of Greek Civilization". Western Heritage. Pearson.
pp. 44, Spartan Society.
* ^ Cartledge 2001 , p. 85
* ^ Cartledge 2001 , pp. 91–105
* ^ Cartledge 2001 , p. 88
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public
domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed".
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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* GTP – Sparta
* GTP – Ancient Sparta
* Schrader, Helena P. (2001–2010). "
Sparta Reconsidered: An
Introduction". The Spartans: Warrior Philosophers of the Ancient
World. Elysium Gates.
* Papakyriakou-Anagnostou, Ellen (2000–2011). "History of Sparta".
Ancient Greek Cities.