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Range map

Synonyms

Felis
Felis
irbis Ehrenberg, 1830 (= Felis
Felis
uncia Schreber, 1775), by subsequent designation (Palmer, 1904).[2] Uncia uncia Pocock, 1930

The snow leopard or ounce ( Panthera
Panthera
uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
because the global population is estimated to number less than 10,000 mature individuals and decline about 10% in the next 23 years. As of 2016, the global population was estimated at 4,500 to 8,745 mature individuals.[1][3] The snow leopard inhabits alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft), ranging from western Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Mongolia
Mongolia
and western China. In the northern range countries, it also occurs at lower elevations.[4][5] Taxonomically, the snow leopard was initially classified in the monotypic genus Uncia.[2] Since 2008, it is considered a member of the genus Panthera
Panthera
based on results of genetic studies. Two subspecies were described based on morphological differences, but genetic differences between the two have not been confirmed.[1] It is therefore regarded a monotypic species.[6]

Contents

1 Naming and etymology 2 Taxonomy and evolution

2.1 Subspecies 2.2 Phylogeny

3 Characteristics 4 Distribution and habitat

4.1 Population

5 Ecology and behavior

5.1 Hunting
Hunting
and diet 5.2 Reproduction and life cycle

6 Threats 7 Conservation

7.1 Global Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Forum

7.1.1 Bishkek
Bishkek
Declaration 7.1.2 Global Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
and Eco-system Protection Program

7.2 2015 designated International Year of the Snow
Snow
Leopard 7.3 In captivity

8 Relationships with humans

8.1 Attacks on humans and livestock 8.2 In culture 8.3 In the media

8.3.1 Documentary 8.3.2 Non-fiction 8.3.3 Fictional

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Naming and etymology Both the latinized genus name, Uncia, and the occasional English name ounce are derived from the Old French
Old French
once, originally used for the European lynx. Once itself is believed to have arisen by back-formation from an earlier variant of lynx, lonce – the "l" of lonce was construed as an abbreviated la ('the'), leaving once to be perceived as the animal's name. This, like the English version ounce, came to be used for other lynx-sized cats, and eventually for the snow leopard.[7][8] The word panther derives from classical Latin
Latin
panthēra, itself from the ancient Greek pánthēr (πάνθηρ).[9] The Greek pan- (πάν), meaning "all", and thēr (θήρ), meaning "prey" bears the meaning of "predator of all animals". Use of the word for a beast originated in antiquity in the Orient, probably from India
India
to Persia to Greece.[10] Taxonomy and evolution

Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The upper cladogram is based on two studies published in 2006 and 2009;.,[11][12] the lower one is based on studies published in 2010 and 2011.[13][14]

The snow leopard was first described by the German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber on the basis of an illustration in his 1777 publication Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Schreber named the cat Felis
Felis
uncia and gave its type locality as Barbary, Persia, East India, and China.[15] In 1854, the British zoologist John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray
proposed the genus Uncia, to which he subordinated the snow leopard under the name Uncia irbis.[16] British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock
Reginald Innes Pocock
corroborated this classification, but attributed the scientific name Uncia uncia. He also described morphological differences between snow leopards and the then-accepted Panthera
Panthera
species.[17] Subspecies Following Schreber's description of the species, several snow leopard subspecies were proposed:[2]

U. u. uncia in Mongolia
Mongolia
and Russia; U. u. uncioides in western China and the Himalayas; U. u. baikalensis-romanii was proposed for a population living in the southern Transbaikal
Transbaikal
region;[18]

Until spring 2017, there was no evidence available for recognition of subspecies.[6] Results of a phylogeographic study published in September 2017 indicate that three subspecies should be recognised: P. u. uncia in the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
range countries, P. u. uncioides in the Himalayas
Himalayas
and Qinghai, and P. u. irbis in Mongolia.[19] Phylogeny The snow leopard is part of the Panthera
Panthera
lineage, one of the eight lineages of Felidae. This lineage comprises the species of Panthera and Neofelis. The Neofelis
Neofelis
lineage diverged first from the remainder of the Felinae. Subsequent branching between the snow leopard and clouded leopard began two to three million years ago, but the details of this are disputed.[20] Results of a phylogenetic study published in 2006, based on nDNA and mtDNA analysis, indicate that snow leopard and tiger are sister taxa, whereas the leopard is sister taxon to two clades within Panthera
Panthera
– one consisting of the tiger and the snow leopard, and the other of the lion and the jaguar.[11] Results of a similar study published in 2009 corroborated this assessment.[12] Results obtained during two subsequent phylogenetic studies indicate a swapping in the cladogram between the leopard and the jaguar.[13][14] A 2016 study indicates that, at some point in their evolution, snow leopards interbred with lions, as their mitochondrial genomes are more similar to each other than their nuclear genomes. These results indicate that a female hybrid offspring of male ancestors of modern snow leopards and female ancestors of modern lions interbred with the male ancestors of modern snow leopards.[21] Characteristics

Closeup of a male snow leopard

A snow leopard showing its large paw with thick fur on pads

Skull

The thickly furred tail of a snow leopard, photographed at Zoo d'Amnéville, France

The snow leopard's fur is whitish to gray with black spots on head and neck, but larger rosettes on the back, flanks and bushy tail. The belly is whitish. The fur is thick with hairs between 5 and 12 cm (2.0 and 4.7 in) long. Its body is stocky, short-legged and slightly smaller than the other cats of the genus Panthera, reaching a shoulder height of 56 cm (22 in), and ranging in head to body size from 75 to 150 cm (30 to 59 in). Its tail is 80 to 105 cm (31 to 41 in) long. Its eyes are pale green or grey in color. Its muzzzle is short and its forehead domed. Its nasal cavities are large.[22][23] It weighs between 22 and 55 kg (49 and 121 lb), with an occasional large male reaching 75 kg (165 lb) and small female of under 25 kg (55 lb).[23][24] The snow leopard shows several adaptations for living in a cold, mountainous environment. Its body is stocky, its fur is thick, and its ears are small and rounded, features that help to minimize heat loss. Its broad paws well distribute the body weight for walking on snow, and have fur on their undersides to increase their grip on steep and unstable surfaces; it also helps to minimize heat loss. Its long and flexible tail helps to maintain balance in the rocky terrain. The tail is also very thick due to fat storage, and is very thickly covered with fur, which allows the cat to use it like a blanket to protect its face when asleep.[25] The snow leopard cannot roar, despite possessing partial ossification of the hyoid bone. This partial ossification was previously thought to be essential for allowing the big cats to roar, but new studies show that the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx, which are absent in the snow leopard.[26][27] Snow
Snow
leopard vocalizations include hisses, chuffing, mews, growls, and wailing. Distribution and habitat

In Ladakh, India

The snow leopard is distributed from the west of Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
through southern Siberia, in the Kunlun Mountains, in the Russian Altai mountains, Sayan and Tannu-Ola Mountains, in the Tian Shan, across Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
to the Hindu Kush in eastern Afghanistan, Karakoram
Karakoram
in northern Pakistan, in the Pamir Mountains, and in the high altitudes of the Himalayas
Himalayas
in India, Nepal, and Bhutan, and the Tibetan Plateau. In Mongolia, it is found in the Mongolian and Gobi Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
and the Khangai Mountains. In Tibet, it is found up to the Altyn-Tagh
Altyn-Tagh
in the north.[4][28] Potential snow leopard habitat in the Indian Himalayas
Himalayas
is estimated at less than 90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi) in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh, of which about 34,000 km2 (13,000 sq mi) is considered good habitat, and 14.4% is protected. In the beginning of the 1990s, the Indian snow leopard population was estimated at roughly 200–600 individuals living across about 25 protected areas.[4] In summer, snow leopards usually live above the tree line on mountainous meadows and in rocky regions at altitudes from 2,700 to 6,000 m (8,900 to 19,700 ft). In winter, they come down into the forests to altitudes around 1,200 to 2,000 m (3,900 to 6,600 ft). Snow
Snow
leopards prefer rocky, broken terrain, and can travel without difficulty in snow up to 85 cm (33 in) deep, although they prefer to use existing trails made by other animals.[23] Global warming
Global warming
has caused the tree line to be increased in altitude, resulting in the decrease of wild prey that depend on the plants for food.[29] Population Before 2003, the total wild snow leopard population was estimated at 4,080 to 6,500 individuals.[4] In 2016, the global population was estimated at 4,678 to 8,745 individuals, suggesting that the total number of snow leopards was larger than previously thought.[3]

Range Country Habitat area (km2) Estimated population[1]

Afghanistan 50,000 100–200?

Bhutan 15,000 100–200?

China 1,100,000 2,000–2,500

India 75,000 200–600

Kazakhstan 50,000 180–200

Kyrgyzstan 105,000 150–500

Mongolia 101,000 500–1,000

Nepal 30,000 300–500

Pakistan 80,000 200–420

Tajikistan 100,000 180–220

Uzbekistan 10,000 20–50

Snow
Snow
leopards inhabit the following protected areas:

Chitral National Park, in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Hemis National Park, in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India Khunjerab National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan Nanda Devi National Park, in Uttarakhand, India, a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site[30] Qomolangma National Nature Preserve, Tibet, China[31] Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, a UNESCO Natural World
Natural World
Heritage Site.[32] Tumor Feng Nature Reserve, western Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China.[33] Valley of Flowers
Valley of Flowers
National Park, Uttarakhand, India, a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site Shey-Phoksundo National Park, Dolpa, Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting
Hunting
Reserve, Baglung, Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area, Western Nepal Api Nampa Conservation Area, Western Nepal Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park, Mongolia Ubsunur Hollow, on the territorial border of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Republic of Tuva, Russia Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary, near Anini, India Aksu-Djabagly Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan Sarychat-Ertash State Nature Reserve, Kyrgyzstan Katun Nature Reserve, Russia Kibber
Kibber
Wildlife Sanctuary, Lahaul Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India Pin Valley National Park, Lahaul Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India Great Himalayan National Park, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, India Sacred Himalayan Landscape, Nepal, India, Bhutan

Snow
Snow
leopards were also recorded by camera traps at 16 locations in northeastern Afghanistan's isolated Wakhan Corridor.[34] Ecology and behavior

Walking in the snow

The snow leopard is solitary, except for females with cubs. They rear them in dens in the mountains for extended periods.[citation needed] An individual snow leopard lives within a well-defined home range, but does not defend its territory aggressively when encroached upon by other snow leopards. Home ranges vary greatly in size. In Nepal, where prey is abundant, a home range may be as small as 12 km2 (5 sq mi) to 40 km2 (15 sq mi) and up to five to 10 animals are found here per 100 km2 (39 sq mi); in habitats with sparse prey, though, an area of 1,000 km2 (386 sq mi) supports only five of these cats.[26] However, a new study lasting from 2008 to 2014 indicates their ranges are much greater than believed; a male snow leopard requires a territory of around 80 square miles, while females require up to 48 square miles of territory. Taking this data into account, it is estimated that 40 percent of the 170 protected areas in place are smaller than the space required to support a single male snow leopard.[35] Like other cats, snow leopards use scent marks to indicate their territories and common travel routes. These are most commonly produced by scraping the ground with the hind feet before depositing urine or scat, but they also spray urine onto sheltered patches of rock.[23] Snow
Snow
leopards are crepuscular, being most active at dawn and dusk.[36] They are known for being extremely secretive and well camouflaged. Hunting
Hunting
and diet

Snow
Snow
leopard with a marmot in Kyrgyzstan

Eating at Ménagerie du Jardin des plantes, Paris

The snow leopard is a carnivore and actively hunts its prey. It is an opportunistic hunter and also eats carrion. It can kill animals two to four times its own weight, such as Himalayan blue sheep, Himalayan tahr, markhor, argali, horse, and camel.[37] It prefers prey ranging in weight from 36 to 76 kg (79 to 168 lb), but also hunts smaller mammals such as marmot, pika and vole species.[38] Snow
Snow
leopards prefer to ambush prey from above, using broken terrain to conceal their approach. They will actively pursue prey down steep mountainsides, using the momentum of their initial leap to chase animals for up to 300 m (980 ft). They kill with a bite to the neck, and may drag the prey to a safe location before feeding. They consume all edible parts of the carcass, and can survive on a single bharal for two weeks before hunting again. Annual prey needs appears to be 20–30 adult blue sheep.[1][23] The snow leopard is capable of killing most animals in its range, with the probable exception of the adult male yak. It also eats a significant amount of vegetation, including grass and twigs.[23] Snow leopards have been recorded to hunt in pairs successfully, especially mating pairs.[39] The diet of the snow leopard varies across its range and with the time of year, and depends on prey availability. In the Himalayas, it preys mostly on Himalayan blue sheep
Himalayan blue sheep
and Siberian ibex. In the Karakoram, Tian Shan, Altai and Mongolia's Tost Mountains, its main prey consists of Siberian ibex, Thorold's deer, Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
and argali.[38][40] Other species hunted when available include red panda, wild boar, langur monkey, snow cock and Chukar partridge.[36] Where snow leopards prey on domestic livestock, they are subject to conflict with humans.[1] However, even in Mongolia, where wild prey has been reduced, and interactions with humans are common, domestic livestock, mainly domestic sheep, comprises less than 20% of snow leopard diet.[40] Herders kill snow leopards to prevent them from taking their livestock.[25] The loss of prey animals due to overgrazing by domestic livestock, poaching, and defense of livestock are the major drivers for the decreasing population of the snow leopard. The snow leopard has not been reported to attack humans, and appears to be the least aggressive to humans of all big cats. As a result, they are easily driven away from livestock; they readily abandon their kills when threatened, and may not even defend themselves when attacked.[23] Reproduction and life cycle

Cubs at the Cat
Cat
Survival Trust, Welwyn, the United Kingdom

The oldest known snow leopard, Shynghyz at Tama Zoo, Tokyo, Japan

Snow
Snow
leopards are unusual among large cats in that they have a well-defined birth peak. They usually mate in late winter, marked by a noticeable increase in marking and calling. Snow
Snow
leopards have a gestation period of 90–100 days, so the cubs are born between April and June. Oestrus
Oestrus
typically lasts from five to eight days, and males tend not to seek out another partner after mating, probably because the short mating season does not allow sufficient time. Paired snow leopards mate in the usual felid posture, from 12 to 36 times a day.[23] The mother gives birth in a rocky den or crevice lined with fur shed from her underside. Litter sizes vary from one to five cubs, but the average is 2.2. The cubs are blind and helpless at birth, although already with a thick coat of fur, and weigh from 320 to 567 g (11.3 to 20.0 oz). Their eyes open at around seven days, and the cubs can walk at five weeks and are fully weaned by 10 weeks.[23] Also when they are born, they have full black spots which turn into rosettes as they grow to adolescence.[citation needed] The cubs leave the den when they are around two to four months of age, but remain with their mother until they become independent after around 18–22 months. Once independent, they may disperse over considerable distances, even crossing wide expanses of flat terrain to seek out new hunting grounds. This likely helps reduce the inbreeding that would otherwise be common in their relatively isolated environments. Snow
Snow
leopards become sexually mature at two to three years, and normally live for 15–18 years, although in captivity they can live for up to 25 years.[23][41] Threats The major threat to snow leopard populations is poaching and illegal trade of skins and body parts. In China, 103 to 236 animals are poached every year, in Mongolia
Mongolia
between 34 and 53, in Pakistan
Pakistan
between 23 and 53, in India
India
from 21 to 45, and in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
20 to 25. Poaching
Poaching
is linked to prey declines and livestock depredation.[42] Conservation Numerous agencies are working to conserve the snow leopard and its threatened mountain ecosystems. These include the Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Trust, the Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Conservancy, the Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Network, the Cat Specialist Group, and the Panthera
Panthera
Corporation. These groups and various national governments from the snow leopard’s range, nonprofits, and donors from around the world worked together at the 10th International Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Conference in Beijing. Their focus on research, community programs in snow leopard regions, and education programs are aimed at understanding the cat's needs, as well as the needs of the villagers and herder communities juxtaposed with the snow leopards' habitats.[43][44] Global Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Forum In 2013, government leaders and officials from all 12 countries encompassing the snow leopard's range (Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) came together at the Global Snow
Snow
Leopard Forum (GSLF) initiated by the President Almazbek Atambayev of the Kyrgyz Republic, and the State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry under the government of the Kyrgyz Republic. The meeting was held in Bishkek, the capital of the Kyrgyz Republic, and all countries agreed that the snow leopard and the high mountain habitat it lives in need trans-boundary support to ensure a viable future for snow leopard populations, as well as to safeguard their fragile environment. The event brought together many partners, including NGOs like the Snow Leopard
Leopard
Conservancy, the Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Trust, and the Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union. Also supporting the initiative were the Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Network, the World Bank's Global Tiger
Tiger
Initiative, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Wild Fund for Nature, the United States Agency for International Development, and Global Environment Facility.[citation needed] Bishkek
Bishkek
Declaration At the GSLF meeting, the 12 range countries signed the Bishkek Declaration to "acknowledge that the snow leopard is an irreplaceable symbol of our nations' natural and cultural heritage and an indicator of the health and sustainability of mountain ecosystems; and we recognize that mountain ecosystems inhabited by snow leopards provide essential ecosystem services, including storing and releasing water from the origins of river systems benefitting one-third of the world’s human population; sustaining the pastoral and agricultural livelihoods of local communities which depend on biodiversity for food, fuel, fodder, and medicine; and offering inspiration, recreation, and economic opportunities." [45] Global Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
and Eco-system Protection Program Out of these efforts was formed a cooperative support effort, the Global Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
and Eco-system Protection Program (GSLEP). The GSLEP is a joint initiative of range country governments, international agencies, civil society, and the private sector. Its goal is to secure the long-term survival of the snow leopard in its natural ecosystem. The goal of the GSLEP is for the 12 snow leopard range countries, with support from conservation agencies, NGOs and others to work together to identify and secure at least 20 healthy populations of snow leopards across the cat’s range by 2020, or "20 by 2020". Many of these populations will cross international boundaries. The three criteria that will secure healthy populations of snow leopards are populations that represent at least 100 breeding age snow leopards, contain adequate and secure prey populations and have connectivity to other snow leopard populations. This is an interim goal for the years through to 2020. During the coming years, agreement will be reached on the steps needed to achieve the ultimate goal of ensuring that healthy snow leopard populations remain the icon of the mountains of Asia for generations to come. [46] 2015 designated International Year of the Snow
Snow
Leopard To help spread the word amongst the people, government authorities, and conservation groups in each range country, 2015 was designated the International Year of the Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
as part of the GSLEPP's work. All range-country governments, nongovernmental and inter-governmental organizations, local communities, and various private sector businesses pledged to take the year as an opportunity to further work towards conservation of snow leopards and their high-mountain ecosystems.[47] In captivity In 2008, there were approximately 600 snow leopards in zoos around the world.[36] In the Richmond Metropolitan Zoo in Virginia, in the United States of America, snow leopard cubs were born in 2016.[48] Much progress has been made in securing the survival of the snow leopard, with them being successfully bred in captivity. Females usually give birth to two to three cubs in a litter, but can give birth to up to seven in some cases.

Snow
Snow
leopard in San Diego Zoo

Snow
Snow
leopard in Cologne Zoological Garden

Snow
Snow
leopard in an unknown zoo

Relationships with humans Attacks on humans and livestock Snow
Snow
leopard attacks on humans are rare; only two instances are known.[49] On July 12, 1940, in Maloalmaatinsk gorge near Almaty, a rabid snow leopard attacked two men during the day and inflicted serious injuries on both.[49] In the second case, not far from Almaty, an old, toothless, emaciated snow leopard unsuccessfully attacked a passerby in winter; it was captured and carried to a local village.[49] There are no other records of any snow leopard attacking a human being.[50][51] A 2008 Natural World
Natural World
episode, " Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
– Beyond the Myth", interviewed a couple with a goat farm in Pakistan; the woman was bowled over by a snow leopard escaping an enclosure where it had been feeding on the livestock, but she was not attacked by the cat, despite fainting and being helpless. The film crew went to some lengths to demonstrate that the cat was primarily hunting wild prey and was often ranging far outside the area, as they hoped to prevent local farmers from shooting it. Nevertheless, they also found evidence of other sightings of the cats around nearby human settlements, and of repeated attacks on livestock (some of them unsuccessful).[52] Snow
Snow
leopards attacking livestock has also been a subject of conservation journal papers.[37] In culture

Ounce

Snow
Snow
leopards have symbolic meaning for Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of Central Asia, where the animal is known as irbis or bars, so it is widely used in heraldry and as an emblem. The snow leopard in heraldry is sometimes known in English as the ounce. The cat has long been used as a political symbol, the Aq Bars ('White Leopard'), by Tatars, Kazakhs, and Bulgars, among others. A snow leopard is found on the official seal of the city of Almaty, Kazakhstan, and the former 10,000 Kazakhstani tenge
Kazakhstani tenge
banknote also featured one on the reverse. A mythical winged Aq Bars
Aq Bars
is found in the national coat of arms of Tatarstan, the seal of the city of Samarqand, Uzbekistan, and (also with a crown) the old coat of arms of the Kazakh capital, Astana. In Kyrgyzstan, it has been used in highly stylized form in the modern emblem of the capital, Bishkek, and the same art has been integrated into the badge of the Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Girl Scouts Association. A crowned snow leopard features in the arms of Shushensky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. The Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
award, given to Soviet mountaineers who scaled all five of the Soviet Union's 7,000-meter peaks, is named after the animal, but does not depict one.[citation needed] The cat is the state animal of Himachal Pradesh, a north Indian state in the western Himalayas. The animal has also been declared the "National Predator" of Pakistan.[53]

Symbol of Almaty, Kazakhstan

Snow
Snow
leopard on the reverse of the old 10,000-Kazakhstani tenge banknote

The coat of arms of Tatarstan

Seal of Samarqand, Uzbekistan

Old coat of arms of Astana, Kazakhstan

Symbol of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Membership badge of the Girl Scout Association of Kyrgyzstan

Coat of arms of Shushensky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai

In the media Documentary Documentary footage of the snow leopard is scarce. While such coverage would not be remarkable with regard to common species, wildlife video of the snow leopard is difficult to obtain due to the animal's rarity and the human inaccessibility of much of its natural habitat.[52] The BBC One
BBC One
TV series Planet Earth had a segment on snow leopards. The series took some of the first video of snow leopards in the wild, and also featured a snow leopard hunting a markhor.[54] The episode Mountains of Planet Earth II, aired in November 2016, featured the rather violent mating fights of snow leopards, as well as a snow leopard's chuffing and wailing. Nisar Malik, a Pakistani journalist, and Mark Smith, a cameraman who had worked on the Planet Earth segment, spent a further 18 months filming snow leopards in the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
for the BBC Two
BBC Two
series Natural World episode " Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
– Beyond the Myth".[52][55] The cat has been featured in segments of other episodes of the same series. The PBS/ WNET
WNET
series Nature focused on the species in its episode "Silent Roar: Searching for the Snow
Snow
Leopard". A snow leopard named Dawa along with her cubs is one of the focal points of the 2017 Disneynature
Disneynature
film Born in China. Non-fiction In Peter Matthiessen's 1978 travelogue The Snow
Snow
Leopard, he recounts his two-month search with naturalist George Schaller
George Schaller
for snow leopards in Nepal. Fictional In Philip Pullman's 1995–2000 fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials, Lord Asriel's dæmon is a snow leopard named Stelmaria. Tai Lung, the main antagonist of the 2008 film Kung Fu Panda, is an anthropomorphized snow leopard. In the 2013 film The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, photojournalist Sean O'Connell (played by Sean Penn) is shown photographing snow leopards in Afghanistan. See also

Sohni the snow leopard Asiatic lion Leopard

References

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uncia". The IUCN Red List
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Snow
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Snow
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Snow
Leopard
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Issue 11. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Allen, Edward A (1908). "English Doublets". Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. 23 (New Series 16): 214.  ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press. 1933: Ounce ^ Liddell, H. G. & R. Scott (1940). "πάνθηρ". A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  ^ OUP (2002). "Panther". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ a b Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2006). "The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.  ^ a b Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W.E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)" (PDF). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: 59–82.  ^ a b Davis, B.W.; Li, G.; Murphy, W.J. (2010). "Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera
Panthera
(Carnivora: Felidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 64–76. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.036. PMID 20138224. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05.  ^ a b Mazák, J.H.; Christiansen, P.; Kitchener, A.C.; Goswami, A. (2011). "Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e25483. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...625483M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025483. PMC 3189913 . PMID 22016768.  ^ Scheber, J.C.D. (1777). "Die Unze". Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. pp. 386–387.  ^ Gray, J.E. (1854). "The ounces". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 2nd series (14): 394.  ^ Pocock, R. I. (1930). "The panthers and ounces of Asia. Part II. The panthers of Kashmir, India, and Ceylon". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 34 (2): 307–336.  ^ Medvedev, D. G. (2000). Morfologicheskie otlichiya irbisa iz Yuzhnogo Zabaikalia [Morphological differences of the snow leopard from Southern Transbaikalia]. Vestnik Irkutskoi Gosudarstvennoi sel'skokhozyaistvennoi akademyi [Proceedings of Irkutsk State Agricultural Academy], vypusk 20: 20–30. (in Russian). ^ Janecka, J.E., Zhang, Y., Li, D., Munkhtsog, B., Bayaraa, M., Galsandorj, N., Wangchuk, T.R., Karmacharya, D., Li, J., Lu, Z. and Uulu, K.Z. (2017). "Range-Wide Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Phylogeography
Phylogeography
Supports Three Subspecies". Journal of Heredity. 108 (6): 597−607. doi:10.1093/jhered/esx044. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Turner, A. (1987). "New fossil carnivore remains from the Sterkfontein hominid site (Mammalia: Carnivora)". Annals of the Transvaal Museum. 34: 319–347.  ^ Li, G.; Davis, B.W.; Eizirik, E.; Murphy, W.J. (2016). "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)". Genome Research. 26 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1101/gr.186668.114. PMC 4691742 . PMID 26518481.  ^ Hemmer, H. (1972). "Uncia uncia" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 20 (20): 1–5. doi:10.2307/3503882. JSTOR 3503882. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-01.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). "Snow leopard". Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 377–394. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.  ^ Boitani, L. (1984). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster, Touchstone Books. ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1.  ^ a b Chadwick, D. H. (2008). "Out of the Shadows". National Geographic. Retrieved 2010-01-29.  ^ a b Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.  ^ Weissengruber, G. E.; Forstenpointner, G.; Peters, G.; Kübber-Heiss, A.; Fitch, W. T. (September 2002). "Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion ( Panthera
Panthera
leo), jaguar ( Panthera
Panthera
onca), tiger ( Panthera
Panthera
tigris), cheetah ( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus)". Journal of Anatomy. 201 (3): 195–209. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00088.x. PMC 1570911 . PMID 12363272.  ^ Geptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora
Carnivora
(Hyaenas and Cats). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-08876-4.  ^ Ebrahim, Zofeen (May 5, 2015). "Climate change stalks the snow leopard". scidev.net. Retrieved May 21, 2015.  ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks. Retrieved 27 November 2006. ^ Jackson, R. (1998). "People-Wildlife Conflict Management in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Tibet" (PDF). In Wu Ning; D. Miller; Lhu Zhu; J. Springer. Tibet’s Biodiversity: Conservation and Management. Proceedings of a Conference, August 30 – September 4, 1998. Tibet Forestry Department and World Wide Fund for Nature. China Forestry Publishing House. pp. 40–46.  ^ UNESCO World Heritage Center. Sagarmatha National Park: Brief Description. Retrieved 27 November 2006. ^ Ming, M.; Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Network (2005). Camera Trapping of Snow Leopards in the Muzat Valley. Retrieved 27 November 2006. ^ Simms, A., Moheb, Z., Salahudin, Ali, H., Ali, I. and Wood, T. (2011). "Saving threatened species in Afghanistan: snow leopards in the Wakhan Corridor". International Journal of Environmental Studies. 68: 299−312. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "One Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Needs a Protected Range Bigger Than Aruba". 21 September 2016.  ^ a b c " Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Fact Sheet" (PDF). snowleopard.org. 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-03.  ^ a b Johansson, Ö.; McCarthy, T.; Samelius, G.; Andrén, H.; Tumursukh, L: Mishra, C., Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Tumursukh, Lkhagvasumberel; Mishra, Charudutt (2015). " Snow
Snow
leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 184: 251–258. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.02.003. Retrieved 25 March 2015. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Lyngdoh, S., Shrotriya, S., Goyal, S.P., Clements, H., Hayward, M.W. and Habib, B. (2014). " Prey
Prey
preferences of the snow leopard ( Panthera
Panthera
uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation". PLoS One. 9 (2): e88349. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088349. PMC 3922817 . PMID 24533080. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Macri, A. M. & E. Patterson-Kane (2011). "Behavioural analysis of solitary versus socially housed snow leopards ( Panthera
Panthera
uncia), with the provision of simulated social contact". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 130 (3–4): 115–123. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2010.12.005.  ^ a b Shehzad, W., McCarthy, T.M., Pompanon, F., Purevjav, L., Coissac, E., Riaz, T. and Taberlet, P. (2012). " Prey
Prey
Preference of Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
( Panthera
Panthera
uncia) in South Gobi, Mongolia". PLoS ONE. 7 (2): e32104. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...732104S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032104. PMC 3290533 . PMID 22393381. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ The oldest snow leopard in the world, Article about Shynghyz in Tama Zoo, Tokyo ^ Nowell, K., Li, J., Paltsyn, M. and Sharma, R.K. (2016). An Ounce of Prevention: Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Crime Revisited. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC. ISBN 978-1-85850-409-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Theile, Stephanie (2003). "Fading footprints; the killing and trade of snow leopards". TRAFFIC International, ISBN 1-85850-201-2 ^ "Cats in the Clouds", Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2009-05-06). Retrieved 27 June 2009. ^ " Bishkek
Bishkek
Declaration", Global Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Forum October 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-27. ^ Securing at least 20 healthy populations of snow leopards across the cat’s range by 2020, Global Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
and Eco-System protection Program October 2013. Retrieved 2015-04-15. ^ "International Year of the Snow
Snow
Leopard", Saving Snow
Snow
Leopards Report (2015-02-06). Retrieved 2015-02-27. ^ Curran, Colleen (September 2, 2016). " Snow
Snow
leopard cubs go on exhibit at the Metro Richmond Zoo". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2 September 2016.  ^ a b c Heptner, V.G.; and Sluskii, A.A. (1992) Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol 2, Part 2. (Carnivores: Hyaenas and Cats) New Delhi: Amerind Publishing. p. 308. ^ Inskip, C.; Zimmermann, A. (2009). "Human-felid conflict: A review of patterns and priorities worldwide". Oryx. 43 (1): 18–34. doi:10.1017/S003060530899030X.  ^ Nowell, K.; Jackson, P., eds. (1996). Wild cats: Status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature. pp. 193–195. ISBN 9782831700458. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ a b c Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
– Beyond the Myth. Natural World. 4 January 2008.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "The Official Web Gateway to Pakistan". www.pakistan.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 2016-11-28. Retrieved 2016-10-23.  ^ Press Office – Planet Earth firsts. BBC (2006-02-01). Retrieved 2012-08-23. ^ BBC Two
BBC Two
– Natural World, 2007–2008, Snow
Snow
Leopard- Beyond the Myth. BBC.co.uk (2008-09-23). Retrieved 2012-08-23.

Further reading

Janczewski, Dianne N.; Modi, William S.; Stephens, J. Claiborne; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1995). "Molecular Evolution of Mitochondrial 12S RNA and Cytochrome b Sequences in the Pantherine Lineage of Felidae". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 12 (4): 690–707. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040232. PMID 7544865.  Theile, Stephanie. 2003. Fading Footprints: The Killing and Trade of Snow
Snow
Leopards. TRAFFIC International. ISBN 1-85850-201-2. Jackson, Rodney; Hillard, Darla (June 1986). "Tracking the Elusive Snow
Snow
Leopard". National Geographic. Vol. 169 no. 6. pp. 793–809. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Panthera
Panthera
uncia (category)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Panthera
Panthera
uncia

Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Network Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Conservancy Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Program. Panthera.org Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Program. World Wildlife Fund Snow
Snow
Leopard. IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Gallery. National Geographic Snow
Snow
Leopard. Wildscreen Arkive "Silent Roar: Searching for the Snow
Snow
Leopard". PBS Nature Snow
Snow
Leopard. BBC Nature Nepal's Snow
Snow
Leopard
Leopard
Action Plan yet to be implemented. Wildlife Times Snow
Snow
Leopard. Paradise Wildlife Park

v t e

Big cats on the Indian subcontinent

Extant in the wild

Asiatic lion
Asiatic lion
(P. leo persica) Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
(P. tigris tigris) Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Indian leopard
Indian leopard
(P. pardus fusca) Snow
Snow
leopard (P. uncia)

Extinct in the Indian subcontinent

Asiatic cheetah
Asiatic cheetah
(A. jubatus venaticus)

Under reintroduction

Asiatic lion
Asiatic lion
(P. leo persica) South African cheetah
South African cheetah
(A. jubatus jubatus)

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow
Snow
leopard (P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q30197 ADW: Uncia ARKive: panthera-uncia EoL: 328676 EPPO: UNCAUN Fossilworks: 224097 GBIF: 5787213 ITIS: 933420 IUCN: 22732 NCBI: 29064

Authority control

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