Felis irbis Ehrenberg, 1830 (=
Felis uncia Schreber, 1775), by
subsequent designation (Palmer, 1904).
Uncia uncia Pocock, 1930
The snow leopard or ounce (
Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to
the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It is listed as
Vulnerable on the
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species because the
global population is estimated to number less than 10,000 mature
individuals and decline about 10% in the next 23 years. As of 2016,
the global population was estimated at 4,500 to 8,745 mature
The snow leopard inhabits alpine and subalpine zones at elevations
from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft), ranging from
Mongolia and western China. In the northern
range countries, it also occurs at lower elevations.
Taxonomically, the snow leopard was initially classified in the
monotypic genus Uncia. Since 2008, it is considered a member of the
Panthera based on results of genetic studies. Two subspecies
were described based on morphological differences, but genetic
differences between the two have not been confirmed. It is
therefore regarded a monotypic species.
1 Naming and etymology
2 Taxonomy and evolution
4 Distribution and habitat
5 Ecology and behavior
Hunting and diet
5.2 Reproduction and life cycle
Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program
7.2 2015 designated International Year of the
7.3 In captivity
8 Relationships with humans
8.1 Attacks on humans and livestock
8.2 In culture
8.3 In the media
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Naming and etymology
Both the latinized genus name, Uncia, and the occasional English name
ounce are derived from the
Old French once, originally used for the
European lynx. Once itself is believed to have arisen by
back-formation from an earlier variant of lynx, lonce – the "l"
of lonce was construed as an abbreviated la ('the'), leaving once to
be perceived as the animal's name. This, like the English version
ounce, came to be used for other lynx-sized cats, and eventually for
the snow leopard.
The word panther derives from classical
Latin panthēra, itself from
the ancient Greek pánthēr (πάνθηρ). The Greek pan-
(πάν), meaning "all", and thēr (θήρ), meaning "prey" bears the
meaning of "predator of all animals". Use of the word for a beast
originated in antiquity in the Orient, probably from
India to Persia
Taxonomy and evolution
Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The upper cladogram is based on
two studies published in 2006 and 2009;., the lower one is
based on studies published in 2010 and 2011.
The snow leopard was first described by the German naturalist Johann
Christian Daniel von Schreber on the basis of an illustration in his
1777 publication Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit
Beschreibungen. Schreber named the cat
Felis uncia and gave its type
locality as Barbary, Persia, East India, and China. In 1854, the
John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray proposed the genus Uncia, to which
he subordinated the snow leopard under the name Uncia irbis.
Reginald Innes Pocock
Reginald Innes Pocock corroborated this
classification, but attributed the scientific name Uncia uncia. He
also described morphological differences between snow leopards and the
Following Schreber's description of the species, several snow leopard
subspecies were proposed:
U. u. uncia in
Mongolia and Russia;
U. u. uncioides in western China and the Himalayas;
U. u. baikalensis-romanii was proposed for a population living in the
Until spring 2017, there was no evidence available for recognition of
subspecies. Results of a phylogeographic study published in
September 2017 indicate that three subspecies should be recognised: P.
u. uncia in the
Pamir Mountains range countries, P. u. uncioides in
Himalayas and Qinghai, and P. u. irbis in Mongolia.
The snow leopard is part of the
Panthera lineage, one of the eight
lineages of Felidae. This lineage comprises the species of Panthera
and Neofelis. The
Neofelis lineage diverged first from the remainder
of the Felinae. Subsequent branching between the snow leopard and
clouded leopard began two to three million years ago, but the details
of this are disputed. Results of a phylogenetic study published in
2006, based on nDNA and mtDNA analysis, indicate that snow leopard and
tiger are sister taxa, whereas the leopard is sister taxon to two
Panthera – one consisting of the tiger and the snow
leopard, and the other of the lion and the jaguar. Results of a
similar study published in 2009 corroborated this assessment.
Results obtained during two subsequent phylogenetic studies indicate a
swapping in the cladogram between the leopard and the jaguar.
A 2016 study indicates that, at some point in their evolution, snow
leopards interbred with lions, as their mitochondrial genomes are more
similar to each other than their nuclear genomes. These results
indicate that a female hybrid offspring of male ancestors of modern
snow leopards and female ancestors of modern lions interbred with the
male ancestors of modern snow leopards.
Closeup of a male snow leopard
A snow leopard showing its large paw with thick fur on pads
The thickly furred tail of a snow leopard, photographed at Zoo
The snow leopard's fur is whitish to gray with black spots on head and
neck, but larger rosettes on the back, flanks and bushy tail. The
belly is whitish. The fur is thick with hairs between 5 and 12 cm
(2.0 and 4.7 in) long. Its body is stocky, short-legged and
slightly smaller than the other cats of the genus Panthera, reaching a
shoulder height of 56 cm (22 in), and ranging in head to
body size from 75 to 150 cm (30 to 59 in). Its tail is 80 to
105 cm (31 to 41 in) long. Its eyes are pale green or grey
in color. Its muzzzle is short and its forehead domed. Its nasal
cavities are large. It weighs between 22 and 55 kg (49
and 121 lb), with an occasional large male reaching 75 kg
(165 lb) and small female of under 25 kg
The snow leopard shows several adaptations for living in a cold,
mountainous environment. Its body is stocky, its fur is thick, and its
ears are small and rounded, features that help to minimize heat loss.
Its broad paws well distribute the body weight for walking on snow,
and have fur on their undersides to increase their grip on steep and
unstable surfaces; it also helps to minimize heat loss. Its long and
flexible tail helps to maintain balance in the rocky terrain. The tail
is also very thick due to fat storage, and is very thickly covered
with fur, which allows the cat to use it like a blanket to protect its
face when asleep.
The snow leopard cannot roar, despite possessing partial ossification
of the hyoid bone. This partial ossification was previously thought to
be essential for allowing the big cats to roar, but new studies show
that the ability to roar is due to other morphological features,
especially of the larynx, which are absent in the snow
Snow leopard vocalizations include hisses, chuffing,
mews, growls, and wailing.
Distribution and habitat
In Ladakh, India
The snow leopard is distributed from the west of
Lake Baikal through
southern Siberia, in the Kunlun Mountains, in the Russian Altai
mountains, Sayan and Tannu-Ola Mountains, in the Tian Shan, across
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and
Uzbekistan to the Hindu Kush
in eastern Afghanistan,
Karakoram in northern Pakistan, in the Pamir
Mountains, and in the high altitudes of the
Himalayas in India, Nepal,
and Bhutan, and the Tibetan Plateau. In Mongolia, it is found in the
Mongolian and Gobi
Altai Mountains and the Khangai Mountains. In
Tibet, it is found up to the
Altyn-Tagh in the north.
Potential snow leopard habitat in the Indian
Himalayas is estimated at
less than 90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi) in the states of
Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and
Arunachal Pradesh, of which about 34,000 km2
(13,000 sq mi) is considered good habitat, and 14.4% is
protected. In the beginning of the 1990s, the Indian snow leopard
population was estimated at roughly 200–600 individuals living
across about 25 protected areas.
In summer, snow leopards usually live above the tree line on
mountainous meadows and in rocky regions at altitudes from 2,700 to
6,000 m (8,900 to 19,700 ft). In winter, they come down into
the forests to altitudes around 1,200 to 2,000 m (3,900 to
Snow leopards prefer rocky, broken terrain, and can
travel without difficulty in snow up to 85 cm (33 in) deep,
although they prefer to use existing trails made by other animals.
Global warming has caused the tree line to be increased in altitude,
resulting in the decrease of wild prey that depend on the plants for
Before 2003, the total wild snow leopard population was estimated at
4,080 to 6,500 individuals. In 2016, the global population was
estimated at 4,678 to 8,745 individuals, suggesting that the total
number of snow leopards was larger than previously thought.
Snow leopards inhabit the following protected areas:
Chitral National Park, in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Hemis National Park, in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Khunjerab National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
Nanda Devi National Park, in Uttarakhand, India, a UNESCO Natural
World Heritage Site
Qomolangma National Nature Preserve, Tibet, China
Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, a UNESCO
Natural World Heritage
Tumor Feng Nature Reserve, western Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang,
Valley of Flowers
Valley of Flowers National Park, Uttarakhand, India, a UNESCO Natural
World Heritage Site
Shey-Phoksundo National Park, Dolpa, Nepal
Hunting Reserve, Baglung, Nepal
Annapurna Conservation Area, Western Nepal
Api Nampa Conservation Area, Western Nepal
Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan
Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park, Mongolia
Ubsunur Hollow, on the territorial border of
Mongolia and the Republic
of Tuva, Russia
Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary, near Anini, India
Aksu-Djabagly Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan
Sarychat-Ertash State Nature Reserve, Kyrgyzstan
Katun Nature Reserve, Russia
Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary, Lahaul Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India
Pin Valley National Park, Lahaul Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India
Great Himalayan National Park, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, India
Sacred Himalayan Landscape, Nepal, India, Bhutan
Snow leopards were also recorded by camera traps at 16 locations in
northeastern Afghanistan's isolated Wakhan Corridor.
Ecology and behavior
Walking in the snow
The snow leopard is solitary, except for females with cubs. They rear
them in dens in the mountains for extended periods.
An individual snow leopard lives within a well-defined home range, but
does not defend its territory aggressively when encroached upon by
other snow leopards. Home ranges vary greatly in size. In Nepal, where
prey is abundant, a home range may be as small as 12 km2
(5 sq mi) to 40 km2 (15 sq mi) and up to five
to 10 animals are found here per 100 km2 (39 sq mi); in
habitats with sparse prey, though, an area of 1,000 km2
(386 sq mi) supports only five of these cats. However, a
new study lasting from 2008 to 2014 indicates their ranges are much
greater than believed; a male snow leopard requires a territory of
around 80 square miles, while females require up to 48 square miles of
territory. Taking this data into account, it is estimated that 40
percent of the 170 protected areas in place are smaller than the space
required to support a single male snow leopard.
Like other cats, snow leopards use scent marks to indicate their
territories and common travel routes. These are most commonly produced
by scraping the ground with the hind feet before depositing urine or
scat, but they also spray urine onto sheltered patches of rock.
Snow leopards are crepuscular, being most active at dawn and dusk.
They are known for being extremely secretive and well camouflaged.
Hunting and diet
Snow leopard with a marmot in Kyrgyzstan
Eating at Ménagerie du Jardin des plantes, Paris
The snow leopard is a carnivore and actively hunts its prey. It is an
opportunistic hunter and also eats carrion. It can kill animals two to
four times its own weight, such as Himalayan blue sheep, Himalayan
tahr, markhor, argali, horse, and camel. It prefers prey ranging
in weight from 36 to 76 kg (79 to 168 lb), but also hunts
smaller mammals such as marmot, pika and vole species.
Snow leopards prefer to ambush prey from above, using broken terrain
to conceal their approach. They will actively pursue prey down steep
mountainsides, using the momentum of their initial leap to chase
animals for up to 300 m (980 ft). They kill with a bite to
the neck, and may drag the prey to a safe location before feeding.
They consume all edible parts of the carcass, and can survive on a
single bharal for two weeks before hunting again. Annual prey needs
appears to be 20–30 adult blue sheep.
The snow leopard is capable of killing most animals in its range, with
the probable exception of the adult male yak. It also eats a
significant amount of vegetation, including grass and twigs. Snow
leopards have been recorded to hunt in pairs successfully, especially
The diet of the snow leopard varies across its range and with the time
of year, and depends on prey availability. In the Himalayas, it preys
Himalayan blue sheep
Himalayan blue sheep and Siberian ibex. In the Karakoram,
Tian Shan, Altai and Mongolia's Tost Mountains, its main prey consists
of Siberian ibex, Thorold's deer,
Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer and
argali. Other species hunted when available include red panda,
wild boar, langur monkey, snow cock and Chukar partridge.
Where snow leopards prey on domestic livestock, they are subject to
conflict with humans. However, even in Mongolia, where wild prey
has been reduced, and interactions with humans are common, domestic
livestock, mainly domestic sheep, comprises less than 20% of snow
leopard diet. Herders kill snow leopards to prevent them from
taking their livestock. The loss of prey animals due to
overgrazing by domestic livestock, poaching, and defense of livestock
are the major drivers for the decreasing population of the snow
leopard. The snow leopard has not been reported to attack humans, and
appears to be the least aggressive to humans of all big cats. As a
result, they are easily driven away from livestock; they readily
abandon their kills when threatened, and may not even defend
themselves when attacked.
Reproduction and life cycle
Cubs at the
Cat Survival Trust, Welwyn, the United Kingdom
The oldest known snow leopard, Shynghyz at Tama Zoo, Tokyo, Japan
Snow leopards are unusual among large cats in that they have a
well-defined birth peak. They usually mate in late winter, marked by a
noticeable increase in marking and calling.
Snow leopards have a
gestation period of 90–100 days, so the cubs are born between April
Oestrus typically lasts from five to eight days, and males
tend not to seek out another partner after mating, probably because
the short mating season does not allow sufficient time. Paired snow
leopards mate in the usual felid posture, from 12 to 36 times a
The mother gives birth in a rocky den or crevice lined with fur shed
from her underside. Litter sizes vary from one to five cubs, but the
average is 2.2. The cubs are blind and helpless at birth, although
already with a thick coat of fur, and weigh from 320 to 567 g
(11.3 to 20.0 oz). Their eyes open at around seven days, and the
cubs can walk at five weeks and are fully weaned by 10 weeks. Also
when they are born, they have full black spots which turn into
rosettes as they grow to adolescence.
The cubs leave the den when they are around two to four months of age,
but remain with their mother until they become independent after
around 18–22 months. Once independent, they may disperse over
considerable distances, even crossing wide expanses of flat terrain to
seek out new hunting grounds. This likely helps reduce the inbreeding
that would otherwise be common in their relatively isolated
Snow leopards become sexually mature at two to three
years, and normally live for 15–18 years, although in captivity they
can live for up to 25 years.
The major threat to snow leopard populations is poaching and illegal
trade of skins and body parts. In China, 103 to 236 animals are
poached every year, in
Mongolia between 34 and 53, in
23 and 53, in
India from 21 to 45, and in
Tajikistan 20 to 25.
Poaching is linked to prey declines and livestock depredation.
Numerous agencies are working to conserve the snow leopard and its
threatened mountain ecosystems. These include the
Leopard Conservancy, the
Leopard Network, the Cat
Specialist Group, and the
These groups and various national governments from the snow
leopard’s range, nonprofits, and donors from around the world worked
together at the 10th International
Leopard Conference in Beijing.
Their focus on research, community programs in snow leopard regions,
and education programs are aimed at understanding the cat's needs, as
well as the needs of the villagers and herder communities juxtaposed
with the snow leopards' habitats.
In 2013, government leaders and officials from all 12 countries
encompassing the snow leopard's range (Afghanistan, Bhutan, China,
India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia,
Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) came together at the Global
Forum (GSLF) initiated by the President Almazbek Atambayev of the
Kyrgyz Republic, and the State Agency on Environmental Protection and
Forestry under the government of the Kyrgyz Republic. The meeting was
held in Bishkek, the capital of the Kyrgyz Republic, and all countries
agreed that the snow leopard and the high mountain habitat it lives in
need trans-boundary support to ensure a viable future for snow leopard
populations, as well as to safeguard their fragile environment. The
event brought together many partners, including NGOs like the Snow
Leopard Conservancy, the
Leopard Trust, and the Nature and
Biodiversity Conservation Union. Also supporting the initiative were
Leopard Network, the World Bank's Global
the United Nations Development Programme, the World Wild Fund for
Nature, the United States Agency for International Development, and
Global Environment Facility.
At the GSLF meeting, the 12 range countries signed the Bishkek
Declaration to "acknowledge that the snow leopard is an irreplaceable
symbol of our nations' natural and cultural heritage and an indicator
of the health and sustainability of mountain ecosystems; and we
recognize that mountain ecosystems inhabited by snow leopards provide
essential ecosystem services, including storing and releasing water
from the origins of river systems benefitting one-third of the
world’s human population; sustaining the pastoral and agricultural
livelihoods of local communities which depend on biodiversity for
food, fuel, fodder, and medicine; and offering inspiration,
recreation, and economic opportunities." 
Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program
Out of these efforts was formed a cooperative support effort, the
Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program (GSLEP). The
GSLEP is a joint initiative of range country governments,
international agencies, civil society, and the private sector. Its
goal is to secure the long-term survival of the snow leopard in its
The goal of the GSLEP is for the 12 snow leopard range countries, with
support from conservation agencies, NGOs and others to work together
to identify and secure at least 20 healthy populations of snow
leopards across the cat’s range by 2020, or "20 by 2020". Many of
these populations will cross international boundaries.
The three criteria that will secure healthy populations of snow
leopards are populations that represent at least 100 breeding age snow
leopards, contain adequate and secure prey populations and have
connectivity to other snow leopard populations.
This is an interim goal for the years through to 2020. During the
coming years, agreement will be reached on the steps needed to achieve
the ultimate goal of ensuring that healthy snow leopard populations
remain the icon of the mountains of Asia for generations to come. 
2015 designated International Year of the
To help spread the word amongst the people, government authorities,
and conservation groups in each range country, 2015 was designated the
International Year of the
Leopard as part of the GSLEPP's work.
All range-country governments, nongovernmental and inter-governmental
organizations, local communities, and various private sector
businesses pledged to take the year as an opportunity to further work
towards conservation of snow leopards and their high-mountain
In 2008, there were approximately 600 snow leopards in zoos around the
world. In the Richmond Metropolitan Zoo in Virginia, in the United
States of America, snow leopard cubs were born in 2016.
Much progress has been made in securing the survival of the snow
leopard, with them being successfully bred in captivity. Females
usually give birth to two to three cubs in a litter, but can give
birth to up to seven in some cases.
Snow leopard in San Diego Zoo
Snow leopard in Cologne Zoological Garden
Snow leopard in an unknown zoo
Relationships with humans
Attacks on humans and livestock
Snow leopard attacks on humans are rare; only two instances are
known. On July 12, 1940, in Maloalmaatinsk gorge near Almaty, a
rabid snow leopard attacked two men during the day and inflicted
serious injuries on both. In the second case, not far from Almaty,
an old, toothless, emaciated snow leopard unsuccessfully attacked a
passerby in winter; it was captured and carried to a local
village. There are no other records of any snow leopard attacking
a human being.
Natural World episode, "
Leopard – Beyond the Myth",
interviewed a couple with a goat farm in Pakistan; the woman was
bowled over by a snow leopard escaping an enclosure where it had been
feeding on the livestock, but she was not attacked by the cat, despite
fainting and being helpless. The film crew went to some lengths to
demonstrate that the cat was primarily hunting wild prey and was often
ranging far outside the area, as they hoped to prevent local farmers
from shooting it. Nevertheless, they also found evidence of other
sightings of the cats around nearby human settlements, and of repeated
attacks on livestock (some of them unsuccessful).
attacking livestock has also been a subject of conservation journal
Snow leopards have symbolic meaning for
Turkic peoples of Central
Asia, where the animal is known as irbis or bars, so it is widely used
in heraldry and as an emblem.
The snow leopard in heraldry is sometimes known in English as the
ounce. The cat has long been used as a political symbol, the Aq Bars
('White Leopard'), by Tatars, Kazakhs, and Bulgars, among others. A
snow leopard is found on the official seal of the city of Almaty,
Kazakhstan, and the former 10,000
Kazakhstani tenge banknote also
featured one on the reverse. A mythical winged
Aq Bars is found in the
national coat of arms of Tatarstan, the seal of the city of Samarqand,
Uzbekistan, and (also with a crown) the old coat of arms of the Kazakh
capital, Astana. In Kyrgyzstan, it has been used in highly stylized
form in the modern emblem of the capital, Bishkek, and the same art
has been integrated into the badge of the
Kyrgyzstan Girl Scouts
Association. A crowned snow leopard features in the arms of Shushensky
District, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Leopard award, given to Soviet mountaineers who scaled all
five of the Soviet Union's 7,000-meter peaks, is named after the
animal, but does not depict one.
The cat is the state animal of Himachal Pradesh, a north Indian state
in the western Himalayas. The animal has also been declared the
"National Predator" of Pakistan.
Symbol of Almaty, Kazakhstan
Snow leopard on the reverse of the old 10,000-Kazakhstani tenge
The coat of arms of Tatarstan
Seal of Samarqand, Uzbekistan
Old coat of arms of Astana, Kazakhstan
Symbol of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Membership badge of the Girl Scout Association of Kyrgyzstan
Coat of arms of Shushensky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai
In the media
Documentary footage of the snow leopard is scarce. While such coverage
would not be remarkable with regard to common species, wildlife video
of the snow leopard is difficult to obtain due to the animal's rarity
and the human inaccessibility of much of its natural habitat.
BBC One TV series Planet Earth had a segment on snow leopards. The
series took some of the first video of snow leopards in the wild, and
also featured a snow leopard hunting a markhor. The episode
Mountains of Planet Earth II, aired in November 2016, featured the
rather violent mating fights of snow leopards, as well as a snow
leopard's chuffing and wailing.
Nisar Malik, a Pakistani journalist, and Mark Smith, a cameraman who
had worked on the Planet Earth segment, spent a further 18 months
filming snow leopards in the
Hindu Kush for the
BBC Two series Natural
World episode "
Leopard – Beyond the Myth". The cat has
been featured in segments of other episodes of the same series.
WNET series Nature focused on the species in its episode
"Silent Roar: Searching for the
A snow leopard named Dawa along with her cubs is one of the focal
points of the 2017
Disneynature film Born in China.
In Peter Matthiessen's 1978 travelogue The
Snow Leopard, he recounts
his two-month search with naturalist
George Schaller for snow leopards
In Philip Pullman's 1995–2000 fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials,
Lord Asriel's dæmon is a snow leopard named Stelmaria.
Tai Lung, the main antagonist of the 2008 film Kung Fu Panda, is an
anthropomorphized snow leopard.
In the 2013 film The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, photojournalist Sean
O'Connell (played by Sean Penn) is shown photographing snow leopards
Sohni the snow leopard
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Panthera uncia (category)
Wikispecies has information related to
Leopard Program. Panthera.org
Leopard Program. World Wildlife Fund
Snow Leopard. IUCN/SSC
Cat Specialist Group
Leopard Gallery. National Geographic
Snow Leopard. Wildscreen Arkive
"Silent Roar: Searching for the
Snow Leopard". PBS Nature
Snow Leopard. BBC Nature
Leopard Action Plan yet to be implemented. Wildlife Times
Snow Leopard. Paradise Wildlife Park
Big cats on the Indian subcontinent
Extant in the wild
Asiatic lion (P. leo persica)
Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Indian leopard (P. pardus fusca)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Extinct in the Indian subcontinent
Asiatic cheetah (A. jubatus venaticus)
Asiatic lion (P. leo persica)
South African cheetah
South African cheetah (A. jubatus jubatus)
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)