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Slovenes
Slovenes
(Slovene: Slovenci [slɔˈʋèːntsi]), or Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia
Slovenia
who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovene language.

Contents

1 Population

1.1 Population in Slovenia 1.2 Population abroad

2 Genetics 3 History

3.1 Early Alpine Slavs 3.2 Alpine Slavs
Slavs
during the Frankish Empire 3.3 16th century: Slovene Protestant
Protestant
reformation and the consolidation of the Slovene language 3.4 18th century: Slovenes
Slovenes
under Maria Theresa and Joseph II 3.5 Slovenes
Slovenes
under Napoleon 1809–1813 3.6 1840s: the first Slovene national political programme 3.7 Emigration 3.8 World War I 3.9 Fascist Italianization
Fascist Italianization
of Littoral Slovenes 3.10 World War II and aftermath

4 Slovenes
Slovenes
in Socialist Yugoslavia

4.1 The Stalinist period 4.2 The 1948 Tito-Stalin split
Tito-Stalin split
and aftermath 4.3 1950s: heavy industrialization 4.4 1960s: "Self-management" 4.5 1970s: "Years of Lead" 4.6 1980s: Towards independence

5 Slovenes
Slovenes
in independent Slovenia

5.1 1990s: Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence 5.2 2010s: Slovenian disillusionment with socio-economic elites

6 Identity

6.1 Religion

7 See also 8 References

Population[edit] Population in Slovenia[edit] Most Slovenes
Slovenes
today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia
Slovenia
(2,007,711 est. 2008). In the Slovenian national census of 2002, 1,631,363 people ethnically declared themselves as Slovenes,[24] while 1,723,434 people claimed Slovene as their native language.[25] Population abroad[edit] The autochthonous Slovene minority in Italy
Italy
is estimated at 83,000 to 100,000,[26] the Slovene minority in southern Austria
Austria
at 24,855, in Croatia
Croatia
at 13,200, and in Hungary
Hungary
at 3,180.[27] Significant Slovene expatriate communities live in the United States
United States
and Canada, in other European countries, in Argentina, and in Australia. The largest population of Slovenes
Slovenes
outside of Slovenia
Slovenia
is in Cleveland, Ohio.[28] Genetics[edit] In total 39-36% of 399-458 sampled Slovenian males belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a, more frequent than in South Slavic peoples, constituting 41% in the capital region and greater in some regions. Slovenian population displays close genetic affiliations with West Slavic populations. The homogenous genetic strata of the West Slavic populations and the Slovenian population suggest the existence of a common ancestral Slavic population in central European region.[29] The M458 branch constitutes 4%, while the dominant clade is Z280, specifically its R1a-CTS3402 clade, the same as that of their Slavic and not Slavic neighbours.[30] The Z92 branch of Z280 which is significant among East Slavs
East Slavs
is recorded as completely absent among Slovenes.[31] Of 100 sampled Slovenians, 18% belong to R1b, of which 8% of R1b belongs to the P312 branch, 6% to the eastern and 4% to U106.[32] The Dinaric-North (DYS448- 20) haplotypes of I2a1b are with overwhelming higher frequency than Dinaric-South(DYS448- 19) even in regions with high frequency. History[edit] Early Alpine Slavs[edit] In the 6th century AD, Slavic people
Slavic people
settled the region between the Alps
Alps
and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in two consecutive migration waves: the first wave took place around 550 and came from the Moravian lands, while the second wave, coming from the southeast, took place after the retreat of the Lombards
Lombards
to Italy
Italy
in 568 (see Slavic settlement of Eastern Alps). From 623 to 658, Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
between the upper Elbe
Elbe
River and the Karavanke mountain range were united under the leadership of King Samo (Kralj Samo) in what was to become known as "Samo's Tribal Union". The tribal union collapsed after Samo's death, but a smaller Slavic tribal principality Carantania
Carantania
(Slovene: Karantanija) remained, with its centre in the present-day region of Carinthia. Alpine Slavs
Slavs
during the Frankish Empire[edit] Due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, the Carantanians accepted a union with Bavaria in 745 and later recognized Frankish rule and accepted Christianity
Christianity
in the 8th century. The last Slavic state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocelj, lost its independence in 874. Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank due to pressing of Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians in the Pannonian plain, and stabilized in the present form in the 15th century. 16th century: Slovene Protestant
Protestant
reformation and the consolidation of the Slovene language[edit] The first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century,[33] when the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
spread throughout the Slovene Lands. During this period, the first books in Slovene were written by the Protestant preacher Primož Trubar
Primož Trubar
and his followers, establishing the base for the development of standard Slovene. In the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. At the beginning of the 17th century, Protestantism
Protestantism
was suppressed by the Habsburg-sponsored Counter Reformation, which introduced the new aesthetics of Baroque
Baroque
culture. 18th century: Slovenes
Slovenes
under Maria Theresa and Joseph II[edit] The Enlightenment in the Habsburg monarchy brought significant social and cultural progress to the Slovene people. It hastened economic development and facilitated the appearance of a middle class. Under the reign of Maria Theresa and Emperor Joseph II (1765–1790) many reforms were undertaken in the administration and society, including land reforms, the modernization of the Church and compulsory primary education in Slovene (1774). The start of cultural-linguistic activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a national revival and the birth of the Slovene nation in the modern sense of the word. Before the Napoleonic Wars, some secular literature in Slovene emerged. During the same period, the first history of the Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands
as an ethnic unity was written by Anton Tomaž Linhart, while Jernej Kopitar
Jernej Kopitar
compiled the first comprehensive grammar of Slovene.[34] Slovenes
Slovenes
under Napoleon 1809–1813[edit] Between 1809 and 1813, Slovenia
Slovenia
was part of the Illyrian Provinces, an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire, with Ljubljana as the capital. Although the French rule was short-lived, it significantly contributed to the rise of national consciousness and political awareness of Slovenes. After the fall of Napoleon, all Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands
were once again included in the Austrian Empire. Gradually, a distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, and the quest for a political unification of all Slovenes
Slovenes
became widespread. In the 1820s and 1840s, the interest in Slovene language and folklore grew enormously, with numerous philologists advancing the first steps towards a standardization of the language. Illyrian movement, Pan-Slavic
Pan-Slavic
and Austro-Slavic ideas gained importance. However, the intellectual circle around the philologist Matija Čop and the Romantic poet France
France
Prešeren was influential in affirming the idea of Slovene linguistic and cultural individuality, refusing the idea of merging Slovenes
Slovenes
into a wider Slavic nation. 1840s: the first Slovene national political programme[edit]

Peter Kozler's map of the Slovene Lands, designed during the Spring of Nations in 1848, became the symbol of the quest for a United Slovenia.

In the 1840s, the Slovene national movement
Slovene national movement
developed far beyond literary expression.[35] In 1848, the first Slovene national political programme, called United Slovenia
Slovenia
(Zedinjena Slovenija), was written in the context of the Spring of Nations
Spring of Nations
movement within the Austrian Empire.[36] It demanded a unification of all Slovene-speaking territories in an autonomous kingdom, named Slovenija,[36] within the empire and an official status for the Slovene language.[37] Although the project failed,[36] it served as an important platform of Slovene political activity in the following decades,[38] particularly in the 1860s and 1870s, when mass Slovene rallies, named tabori, were organised.[39] The conflict between Slovene and German nationalists deepened.[40] In 1866, some Slovenes
Slovenes
were left to Italy,[40] and in 1867 some remained in the Hungarian part of the Austria-Hungary. This significantly affected the nation and led to further radicalisation of the Slovene national movement.[41] In the 1890s, the first Slovene political parties were established. All of them were loyal to Austria, but they were also espousing a common South Slavic cause.[40] Emigration[edit] Between 1880 and World War I, the largest numbers of Slovenes emigrated to America. Most of these went between 1905 and 1913, although the exact number is impossible to determine because Slovenes were often classified as Austrians, Italians, Croats, or under other, broader labels, such as Slavonic or Slavic.[42] Those who settled in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
came to be called Windish, from the Austrian German term Windisch 'Wend'.[43] The largest group of Slovenes
Slovenes
in the United States
United States
eventually settled in Cleveland, Ohio, and the surrounding area. The second-largest group settled in Chicago, principally on the Lower West Side. The American Slovenian Catholic Union (Ameriško slovenska katoliška enota) was founded as an organization to protect Slovene-American rights in Joliet, Illinois, 64 km (40 mi) southwest of Chicago, and in Cleveland. Today there are KSKJ branches all over the country offering life insurance and other services to Slovene-Americans. Freethinkers were centered around 18th and Racine Ave. in Chicago, where they founded the Slovene National Benefit Society; other Slovene immigrants went to southwestern Pennsylvania, southeastern Ohio and the state of West Virginia
West Virginia
to work in the coal mines and lumber industry. Some Slovenes
Slovenes
also went to the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
or Youngstown, Ohio, areas, to work in the steel mills, as well as Minnesota's Iron Range, to work in the iron mines. Many also went west to Rock Springs in Wyoming
Wyoming
to work in the coal mines that supported the Union Pacific Railway. World War I[edit] See also: Battles of the Isonzo There were more than 30,000 casualties among ethnic Slovenes
Slovenes
during World War I
World War I
because they were and still are inhabiting the territory where the Isonzo Front
Isonzo Front
was fought. While the majority of them were drafted in the Austro-Hungarian Army, also Slovene civil inhabitants from the Gorizia and Gradisca
Gorizia and Gradisca
region suffered in hundreds of thousands because they were resettled in refugee camps where, however, Slovene refugees were treated as state enemies by Italians
Italians
and several thousands died of malnutrition in Italian refugee camps.[44] Fascist Italianization
Fascist Italianization
of Littoral Slovenes[edit]

Austria Hungary Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The annexed western quarter of Slovene speaking territory, and approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3[45] million Slovenes,[46] were subjected to forced Fascist Italianization. On the map of present-day Slovenia
Slovenia
with its traditional regions' boundaries.

After the First World War (1914–1918), the majority of Slovenes joined other South Slavs
South Slavs
in the State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs, followed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes, and finally the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In the new system of banovinas (since 1929), Slovenes
Slovenes
formed a majority in the Drava Banovina. In the ex- Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
area given to Italy
Italy
in exchange for joining Great Britain
Great Britain
in World War I, the forced Fascist Italianization
Fascist Italianization
of Slovene minority in Italy
Italy
(1920-1947) was under no international restraint especially after Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
came to power in 1922. Already during the period of Italian occupation, between the years 1918 and 1920, all Slovene cultural associations (Sokol, "reading rooms" etc.) had been forbidden[47] Fascist Italy
Italy
brought Italian teachers from South Italy
Italy
to Italianize ethnic Slovene and Croatian children,[citation needed] while the Slovene and Croatian teachers, poets, writers, artists and clergy were exiled to Sardinia
Sardinia
and elsewhere to South Italy.[citation needed] In 1926, claiming that it was restoring surnames to their original Italian form, the Italian government announced the Italianization of names and surnames not only of citizens of the Slovene minority, but also of Croatian and German.[48][49] Some Slovenes
Slovenes
willingly accepted Italianization in order to lose the status of being second-class citizens with no upward social mobility.[citation needed] By the mid-1930s, around 70,000 Slovenes
Slovenes
had fled the region, mostly to Yugoslavia and South America.[citation needed] In the bilingual regions people of Carinthia decided in a 1920 referendum that most of Carinthia should remain in Austria. Slovene volunteers also participated in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
and the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. World War II and aftermath[edit]

Germany Hungary Kingdom

of Italy Independent

State of

Croatia

During WWII, Nazi
Nazi
Germany
Germany
and Hungary
Hungary
occupied northern areas (brown and dark green areas, respectively), while Fascist Italy
Italy
occupied the vertically hashed black area, including Gottschee
Gottschee
area. (Solid black western part being annexed by Italy
Italy
already with the Treaty of Rapallo). After 1943, Germany
Germany
took over the Italian occupational area, as well.

During World War II, Slovenes
Slovenes
were in a unique situation. While Greece shared its experience of being trisected, Slovenia
Slovenia
was the only country that experienced a further step—absorption and annexation into neighboring Nazi
Nazi
Germany, Fascist Italy, and Hungary.[50] After Yugoslavia was invaded by Axis Powers
Axis Powers
on 6 April 1941, Germany
Germany
and Hungary
Hungary
occupied northern Slovenia. Some villages in Lower Carniola were annexed by the Independent State of Croatia.[51] The Nazis started a policy of violent Germanisation. During the war, tens of thousands of Slovenes
Slovenes
were resettled or chased away, imprisoned, or transported to labor, internment and extermination camps.[52] Many were sent into exile to Nedić's Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia. The numbers of Slovenes
Slovenes
drafted to the German military and paramilitary formations has been estimated at 150,000 men and women,[53] almost a quarter of them lost their lives on various European battlefields, mostly on the Eastern Front.[citation needed] Compared to the German policies in the northern Nazi-occupied area of Slovenia
Slovenia
and the forced Fascist italianization
Fascist italianization
in the former Austrian Littoral that was annexed after the First World War, the initial Italian policy in the central Slovenia
Slovenia
was not as violent. Tens of thousands of Slovenes
Slovenes
from German-occupied Lower Styria
Lower Styria
and Upper Carniola escaped to the Province of Ljubljana
Province of Ljubljana
until June 1941. However, after resistance started in Province of Ljubljana, Italian violence against the Slovene civil population easily matched that of the Germans.[54] The province saw the deportation of 25,000 people — which equated to 7.5% of the total population of the province — in one of the most drastic operations in the Europe that filled up many Italian concentration camps, such as Rab concentration camp, in Gonars concentration camp, Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari, Chiesanuova and elsewhere. To suppress the mounting resistance by the Slovene Partisans, Mario Roatta
Mario Roatta
adopted draconian measures of summary executions, hostage-taking, reprisals, internments, and the burning of houses and whole villages. The "3C" pamphlet, tantamount to a declaration of war on civilians, involved him in Italian war crimes. In the summer of 1941, a resistance movement led by the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation, emerged in both the Italian and in the German occupation zones.[55] The resistance, pluralistic at the beginning, was gradually taken over by the Communist Party, as in the rest of occupied Yugoslavia.[55] Contrary to elsewhere in Yugoslavia, where on the freed territories the political life was organized by the military itself, the Slovene Partisans
Slovene Partisans
were subordinated to the civil political authority of the Front.[56] In the summer of 1942, a civil war between Slovenes
Slovenes
broke out. The two fighting factions were the Slovenian Partisans
Slovenian Partisans
and the Italian-sponsored anti-communist militia, later re-organized under Nazi
Nazi
command as the Slovene Home Guard. Small units of Slovenian Chetniks
Chetniks
also existed in Lower Carniola
Lower Carniola
and Styria. The Partisans were under the command of the Liberation Front (OF) and Tito's Yugoslav resistance, while the Slovenian Covenant served as the political arm of the anti-Communist militia.[citation needed] The civil war was mostly restricted to the Province of Ljubljana, where more than 80% of the Slovene anti-partisan units were active. Between 1943–1945, smaller anti-Communist militia existed in parts of the Slovenian Littoral and in Upper Carniola, while they were virtually non-existent in the rest of the country. By 1945, the total number of Slovene anti-Communist militamen reached 17,500.[57] Immediately after the war, some 12,000 members of the Slovene Home Guard were killed in the Kočevski Rog massacres, while thousands of anti-communist civilians were killed in the first year after the war.[58] In addition, hundreds of ethnic Italians
Italians
from the Julian March were killed by the Yugoslav Army and partisan forces in the Foibe massacres; some 27,000 Istrian Italians
Italians
fled Slovenian Istria from Communist persecution in the so-called Istrian exodus. Members of the ethnic German minority either fled or were expelled from Slovenia. The overall number of World War II casualties in Slovenia
Slovenia
is estimated at 97,000. The number includes about 14,000 people, who were killed or died for other war-related reasons immediately after the end of the war,[58][59] and the tiny Jewish community, which was nearly annihilated in the Holocaust.[60][59] In addition, tens of thousands of Slovenes
Slovenes
left their homeland soon after the end of the war. Most of them settled in Argentina, Canada, Australia, and the United States. Most of Carinthia remained part of Austria
Austria
and around 42,000 Slovenes (per 1951 population census[citation needed]) were recognized as a minority and have enjoyed special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) of 1955. Slovenes
Slovenes
in the Austrian state of Styria
Styria
(4,250)[9] are not recognized as a minority and do not enjoy special rights, although the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise. Many Carinthians remain uneasy about Slovene territorial claims, pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars.[citation needed] The former governor, Jörg Haider, regularly played the Slovene card when his popularity started to dwindle, and indeed relied on the strong anti-Slovene attitudes in many parts of the province for his power base.[citation needed] Yugoslavia acquired some territory from Italy
Italy
after WWII but some 100,000 Slovenes
Slovenes
remained behind the Italian border, notably around Trieste
Trieste
and Gorizia. Slovenes
Slovenes
in Socialist Yugoslavia[edit] See also: Titoism
Titoism
and Economy of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Slovenia
within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia

Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II, Slovenia
Slovenia
became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared on 29 November 1943. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito-Stalin split, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the Eastern Bloc. In 1947, Italy
Italy
ceded most of the Julian March
Julian March
to Yugoslavia, and Slovenia
Slovenia
thus regained the Slovene Littoral. The dispute over the port of Trieste
Trieste
however remained opened until 1954, until the short-lived Free Territory of Trieste
Trieste
was divided among Italy
Italy
and Yugoslavia, thus giving Slovenia
Slovenia
access to the sea. This division was ratified only in 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo, which gave a final legal sanction to Slovenia's long disputed western border. From the 1950s, the Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Slovenia
enjoyed a relatively wide autonomy. The Stalinist period[edit] Between 1945 and 1948, a wave of political repressions took place in Slovenia
Slovenia
and in Yugoslavia. Thousands of people were imprisoned for their political beliefs. Several tens of thousands of Slovenes
Slovenes
left Slovenia
Slovenia
immediately after the war in fear of Communist persecution. Many of them settled in Argentina, which became the core of Slovenian anti-Communist emigration. More than 50,000 more followed in the next decade, frequently for economic reasons, as well as political ones. These later waves of Slovene immigrants mostly settled in Canada
Canada
and in Australia, but also in other western countries. The 1948 Tito-Stalin split
Tito-Stalin split
and aftermath[edit] Main article: Titoism In 1948, the Tito-Stalin split
Tito-Stalin split
took place. In the first years following the split, the political repression worsened, as it extended to Communists accused of Stalinism. Hundreds of Slovenes
Slovenes
were imprisoned in the concentration camp of Goli Otok, together with thousands of people of other nationalities. Among the show trials that took place in Slovenia
Slovenia
between 1945 and 1950, the most important were the Nagode trial against democratic intellectuals and left liberal activists (1946) and the Dachau trials (1947–1949), where former inmates of Nazi
Nazi
concentration camps were accused of collaboration with the Nazis. Many members of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
clergy suffered persecution. The case of bishop of Ljubljana Anton Vovk, who was doused with gasoline and set on fire by Communist activists during a pastoral visit to Novo Mesto
Novo Mesto
in January 1952, echoed in the western press. Between 1949 and 1953, a forced collectivization was attempted. After its failure, a policy of gradual liberalization was followed. 1950s: heavy industrialization[edit] In the late 1950s, Slovenia
Slovenia
was the first of the Yugoslav republics to begin a process of relative pluralization. A decade of industrialisation was accompanied also by a fervent cultural and literary production with many tensions between the regime and the dissident intellectuals. From the late 1950s onward, dissident circles started to be formed, mostly around short-lived independent journals, such as Revija 57 (1957–1958), which was the first independent intellectual journal in Yugoslavia and one of the first of this kind in the Communist bloc,[61] and Perspektive (1960–1964). Among the most important critical public intellectuals in this period were the sociologist Jože Pučnik, the poet Edvard Kocbek, and the literary historian Dušan Pirjevec. 1960s: "Self-management"[edit] By the late 1960s, the reformist faction gained control of the Slovenian Communist Party, launching a series of reforms, aiming at the modernization of Slovenian society and economy. A new economic policy, known as workers self-management started to be implemented under the advice and supervision of the main theorist of the Yugoslav Communist Party, the Slovene Edvard Kardelj. 1970s: "Years of Lead"[edit] In 1973, this trend was stopped by the conservative faction of the Slovenian Communist Party, backed by the Yugoslav Federal government. A period known as the "Years of Lead" (Slovene: svinčena leta) followed. 1980s: Towards independence[edit] In the 1980s, Slovenia
Slovenia
experienced a rise of cultural pluralism. Numerous grass-roots political, artistic and intellectual movements emerged, including the Neue Slowenische Kunst, the Ljubljana school of psychoanalysis, and the Nova revija intellectual circle. By the mid-1980s, a reformist fraction, led by Milan Kučan, took control of the Slovenian Communist Party, starting a gradual reform towards a market socialism and controlled political pluralism. Slovenes
Slovenes
in independent Slovenia[edit] 1990s: Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence[edit] The first clear demand for Slovene independence was made in 1987 by a group of intellectuals in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. Demands for democratisation and increase of Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights, pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms. In 1991, Slovenia became an independent nation state after a brief ten-day war. In December 1991, a new constitution was adopted,[62] followed in 1992 by the laws on denationalisation and privatization.[63] The members of the European Union
European Union
recognised Slovenia
Slovenia
as an independent state on 15 January 1992, and the United Nations
United Nations
accepted it as a member on 22 May 1992.[64] 2010s: Slovenian disillusionment with socio-economic elites[edit] The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and the State's level was expressed at the 2012–2013 Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October 2011 protests – Slovenian disillusionment with the elites and financial institutions at the European and global level.[65] In relation to the leading politicians' response to allegations made by official Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia, law experts expressed the need for changes in the system that would limit political arbitrariness.[66] Identity[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012)

Further information: National symbols of Slovenia The first researchers of the origin of Slovenes
Slovenes
believed, on the basis of the German name for Slovenes, Wenden or Winden, that Slovenes
Slovenes
were descendants of the Germanic tribe of the Vandals.[67] Even today, some German speakers refer to the Slovenian minority in Carinthian Austria as Windische, an ethnicity distinct from Slovenes.[citation needed] This claim is rejected by linguists on the basis that their dialect is by all standards a variant of the Slovene language. The Germanic word Wenden generally refers to the Wends, a West Slavic tribe that settled along the now Eastern Germany. The first to define Slovenes
Slovenes
as a separate branch of the Slavic people
Slavic people
was Anton Tomaž Linhart
Anton Tomaž Linhart
in his work An Essay on the History of Carniola and Other Lands of the Austrian South Slavs, published in 1791.[68] In it, Linhart also established the linguistic unity of the Slovene ethnic territory and set the foundations of the Slovene ethnography.[69] After the disintegration of Yugoslavia during the late 1980s and the formation of independent Slovenia
Slovenia
in the early 1990s motivated interest in a particularly Slovenian national identity. One reflection of this was an attempt at the rejection of a Slavic identity in favour of a "Venetic" one. The autochthonist (protochronist) "Venetic theory" was advanced in the mid 1980s, but it never gained wide currency. The identification with Slavic roots remains strong in Slovenia
Slovenia
and in 2004 even led to the establishment of the Forum of Slavic Cultures in Ljubljana. In the late 1980s, several symbols from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
were revived as Slovenian national symbols. Among them, the most popular are the so-called Slovene Hat which featured in the coat of arms of the Slovene March, and the Black Panther, a reconstruction of the supposed coat of arms of the Carolingian
Carolingian
duchy of Carantania. After being used in the Flag of Slovenia, the graphical representation of Triglav
Triglav
has become recognised as a national symbol. Per the Constitution of Slovenia
Slovenia
and the Slovenian act on national symbols, the flag of the Slovene nation is a white-blue-red flag without the coat-of-arms. The ratio of the width to height of the flag is one to two.[70] Religion[edit] Most Slovenes
Slovenes
are Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
with some Protestant
Protestant
minorities, especially Lutherans
Lutherans
in Prekmurje. A large minority of Slovenes
Slovenes
are non-religious or atheists.[71] See also[edit]

Slovenia
Slovenia
portal

List of Slovenes Carinthian Slovenes Hungarian Slovenes Prekmurje Slovenes

References[edit]

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Slovenia
and Slovenes
Slovenes
in Neighbouring Countries" (PDF). Slovenia: a geographical overview. Association of the Geographic Societies of Slovenia. Retrieved 10 April 2008.  ^ "Statistini urad RS - Popis 2002". Stat.si. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ "American Community Survey". 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2016.  ^ Angela Brittingham; G. Patrizia de la Cruz (June 2006). "Ancestry: 2000 (Census 2000 Brief)" (PDF). United States
United States
Census 2000. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2004. Retrieved 1 June 2008.  ^ "Slovenska skupnost v ZDA". Retrieved 13 October 2013.  ^ a b Zupančič, Jernej (author), Orožen Adamič, Milan (photographer), Filipič, Hanzi (photographer): Slovenci po svetu. In publication: Nacionalni atlas Slovenije (Kartografsko gradivo) / Inštitut za geografijo, Geografski inštitut Antona Melika. Ljubljana: Rokus, 2001.COBISS 18593837(in Slovene) ^ a b c d e f g h i j Trebše-Štolfa, Milica, ed., Klemenčič, Matjaž, resp. ed.: Slovensko izseljenstvo: zbornik ob 50-letnici Slovenske izseljenske matice. Ljubljana: Združenje Slovenska izseljenska matica, 2001.COBISS 115722752 ^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ a b "Tabelle 5: Bevölkerung nach Umgangssprache und Staatsangehörigkeit" (PDF). Volkszählung 2001: Hauptergebnisse I – Österreich (in German). Statistik Austria. 2002. Retrieved 2 June 2008. [permanent dead link] ^ "Présentation de la Slovénie". France
France
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