SOY SAUCE (also called SOYA SAUCE in
* 1 History
* 1.1 China
* 2 Production
* 2.1 Traditional * 2.2 Acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein
* 3 Variations by country
* 3.1 Burmese
* 3.2 Chinese
* 3.2.1 Brewed * 3.2.2 Blended
* 3.3 Filipino * 3.4 Hawaiian * 3.5 Indonesian
* 3.6 Japanese
* 3.6.1 Varieties
* 3.7 Korean
* 3.7.1 Hansik ganjang * 3.7.2 Gaeryang ganjang * 3.7.3 Other
* 3.8 Malaysian and Singaporean * 3.9 Taiwanese * 3.10 Thai * 3.11 Vietnamese
* 4 Nutrition
* 4.1 Carcinogens * 4.2 Allergies
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was originally a way to stretch
salt , historically an expensive commodity. In
The 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, and leaving the mass to ferment; a portion of salt and three times as much water are afterwards put in, and the whole compound left for two or three months when the liquid is pressed and strained".
Further information: soup soy sauce
The earliest soy sauce brewing in
In Samguk Sagi , a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era , it is written that ganjang (soy sauce) and doenjang (soybean paste) along with meju (soybean block) and jeotgal (salted seafood) were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King Sinmun in February 683. Sikhwaji , a section from Goryeosa (History of Goryeo) , recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a Khitan invasion , and in 1052, when a famine occurred. Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang . Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, and how to keep and preserve ganjang and doenjang .
Buddhist monks from China introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century, where it is known as shōyu (醤油, shōyu).
Records of the
Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity
in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from
Flavor, color, and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic Maillard browning .
Variation is usually achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation , different ratios of water, salt , and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients.
Further information: Soup soy sauce § Production
Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorganisms and yeasts (the resulting mixture is called "koji" in Japan; the term "koji" is used both for the mixture of soybeans, wheat, and mold as well as for the mold itself). Historically, the mixture was fermented naturally in large urns and under the sun, which was believed to contribute extra flavors. Today, the mixture is placed in a temperature and humidity controlled incubation chamber.
Traditional soy sauces take months to make:
* SOAKING AND COOKING: The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled
* KOJI CULTURING: An equal amount of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture. A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself. The cultures include:
* ASPERGILLUS : a genus of fungus that is used for fermenting various ingredients (the cultures are called koji in Japanese). Three species are used for brewing soy sauce:
* A. oryzae : Strains with high proteolytic capacity are used for brewing soy sauce. * A. sojae : This fungus also has a high proteolytic capacity. * A. tamari : This fungus is used for brewing tamari, a variety of soy sauce.
* SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE : the yeasts in the culture convert some of the sugars to ethanol which can undergo secondary reactions to make other flavor compounds
* OTHER MICROBES CONTAINED IN THE CULTURE:
* Bacillus spp. (genus): This organism is likely to grow soy sauce ingredients, bring to generate odors and ammonia. * Lactobacillus species: This organism makes a lactic acid that increases the acidity in the feed.
* BREWING: The cultured grain mixture is mixed into a specific amount of salt brine for wet fermentation or with coarse salt for dry fermentation and left to brew. Over time, the Aspergillus mold on the soy and wheat break down the grain proteins into free amino acid and protein fragments and starches into simple sugars. This amino-glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color. Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary fermentation makes numerous flavor compounds typical of soy sauce. * PRESSING: The fully fermented grain slurry is placed into cloth-lined containers and pressed to separate the solids from the liquid soy sauce. The isolated solids are used as fertilizer or fed to animals while the liquid soy sauce is processed further. * PASTEURIZATION: The raw soy sauce is heated to eliminate any active yeasts and molds remaining in the soy sauce and can be filtered to remove any fine particulates * STORAGE: The soy sauce can be aged or directly bottled and sold.
Soy and wheat with Aspergillus sojae cultures to brew soy sauce
ACID-HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN
Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid-hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed with a traditional culture. This takes about three days. Although they have a different flavor, aroma, and texture when compared to brewed soy sauces, they have a longer shelf life and are usually made for this reason. The clear plastic packets of dark sauce common with Chinese-style take-out food typically use a hydrolyzed vegetable protein formula. Some higher-quality hydrolyzed vegetable protein products with no added salt, sugar or colorings are sold as low-sodium soy sauce alternatives called "liquid aminos" in health food stores, similar to the way salt substitutes are used. These products are, however, not necessarily low in sodium.
VARIATIONS BY COUNTRY
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Burmese soy sauce production is dated back to the
Bagan era in the
9th and 10th century. Scripts written in praise of pe ngan byar yay
(ပဲငံပြာရည်, literally "bean fish sauce") were
found. Production increased during the
Chinese soy sauces (simplified Chinese : 酱油; traditional Chinese
: 醬油; pinyin : jiàng yóu;
A bottle of commercially made light soy sauce
* LIGHT OR FRESH SOY SAUCE (生抽; pinyin : shēng chōu;
* Tóu chōu (頭抽): A light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans, this can be loosely translated as "first soy sauce" or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Tóu chōu is sold at a premium because, like extra virgin olive oil, the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Due to its delicate flavor it is used primarily for seasoning light dishes and for dipping. * Shuāng huáng (雙璜): A light soy sauce that is double-fermented by using the light soy sauce from another batch to take the place of brine for a second brewing. This adds further complexity to the flavor of the light soy sauce. Due to its complex flavor this soy sauce is used primarily for dipping.
* YìN YóU (蔭油): A darker soy sauce brewed primarily in Taiwan by culturing only steamed soybeans with Aspergillus and mixing the cultured soybeans with coarse rock salt before undergoing prolonged dry fermentation. The flavor of this soy sauce is complex and rich and is used for dipping or in red cooking . For the former use, yìn yóu can be thickened with starch to make a thick soy sauce.
Additives with sweet or umami (savory) tastes are sometimes added to a finished brewed soy sauce to modify its taste and texture.
* DARK AND OLD SOY SAUCE (老抽; pinyin : lǎo chōu;
* Mushroom dark soy (草菇老抽 cǎogū lǎochōu): In the finishing and aging process of making dark soy sauce, the broth of Volvariella volvacea (straw mushroom) is mixed into the soy sauce and is then exposed to the sun to make this type of dark soy. The added broth gives this soy sauce a richer flavor than plain dark soy sauce. * Thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàng yóu gāo), is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar and occasionally flavored with certain spices and MSG . This sauce is often used as a dipping sauce or finishing sauce and poured on food as a flavorful addition. However, due to its sweetness and caramelized flavors from its production process the sauce is also used in red cooking .
* SHRIMP SOY SAUCE (蝦子醬油 Xiā zǐ jiàngyóu): Fresh soy sauce is simmered with fresh shrimp and finished with sugar, baijiu (type of distilled liquor, 白酒), and spices. A specialty of Suzhou .
Toyomansi, a typical Filipino dipping sauce composed of soy sauce and calamansi spiced with siling labuyo
In the Philippines, soy sauce is called toyò in the native languages
, derived from "Tau-yu" in
Toyò is used as a marinade, an ingredient in cooked dishes, and most often as a table condiment, usually alongside other sauces such as fish sauce (patís) and sugar cane vinegar (sukà). It is often mixed and served with the juice of the calamansi (× Citrofortunella microcarpa; also called calamondin, limonsito). The combination is known as toyomansî, which can be comparable to the Japanese ponzu sauce (soy sauce with yuzu ). Toyò is also a main ingredient in Philippine adobo , one of the more famous dishes of Filipino cuisine.
Main article: Sweet soy sauce Left, ABC brand Kecap manis sweet Indonesian soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses ; right, Kecap asin
* KECAP MANIS : Sweetened soy sauce, which has a thick syrupy
consistency and a unique, pronounced, sweet somewhat treacle -like
flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar . Regular soy with brown
sugar and a trace of molasses added can substitute. It is by far, the
most popular type of soy sauce employed in
Indonesian cuisine ,
accounts for an estimated 90 percent of the nation's total soy sauce
production. Kecap manis is an important sauce in Indonesian signature
dishes, such as nasi goreng , mie goreng , satay , tongseng and semur
Sambal kecap for example is type of sambal dipping sauce of kecap
manis with sliced chili, tomato and shallot, a popular dipping sauce
for sate kambing (goat meat satay) and ikan bakar (grilled
fish/seafood). Since soy sauce is of Chinese origin, kecap asin is
also an important seasoning in Chinese
Indonesian cuisine .
* KECAP MANIS SEDANG : Medium sweet soy sauce, which has a less
thick consistency, is less sweet and has a saltier taste than kecap
* KECAP ASIN : Regular soy sauce derived from the Japanese shoyu,
but are usually more concentrated, thicker, darker color and stronger
flavor; it can be replaced by Chinese light soy sauce in some recipes.
Salty soy sauce was first introduced into
Japanese supermarket soy sauce corner
Shōyu is traditionally divided into five main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Most, but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient, which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry -like flavor, sometimes enhanced by the addition of small amounts of alcohol as a natural preservative . The widely varying flavors of these soy sauces are not always interchangeable, some recipes only call for one type or the other, much as a white wine cannot replace a red's flavor or beef stock does not make the same results as fish stock .
Some soy sauces made in the Japanese way or styled after them contain about 50% wheat.
* KOIKUCHI (濃口, "thick taste"): Originating in the Kantō region , its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi, and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. It is made from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized . * USUKUCHI (薄口, "thin taste"): Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan, it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. The lighter color arises from the use of amazake , a sweet liquid made from fermented rice, that is used in its production. * TAMARI (たまり): Made mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan, tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavor than koikuchi. It contains little or no wheat. Wheat-free tamari can be used by people with gluten intolerance . It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce, as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Technically, this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り), as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures . The Japanese word tamari is derived from the verb tamaru (溜る) that signifies "to accumulate", referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally a liquid byproduct made during the fermentation of miso (type of seasoning). Japan is the leading producer of tamari. * SHIRO (白, "white"): In contrast to tamari soy sauce, shiro soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean, lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food, for example sashimi . * SAISHIKOMI (再仕込, "twice-brewed") : This variety substitutes previously made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Consequently, it is much darker and more strongly flavored. This type is also known as kanro shōyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet soy sauce".
Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:
* GEN\'EN (減塩, "reduced salt"): This version contains 50% less salt than regular soy sauce for consumers concerned about heart disease. * USUJIO (薄塩, "light salt"): This version contains 20% less salt than regular soy sauce.
All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were made:
* HONJōZō (本醸造, "genuine fermented"): Contains 100% genuine fermented product * KONGō-JōZō (混合醸造, "mixed fermented"): Contains genuine fermented shōyu mash mixed with 30–50% of chemical or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein * KONGō (混合, "mixed"): Contains Honjōzō or Kongō-jōzō shōyu mixed with 30–50% of chemical or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein
All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:
* HYōJUN (標準): Standard grade, contains more than 1.2% total
* JōKYū (上級): Upper grade, contains more than 1.35% of total
* TOKKYū (特級):
In Korea, soy sauces or ganjang (간장, "seasoning sauce") can be roughly split into two categories: hansik ganjang (Korean-style soy sauce) and gaeryang ganjang (modernized soy sauce). The term ganjang can also refer to non soy-based salty condiments, such as eo-ganjang (fish sauce) . Traditional Korean soy sauce
Main article: soup soy sauce
Hansik ganjang (한식간장, "Korean-style soy sauce") is made
entirely of fermented soybean (meju ) and brine . It is a byproduct of
doenjang (fermented soybean paste) production, and has a unique
fermented soybean flavour. Both lighter in colour and saltier than
other Korean ganjang varieties, hansik ganjang is used mainly in guk
(soup) and namul (seasoned vegetable dish) in modern
Depending on the length of aging, hansik ganjang can be divided into three main varieties: clear, middle, and dark.
* Haet-ganjang (햇간장, "new soy sauce") – soy sauce aged for a year. Also called cheongjang (청장, "clear soy sauce"). * Jung-ganjang (중간장, "middle soy sauce") – soy sauce aged for three to four years. * Jin-ganjang (진간장, "dark soy sauce") – soy sauce aged for more than five years. Also called jinjang (진장, "aged soy sauce"), nongjang (농장, "thick soy sauce"), or jingamjang (진감장, "aged mature soy sauce").
Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety 's Food Code classifies hansik-ganjang into two categories by their ingredients.
* Jaerae-hansik-ganjang (재래한식간장, "traditional Korean-style soy sauce") – made with traditional style meju and brine. * Gaeryang-hansik-ganjang (개량한식간장, "modernized Korean-style soy sauce") – made with nontraditional meju (which can be made of regular soybean , rice , barley , wheat , or soybean meal, and ripened using traditional method or Aspergillus) and brine.
Gaeryang-ganjang (개량간장, "modernized soy sauce"), referring to
varieties of soy sauces not made of meju , is now the most widely used
type of soy sauce in modern
Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety 's Food Code classifies gaeryang-ganjang into four categories by their method of production.
* Brewed soy sauce (양조간장, yangjo-ganjang) – made by fermenting soybean, soybean meal, or other grains with saline solution. * Acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (산분해간장) – made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with acid. * Enzyme-hydrolyzed soy sauce (효소분해간장) – made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with enzyme. * Blended soy sauce (혼합간장) – Also called mixed soy sauce, blended soy sauce can be made by blending hansik-ganjang (Korean-style soy sauce) or yangjo-ganjang (brewed soy sauce) with acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce or enzyme-hydrolyzed soy sauce.
* Eo-ganjang (어간장, "fish sauce "): Made mainly in Jeju island , eo-ganjang is a soy sauce substitute made of jeotgal (fermented fish).
MALAYSIAN AND SINGAPOREAN
Malays from Malaysia, using the Malay dialect similar to Indonesian, use the word kicap for soy sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak (lit "fat/rich soy sauce") and kicap cair. Kicap lemak is similar to Indonesian kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.
The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to
southeastern China, in the provinces of
In Thailand, soy sauce is called sii-íu (Thai : ซีอิ๊ว).
Sii-íu kǎao (Thai : ซีอิ๊วขาว, "white soy sauce") is used as regular soy sauce in Thai cuisine , while SII-íU DAM (Thai : ซีอิ๊วดำ, "black soy sauce") is used primarily for colour. Another darker-coloured variety, sii-íu wǎan (Thai : ซีอิ๊วหวาน, "sweet soy sauce") is used for dipping sauces. Sɔ́ɔt prung rót (Thai : ซอสปรุงรส, "seasoning sauce") is also commonly used in modern Thai cuisine .
In Vietnam, Chinese-style soy sauce is called xì dầu (derived from
A study by the
National University of Singapore showed that Chinese
dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine , and
can help prevent cardiovascular diseases .
A serving of 100 ml of soy sauce contains, according to the USDA:
* Energy : 60 kcal * Fat: 0.1 g * Carbohydrates: 5.57 g * Fibers: 0.8 g * Protein: 10.51 g * Sodium: 6 g
In 2001, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in testing various soy sauces manufactured in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Thailand (made from hydrolyzed soy protein, rather than being naturally fermented) that 22% of tested samples, contained a chemical carcinogen named 3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the EU. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second carcinogenic chemical named 1,3-DCP (1,3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP . The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a food scare in 2007 .
In Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society writes,
Health Canada has concluded that there is no health risk to Canadians from use of available soy and oyster sauces. Because continuous lifetime exposure to high levels of 3-MCPD could pose a health risk, Health Canada has established 1.0 part per million (ppm) as a guideline for importers of these sauces, in order to reduce Canadians' long-term exposure to this chemical. This is considered to be a very safe level.
Further information: Soy allergy
Most varieties of soy sauce contain wheat, to which some people have a medical intolerance. However, some naturally brewed soy sauces made with wheat may be tolerated by people with a specific intolerance to gluten because gluten is not detectable in the finished product. Japanese tamari soy sauce is traditionally wheat-free, and some tamari available commercially today is wheat- and gluten-free.
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