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Coordinates: 8°N 30°E / 8°N 30°E / 8; 30

Republic
Republic
of South Sudan

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Justice, Liberty, Prosperity"

Anthem: "South Sudan
Sudan
Oyee!"

Capital and largest city Juba 04°51′N 31°36′E / 4.850°N 31.600°E / 4.850; 31.600

Official languages English[1][2]

Recognised national languages

Bari Dinka Luo Murle Nuer Zande

and around 60 other languages [note 1]

Demonym South Sudanese

Government Federation[4] under a presidential constitutional republic

• President

Salva Kiir
Salva Kiir
Mayardit

• Vice President

James Wani Igga

• First Vice President

Taban Deng Gai

Legislature National Legislature

• Upper house

Council of States

• Lower house

National Legislative Assembly

Establishment

• End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

1 January 1956

• Comprehensive Peace Agreement

6 January 2005

• Autonomy

9 July 2005

• Independence from Sudan

9 July 2011

•  United Nations
United Nations
admission

13 July 2011

Area

• Total

619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (41st)

Population

• 2016 estimate

12,230,730[5]

• 2008 census

8,260,490 (disputed)[6] (94th)

• Density

13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$20.038 billion[7]

• Per capita

$1,525[7]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$3.618 billion[7]

• Per capita

$275[7]

Gini (2009) 45.5[8] medium

HDI (2015)  0.418[9] low · 181st

Currency South Sudanese pound
South Sudanese pound
(SSP)

Time zone East Africa Time
East Africa Time
(UTC+3)

Drives on the right

Calling code +211[10]

ISO 3166 code SS

Internet TLD .ss[11]a

Registered, but not yet operational.

South Sudan
Sudan
(/suːˈdæn, -ˈdɑːn/ ( listen)),[12][13] officially known as the Republic
Republic
of South Sudan,[14] is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.[15][16] The country gained its independence from (North) Sudan
Sudan
in 2011, making it the newest country (as of April 2018). Its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan
Sudan
is bordered by Sudan
Sudan
to the north, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to the east, Kenya
Kenya
to the southeast, Uganda
Uganda
to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and the Central African Republic
Republic
to the west. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile
White Nile
and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal. With Nilotic peoples forming the majority of its population, the nation is also referred to as the Nilotic
Nilotic
Republic, as a homeland and supposedly the place of origin for the Nilotic
Nilotic
race. The territories of modern South Sudan
Sudan
and the Republic
Republic
of the Sudan were occupied by Egypt
Egypt
under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, and later governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence was achieved in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan
Sudan
Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out, and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Comprehensive Peace Agreement
of 2005. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan
Sudan
became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum that passed with 98.83% of the vote.[17][18] South Sudan
Sudan
has a population of 12 million, with Christianity
Christianity
the majority religion. It is a United Nations
United Nations
member state,[19][20] and a member state of the African Union,[21] of the East African Community,[22] and of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development.[23] In July 2012, South Sudan
Sudan
signed the Geneva Conventions.[24] South Sudan
Sudan
has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013. As of 2017, despite not being ranked bottom in the latest World Happiness Report, it had the highest score on the Fragile States Index
Fragile States Index
(formerly, the Failed States Index), surpassing Somalia.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Independence (2011) 1.2 Civil war (2013–present)

2 Politics

2.1 Government

2.1.1 National capital project

2.2 States

2.2.1 2011–15 2.2.2 2017–present

2.3 Military 2.4 Media

2.4.1 Censorship

2.5 Foreign relations 2.6 Human rights

3 Geography

3.1 Biodiversity 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Urbanization 4.2 Ethnic groups 4.3 Education 4.4 Languages

4.4.1 Constitution updates 4.4.2 Some areas

4.5 Population

4.5.1 2008 census 4.5.2 2009 census

4.6 Religion 4.7 Diaspora

5 Culture

5.1 Music 5.2 Games and sports

6 Economy

6.1 Oil 6.2 Debt 6.3 East African Community 6.4 South Sudan
Sudan
and the Commonwealth of Nations

7 Transport

7.1 Railway 7.2 Air

8 Humanitarian situation

8.1 Water crisis 8.2 Refugees 8.3 2017 famine

9 Notable people 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of South Sudan The Nilotic
Nilotic
people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Anyuak, Bari, Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Kaligi ( Arabic
Arabic
Feroghe), and others—first entered South Sudan
Sudan
sometime before the 10th century. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations, largely from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak
Anyuak
Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the Acholi
Acholi
and Bari
Bari
settled in Equatoria. The Azande, Mundu, Avukaya
Avukaya
and Baka, who entered South Sudan
Sudan
in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria
Equatoria
Region. The Dinka
Dinka
are the largest, Nuer the second largest, the Azande
Azande
the third-largest and the Bari
Bari
are the fourth-largest ethnic group in the country. They are found in the Maridi, Yambio, and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande
Azande
client in Yei, Central Equatoria
Central Equatoria
and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande
Azande
society and this domination continued into the 20th century.[25] Geographical barriers, including the swamplands along the White Nile
White Nile
and the British preference for sending Christian missionaries to the southern regions, including its Closed District Ordinance of 1922 (see History of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), helped to prevent the spread of Islam
Islam
to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions. The major reasons include the long history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north and its ignoring the Black south. After Sudan's first independent elections in 1958, the continued ignoring of the south by Khartoum
Khartoum
(lack of schools, roads, bridges) led to uprisings, revolt, and the longest civil war on the continent.[26][27] As of 2012[update], peoples include Acholi, Anyuak, Azande, Baka, Balanda Bviri, Bari, Boya, Didinga, Dinka, Jiye, Kaligi, Kuku, Lotuka, Mundari, Murie, Nilotic, Nuer, Shilluk, Toposa and Zande.[28] Slavery
Slavery
had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history.[29] The slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century, and continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non- Muslim
Muslim
territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, and the destruction of the region's stability and economy.[30]

John Garang
John Garang
de Mabior led the Sudan
Sudan
People's Liberation Army until his death in 2005.

The Azande
Azande
have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya, Baka and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande
Azande
fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive
Khedive
Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria
Equatoria
in the southern portion. Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon
Charles George Gordon
in 1874 and by Emin Pasha
Emin Pasha
in 1878.[31] The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, and Equatoria
Equatoria
ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria
Equatoria
included Lado, Gondokoro, Dufile
Dufile
and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident
Fashoda Incident
occurred at present-day Kodok; Britain and France
France
almost went to war over the region.[31] In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan
Sudan
with Uganda
Uganda
as well as, leaving Western Equatoria as part of The Democratic Republic
Republic
of Congo were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan.[citation needed] South Sudan
Sudan
has an estimated population of 8 million,[32] but, given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be severely distorted. The economy is predominantly rural and relies chiefly on subsistence farming.[32] Around 2005, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance, and urban areas within South Sudan
Sudan
have seen extensive development. The region has been negatively affected by two civil wars since Sudanese independence: from 1955 to 1972, the Sudanese government fought the Anyanya
Anyanya
rebel army (Anya-Nya is a term in the Madi language which means 'snake venom')[33] during the First Sudanese Civil War, followed by the Sudan
Sudan
People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) in the Second Sudanese Civil War
Second Sudanese Civil War
for over 20 years. As a result, the country suffered serious neglect, a lack of infrastructural development, and major destruction and displacement. More than 2.5 million people have been killed and millions more have become refugees both within and outside the country. Independence (2011)[edit]

A South Sudanese girl at independence festivities

Between 9 and 15 January 2011, a referendum was held to determine whether South Sudan
Sudan
should become an independent country and separate from Sudan. 98.83% of the population voted for independence.[34] South Sudan
Sudan
formally became independent from Sudan
Sudan
on 9 July, although certain disputes still remained, including the division of oil revenues, as 75% of all the former Sudan's oil reserves are in South Sudan.[35] The region of Abyei
Abyei
still remains disputed and a separate referendum will be held in Abyei
Abyei
on whether they want to join Sudan
Sudan
or South Sudan.[36] The South Kordofan conflict
South Kordofan conflict
broke out in June 2011 between the Army of Sudan
Sudan
and the SPLA over the Nuba Mountains. On 9 July 2011 South Sudan
Sudan
became the 54th independent country in Africa[37] and since 14 July 2011, South Sudan
Sudan
is the 193rd member of the United Nations.[38] On 27 July 2011 South Sudan
Sudan
became the 54th country to join the African Union.[39] South Sudan
Sudan
was at war with at least seven armed groups in 9 of its 10 states, with tens of thousands displaced.[40] The fighters accuse the government of plotting to stay in power indefinitely, not fairly representing and supporting all tribal groups while neglecting development in rural areas.[40][41] Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) also operates in a wide area that includes South Sudan.[42] Inter-ethnic warfare that in some cases predates the war of independence is widespread. In December 2011, tribal clashes in Jonglei
Jonglei
intensified between the Nuer White Army
Nuer White Army
of the Lou Nuer and the Murle.[43] The White Army warned it would wipe out the Murle and would also fight South Sudanese and UN forces sent to the area around Pibor.[44] In March 2012, South Sudanese forces seized the Heglig oil fields in lands claimed by both Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan
Sudan
in the province of South Kordofan after conflict with Sudanese forces in the South Sudanese state of Unity.[45] South Sudan
Sudan
withdrew on 20 March, and the Sudanese Army entered Heglig two days later. Civil war (2013–present)[edit] See also: South Sudanese Civil War Further information: Ethnic violence in South Sudan

Military situation in South Sudan
Sudan
as of 1 April 2016   Under control of the Government of South Sudan   Under control of the Sudan
Sudan
People's Liberation Movement-in-Opposition   Under control of the Government of Sudan

In December 2013, a political power struggle broke out between President Kiir and his former deputy Riek Machar, as the president accused Machar and ten others of attempting a coup d'état.[46] Fighting broke out, igniting the South Sudanese Civil War. Ugandan troops were deployed to fight alongside South Sudanese government forces against the rebels.[47] The United Nations
United Nations
has peacekeepers in the country as part of the United Nations
United Nations
Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Numerous ceasefires were mediated by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) between the Sudan
Sudan
People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and SPLM
SPLM
– in opposition and were subsequently broken. A peace agreement was signed in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
under threat of United Nations
United Nations
sanctions for both sides in August 2015.[48] Machar returned to Juba
Juba
in 2016 and was appointed vice president.[49] Following a second breakout of violence in Juba, Machar was replaced as vice-president[50] and he fled the country[51] as the conflict erupted again. Up to 300,000 people are estimated to have been killed in the war, including notable atrocities such as the 2014 Bentiu massacre.[52][53] Although both men have supporters from across South Sudan's ethnic divides, subsequent fighting has been communal, with rebels targeting members of Kiir's Dinka
Dinka
ethnic group and government soldiers attacking Nuers.[54] About 3 million people have been displaced in a country of 12 million, with about 2 million internally displaced and about 1 million having fled to neighboring countries, especially Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda.[55] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of South Sudan Government[edit]

Salva Kiir
Salva Kiir
Mayardit, the first President of South Sudan. His trademark hat was a gift from United States
United States
President George W. Bush.

South Sudan's presidential guard on Independence Day, 2011

The now-defunct Southern Sudan
Sudan
Legislative Assembly ratified a transitional constitution[56] shortly before independence on 9 July 2011.[57] The constitution was signed by the President of South Sudan on Independence Day and thereby came into force. It is now the supreme law of the land, superseding the Interim Constitution of 2005.[58] The constitution establishes a mixed presidential system of government headed by a president who is head of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. It also establishes the National Legislature comprising two houses: a directly elected assembly, the National Legislative Assembly, and a second chamber of representatives of the states, the Council of States. John Garang, the founder of the SPLA/M, was the first president of the autonomous government until his death on 30 July 2005. Salva Kiir Mayardit,[14] his deputy, was sworn in as First Vice President of Sudan
Sudan
and President of the Government of Southern Sudan
Sudan
on 11 August 2005. Riek Machar[14] replaced him as Vice-President of the Government. Legislative power is vested in the government and the bicameral National Legislature. The constitution also provides for an independent judiciary, the highest organ being the Supreme Court. National capital project[edit] The capital of South Sudan
Sudan
is located at Juba, which is also the state capital of Central Equatoria
Central Equatoria
and the county seat of the eponymous Juba County, as well as being the country's largest city. However, due to Juba's poor infrastructure and massive urban growth, as well as its lack of centrality within South Sudan, the South Sudanese Government adopted a resolution in February 2011 to study the creation of a new planned city to serve as the seat of government.[59][60] It is planned that the capital city will be changed to the more centrally located Ramciel
Ramciel
in the future.[61] This proposal is functionally similar to construction projects in Abuja, Nigeria; Brasília, Brazil; and Canberra, Australia; among other modern-era planned national capitals. It is unclear how the government will fund the project. In September 2011, a spokesman for the government said the country's political leaders had accepted a proposal to build a new capital at Ramciel,[62] a place in Lakes state near the borders with Central Equatoria
Equatoria
and Jonglei. Ramciel
Ramciel
is considered to be the geographical center of the country,[63] and the late pro-independence leader John Garang allegedly had plans to relocate the capital there before his death in 2005. The proposal was supported by the Lakes state government and at least one Ramciel
Ramciel
tribal chief.[64] The design, planning, and construction of the city will likely take as many as five years, government ministers said, and the move of national institutions to the new capital will be implemented in stages.[62] States[edit] 2011–15[edit]

The former ten states of South Sudan
Sudan
grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan   Bahr el Ghazal   Equatoria   Greater Upper Nile

Prior to 2015, South Sudan
Sudan
was divided into 10 states, which also correspond to three historical regions: Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria, and Greater Upper Nile:

Bahr el Ghazal

Northern Bahr el Ghazal Western Bahr el Ghazal Lakes Warrap

Equatoria

Western Equatoria Central Equatoria
Central Equatoria
(containing the national capital city of Juba) Eastern Equatoria

Greater Upper Nile

Jonglei Unity Upper Nile

2017–present[edit] Main article: States of South Sudan

The 28 states of South Sudan
Sudan
as established in 2015

In October 2015, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir
Salva Kiir
issued a decree establishing 28 states in place of the 10 constitutionally established states.[65] The decree established the new states largely along ethnic lines. A number of opposition parties and civil society challenged the constitutionality of this decree and Kiir later resolved to take it to parliament for approval as a constitutional amendment.[66] In November the South Sudanese parliament empowered President Kiir to create new states.[67]

Bar el Ghazal

Aweil Aweil East Eastern Lakes Gogrial Gok Lol Tonj Twic Wau Western Lakes

Equatoria

Amadi Gbudwe Imatong Jubek (containing the national capital city of Juba) Maridi Kapoeta Tambura Terekeka Yei
Yei
River

Greater Upper Nile

Boma Central Upper Nile Akobo Northern Upper Nile Jonglei Latjoor Maiwut Northern Liech Ruweng Southern Liech Bieh Fashoda State Fangak State

On 14 January 2017 another 4 states have been created, Central Upper Nile, Northern Upper Nile, Tumbura and Maiwut leading to an overall number of 32.[68][69] The Abyei
Abyei
Area, a small region of Sudan
Sudan
bordering on the South Sudanese states of Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Warrap, and Unity, currently has a special administrative status in Sudan
Sudan
and is governed by an Abyei
Abyei
Area Administration. It was due to hold a referendum in 2011 on whether to join South Sudan
Sudan
or remain part of the Republic
Republic
of Sudan, but in May the Sudanese military seized Abyei, and it is not clear if the referendum will be held. Military[edit] Main article: Sudan
Sudan
People's Liberation Army A Defense paper was initiated in 2007 by then Minister for SPLA Affairs Dominic Dim Deng, and a draft was produced in 2008. It declared that Southern Sudan
Sudan
would eventually maintain land, air, and riverine forces.[70][71] As of 2015[update], South Sudan
Sudan
has the third highest military spending as a percentage of GDP in the world, behind only Oman and Saudi Arabia.[72] Media[edit] Main article: Media of South Sudan While former Information Minister Barnaba Marial Benjamin
Barnaba Marial Benjamin
vowed that South Sudan
Sudan
will respect freedom of the press and allow journalists unrestricted access in the country, the chief editor of Juba
Juba
newspaper The Citizen claimed that in the absence of a formal media law in the fledgling republic, he and his staff have faced abuse at the hands of security forces. This alleged fettering of media freedom was attributed in an Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
report to the difficulty SPLM
SPLM
has faced in reforming itself as a legitimate government after years of leading a rebellion against the Sudanese government. The Citizen is South Sudan's largest newspaper, but poor infrastructure and poverty have kept its staff relatively small and limited the efficiency of both its reporting and its circulation outside of Juba, with no dedicated news bureaus in outlying states and newspapers often taking several days to reach states like Northern Bahr el Ghazal.[73] Censorship[edit] On 1 November 2011, South Sudan's National Security Services (NSS) arrested the editor of a private Juba-based daily, Destiny, and suspended its activities indefinitely. This was in response to an opinion article by columnist Dengdit Ayok, entitled "Let Me Say So", which criticized the president for allowing his daughter to marry an Ethiopian national, and accused him of "staining his patriotism". An official letter accused the newspaper of breaking "the media code of conduct and professional ethics", and of publishing "illicit news" that was defamatory, inciting, and invading the privacy of personalities. The Committee to Protect Journalists
Committee to Protect Journalists
had voiced concerns over media freedoms in South Sudan
Sudan
in September.[74] The NSS released the journalists without charge after having held them for 18 days.[75] In 2015, Salva Kiir
Salva Kiir
threatened to kill journalists who reported "against the country".[76] Work conditions have become terrible for journalists, and many have left the country. Documentary filmmaker Ochan Hannington is one of them.[77] In August 2015, after journalist Peter Moi was killed in a targeted attack, being the seventh journalist killed during the year, South Sudanese journalists held a 24-hour news blackout.[78] In August 2017, a 26-year-old American journalist, Christopher Allen, was killed in Kaya, Yei
Yei
River State, during fighting between government and opposition forces. Christopher Allen was a freelance journalist who had worked for several U.S. news outlets. He had been reportedly embedded with the opposition forces in South Sudan
Sudan
for a week before he was killed.[79] The same month, President Salva Kiir said the millions of civilians fleeing South Sudan
Sudan
were being driven by social media propaganda manned by those conspiring against his government.[80] Just a month prior in July 2017, access to major news websites and popular blogs including Sudan
Sudan
Tribune and Radio Tamujuz had been blocked by the government without formal notice.[81] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of South Sudan

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
meets with President Salva Kiir, 26 May 2013

Since independence, relations with Sudan
Sudan
have been changing. Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir
Omar al-Bashir
first announced, in January 2011, that dual citizenship in the North and the South would be allowed,[82] but upon the independence of South Sudan
Sudan
he retracted the offer. He has also suggested an EU-style confederation.[83] Essam Sharaf, Prime Minister of Egypt
Egypt
after the 2011 Egyptian revolution, made his first foreign visit to Khartoum
Khartoum
and Juba
Juba
in the lead-up to South Sudan's secession.[84] Israel
Israel
quickly recognized South Sudan
Sudan
as an independent country,[85] and is host to thousands of refugees from South Sudan,[86] who now face deportation to their native country.[87][88] According to American sources the President Obama officially recognised the new state after Sudan
Sudan
(now North Sudan). Egypt, Sudan, Germany
Germany
and Kenya
Kenya
were among the first to recognise the country's independence on 8 July 2011.[89][90] Several states that participated in the international negotiations concluded with a self-determination referendum were also quick to acknowledge the overwhelming result. The Rationalist process included Kenya, Uganda, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Eritrea, United Kingdom, Norway.[91][a] South Sudan
Sudan
is a member state of the United Nations,[92] the African Union,[21][93] and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.[94] South Sudan
Sudan
plans to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[95] the East African Community,[96][97][98] the International Monetary Fund,[99] and the World Bank.[100] Full membership in the Arab League
Arab League
has been assured, should the country's government choose to seek it,[101] though it could also opt for observer status.[102] It was admitted to UNESCO
UNESCO
on 3 November 2011.[103] On 25 November 2011, it officially joined the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, a regional grouping of East African states.[104] The United States
United States
supported the 2011 referendum on South Sudan's independence. The New York Times reported that "South Sudan
Sudan
is in many ways an American creation, carved out of war-torn Sudan
Sudan
in a referendum largely orchestrated by the United States, its fragile institutions nurtured with billions of dollars in American aid."[105] The U.S. government’s long-standing sanctions against the Sudan
Sudan
were officially removed from applicability to newly independent South Sudan in December 2011, and senior RSS officials participated in a high-level international engagement conference in Washington, D.C., to help connect foreign investors with the RSS and South Sudanese private sector representatives.[106] Given the interdependence between some sectors of the economy of the Republic
Republic
of South Sudan
Sudan
and the Republic of Sudan, certain activities still require OFAC authorization. Absent a license, current Sudanese sanction regulations will continue to prohibit U.S. persons from dealing in property and interests that benefit Sudan
Sudan
or the Government of Sudan.[107] A 2011 Congressional Research Service report, "The Republic
Republic
of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa’s Newest Country", identifies outstanding political and humanitarian issues as the country forges its future.[108] Human rights[edit] Main article: Human rights in South Sudan Campaigns of atrocities against civilians have been attributed to the SPLA.[109] In the SPLA/M's attempt to disarm rebellions among the Shilluk and Murle, they burned scores of villages, raped hundreds of women and girls and killed an untold number of civilians.[110] Civilians alleging torture claim fingernails being torn out, burning plastic bags dripped on children to make their parents hand over weapons, and villagers burned alive in their huts if it was suspected that rebels had spent the night there.[110] In May 2011, the SPLA allegedly set fire to over 7,000 homes in Unity State.[111] The UN reports many of these violations and the frustrated director of one Juba-based international aid agency calls them "human rights abuses off the Richter scale".[110] In 2010, the CIA
CIA
issued a warning that "over the next five years,...a new mass killing or genocide is most likely to occur in southern Sudan."[110] The Nuer White Army
Nuer White Army
has stated it wished to "wipe out the entire Murle tribe on the face of the earth as the only solution to guarantee long-term security of Nuer’s cattle"[44] and activists, including Minority Rights Group International, warned of genocide in Jonglei.[112] At the beginning of 2017, genocide was imminent again.[113] Peter Abdul Rahaman Sule, the leader of the key opposition group United Democratic Forum, has been under arrest since 3 November 2011 over allegations linking him to the formation of a new rebel group fighting against the government.[114][115] The child marriage rate in South Sudan
Sudan
is 52%.[116] Homosexual acts are illegal.[117] Recruitment of child soldiers has also been cited as a serious problem in the country.[118] In April 2014, Navi Pillay, then the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, stated that more than 9,000 child soldiers had been fighting in South Sudan's civil war.[119] The United Nations
United Nations
rights office has described the situation in the country as "one of the most horrendous human rights situations in the world." It accused the army and allied militias of allowing fighters to rape women as form of payment for fighting, as well as raid cattle in an agreement of "do what you can, take what you can."[120] Amnesty International claimed the army suffocated to death in a shipping container more than 60 people accused of supporting the opposition.[121] On 22 December 2017, at the conclusion of a 12-day visit to the region, the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan said, “Four years following the start of the current conflict in South Sudan, gross human rights violations continue to be committed in a widespread way by all parties to the conflict, in which civilians are bearing the brunt.[122] The Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan
Sudan
was established by the Human Rights Council in March 2016 [122] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of South Sudan

This CIA
CIA
map uses the provincial borders that existed at the time Sudan
Sudan
gained independence in 1956. In 1960, small sections were transferred to northerly provinces. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 ending the second Sudanese civil war provided that the border between southern and northern Sudan
Sudan
would be restored to its 1956 state.

A satellite image of South Sudan

South Sudan
Sudan
lies between latitudes 3° and 13°N, and longitudes 24° and 36°E. It is covered in tropical forest, swamps, and grassland. The White Nile
White Nile
passes through the country, passing by Juba.[82] Biodiversity[edit]

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South Sudan's protected area of Bandingilo National Park
Bandingilo National Park
hosts the second-largest wildlife migration in the world. Surveys have revealed that Boma National Park, west of the Ethiopian border, as well as the Sudd
Sudd
wetland and Southern National Park
Southern National Park
near the border with Congo, provided habitat for large populations of hartebeest, kob, topi, buffalo, elephants, giraffes, and lions. South Sudan's forest reserves also provided habitat for bongo, giant forest hogs, red river hogs, forest elephants, chimpanzees, and forest monkeys. Surveys begun in 2005 by WCS in partnership with the semi-autonomous government of Southern Sudan
Sudan
revealed that significant, though diminished wildlife populations still exist, and that, astonishingly, the huge migration of 1.3 million antelopes in the southeast is substantially intact. Habitats in the country include grasslands, high-altitude plateaus and escarpments, wooded and grassy savannas, floodplains, and wetlands. Associated wildlife species include the endemic white-eared kob and Nile Lechwe, as well as elephants, giraffes, common eland, giant eland, oryx, lions, African wild dogs, cape buffalo, and topi (locally called tiang). Little is known about the white-eared kob and tiang, both types of antelope, whose magnificent migrations were legendary before the civil war. The Boma- Jonglei
Jonglei
Landscape region encompasses Boma National Park, broad pasturelands and floodplains, Bandingilo National Park, and the Sudd, a vast area of swamp and seasonally flooded grasslands that includes the Zeraf Wildlife
Wildlife
Reserve. Little is known of the fungi of South Sudan. A list of fungi in Sudan was prepared by S.A.J. Tarr and published by the then Commonwealth Mycological Institute (Kew, Surrey, UK) in 1955. The list, of 383 species in 175 genera, included all fungi observed within the then boundaries of the country. Many of those records relate to what is now South Sudan. Most of the species recorded were associated with diseases of crops. The true number of species of fungi in South Sudan is probably much higher. In 2006, President Kiir announced that his government would do everything possible to protect and propagate South Sudanese fauna and flora, and seek to reduce the effects of wildfires, waste dumping, and water pollution. The environment is threatened by the development of the economy and infrastructure. Several ecoregions extend across South Sudan: the East Sudanian savanna, Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic, Saharan flooded grasslands (Sudd), Sahelian Acacia
Acacia
savanna, East African montane forests, and the Northern Acacia- Commiphora
Commiphora
bushlands and thickets.[123] Climate[edit]

South Sudan
Sudan
map of Köppen climate classification.

South Sudan
Sudan
has a climate similar to an Equatorial or tropical climate, characterized by a rainy season of high humidity and large amounts of rainfall followed by a drier season. The temperature on average is always high with July being the coolest month with an average temperatures falling between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F) and March being the warmest month with average temperatures ranging from 23 to 37 °C (73 to 98 °F).[124] The most rainfall is seen between May and October, but the rainy season can commence in April and extend until November. On average May is the wettest month. The season is "influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Zone"[14] and the shift to southerly and southwesterly winds leading to slightly lower temperatures, higher humidity, and more cloud coverage.[125] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of South Sudan South Sudan
Sudan
has a population of approximately 12 million[5] (UN estimate, the exact figure is disputed) and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. This region has been negatively affected by war for all but 10 of the years since 1956, resulting in serious neglect, lack of infrastructure development, and major destruction and displacement. More than 2 million people have died, and more than 4 million are internally displaced persons or became refugees as a result of the civil war and its impact. Urbanization[edit]

John Garang
John Garang
Square in Juba

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in South Sudan http://www.geonames.org/SS/largest-cities-in-south-sudan.html

Rank Name State Pop.

Juba

Malakal 1 Juba Central Equatoria 300 000

Wau

2 Malakal Upper Nile 160 765

3 Wau Western Equatoria 127 384

4 Yambio Western Equatoria 40 382

5 Yei Central Equatoria 40 382

6 Aweil Northern Bahr el Ghazal 38 745

7 Gogrial Warrap 38 572

8 Rumbek Lakes 32 083

9 Bor Jonglei 26 782

10 Torit Eastern Equatoria 20 048

Children in Yambio, Western Equatoria, South Sudan

Rural school children participating in the USAID-funded Southern Sudan Interactive Radio Instruction project, July 2010

Ethnic groups[edit] The major ethnic groups present in South Sudan
Sudan
are the Dinka
Dinka
at more than 1 million (approximately 15 percent combined), the Nuer (approximately ten percent), the Bari, and the Azande. The Shilluk constitute a historically influential state along the White Nile, and their language is fairly closely related to Dinka
Dinka
and Nuer. The traditional territories of the Shilluk and the Northeastern Dinka
Dinka
are adjacent. Education[edit] Main article: Education in South Sudan Unlike the previous educational system of the regional Southern Sudan—which was modelled after the system used in the Republic
Republic
of Sudan
Sudan
since 1990—the current educational system of the Republic
Republic
of South Sudan
Sudan
follows the 8 + 4 + 4 system (similar to Kenya). Primary education consists of eight years, followed by four years of secondary education, and then four years of university instruction. The primary language at all levels is English, as compared to the Republic
Republic
of Sudan, where the language of instruction is Arabic. In 2007 South Sudan
Sudan
adopted English as the official language of communication. There is a severe shortage of English teachers and English-speaking teachers in the scientific and technical fields. Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of South Sudan The official language of South Sudan
Sudan
is English.[1] There are over 60 indigenous languages, most classified under the Nilo-Saharan Language family; collectively, they represent two of the first-order divisions of Nile Sudanic and Central Sudanic. Constitution updates[edit] The interim constitution of 2005 declared in Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (1) that "[a]ll indigenous languages of Southern Sudan
Sudan
are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted". In Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (2), it was stated: "English and Arabic
Arabic
shall be the official working languages at the level of the governments of Southern Sudan
Sudan
and the States as well as languages of instruction for higher education."[126] The government of the new independent state later deleted Arabic
Arabic
as an official language and chose English as the sole official language. The new transitional constitution of the Republic
Republic
of South Sudan
Sudan
of 2011 declares in Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (1) that "[a]ll indigenous languages of South Sudan
Sudan
are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted". In Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (2), it is defined that: "English shall be the official working language in the Republic
Republic
of South Sudan, as well as the language of instruction at all levels of education."[127] On July 6, 2017; South Sudan
Sudan
choose to adopt Swahili as the new official language, was seeking Tanzania's help to send Swahili teachers to the country as it introduces the language in school curriculum ahead of its adoption as an official language.[128] Some areas[edit] In the border region between Western Bahr el Ghazal
Western Bahr el Ghazal
state and Sudan are an indeterminate number of people from West African countries who settled here on their way back from Mecca
Mecca
– who have assumed a traditionally nomadic life – that resides either seasonally or permanently. They primarily speak Chadian languages and their traditional territories are in the southern portions of the Sudanese regions of Northern Kurdufan
Kurdufan
and Darfur. In the capital, Juba, there are several thousand people who use non-classical Arabic, usually a pidgin called Juba
Juba
Arabic, but South Sudan's ambassador to Kenya
Kenya
said on 2 August 2011 that Swahili will be introduced in South Sudan
Sudan
with the goal of supplanting Arabic
Arabic
as a lingua franca, in keeping with the country's intention of orientation toward the East African Community
East African Community
rather than Sudan
Sudan
and the Arab League.[129] Nevertheless, South Sudan
Sudan
submitted an application to join the Arab League
Arab League
as a member state on 25 March 2014, which is still pending.[130] In an interview with the newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat, the Foreign Minister of South Sudan
Sudan
Deng Alor Kuol
Deng Alor Kuol
said: South Sudan
Sudan
is the closest African country to the Arab world, and we speak a special kind of Arabic
Arabic
known as Juba
Juba
Arabic.[131] Sudan supports South Sudan’s request to join the Arab League.[132] Juba Arabic
Arabic
is a lingua franca in South Sudan.[133] Population[edit] 2008 census[edit]

Woman in South Sudan

A village in South Sudan

The "Fifth Population and Housing Census
Census
of Sudan", for Sudan
Sudan
as a whole, was conducted in April 2008. The census counted the Southern Sudan
Sudan
population at 8.26 million;[6][134] However, Southern Sudanese officials rejected the census results of Southern Sudan because "the central bureau of statistics in Khartoum
Khartoum
refused to share the national Sudan
Sudan
raw census data with the southern Sudan
Sudan
centre for census, statistics and evaluation."[135] In addition, President Kiir "suspected figures were being deflated in some regions and inflated in others, and that made the final tally 'unacceptable'."[136] He claimed that the Southern Sudanese population actually constituted one-third of that of Sudan, though the census showed it to be only 22%.[134] Many southern Sudanese were also said to have been uncounted "due to bad weather, poor communication and transport networks, and some areas were unreachable, while many southern Sudanese remained in exile in neighbouring countries, leading to 'unacceptable results', according [to] southern Sudanese authorities."[136] The chief American technical adviser for the census in the south said that the census-takers probably reached only 89% of the population.[137] 2009 census[edit] In 2009, Sudan
Sudan
initiated a Southern Sudanese census ahead of the 2011 independence referendum, which would also include the South Sudanese diaspora; however, this initiative was criticised for leaving out countries with a high share of the South Sudanese diaspora, rather counting countries where the diaspora share was low.[138] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in South Sudan

Sunday Mass in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rumbek

Religions followed by the South Sudanese include traditional indigenous religions, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam.[139][140] The last census to mention the religion of southerners dates back to 1956 where a majority were classified as following traditional beliefs or were Christian
Christian
while 18% were Muslim.[141] Scholarly[142][143][144] and some U.S. Department of State sources[32] state that a majority of southern Sudanese maintain traditional indigenous (sometimes referred to as animist) beliefs with those following Christianity
Christianity
in a minority. However, according to the U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report
International Religious Freedom Report
of 2012 the majority of the population adhere to Christianity, while reliable statistics on animist and Muslim
Muslim
belief are not available.[145] The Federal Research Division of the US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
states that "in the early 1990s possibly no more than 10% of southern Sudan's population was Christian".[146] In the early 1990s, official records of Sudan
Sudan
claimed that the population of what was then included as South Sudan, 25% of people followed traditional religions and 5% were Christians.[147] However, some news reports claim a Christian majority,[148][149] and the US Episcopal Church claims the existence of large numbers of Anglican adherents from the Episcopal Church of the Sudan: 2 million members in 2005.[150] Likewise, according to the World Christian
Christian
Encyclopedia, the Catholic Church is the largest single Christian
Christian
body in Sudan
Sudan
since 1995, with 2.7 million Catholics mainly concentrated in South Sudan.[151] A 18 December 2012 report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center states that in 2010, 60.5% of South Sudan’s population was Christian, 32.9% were followers of traditional African religion and 6.2% were Muslim.[152] The Presbyterian Church in Sudan
Sudan
is the third largest denomination in Southern Sudan. It has about 1,000,000 members in 500 congregations.[153] Some publishers described the conflicts prior to partition as a Muslim- Christian
Christian
war, but others reject this notion, claiming Muslim
Muslim
and Christian
Christian
sides sometimes overlapped.[154] Speaking at Saint Theresa Cathedral in Juba, South Sudanese President Kiir, a Roman Catholic, said that South Sudan
Sudan
would be a nation that respects freedom of religion.[155] Amongst Christians, most are Catholic and Anglican, though other denominations are also active, and animist beliefs are often blended with Christian
Christian
beliefs.[156] Diaspora[edit] Main article: South Sudanese diaspora The South Sudanese diaspora consists of citizens of South Sudan residing abroad. The number of South Sudanese outside South Sudan
Sudan
has sharply increased since the beginning of the struggle for independence from the North Sudan. Almost one and a half million South Sudanese have left the country as refugees, either permanently or as temporary workforce, leading to the establishment of the South Sudanese diaspora population. The largest communities of the South Sudanese diaspora are located in North America, Western Europe, and Oceania are in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and small communities exist in France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, and New Zealand. Culture[edit] Main articles: Culture of South Sudan
Sudan
and Tourism in South Sudan

Scarified tribeswoman, South Sudan, 2011

Due to the many years of the civil war, South Sudan's culture is heavily influenced by its neighbours. Many South Sudanese fled to Ethiopia, Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
where they interacted with the nationals and learned their languages and culture. For most of those who remained in the country, or went north to Sudan
Sudan
and Egypt, they largely assimilated Arab culture. Most South Sudanese value knowing one's tribal origin, its traditional culture and dialect even while in exile and diaspora. Although the common languages spoken are Juba
Juba
Arabic
Arabic
and English, Swahili is being introduced to the population to improve the country's relations with its East African neighbours. Music[edit] Many music artists from South Sudan
Sudan
use English, Swahili, Arabi Juba, their dialect or a mix of all. Popular artists like Yaba Angelosi
Yaba Angelosi
sing Afro-beat, R&B, and Zouk; Dynamq is popular for his reggae releases; and Emmanuel Kembe who sings folk, reggae and Afro-beat. Emmanuel Jal
Emmanuel Jal
is one South Sudanese music artist who has broken through on an international level[157] with his unique form of Hip Hop and a positive message in his lyrics.[158] Jal, a former child soldier turned musician received good airplay and album reviews in the UK[159] and has also been sought out for the lecture circuit with major talks at popular talkfests like TED.[160] Games and sports[edit] Main article: Sport in South Sudan

South Sudanese-born basketball player Luol Deng

Many traditional and modern games and sports are popular in South Sudan, particularly wrestling and mock battles. The traditional sports were mainly played after the harvest seasons to celebrate the harvests and finish the farming seasons. During the matches, they smeared themselves with ochre – perhaps to enhance the grip or heighten their perception. The matches attracted large numbers of spectators who sang, played drums and danced in support of their favourite wrestlers. Though these were perceived as competition, they were primarily for entertainment.[161] Association football
Association football
is also becoming popular in South Sudan, and there are many initiatives by the Government of South Sudan
Sudan
and other partners to promote the sport and improve the level of play. One of these initiatives is South Sudan
Sudan
Youth Sports Association (SSYSA). SSYSA is already holding football clinics in Konyokonyo and Muniki areas of Juba
Juba
in which young boys are coached. In recognition of these efforts with youth football, the country recently hosted the CECAFA youth football competitions. Barely a month earlier, it had also hosted the larger East African Schools Sports tournaments.[citation needed] The South Sudan
Sudan
national association football team joined the Confederation of African Football
Confederation of African Football
in February 2012 and became a full FIFA
FIFA
member in May 2012.[162] The team played its first match against Tusker FC
Tusker FC
of the Kenyan Premier League
Kenyan Premier League
on 10 July 2011 in Juba
Juba
as part of independence celebrations,[163] scoring early but losing 1–3 to the more experienced team.[164] Famous South Sudanese footballers are James Moga, Richard Justin, Athir Thomas, Goma Genaro Awad, Khamis Leyano, Khamis Martin and Roy Gulwak. The South Sudanese can boast links to top basketball players. Luol Deng is a National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
star in the United States, where he plays for the Los Angeles Lakers; at the international level, he represents Great Britain. Other leading international basketball players from South Sudan
Sudan
include Manute Bol, Kueth Duany, Deng Gai, Ater Majok, and Thon Maker. The South Sudan
Sudan
national basketball team played its first match against the Uganda
Uganda
national basketball team on 10 July 2011 in Juba.[163] One athlete from South Sudan, Guor Marial, competed in the 2012 Summer Olympics. Due to South Sudan
Sudan
not as yet possessing an official Olympics organization, and Marial not yet possessing American citizenship, he, along with three athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles, competed under the banner of Independent Olympic Athletes. On 2 August 2015 at the 128th IOC Session, South Sudan
Sudan
was granted full recognition of its National Olympic Committee. South Sudan competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics with three athletes in track and field. No medals were won during this Olympics.[165] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of South Sudan See also: List of companies based in South Sudan

Loka Teaks is the largest teak plantation in Africa.[citation needed]

The economy of South Sudan
Sudan
is one of the world's most underdeveloped with South Sudan
Sudan
having little existing infrastructure and the highest maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates in the world as of 2011[update].[166] South Sudan
Sudan
exports timber to the international market. The region also contains many natural resources such as petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, diamonds, hardwoods, limestone and hydropower.[167] The country's economy, as in many other developing countries, is heavily dependent on agriculture. Other than natural resources-based companies, other such organisations include Southern Sudan
Sudan
Beverages Limited, a subsidiary of SABMiller. Oil[edit] The oilfields in the south have been significant to the economy since the latter part of the 20th century. South Sudan
Sudan
has the third-largest oil reserves in Sub-Saharan Africa.[168] However, after South Sudan became an independent nation in July 2011, southern and northern negotiators were not immediately able to reach an agreement on how to split the revenue from these southern oilfields.[169]

Oil and gas concessions in Sudan
Sudan
– 2004

It is estimated that South Sudan
Sudan
has around 4 times the oil deposits of Sudan. The oil revenues, according to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), were split equally for the duration of the agreement period.[170] Since South Sudan
Sudan
relies on pipelines, refineries, and Port Sudan's facilities in Red Sea state in Sudan, the agreement stated that the government of Sudan
Sudan
in Khartoum
Khartoum
would receive a 50% share of all oil revenues.[170][171] This arrangement was maintained during the second period of autonomy from 2005 to 2011. In the run up to independence, northern negotiators reportedly pressed for a deal maintaining the 50–50 split of oil revenues, while the South Sudanese were holding out for more favorable terms.[171] Oil revenues constitute more than 98% of the government of South Sudan's budget according to the southern government's Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning and this has amounted to more than $8 billion in revenue since the signing of the peace agreement.[170] After independence, South Sudan
Sudan
objected to Sudan
Sudan
charging US$34 per barrel to transport oil through the pipeline to the oil terminal at Port Sudan. With production of around 30,000 barrels per day, this was costing over a million dollars per day. In January 2012, South Sudan suspended oil production, causing a dramatic reduction in revenue and food costs to rise by 120%.[172] China National Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation (CNPC) is a major investor in South Sudan's oil sector.[168] South Sudan's economy is under pressure to diversify away from oil as oil reserves will likely halve by 2020 if no new finds are made, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).[173] Debt[edit] In terms of South Sudan’s external debt, Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan maintain a shared debt of approximately 38 billion dollars, all of which has accumulated throughout the past five decades.[174] Though a small portion of this debt is owed to such international institutions as the World Bank
World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(approximately 5.3 billion according to a 2009 report provided by the Bank of Sudan), the bulk of its debt load is actually owed to numerous foreign actors that have provided the nation with financial loans, including the Paris Club
Paris Club
(over 11 billion dollars) and also non- Paris Club
Paris Club
bilateral creditors (over 13 billion dollars).[175] The Paris Club
Paris Club
refers to an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the world’s most influential economies, including such member nations as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France
France
and Canada, while non- Paris Club
Paris Club
bilateral creditors refers to any entity that does not enjoy permanent/associated status as a Paris Club member.[176] Private bilateral creditors (i.e. private commercial banks and private credit suppliers) account for the majority of the remainder (approximately 6 billion of the total debt).[177] While it is possible to arrive at a relatively accurate determination of the region’s total debt accumulation, it is not yet possible to determine precisely how much debt the newly formed nation of South Sudan
Sudan
independently carries, as an agreement has not yet been reached between Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan
Sudan
regarding this highly contentious issue. East African Community[edit] The presidents of Kenya
Kenya
and Rwanda
Rwanda
invited the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan
Sudan
to apply for membership upon the independence of South Sudan
Sudan
in 2011,[96][178] and South Sudan
Sudan
was reportedly an applicant country as of mid-July 2011.[96][179] Analysts suggested that South Sudan's early efforts to integrate infrastructure, including rail links and oil pipelines,[180] with systems in Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
indicated intention on the part of Juba
Juba
to pivot away from dependence on Sudan
Sudan
and toward the EAC. Reuters
Reuters
considered South Sudan the likeliest candidate for EAC expansion in the short term,[181] and an article in Tanzanian daily The Citizen that reported East African Legislative Assembly Speaker Abdirahin Haithar Abdi said South Sudan was "free to join the EAC" asserted that analysts believe the country will soon become a full member of the regional body.[182] On 17 September 2011, the Daily Nation
Daily Nation
quoted a South Sudanese MP as saying that while his government was eager to join the EAC, it would likely delay its membership over concerns that its economy was not sufficiently developed to compete with EAC member states and could become a "dumping ground" for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan exports.[183] This was contradicted by President Salva Kiir, who announced South Sudan
Sudan
had officially embarked on the application process one month later.[184] The application was initially deferred by the EAC in December 2012,[185] however incidents with Ugandan boda-boda operators in South Sudan
Sudan
have created political tension and may delay the process.[186] In December 2012, Tanzania
Tanzania
officially agreed to South Sudan’s bid to join the EAC, clearing the way for the world’s newest state to become the regional bloc’s sixth member.[187] In May 2013 The EAC set aside $82,000 for the admission of South Sudan
Sudan
into the bloc even though admission may not happen until 2016. The process, to start after the EAC Council of Ministers meeting in August 2013, was projected to take at least four years. At the 14th Ordinary Summit held in Nairobi in 2012, EAC heads of state approved the verification report that was presented by the Council of Ministers, then directed it to start the negotiation process with South Sudan.[188] A team was formed to assess South Sudan's bid; however, in April 2014, the nation requested a delay in the admissions process, presumably due to South Sudanese Civil War.[189][190] South Sudan's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Barnaba Marial Benjamin, claimed publicly in October 2015 that, following evaluations and meetings of a special technical committee in May, June, August, September and October, the committee has recommended that South Sudan be allowed to join the East African Community. Those recommendations, however, had not been officially released to the public. It was reported that South Sudan
Sudan
could be admitted as early as November 2015 when the heads of East African States had their summit meeting.[191] South Sudan
Sudan
was eventually approved for membership in East African Community on March 2016,[192] and formally acceded with the signature of the treaty in April 2016.[193] South Sudan
Sudan
and the Commonwealth of Nations[edit] See also South Sudan
Sudan
and the Commonwealth of Nations South Sudan
Sudan
has applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[194] considering that South Sudan
Sudan
was part of the British Empire, and has 2 Commonwealth republics, Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
as neighbouring countries. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in South Sudan

A train travelling towards Wau

Two Mil Mi-17
Mil Mi-17
helicopters at Juba
Juba
Airport

Railway[edit] Main article: Rail transport in South Sudan South Sudan
Sudan
has 248 km (154 mi) of single-track 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge railway line from the Sudanese border to Wau terminus. There are proposed extensions from Wau to Juba. There are also plans to link Juba
Juba
with the Kenyan and Ugandan railway networks. Air[edit] Main article: List of airports in South Sudan The busiest and most developed airport in South Sudan
Sudan
is Juba
Juba
Airport, which has regular international connections to Asmara, Entebbe, Nairobi, Cairo, Addis Ababa, and Khartoum. Juba
Juba
Airport was also the home base of Feeder Airlines Company and Southern Star Airlines.[195] Other international airports include Malakal, with international flights to Addis Ababa and Khartoum; Wau, with weekly service to Khartoum; and Rumbek, also with weekly flights to Khartoum. Southern Sudan
Sudan
Airlines also serves Nimule and Akobo, which have unpaved runways. Several smaller airports exist throughout South Sudan, the majority consisting of little more than dirt runways. On 4 April 2012, plans were unveiled to launch a South Sudanese national airline, primarily for domestic service at first but eventually expanding to international service.[196] Humanitarian situation[edit] See also: Health in South Sudan South Sudan
Sudan
is acknowledged to have some of the worst health indicators in the world.[197][198][199] The under-five infant mortality rate is 135.3 per 1,000, whilst maternal mortality is the highest in the world at 2,053.9 per 100,000 live births.[199] In 2004, there were only three surgeons serving southern Sudan, with three proper hospitals, and in some areas there was just one doctor for every 500,000 people.[197] The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
in the South Sudan
Sudan
is poorly documented but the prevalence is believed around 3.1%.[200] According to a 2013 study, South Sudan
Sudan
"probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa".[201] South Sudan
Sudan
is one of the few countries where dracunculiasis still occurs.[202][203][204] At the time of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Comprehensive Peace Agreement
of 2005, humanitarian needs in Southern Sudan
Sudan
were massive. However, humanitarian organizations under the leadership of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) managed to ensure sufficient funding to bring relief to the local populations. Along with recovery and development aid, humanitarian projects were included in the 2007 Work Plan of the United Nations
United Nations
and partners. More than 90% of the population of South Sudan
Sudan
live on less than $1 a day, despite the GDP per capita of the entirety of Sudan
Sudan
being $1200 ($3.29/day).[205] In 2007, the United Nations
United Nations
OCHA (under the leadership of Éliane Duthoit) decreased its involvement in Southern Sudan, as humanitarian needs gradually diminished, slowly but markedly turning over control to the recovery and development activities of NGOs and community-based organisations.[206] Famine
Famine
reportedly led to deaths in Northern Bahr el Ghazal
Northern Bahr el Ghazal
and Warrap states in mid-2011, though the state governments of both denied hunger there was severe enough to cause fatalities.[207] In Pibor
Pibor
County located in the Jonglei
Jonglei
State, in December 2011 and January 2012, cattle raids led to border clashes that eventually resulted in widespread ethnic violence, with thousands of deaths and tens of thousands of South Sudanese being displaced, and hundreds of Médecins Sans Frontières
Médecins Sans Frontières
staff went missing. The government declared the area a disaster zone and took control from local authorities.[208] South Sudan
Sudan
has a very high rate of child marriage.[209] Violence against women is common in the country, and South Sudan's laws and policies have been criticized as inadequate in offering protection.[210][211] Water crisis[edit] Further information: Water supply in South Sudan See also: Sudanese nomadic conflicts The water supply in South Sudan
Sudan
is faced with numerous challenges. It is estimated that between 50% and 60% of the population of South Sudan has access to an improved water source, such as a hand pump, a protected well or – for a small minority – piped water supply. Although the White Nile
White Nile
runs through the country, water is scarce during the dry season in areas that are not located on the river. About half the population does not have access to an improved water source, defined as a protected well, standpipe or a handpump within 1 km. The few existing piped water supply systems are often not well maintained and the water they provide is often not safe to drink. Displaced people returning home put a huge strain on infrastructure, and the government institutions in charge of the sector are weak. Substantial external funding from numerous government agencies and non-governmental organizations is available to improve water supply. Numerous non-governmental organizations support water supply in Southern Sudan, such as Water is Basic, the Obakki Foundation[212] and Bridgton-Lake Region Rotary Club[213] from North America. Refugees[edit]

Jamam refugee camp

As of February 2014, South Sudan
Sudan
was host to over 230,000 refugees, with the vast majority, over 209,000, having arrived recently from Sudan, because of the War in Darfur. Other African countries that contribute the most refugees to South Sudan
Sudan
are the Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo.[214] As a result of the war that erupted in December 2013, more than 2.3 million people – one in every five people in South Sudan
Sudan
– have been forced to flee their homes, including 1.66 million internally displaced people (with 53.4 per cent estimated to be children) and nearly 644,900 refugees in neighbouring countries. Some 185,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) have sought refuge in UN Protection of Civilians (PoC) sites, while around 90 per cent of IDPs are on the run or sheltering outside PoC sites.[215] Consequently, UNHCR is stepping up its response through an inter-agency collaborative approach under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, and working with the International Organization for Migration (IOM). In early February 2013, UNHCR started distributing relief items outside the UN base in Malakal, South Sudan, which was expected to reach 10,000 people.[214] 2017 famine[edit] Further information: 2017 South Sudan
Sudan
famine On 20 February 2017 South Sudan
Sudan
and the United Nations
United Nations
declared a famine in parts of former Unity State, with the warning that it could spread rapidly without further action. Over 100,000 people were affected. The UN World Food Programme
UN World Food Programme
said that 40% of the population of South Sudan, 4.9 million people, need food urgently.[216][217] U.N. officials said that President Salva Kiir Mayardit
Salva Kiir Mayardit
was blocking food deliveries to some areas.[218] Furthermore, UNICEF warned that more than 1 million children in South Sudan
Sudan
are subjected to malnutrition.[219] Notable people[edit]

Jackson Abugo, politician Deng Thiak Adut, attorney, refugee advocate and 2017 NSW Australian of the Year Jacob Aligo, politician Manute Bol
Manute Bol
(1962–2010), Sudanese-born American basketball player and political activist Angelo Dayu Agor, politician Luol Deng
Luol Deng
(born 1985), Sudanese-British professional basketball player John Garang
John Garang
(1945–2005), politician and leader Margret Hassan
Margret Hassan
(born 1997), sprinter Santino Kenyi
Santino Kenyi
(born 1993), middle-distance runner Anjelina Lohalith
Anjelina Lohalith
(born 1993), track and field athlete Rose Lokonyen
Rose Lokonyen
(born 1995), track and field athlete Thon Maker
Thon Maker
(born 1997), Sudanese-born Australian professional basketball player Guor Marial
Guor Marial
(born 1984), track and field athlete Salva Kiir Mayardit
Salva Kiir Mayardit
(born 1951), President of South Sudan Nhial Deng Nhial, politician Alek Wek
Alek Wek
(born 1977), South Sudanese–British model and designer Emmanuel Jal
Emmanuel Jal
(born Jal Jok c. 1980), South Sudanese-Canadian artist, actor, former child soldier, and political activist Lawrence Lual Lual
Lawrence Lual Lual
(born 1940 , died 2011) , South Sudanese politician

See also[edit]

Book: South Sudan

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal South Sudan
Sudan
portal

Cabinet of South Sudan International recognition of South Sudan Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan, the autonomous government that existed between 2005 and 2011. Southern Sudan
Sudan
Autonomous Region, the autonomous government that existed between 1972 and 1983. Lost Boys of Sudan South Sudanese diaspora Society for the Study of the Sudans UK Sudan
Sudan
Studies Association Anataban Campaign, an artivism collective with the logo "I am tired" (reflecting the impact of war on citizens in South Sudan).

Notes[edit]

^ The Transitional Constitution of the Republic
Republic
of South Sudan, Part One, 6(1): "All indigenous languages of South Sudan
Sudan
are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted".[3]

^ See table in Foreign relations of South Sudan
Sudan
with footnotes for early recognition countries.

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(Guinea-worm disease)". World Health Organization.  ^ Ambler, Sean (10 January 2011). "Support freedom for Southern Sudan and fight for workers' unity against imperialism". League for the Fifth International. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ "SUDAN: Peace bolsters food security in the south". IRIN. 18 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ "South Sudan's N. Bahr el Ghazal denies reports that hunger caused death". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune. 17 August 2011. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ Meldrum, Andrew (6 January 2012). "South Sudan
Sudan
News: Ethnic clashes must be solved in the long term". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012.  ^ According to the WHO: "The 10 countries with the highest rates of child marriage are: Niger, 75%; Chad
Chad
and Central African Republic, 68%; Bangladesh, 66%; Guinea, 63%; Mozambique, 56%; Mali, 55%; Burkina Faso and South Sudan, 52%; and Malawi, 50%. "[1] ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ Inter-Agency Standing Committee (2014). Humanitarian Crisis in South Sudan
Sudan
Gender Alert 2: May 2014. United Nations
United Nations
Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) ^ "Obakki Foundation". Obakki.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.  ^ "Rotary Club of Bridgton Lake-Region". Lakeregionrotary.com. Retrieved 2 May 2013.  ^ a b "South Sudan
Sudan
Emergency Situation-Regional Update". UNHCR. 2 February 2014.  ^ "2016 South Sudan
Sudan
Humanitarian Needs Overview". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 5 January 2016.  ^ " Famine
Famine
Hits Parts Of South Sudan". World Food Programme. 20 February 2017.  ^ "South Sudan
Sudan
declares famine in Unity State". BBC News. 20 February 2017.  ^ " Famine
Famine
declared in part of South Sudan
Sudan
by government and UN". WHIO. 20 February 2017.  ^ CNN, Farai Sevenzo and Bryony Jones. " Famine
Famine
declared in South Sudan". CNN. Retrieved 2017-03-07. 

Further reading[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. – Sudan Walter C. Soderlund, E. Donald Briggs, The Independence of South Sudan: The Role of Mass Media in the Responsibility to Prevent, Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2014. pp. $38.99 (paper), ISBN 978-1-77112-117-0 Mohamed Omer Beshir: The Southern Sudan. Background to Conflict. C. Hurst & Co., London 1968. Biel, Melha Rout (2007). South Sudan
Sudan
after the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Jena: Netzbandt Verlag. ISBN 978-3-937884-01-1.  Daly, M. W.; Rolandsen, Øystein H. (2016). A History of South Sudan: From Slavery
Slavery
to Independence. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11631-2. OCLC 921821890.  Tvedt, Terje (2004). South Sudan. An Annotated Bibliography. (2 vols) (2nd ed.). London/New York: IB Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-987-4.  "Profile: Southern Sudan
Sudan
leader Salva Kiir". BBC Online. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  "No One to Intervene: Gaps in Civilian Protection in Southern Sudan" (PDF). New York: Human Rights Watch. June 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2011. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Sudan.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for South Sudan.

Government of South Sudan Government of South Sudan – USA and UN Mission Government of South Sudan – UK Mission "South Sudan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  South Sudan
Sudan
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) South Sudan
Sudan
profile from the BBC News. Photographer's Account of South Sudan
Sudan
– "The Cost of Silence: A Traveling Exhibition" "Sudan's Shaky Peace", National Geographic, November 2010. Photo gallery by George Steinmetz. Peace Agreements signed by South Sudan, UN Peacemaker UN Outrage at South Sudan
Sudan
Attack

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