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The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain
Spain
with its territories in America
America
across the Atlantic. The convoys were general purpose cargo fleets used for transporting a wide variety of items, including agricultural goods, lumber, various metal resources, luxuries, silver, gold, gems, pearls, spices, sugar, tobacco, silk, and other exotic goods from the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
to the Spanish mainland. Passengers and goods such as textiles, books and tools were transported in the opposite direction.[1][2] The West Indies fleet was the first permanent transatlantic trade route in history. Similarly, the Manila galleons were the first permanent trade route across the Pacific.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Spain-Americas Fleets 1.2 Shipwrecks

1.2.1 Encarnación 1.2.2 Capitana

2 The flow of Spanish treasure 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit]

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, admiral and designer of the treasure fleet system

Spanish ships had brought goods from the New World
New World
since Christopher Columbus's first expedition of 1492. The organized system of convoys dates from 1564, but Spain
Spain
sought to protect shipping prior to that by organizing protection around the largest Caribbean
Caribbean
island, Cuba
Cuba
and the maritime region of southern Spain
Spain
and the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
because of attacks by pirates and foreign navies.[3] The Spanish government created a system of convoys in the 1560s in response to the sacking of Havana
Havana
by French privateers. The main procedures were established after the recommendations of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, an experienced admiral and personal adviser of King Philip II.[4] The treasure fleets sailed along two sea lanes. The main one was the Caribbean
Caribbean
Spanish West Indies
Spanish West Indies
fleet or Flota de Indias, which departed in two convoys from Seville, where the Casa de Contratación
Casa de Contratación
was based, bound for ports such as Veracruz, Portobelo
Portobelo
and Cartagena before making a rendezvous at Havana
Havana
in order to return together to Spain.[5] A secondary route was that of the Manila
Manila
Galleons or Galeón de Manila
Manila
which linked the Philippines
Philippines
to Acapulco
Acapulco
in Mexico
Mexico
across the Pacific Ocean. From Acapulco, the Asian goods were transhipped by mule train to Veracruz to be loaded onto the Caribbean
Caribbean
treasure fleet for shipment to Spain.[6][7] To better defend this trade, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and Álvaro de Bazán
Álvaro de Bazán
designed the definitive model of the galleon in the 1550s.[8] Spain
Spain
controlled the trade through the Casa de Contratación
Casa de Contratación
based in Seville, southern Spain. By law, the colonies could trade only with the one designated port in the mother country, Seville.[9] Maritime archaeology has shown that the quantity of goods transported was sometimes higher than that recorded at the Archivo General de Indias. Spanish merchants and Spaniards acting as fronts (cargadores) for foreign merchants sent their goods on these fleets to the New World. Some resorted to contraband to transport their cargoes untaxed.[10] The Crown of Spain
Spain
taxed the wares and precious metals of private merchants at a rate of 20%, a tax known as the quinto real or royal fifth.[11] Spain
Spain
became the richest country in Europe by the end of the 16th century.[12] Much of the wealth from this trade was used by the Spanish Habsburgs to finance armies to protect its European territories in the 16th and 17th centuries against the Ottoman Empire and most of the major European powers. The flow of precious metals also made many traders wealthy, both in Spain
Spain
and abroad. The increase in gold and silver on the Iberian market sometimes caused high inflation in the 17th century, affecting the Spanish economy.[13] As a consequence, the Crown was forced to delay the payment of some major debts, which had negative consequences for its lenders, mostly foreign bankers. By 1690 some of these lenders could no longer offer financial support to the Crown.[14] The Spanish monopoly over its West and East Indies colonies lasted for over two centuries. The economic importance of exports later declined with the drop of production of the American precious metal mines, such as Potosí.[15] However, the growth in trade was strong in the early years. Numbering just 17 ships in 1550, the fleets expanded to more than 50 much larger vessels by the end of the century. By the second half of the 17th century, that number had dwindled to less than half of its peak.[16] As economic conditions gradually recovered from the last decades of the 17th century, fleet operations slowly expanded again, once again becoming prominent during the reign of the Bourbons
Bourbons
in the 18th century.[17] The Spanish trade of goods was sometimes threatened by its colonial rivals, who tried to seize islands as bases along the Spanish Main
Spanish Main
and in the Spanish West Indies. However, the Atlantic
Atlantic
trade was largely unharmed. The English acquired small islands like St Kitts in 1624; expelled in 1629, they returned in 1639 and seized Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1655. French pirates established themselves in Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
in 1625, were expelled, only to return later, and the Dutch occupied Curaçao
Curaçao
in 1634. In 1739, British Admiral Edward Vernon
Edward Vernon
raided Portobello, but in 1741 his campaign against Cartagena de Indias ended in defeat, with heavy losses of men and ships. Temporary British seizures of Havana and Manila
Manila
(1762-4), during the Seven Years' War, were dealt with by using more, smaller fleets visiting a greater variety of ports.

A shipyard on the river Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
in 16th century Seville: detail from a townscape by Alonso Sánchez Coello

Charles III began loosening the system in 1765. In the 1780s, Spain opened its colonies to free trade.[18] In 1790, the Casa de Contratación was abolished, bringing to an end the great general purpose fleets. Thereafter small groups of naval frigates were assigned specifically to transferring goods or bullion as required.[19] Despite the general perception that many Spanish galleons were captured by foreign privateers, few fleets were actually lost to enemies in the course of the flota's two and a half centuries of operation. Only Piet Hein managed to capture the fleet in 1628 and bring its cargo to the Dutch Republic.[20] In 1656 and 1657 Robert Blake also attacked the fleet in Cadiz and Tenerife, but the Spanish officers saved most of the silver and the English admiral managed to capture only a single galleon.[21] The 1702 West Indies fleet was destroyed in the Battle of Vigo Bay
Battle of Vigo Bay
during the War of the Spanish Succession, when the fleet was surprised at port unloading its goods, but the Spanish sailors had already unloaded most of its cargo.[22] None of these attacks took place in open seas. In the case of the Manila
Manila
galleons, only four were ever captured by British warships in nearly three centuries: the Santa Anna by Thomas Cavendish
Thomas Cavendish
in 1589, the Encarnación in 1709 by Woodes Rogers, the Covadonga by George Anson in 1743, and the Santísima Trinidad in 1762. Two other British attempts were foiled by the Rosario in 1704 and the Begonia in 1710.[23] These losses and those due to hurricanes were important economic blows to trade when they occurred. The fleets, however, must be counted as among the most successful naval operations in history.[24][25] Moreover, from a commercial point of view, some key components of today's world economic system were made possible by the success of the Spanish West and East Indies fleets.[26] Spain-Americas Fleets[edit]

The Spaniard Amaro Pargo, a corsair and merchant, participated in the West Indies Fleet.

Every year, two fleets left Spain
Spain
loaded with European goods in demand in Spanish America, which were guarded by military vessels. The silver from Mexico
Mexico
and Peru
Peru
were the valuable cargo from the Americas. Fleets of fifty or more ships sailed from Spain
Spain
to the Mexican port of Veracruz and other to Panama and Cartagena.[27] From the Spanish ports of Seville
Seville
or Cádiz, the two fleets bound for the Americas sailed together down the coast of Africa, and stopped at the Spanish territory of the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
for provisions before the voyage across the Atlantic. Once the two fleets reached the Caribbean, the fleets separated. The New Spain
Spain
fleet sailed to Veracruz in Mexico
Mexico
to load not only silver and the valuable red dye cochineal, but also porcelain and silk shipped from China on the Manila
Manila
galleons. The Asian goods were brought overland from Acapulco
Acapulco
to Veracruz by mule train. The Tierra Firme fleet, or galeones, sailed to Cartagena to load South American products, most especially silver from Potosí. Some ships went to Portobello on the Caribbean
Caribbean
coast of Panama to load Peruvian silver that had been shipped from the Pacific coast port of Callao. The silver had then been transported across the isthmus of Panama by mule. Other ships went to the Caribbean
Caribbean
island of Margarita, off the coast of Venezuela, to collect pearls which had been harvested from offshore oyster beds. After loading was complete, both fleets sailed for Havana, Cuba, to rendezvous for the journey back to Spain.[28] In Mexico
Mexico
in 1635, there was an increase of the sales tax levied to finance the fleet, the Armada de Barlovento.[29] Between 1703-1705 began the participation of Spanish corsair Amaro Pargo in the West Indies Fleet. In this period in which he was the owner and captain of the frigate El Ave María y Las Ánimas, a ship with which he sailed from the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife to that of Havana. He reinvented the benefits of the Canarian-American trade in his estates, mainly destined to the cultivation of the vine of malvasía and vidueño, whose production (mainly the one of vidueño) was sent to America.[30] Shipwrecks[edit] Wrecks of Spanish treasure ships, whether sunk in naval combat or by storms (those of 1622, 1715, 1733 and 1750[31] being among the worst), are a prime target for modern treasure hunters. Many, such as the Nuestra Señora de Atocha, and the Santa Margarita have been salvaged.[32] In August 1750, at least three Spanish merchantmen ran aground in North Carolina
North Carolina
during a hurricane. The El Salvador[33] sank near Cape Lookout, the Nuestra Señora De Soledad went ashore near present-day Core Banks and the Nuestra Señora De Guadalupe went ashore near present-day Ocracoke.[34] Encarnación[edit] The wreck of the cargo ship Encarnación, part of the Tierra Firme fleet, was discovered in 2011 with much of its cargo still aboard and part of its hull intact. The Encarnacíon sank in 1681 during a storm near the mouth of the Chagres River
Chagres River
on the Caribbean
Caribbean
side of Panama. The Encarnacíon sank in less than 40 feet of water.[35] The remains of the Urca de Lima
Urca de Lima
from the 1715 fleet and the San Pedro from the 1733 fleet, after being found by treasure hunters, are now protected as Florida Underwater Archaeological Preserves.[36] Capitana[edit] The Capitana (El Rubi) was the flagship of the 1733 fleet; it ran aground during a hurricane near Upper Matecumbe Key, then sank. Three men died during the storm. Afterward, divers recovered most of the treasure aboard. The Capitana was the first of the 1733 ships to be found again in 1938. Salvage workers recovered items from the sunken ship over more than 10 years. Additional gold was recovered in June 2015. The ship's location: is 24° 55.491' north, 80° 30.891' west.[37][38][39] The flow of Spanish treasure[edit]

A silver 8-Reales (Peso) coin minted in México (1621-65).

Walton[40] gives the following figures in pesos. For the 300-year period the peso or piece of eight had about 25 grams of silver, about the same as the German thaler, Dutch rijksdaalder
Dutch rijksdaalder
or the US silver dollar. A single galleon might carry 2 million pesos. The modern approximate value of the estimated 4 billion pesos produced during the period would come to $527,270,000,000 or €469,839,661,964 (based on silver bullion prices of May 2015). Of the 4 billion pesos produced, 2.5 billion was shipped to Europe, of which 500 million was shipped around Africa to Asia. Of the remaining 1.5 billion 650 million went directly to Asia from Acapulco
Acapulco
and 850 million remained in the Western Hemisphere. Little of the wealth stayed in Spain. Of the 11 million arriving in 1590, 2 million went to France for imports, 6 million to Italy for imports and military expenses, of which 2.5 went up the Spanish road
Spanish road
to the Low Countries
Low Countries
and 1 million to the Ottoman Empire. 1.5 million was shipped from Portugal to Asia. Of the 2 million pesos reaching the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in that year, 75% went to the Baltic for naval stores and 25% went to Asia. The income of the Spanish crown from all sources was about 2.5 million pesos in 1550, 14 million in the 1590s, about 15 million in 1760 and 30 million in 1780. In 1665 the debts of the Spanish crown were 30 million pesos short-term and 300 million long-term. Most of the New World
New World
production was silver but Colombia
Colombia
produced mostly gold. After about 1730 Brazil
Brazil
began producing gold. The following table gives the estimated legal production and necessarily excludes smuggling which was increasingly important after 1600. The crown legally took one fifth (quinto real) at the source and obtained more through other taxes.

Estimated Legal Treasure
Treasure
Flow in Pesos per Year

From To 1550 1600 1700 1790

Peru Havana 1,650,000 8,000,000 4,500,000 small

Colombia Havana 500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 2,000,000

México Havana 850,000 1,500,000 3,000,000 18,000,000

Havana Spain 3,000,000 11,000,000 9,000,000 20,000,000

Europe Asia 2,000,000 1,500,000 4,500,000 7,000,000

Peru Acapulco – 3,500,000 ? ?

Acapulco Philippines – 5,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000

See also[edit]

New Spain
Spain
portal Piracy
Piracy
portal Spain
Spain
portal

Spanish Empire List of Atlantic
Atlantic
hurricanes before 1600 San Esteban (1554 shipwreck) Nuestra Señora de Atocha, a famous galleon wrecked in 1622 and found off Florida in 1985 1715 Treasure
Treasure
Fleet, which sank off Florida and was partly salvaged in the 1960s Álvaro de Bazán The Asiento, a monopoly on the trade of African slaves to Spanish America, held by the English between the War of the Spanish Succession and the War of Jenkins' Ear Piracy
Piracy
in the Caribbean Manila
Manila
galleon El Salvador, a Spanish merchantman that ran aground in North Carolina in August 1750 during a hurricane.[41]

Notes[edit]

^ Marx, Robert: Treasure
Treasure
lost at sea: diving to the world's great shipwrecks. Firefly Books, 2004, page 66. ISBN 1-55297-872-9 ^ Marx, Robert: The treasure fleets of the Spanish Main. World Pub. Co., 1968 ^ John R. Fisher, "Fleet System (Flota)" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 2, p. 575. ^ Walton, pp. 46-47 ^ Nolan, Cathal: The age of wars of religion, 1000-1650: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, page 177. ISBN 0-313-33733-0 ^ Borrell, Miranda: The grandeur of Viceregal Mexico: treasures from the Museo Franz Mayer. University of Texas Press, 2002, page 23. ISBN 0-89090-107-4 ^ Walton, pp. 46-47 ^ Walton, p. 57 ^ Walton, page 30 ^ Carrasco González, María Guadalupe: Comerciantes y casas de negocios en Cádiz, 1650-1700. Servicio Publicaciones UCA, 1997, pp. 27-30. ISBN 84-7786-463-2 (in Spanish) ^ Walton, page 226 ^ Danbom, David B.: Born in the country: a history of rural America. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, page 20. ISBN 0-8018-8458-6 ^ Walton, pp. 84-85 ^ Walton, page 145 ^ Walton, page 136 ^ Walton, page 138 ^ Walton, page 177 ^ Buckle, Thomas: History of civilization in England. Parker, Son, and Bourn, 1861, v. 2, pp. 93-94 ^ Walton, page 180 ^ Walton, page 121 ^ Walton, page 129 ^ Walton, pp. 154-155 ^ Murray ^ Walton, page 189 ^ Konstam, Angus and Cordingly, Daviv (2002).The History of Pirates. The Lyons Press, p. 68. ISBN 1-58574-516-2 ^ Walton, page 191 ^ Gibson, Charles. Spain
Spain
in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1966, p. 102. ^ "1733 Spanish Galleon
Galleon
Trail - Plate Fleets". info.flheritage.com. Retrieved 2015-05-13.  ^ John Jay TePaske, "Alcabalas" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture vol. 1, p. 44. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons 1996. ^ De Paz Sánchez, Manuel; García Pulido, Daniel (2015). El corsario de Dios. Documentos sobre Amaro Rodríguez Felipe (1678-1747). Documentos para la Historia de Canarias. Francisco Javier Macías Martín (ed.). Canarias: Archivo Histórico Provincial de Santa Cruz de Tenerife. ISBN 978-84-7947-637-3. Retrieved 8 June 2016.  ^ "1733 Spanish Galleon
Galleon
Trail - Fleet of 1733". info.flheritage.com. Retrieved 2015-05-13.  ^ Walton, pp. 216-217 ^ "El Salvador". Intersal, Inc.  ^ http://northcarolinashipwrecks.blogspot.com/2012/05/dangerous-shoals.html ^ Lee, Jane J.; 12, National Geographic PUBLISHED May. "Rare Spanish Shipwreck
Shipwreck
From 17th Century Uncovered Off Panama". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2015-05-13.  ^ "The Spanish Treasure
Treasure
Fleets of 1715 and 1733: Disasters Strike at Sea". nps.org. Retrieved 15 July 2015.  ^ "1733 Spanish Galleon
Galleon
Trail - Capitana". info.flheritage.com. Retrieved 2015-07-30.  ^ Lee, Jane J.; 28, National Geographic PUBLISHED July. "300-Year-Old Spanish Shipwreck
Shipwreck
Holds Million Dollar Treasure". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2015-07-30.  ^ Plucinska, Joanna (2015-07-28). "Shipwrecked Spanish Gold
Gold
Found". TIME.com. Retrieved 2015-07-30.  ^ Timothy R Walton,"The Spanish Tresure Fleets",1994 ^ Heit, Judi (2012-04-07). " North Carolina
North Carolina
Shipwrecks: The Spanish Galleons ~ 18 August 1750". North Carolina
North Carolina
Shipwrecks. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 

Further reading[edit]

Andrews, Kenneth R. The Spanish Caribbean: Trade and Plunder, 1530-1630. 1978. Fish, Shirley. The Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Galleons: The Treasure
Treasure
Ships of the Pacific, with an Annotated List of the Transpacific Galleons 1565-1815. Central Milton Keynes, England: Authorhouse 2011. Fisher, John R. "Fleet System (Flota)" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 2, p. 575. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996. Haring, Clarence. Trade and Navigation between Spain
Spain
and the Indies in the Time of the Habsburgs (1918) Haring, Clarence. The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in America
America
New York: Oxford University Press 1947 Murray, Paul. The Spanish Mariners: From the Discovery of America
America
to Trafalgar. 1492-1805. Observations and Reflections. Mexico, 1976 Schurz, William Lytle. The Manila
Manila
Galleon. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1939. Walton, Timothy R.: The Spanish Treasure
Treasure
Fleets. Pineapple Press Inc, 2002. ISBN 1-56164-261-4 Zarin, Cynthia. "Green Dreams", The New Yorker, November 21, 2005, pp. 76–83 www.newyorker.com

External links[edit]

Attack of the Tierra Firma Fleet of 1708. Royal Geographical Society of South Australia Two firms seek ship, Carolina Coast Online Treasure
Treasure
hunter in race to uncover ship of riches, Google Philip Masters, True Amateur of History, Dies at 70, New York Times Shipwrecks and Treasure: the Spanish Treasure
Treasure
Fleet of 1750 Treasure
Treasure
hunter that found Blackbeard's pirate ship sues state for $8.2 million, Fayetteville Observer Lawmakers enter legal battle over Blackbeard's ship, News & Observer Photographer suing state over Blackbeard
Blackbeard
shipwreck footage, WRAL-TV Blackbeard's Law would clarify control of media rights to shipwrecks, News & Record Controversy Over Blackbeard's Queen Anne's Revenge
Queen Anne's Revenge
Continues, Public Radio East Battle Over Shipwreck
Shipwreck
Photos Brews in N.C., Courthouse News Plunder disputes plague the wreck of Blackbeard’s ship, Soundings

v t e

Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman– Habsburg
Habsburg
wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy
Piracy
in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru
Peru
(Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila
Manila
galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán
Álvaro de Bazán
the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila
Manila
Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

v t e

Piracy

Periods

Ancient Mediterranean Golden Age

Republic of Pirates Libertatia

21st century

Types of pirate

Privateers Buccaneers Corsairs Sindhi corsairs Timber pirate River pirate Brethren of the Coast Barbary pirates Moro pirates Wōkòu Vikings Ushkuiniks Narentines Cilician pirates Confederate privateer Baltic Slavic pirates Uskoks Cossack pirates Sea Beggars Sea Dogs Fillibusters

Areas

Caribbean Lake Nicaragua British Virgin Islands Strait of Malacca Somali Coast Sulu Sea Falcon Lake South China Coast Anglo-Turkish piracy Port Royal Tortuga Saint-Malo Barbary Coast Lundy Lagos Salé Spanish Main Gulf of Guinea Indonesia Barataria Bay Persian Gulf

Noted pirates

Mansel Alcantra Chui A-poo Louis-Michel Aury Joseph Baker Hayreddin Barbarossa Joseph Barss Samuel Bellamy Charlotte de Berry Black Caesar Blackbeard Eli Boggs Stede Bonnet Anne Bonny Hippolyte Bouchard Abshir Boyah Roche Braziliano Henri Caesar Roberto Cofresí William Dampier Liang Daoming Diabolito Peter Easton Henry Every Alexandre Exquemelin Vincenzo Gambi Charles Gibbs Pedro Gilbert Nathaniel Gordon Laurens de Graaf Michel de Grammont Calico Jack Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah Zheng Jing Jørgen Jørgensen Shirahama Kenki William Kidd Fūma Kotarō Jean Lafitte Limahong Samuel Hall Lord John Hawkins Bully Hayes Piet Pieterszoon Hein Moses Cohen Henriques Albert W. Hicks Nicholas van Hoorn Benjamin Hornigold Pierre Lafitte Olivier Levasseur Edward Low Hendrick Lucifer John Newland Maffitt Samuel Mason Henry Morgan Shap Ng-tsai Gan Ning François l'Olonnais Samuel Pallache Lawrence Prince Cai Qian Redbeard Bartholomew Roberts Lai Choi San Dan Seavey Ching Shih Benito de Soto Klaus Störtebeker Henry Strangways Cheung Po Tsai Dominique You Wang Zhi Zheng Zhilong

Categories

Piracy Pirates By nationality Barbary pirates Female pirates Years in piracy Fictional pirates

Pirate ships

Adventure Galley Fancy Ganj-i-Sawai Queen Anne's Revenge Quedagh Merchant Saladin Whydah Gally Marquis of Havana Ambrose Light York

Pirate hunters

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Angelo Emo Richard Avery Hornsby Jose Campuzano-Polanco Robert Maynard Chaloner Ogle Pompey Woodes Rogers David Porter James Brooke Miguel Enríquez (privateer)

Pirate battles and incidents

Jiajing wokou raids Turkish Abductions Chepo Expedition Battle of Mandab Strait Battle of Pianosa Blockade of Charleston Battle of Cape Fear River Battle of Ocracoke Inlet Capture of the William Sack of Campeche Attack on Veracruz Raid on Cartagena Battle of Cape Lopez Capture of the Fancy Persian Gulf Campaign Battle of New Orleans Anti- Piracy
Piracy
in the Aegean Anti-piracy in the West Indies Capture of the Bravo Action of 9 November 1822 Capture of the El Mosquito Battle of Doro Passage Falklands Expedition Great Lakes Patrol Pirate attacks in Borneo Balanguingui Expedition Battle of Tysami Battle of Tonkin River Battle of Nam Quan Battle of Ty-ho Bay Battle of the Leotung Antelope incident North Star affair Battle off Mukah Salvador Pirates Battle of Boca Teacapan Capture of the Ambrose Light Irene incident 1985 Lahad Datu ambush Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA Action of 18 March 2006 Action of 3 June 2007 Action of 28 October 2007 Dai Hong Dan incident Operation Atalanta Carré d'As IV incident Action of 11 November 2008 Action of 9 April 2009 Maersk Alabama hijacking Operation Ocean Shield Action of 23 March 2010 Action of 1 April 2010 Action of 30 March 2010 Action of 5 April 2010 MV Moscow University hijacking Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden Beluga Nomination incident Battle off Minicoy Island Quest incident MT Zafirah hijacking MT Orkim Harmony hijacking

Slave trade

African slave trade Atlantic
Atlantic
slave trade Arab slave trade Barbary slave trade Blockade of Africa African Slave Trade Patrol Capture of the Providentia Capture of the Presidente Capture of the El Almirante Capture of the Marinerito Capture of the Veloz Passagera Capture of the Brillante Amistad Incident Capture of the Emanuela

Fictional pirates

Tom Ayrton Barbe Rouge Hector Barbossa Captain Blood Captain Crook Captain Flint José Gaspar Captain Hook Don Karnage Monkey D. Luffy Captain Nemo One Piece Captain Pugwash Red Rackham Captain Sabertooth Sandokan Long John Silver Jack Sparrow Captain Stingaree Roronoa Zoro

Miscellaneous

Truce of Ratisbon Piracy
Piracy
Act 1698 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1717 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1837 Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law Child pirate Golden Age of Piracy Jolly Roger Walking the plank Treasure
Treasure
map Buried treasure Pirate booty No purchase, no pay Marooning Pirate code Pirate utopia Victual Brothers Pirate Round Libertatia Sack of Baltimore A General History of the Pyrates Mutiny Pegleg Eyepatch Letter of marque Davy Jones' Locker Air pirate Space pirate

Lists

Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates

Literature

Treasure
Treasure
Island Facing the Flag On Stranger Tides Castaways of the Flying Dutchman The Angel's Command Voyage of Slaves Pirate Latitudes

v t e

Treasure

Types and terms

Hoard Buried treasure Treasure
Treasure
trove List of missing treasure Treasure
Treasure
from shipwrecks

By period

Bronze Age Iron Age Classical antiquity Late Antiquity Medieval Europe (Viking)

By location

Azerbaijan Belgium Bulgaria France Germany Italy Poland Romania Russia Spain Turkey Ukraine United States

British Isles

Republic of Ireland United Kingdom Channel Islands Great Britain (Bronze Age Iron Age Roman) Ireland

Miscellaneous

List of treasure hunters Treasure
Treasure
map Treasure
Treasure
hunting

.