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The Spanish Navy
Navy
(Spanish: Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Spanish navy was responsible for a number of major historic achievements in navigation, the most famous being the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and the first global circumnavigation by Magellan and Elcano. For several centuries, it played a crucial logistical role in the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
and defended a vast trade network across the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
between the Americas and Europe and across the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
between Asia and the Americas. The Spanish Navy
Navy
was the most powerful maritime force in the world in the 16th and 17th centuries and possibly the world`s largest navy at the end of the 16th century and in the early 17th century. Reform under the Bourbon dynasty improved its logistical and military capacity in the 18th century, for most of which Spain
Spain
possessed the world's third largest navy. In the 19th century, the Spanish Navy built and operated the first military submarine, made important contributions in the development of destroyer warships, and achieved the first global circumnavigation by an ironclad vessel. The main bases of the Spanish Navy
Navy
are located in Rota, Ferrol, San Fernando and Cartagena.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins: the Middle Ages 1.2 The Habsburg era 1.3 The Bourbon era 1.4 The navy in decline 1.5 The 20th and 21st centuries

2 Current status

2.1 Infantería de Marina

3 Equipment

3.1 Ships and submarines 3.2 Aircraft

4 Current Rank structure 5 Organization 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Origins: the Middle Ages[edit]

Battle of La Rochelle, 1372.

The roots of the modern Spanish navy date back to before the unification of Spain. By the late Middle Ages, the two principal kingdoms that would later combine to form Spain, Aragon and Castile, had developed powerful fleets. Aragon possessed the third largest navy in the late medieval Mediterranean, although its capabilities were exceeded by those of Venice and (until overtaken in the 15th century by those of Aragon) Genoa. In the 14th and 15th centuries, these naval capabilities enabled Aragon to assemble the largest collection of territories of any European power in the Mediterranean, encompassing the Balearics, Sardinia, Sicily, southern Italy
Italy
and, briefly, the Duchy of Athens. Castile meanwhile used its naval capacities to conduct its reconquista operations against the Moors, capturing Cadiz in 1232 and also to help the French Crown against its enemies in the Hundred Years' War. In 1402, a Castilian expedition led by Juan de Bethencourt conquered the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
for Henry III of Castile. In the 15th century, Castile entered into a race of exploration with Portugal, the country that inaugurated the European Age of Discovery. In 1492, two caravels and a carrack, commanded by Christopher Columbus, arrived in America, on an expedition that sought a westward oceanic passage across the Atlantic, to the Far East. This began the era of trans-oceanic trade routes, pioneered by the Spanish in the seas to the west of Europe and the Portuguese to the east. The Habsburg era[edit] Following the discovery of America and the settlement of certain Caribbean islands, such as Cuba, Spanish conquistadors Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
were carried by the Spanish navy to the mainland, where they conquered Mexico and Peru respectively. The navy also carried explorers to the North American mainland, including Juan Ponce de León and Álvarez de Pineda, who discovered Florida
Florida
(1519) and Texas
Texas
(1521) respectively. In 1519, Spain
Spain
sent out the first expedition of world circumnavigation in history, which was put in the charge of the Portuguese Commander Ferdinand Magellan. Following the death of Magellan in the Philippines, the expedition was completed under the command of Juan Sebastián Elcano
Juan Sebastián Elcano
in 1522. In 1565, a follow-on expedition by Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
was carried by the navy from New Spain
Spain
(Mexico) to the Philippines
Philippines
via Guam
Guam
in order to establish the Spanish East Indies, a base for trade with the Orient. For two and a half centuries, the Manila
Manila
galleons operated across the Pacific linking Manila
Manila
and Acapulco. Until the early 17th century, the Pacific Ocean. Aside from the Marianas and Caroline Islands, several naval expeditions also discovered the Tuvalu
Tuvalu
archipelago, the Marquesas, the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and New Guinea
New Guinea
in the South
South
Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorers in the 17th century also discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu
Vanuatu
archipelagos. Most significantly, from 1565 Spanish fleets explored and colonised the Philippine archipelago, the Spanish East Indies.

Battle of Lepanto, 1571.

Commemorative plaque
Commemorative plaque
at Cádiz's Panteón de los Marinos Ilustres, depicting a list of Victories of the Armadas of Spain.

List of Victories

Conquest of Majorca 1229

Conquest of Menorca
Menorca
1232

Conquest of Ibiza 1234

Conquest of Seville 1248

Battle of Malta
Battle of Malta
1283

Combat of Sorrento

Battle of Castellamare

Battle of Cape St. Vincent (1337)

Battle of La Rochelle
Battle of La Rochelle
1371

Combat of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
1407

Battle of La Rochelle
Battle of La Rochelle
(1419)

Conquest of the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
1484

Conquest of Malaga 1487

Conquest of Oran
Oran
1509

Conquest of Tunis 1535

Battle of Muros Bay
Battle of Muros Bay
1544

Conquest of Velez 1584

Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
1571

Battle of Ponta Delgada
Battle of Ponta Delgada
1582

Disembarkation of Terceira Island

Spanish landing on Ireland 1602

Battle of Saint Vincent 1603?

Battle of Playa Honda 1617

Battle de Pernambuco 1621

Combate de Las Antillas 1629

Batalla de los Abrojos 1621

Conquest of Sardinia
Sardinia
1717

Battle of Cartagena de Indias
Battle of Cartagena de Indias
1741

Battle of Toulon 1744

Battle of the Azores 1780

Siege of Pensacola
Siege of Pensacola
1781

Reconquest of Buenos Aires 1806

Battle of Cadiz
Cadiz
1808

Siege of Cádiz
Cádiz
1810 - 1812

Bombardeo del Callao 1866

Landing on Alhucemas 1925

Battle of the Strait 1936

Cantabrian campaign 1936 - 1939

Campaign of the Mediterranean 1936 - 1939

After the unification of its kingdoms under the House of Habsburg, Spain
Spain
maintained two largely separate fleets, one consisting chiefly of galleys for use in the Mediterranean and the other of sailing ships for the Atlantic, successors to the Aragonese and Castilian navies respectively. This arrangement continued until superseded by the decline of galley warfare during the 17th century. The completion of the Reconquista
Reconquista
with the conquest of the Kingdom of ''Granada'' in 1492 had been followed by naval expansion in the Mediterranean, where Spain
Spain
seized control of almost every significant port along the coast of North Africa west of Cyrenaica, notably Melilla
Melilla
(captured 1497), Mers El Kébir
Mers El Kébir
(1505), Oran
Oran
(1509), Algiers
Algiers
(1510) and Tripoli
Tripoli
(1511), which marked the furthest point of this advance. However, the hinterlands of these ports remained under the control of their Muslim and Berber inhabitants, and the expanding naval power of the Ottoman Empire brought about a major Islamic counter-offensive, which embroiled Spain
Spain
in decades of intense warfare for control of the western Mediterranean. ( Algiers
Algiers
and Tripoli
Tripoli
would be lost to the Ottomans later in the 16th century.) From the 1570s, the Dutch Revolt increasingly challenged Spanish sea power, producing powerful rebel naval forces that attacked Spanish shipping and in time made Spain's sea communications with its possessions in the Low Countries difficult. Most notable of these attacks was the Battle of Gibraltar in 1607, in which a Dutch squadron destroyed a fleet of galleons at anchor in the confines of the bay. This naval war took on a global dimension with actions in the Caribbean and the Far East, notably around the Philippines. Spain's response to its problems included the encouragement of privateers based in the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
and known from their main base as Dunkirkers, who preyed on Dutch merchant ships and fishing trawlers.

A 17th-century Spanish galleon.

At the Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
(1571), the Holy League, formed by Spain, Venice, the Papal States and other Christian allies, inflicted a great defeat on the Ottoman Navy, stopping Muslim forces from gaining uncontested control of the Mediterranean. In the 1580s, the conflict in the Netherlands
Netherlands
drew England into war with Spain, creating a further menace to Spanish shipping. The effort to neutralise this threat led to a disastrous attempt to invade England in 1588. This defeat led to a reform of fleet operations. The navy at this time was not a single operation but consisted of various fleets, made up mainly of armed merchantmen with escorts of royal ships. The Armada fiasco marked a turning point in naval warfare, where gunnery was now more important than ramming and boarding and so Spanish ships were equipped with purpose built naval guns. During the 1590s, the expansion of these fleets allowed a great increase in the overseas trade and massive increase in the importation of luxuries and silver. Nevertheless, inadequate port defences allowed an Anglo-Dutch force to raid Cadiz
Cadiz
in 1596, and though unsuccessful in its objective of capturing the silver from the just returned convoy, was able to inflict great damage upon the city. Port defences at Cadiz
Cadiz
were upgraded and all attempts to repeat the attack in the following centuries would fail. Meanwhile, Spanish ships were able to step up operations in the English Channel, the North Sea and towards Ireland. They were able to capture many enemy ships, merchant and military, in the early decades of the 17th century and provide military supplies to Spanish armies in France
France
and the Low Countries
Low Countries
and to Irish rebels in Ireland. By the middle of the 17th century, Spain
Spain
had been drained by the vast strains of the Thirty Years' and related wars and began to slip into a slow decline. During the middle to late decades of the century, the Dutch, English and French were able to take advantage of Spain's shrinking, run-down and increasingly underequipped fleets. Military priorities in continental Europe meant that naval affairs were increasingly neglected. The Dutch took control of the smaller islands of the Caribbean, while England conquered Jamaica
Jamaica
and France
France
the western part of Santo Domingo. These territories became bases for raids on Spanish New World ports and shipping by pirates and privateers. The Spanish concentrated their efforts in keeping the most important islands, such as Cuba, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and the majority of Santo Domingo, while the system of treasure fleets, despite being greatly diminished, was rarely defeated in safely conveying its freight of silver and Asian luxeries across the Atlantic to Europe. Only two such convoys were ever lost to enemy action with their cargo, one to a Dutch fleet in 1628 and another to an English fleet in 1656. A third convoy was destroyed at anchor by another English attack in 1657, but it had already unloaded its treasure. By the time of the wars of the Grand Alliance (1688-97) and the Spanish Succession (1702-14), the Habsburg regime had decided that it was more cost effective to rely on allied fleets, Anglo-Dutch and French respectively, than to invest in its own fleets. The Bourbon era[edit] The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
arose after the establishment on the Spanish throne of a House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
king, following the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line. The internal division between supporters of a Habsburg and those of a Bourbon king led to a civil war and ultimately to the loss of Sicily, Sardinia, Menorca
Menorca
and Gibraltar. Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and Menorca
Menorca
were occupied by British forces fighting under the Spanish flag of Habsburg contender Charles VI. Menorca
Menorca
was ultimately surrendered to Spain
Spain
years later. During the War of Spanish Succession, Spain's possessions in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and mainland Italy were also ceded.

Battle of Cartagena de Indias, 1741

Attempting to reverse the losses of the previous war, in the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–20) the Spanish navy successfully convoyed armies to invade Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia, but the escort fleet was destroyed by the British in the Battle of Cape Passaro
Battle of Cape Passaro
and the Spanish invasion army was defeated in Italy
Italy
by the Austrians. A major program to renovate and reorganise the run-down navy was begun. A secretaría (ministry) of the army and navy had been established by the Bourbon regime as early as 1714; which centralized the command and administration of the different fleets. Following the war of Quadruple Alliance, a program of rigorous standardization was introduced in ships, operations, and administration. Given the needs of its empire, Spanish warship designs tended to be more orientated towards long-range escort and patrol duties than for battle. A major reform of the Spanish navy was initiated, updating its ships and administration, which was helped by French and Italian experts, although Spaniards, most notably Antonio Castaneta, soon rose to prominence in this work, which made Spain
Spain
a leader in warship design and quality again, as was demonstrated by ships like the Princesa. A major naval yard was established at Havana, enabling the navy to maintain a permanent force in the Americas for the defence of the colonies and the suppression of piracy and smuggling.

Navio or ship-of-the-line, Santa Anna, 1784-1814

During the War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38), a renewed attempt to regain the lost Italian territories for the Bourbon dynasty was successful; with the French as allies and the British and Dutch neutral, Spain
Spain
launched a campaign by sea and retook Sicily
Sicily
and southern Italy
Italy
from Austria. In the War of Jenkins' Ear, the navy showed it was able to maintain communications with the American colonies and resupply Spanish forces in Italy
Italy
in the face of British naval opposition. The navy played an important part in the decisive Battle of Cartagena de Indias
Battle of Cartagena de Indias
in modern-day Colombia, where a massive British invasion fleet and army were defeated by a smaller Spanish force commanded by able strategist Blas de Lezo. This Spanish victory prolonged Spain's supremacy in the Americas until the early 19th century. The program of naval renovation was continued and by the 1750s the Spanish navy had outstripped the Dutch to become the third most powerful in the world, behind only those of Britain and France. Joining France
France
against Britain near the end of the Seven Years' War (1756–63), the navy failed to prevent the British capturing Havana, during which the Spanish squadron present was also captured. In the American War of Independence
American War of Independence
(1775–83), the Spanish navy was essential to the establishment, in combination with the French and Dutch navies, of a numerical advantage that stretched British naval resources. They played a vital role, along with the French and Dutch, in maintaining military supplies to the American rebels. The navy also played a key role in the Spanish army led operations that defeated the British in Florida. The bulk of the purely naval combat on the allied side fell to the French navy, although Spain
Spain
achieved lucrative successes with the capture of two great British convoys meant for the resupply of British forces and loyalists in North America. Joint operations with France
France
resulted in the capture of Menorca
Menorca
but failed in the siege of Gibraltar. Having initially opposed France
France
in the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802), Spain
Spain
changed sides in 1796, but defeat by the British a few months later in the Battle of Cape St Vincent (1797)
Battle of Cape St Vincent (1797)
and Trinidad (1798) was followed by the blockade of the main Spanish fleet in Cadiz. The run down of naval operations had as much to do with the confused political situation in Spain
Spain
as it had to do with the blockade. The British blockade of Spain's ports was of limited success and an attempt to attack Cadiz
Cadiz
was defeated; ships on special missions and convoys successfully evaded the Cadiz
Cadiz
blockade and other ports continued to operate with little difficulty, but the main battle fleets were largely inactive. The blockade was lifted with the Peace of Amiens 1802. The war recommenced in 1804 and ended in 1808 when the Spain
Spain
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
became allied against Napoleon. As in the first part, Cadiz
Cadiz
was blockaded and Spanish naval activity was minimal. The most notable event was Spanish involvement in the Battle of Trafalgar under French leadership. This resulted in the Spanish navy losing eleven ships-of-the-line or over a quarter of its line-of-battle ships. After Spain
Spain
became allied with the United Kingdom in 1808 in its war of independence, the Spanish navy joined the war effort against Napoleon. The navy in decline[edit]

The experimental Peral Submarine, 1888

The 1820s saw the loss of most of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in the Americas. With the empire greatly reduced in size and Spain
Spain
divided and unstable after its own war of independence, the navy lost its importance and shrank greatly. The first new steam-driven vessels were purchased from Mexico in 1846. These included two iron-clad frigates, the Guadalupe and the Moctezuma, acquired from the UK in 1842, and a third vessel delivered in 1843. They were sold to Spanish authorities in Cuba
Cuba
by General Antonio López de Santa Anna, in order to raise funds for Mexico's defense from the U.S. invasion in 1846-1848. The Spanish christened the vessels "Castilla" and "León." However, in the 1850s and 1860s, particularly under the prime-ministership of General O'Donnell, significant investments were made in the Spanish naval squadrons of the Pacific. A new steam-powered naval squadron sailed around the Pacific escorting a Spanish scientific expedition and unfortunately became entangled in what has been billed the First War of the Pacific from 1864 to 1871. During the conflict, the Spanish massed a fleet of 15 vessels to combat the combined navies of Peru, Chile, and Ecuador. The 1890s saw the Spanish Navy
Navy
gain several armored cruisers—important for maintaining connection with the Spanish Empire's remaining colonies—including the Emperador Carlos V. As of 1896, according to the plans of Admiral
Admiral
José María Beránger, there were three naval divisions based at Cadiz, Ferrol, and Cartagena. Each division was composed of ironclads, in addition to auxiliary squadrons for defense of the Spanish coastline. That year the Armada consisted of one battleship, eight cruisers of the first class, six of the second class, and nine of the third class, as well as 38 torpedo craft. There were an additional ten vessels under construction. As of 1896 there were 1,002 officers in the navy, along with 725 mechanics, 14,000 sailors, and 9,000 marines. Their numbers were maintained by conscription of the seafaring population.[5] During the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
in 1898, a badly supported and equipped Spanish fleet of four armored cruisers and two destroyers was overwhelmed by numerically and technically superior forces (three new battleships, one new second class battleship, and one large armored cruiser) as it tried to break out of an American blockade in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba. Admiral
Admiral
Cervera's squadron was overrun in an attempt to break a powerful American blockade off Cuba.

The Battle of Manila
Manila
Bay, 1898

In the Philippines, a squadron, made up of ageing ships, including some obsolete cruisers, had already been sacrificed in a token gesture in Manila
Manila
Bay. The Battle of Manila
Manila
Bay took place on 1 May 1898, during the Spanish–American War. The American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey
George Dewey
engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Admiral
Admiral
Patricio Montojo y Pasarón. The engagement took place in Manila
Manila
Bay in the Philippines, and was the first major engagement of the Spanish–American War. This war marked the end for the Spanish Navy
Navy
as a global maritime force. At the end of the 19th century, the Spanish Navy
Navy
adopted the Salve Marinera, a hymn to the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
as Stella Maris, as its official anthem. The 20th and 21st centuries[edit]

US-built Spanish submarine Isaac Peral (launched in 1916)

During the Rif War in Morocco, the Spanish navy conducted operations along the coast, including the Alhucemas landing
Alhucemas landing
in 1925, the first air-naval landing of the world. At that time, the Navy
Navy
developed a Naval Aviation
Naval Aviation
branch, the Aeronáutica naval. In 1931, following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, the Navy
Navy
of the Spanish Kingdom became the Spanish Republican Navy. Admiral
Admiral
Aznar's casual comment: "Do you think it was a little thing what happened yesterday, that Spain
Spain
went to bed as a monarchy and rose as a republic" became instantly famous, going quickly around Madrid
Madrid
and around Spain, making people accept the fact and setting a more relaxed mood.[6] The Spanish Republican Navy
Navy
introduced a few changes in the flags and ensigns, as well as in the navy officer rank insignia.[7] The executive curl (La coca) was replaced by a golden five-pointed star and the royal crown of the brass buttons and of the officers' breastplates (La gola) became a mural crown. The Spanish Republican Navy
Navy
became divided after the coup of July 1936 that led to the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(1936–39). The fleet's two small dreadnoughts, one heavy cruiser, one large destroyer and half a dozen submarines and auxiliary vessels were lost in the course of the conflict. Since the mid-20th century, the Spanish Navy
Navy
began a process of reorganization to once again become one of the major navies of the world. After the development of the Baleares-class frigates based on the US Navy's Knox class, the Spanish Navy
Navy
embraced the American naval doctrine.[8] Spain
Spain
is a member of NATO
NATO
in 1982 and the Armada Española has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations, from SFOR
SFOR
to Haiti
Haiti
and other locations around the world. Today's Armada is a modern navy with a carrier group, a modern strategic amphibious ship (which has recently replaced a dedicated aircraft carrier), modern frigates (F-100 class) with the Aegis Combat System, F-80-class frigates, minesweepers, new S-80-class submarines, amphibious ships and various other ships, including oceanographic research ships. The Armada's special operations and unconventional warfare capability is embodied in the Naval Special
Special
Warfare Command (Mando de Guerra Naval Especial), which is under the direct control of the Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet. The unit in charge of special operations is the Naval Special
Special
Warfare Force (Fuerza de Guerra Naval Especial), which is a merge of the previous Special
Special
Operations Unit (Unidad de Operaciones Especiales (UOE)) and the Special
Special
Combat Diver Unit (Unidad Especial de Buceadores de Combate (UEBC)). This unit is trained in maritime counter-terrorism, specialized combat diving and swimming, coastal infiltration, ship boarding, direct action, special reconnaissance, hydrographic reconnaissance and underwater demolitions. Armada officers receive their education at the Spanish Naval Academy (ENM). They are recruited through two different methods:

Militar de Complemento: Similar to the U.S. ROTC
ROTC
program, students are college graduates who enroll in the navy. They spend a year at the Naval Academy and then are commissioned as ensigns and Marine second lieutenants. This path is growing in prestige. Their career stops at the rank of commander (for the Navy) and for the Marines, lieutenant colonel. Militar de Carrera: Students spend one year in the Naval Academy if they apply to the Supply Branch or the Engineering Branch, and five years if they apply as General Branch or Marines, receiving a university degree-equivalent upon graduation and being commissioned as ensigns and Marine second lieutenants.

Current status[edit]

Spanish Navy

Components

Surface Fleet Spanish Naval Air Arm Submarine
Submarine
Service Spanish Navy
Navy
Marines Special
Special
Operations

History

History of the Armada Future of the Armada

Ships

Current Fleet Future ships Historic ships

Personnel

Structure of the Armada Academy of Naval Engineers Officer naval academy Officer ranks of the Armada

Subordinate to the Spanish Chief of Naval Staff, stationed in Madrid, are four area commands: the Cantabrian Maritime Zone with its headquarters at Ferrol on the Atlantic coast; the Straits Maritime Zone with its headquarters at San Fernando near Cadiz; the Mediterranean Maritime Zone with its headquarters at Cartagena; and the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
Maritime Zone with its headquarters at Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Operational naval units are classified by mission and assigned to either the combat forces, the protective forces, or the auxiliary forces. Combat forces are given the tasks of conducting offensive and defensive operations against potential enemies and for assuring maritime communications. Their principal vessels include a carrier group, naval aircraft, transports, landing vessels, submarines, and missile-armed fast attack craft. Protective forces have the mission of securing maritime communications over both ocean and coastal routes, securing the approaches to ports and maritime terminals. Their principal components are frigates, corvettes, and minesweepers. It also has marine units for the defense of naval installations. Auxiliary forces are responsible for transportation and provisioning at sea and has diverse tasks like coast guard operations, scientific work, and maintenance of training vessels. In addition to supply ships and tankers, the force included destroyers and a large number of patrol craft. Until February 2013, when it was decommissioned because of budget cuts,[9] the second largest vessel of the Armada was the aircraft carrier Principe de Asturias, which entered service in 1988 after completing sea trials. Built in Spain, it was designed with a "ski-jump" takeoff deck. Its complement was 29 AV-8 Harrier II vertical (or short) takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft or 16 helicopters designed for antisubmarine warfare and to support marine landings. As of 2012, the Armada has a strength of 20,800 personnel.[10] Infantería de Marina[edit] Main article: Spanish Navy
Navy
Marines The Infantería de Marina is the marine infantry of the Spanish Navy. It has a strength of 11,500 troops and is divided into base defense forces and landing forces. One of the three base defense battalions is stationed with each of the Navy
Navy
headquarters. "Groups" (midway between battalions and regiments) are stationed in Madrid
Madrid
and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. The Tercio
Tercio
(fleet — regiment equivalent) is available for immediate embarkation and based out of San Fernando. Its principal weapons include light tanks, armored personnel vehicles, self-propelled artillery, and TOW and Dragon antitank missiles. Equipment[edit] Ships and submarines[edit] Main article: List of active Spanish Navy
Navy
ships

A port bow view of the Spanish Navy, F 100-class frigate, Almirante Juan de Borbón (F102).

As of 2016, there are approximately 78 vessels in service within the Navy, including minor auxiliary vessels. A breakdown includes; one amphibious assault ship (also used as an aircraft carrier), two amphibious transport docks, 11 frigates, three submarines, six mine countermeasure vessels, 23 patrol vessels and a number of auxiliary ships. The total displacement of the Spanish Navy
Navy
is approximately 220,000 tonnes.[11] Aircraft[edit]

A Spanish Navy
Navy
AV-8B Harrier, operating from an aircraft carrier.

The Spanish Naval Air Arm
Spanish Naval Air Arm
constitutes the naval aviation branch of the Spanish Navy.

Type Origin Class Role Introduced In service Total Notes

Agusta-Bell AB 212 USA/Italy Rotorcraft Utility

7 modernized

[3]

Cessna Citation USA Jet Utility

4

[3]

Hughes 500M USA Rotorcraft Trainer

6

[3]

McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II UK/USA Jet Multi-role

13

[3]

Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King USA Rotorcraft Transport/AEW

9 ( replace by 6-10 SH60F )

2 AEW[3]

Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk USA Rotorcraft Attack

12

[3]

Current Rank structure[edit] Main article: Military ranks of Spain The officer ranks of the Spanish Navy
Navy
are as follows below, (for a comparison with other NATO
NATO
ranks, see Ranks and Insignia of NATO). Midshipmen are further divided into 1st and 2nd Classes and Officer Cadets 3rd and 4th Classes respectively.

Officers

NATO
NATO
code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer

 Spain (Edit)

Capitán general[note 1] Almirante general Almirante Vice almirante Contra almirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Alférez de navío Alférez de fragata Guardiamarina 2 Guardiamarina 1 Alumno 2 Alumno 1

Enlisted

NATO
NATO
Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

Spain (Edit)

Suboficial mayor Subteniente Brigada Sargento primero Sargento Cabo mayor Cabo primero Cabo Marinero de primera Marinero

The article Spanish Navy
Navy
Marines includes the rank insignia descriptions for this part of the Navy. Organization[edit]

The Fleet (Headquarters located at Rota)

Projection Group "Alfa" located at Rota

1 LHD / multi-purpose warship and aircraft carrier Juan Carlos I (L61). 27,079 Tons. 2 LPD Galicia-class landing platform docks. 13,818 tons. 1 Replenishment ship Patiño (A14) (located at Ferrol). 17,045 tons. 1 Replenishment ship Cantabria (A15) (located at Ferrol). 19,500 tons.

41st Escort Squadron located at Rota

6 Frigates (Santa María class). 4,017 tons.

31st Escort Squadron located at Ferrol

5 AEGIS Frigates (Álvaro de Bazán class). 6,250 tons.

Submarine
Submarine
flotilla located at Cartagena.

3 Submarines S-70 Galerna (Agosta class). 1,740 tons. 4 AIP submarines (S-80 class). (Under construction) 2,426 tons.

MCM flotilla located at Cartagena

6 Minehunters M-30 (Segura class). 585 tons.

Patrol craft flotilla

3 Corvettes (Descubierta class). 1,666 tons. 7 Patrol ships (Meteoro class) (3 ordered.) 2,500 tons. 4 Patrol ships (Serviola class). 1,276 tons. 3 Patrol ships (Chilreu class) (These vessels differ in detail). c1,500 tons. Various small patrol boats (being deleted as the Meteoros commission).

TOTAL Tons Main Vessels: 233,596 Tons

See also[edit]

Salve Marinera Coats of arms, badges and emblems of Spanish Armed Forces#Navy List of retired Spanish Navy
Navy
ships List of future Spanish Navy
Navy
ships

Notes[edit]

^ Cite error: The named reference monarch was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

References[edit]

^ Española, Armada. "Armada Española - Ministerio de Defensa - Gobierno de España". www.armada.mde.es.  ^ "España Hoy 2016-2016". lamoncloa.gob.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 May 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g "World Air Forces 2016". Flightglobal: p. 29. Retrieved 8 December 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ "Royal Decree 351/2017" (PDF). Spanish Official Gazette.  ^ The Spanish Navy
Navy
in the 1890s ^ Gabriel Cardona, El Problema Militar en España, Ed. Historia 16, Madrid
Madrid
1990, pg. 158-159 ^ Spanish Navy. "Armada Española - Ministerio de Defensa - Gobierno de España". mde.es. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ Defensa Antimisil Meroka (in Spanish) ^ "! Murcia Today - The Principe De Asturias Will Be Decommissioned Today". murciatoday.com. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ http://www.defensa.gob.es/Galerias/presupuestos/presupuesto-defensa-2012.pdf Military Budget 2012, page 454 ^ es:Armada Española#La Armada hoy

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Armada Española.

Official website (in Spanish) http://www.todoababor.es (Spanish Naval History) History of Spanish Mariners http://www.revistanaval.com http://www.losbarcosdeeugenio.com/principal_es.html El Arma Submarina Española (unofficial website) http://www.fotosdebarcos.com (Spanish Navy
Navy
Section, see Armada Española with all kind of Spanish navy ships) Spanish Navy
Navy
page on Andrew Toppan's Haze Gray and Underway Spain
Spain
Plans to Upgrade Navy's Projection Group Foro Militar General (unofficial forum) Warships of the Spanish Civil War BUQUESDEGUERRA.TK, Spanish website about warships

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