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Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and allies

Holy Roman Empire Teutonic Knights

Ayyubids Kingdom of Cyprus House of Ibelin

Commanders and leaders

Frederick II Hermann von Salza Al-Kamil Henry I John of Ibelin

v t e

Crusades

In the Holy Land
Holy Land
(1095–1291)

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Crusades
(1147–1410)

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1150 1249 1293

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Reconquista
Reconquista
(718–1492)

Book:The Crusades Portal:Crusades

The Sixth Crusade
Crusade
started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade
Fifth Crusade
and involved very little actual fighting. The diplomatic maneuvering of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
regaining some control over Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for much of the ensuing fifteen years (1229–39, 1241–44)[1] as well as over other areas of the Holy Land.

Contents

1 Frederick II and the Papacy 2 The Crusade

2.1 Stopover in Cyprus 2.2 In the Kingdom of Jerusalem 2.3 Diplomatic agreement with Sultan
Sultan
al-Kamil 2.4 In Jerusalem

3 Legacy and precedent 4 See also 5 References

Frederick II and the Papacy[edit] Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, had involved himself broadly in the Fifth Crusade, sending troops from Germany, but he failed to accompany the army directly, despite the encouragement of Honorius III and later Gregory IX, as he needed to consolidate his position in Germany and Italy
Italy
before embarking on a crusade. However, Frederick again promised to go on a crusade after his coronation as emperor in 1220 by Pope Honorius III. In 1225 Frederick married Yolande of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(also known as Isabella), daughter of John of Brienne
John of Brienne
(nominal ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem) and Maria of Montferrat. Frederick now had a claim to the truncated kingdom, and reason to attempt to restore it.[2] In 1227, after Gregory IX became pope, Frederick and his army set sail from Brindisi, Italy, for Acre (then the capital of the truncated Kingdom of Jerusalem), but an epidemic forced Frederick to return to Italy. Gregory took this opportunity to excommunicate Frederick for breaking his crusader vow, though this was just an excuse, as Frederick had for years been trying to consolidate imperial power in Italy
Italy
at the expense of the papacy. Gregory stated that the reason for the excommunication was Frederick's reluctance to go on crusade, dating back to the Fifth Crusade. Frederick attempted to negotiate with the pope, but eventually decided to ignore him, and sailed to Syria
Syria
in 1228 despite the excommunication, arriving at Acre in September. The Crusade[edit] Stopover in Cyprus[edit] Instead of heading straight for the Holy Land, Frederick first sailed to Cyprus, which had been an imperial fiefdom since its capture by Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart
on his way to Acre during the Third Crusade. The emperor arrived with the clear intent of stamping his authority on the kingdom, but was treated cordially by the native barons until a dispute arose between him and the constable of Cyprus, John of Ibelin. Frederick claimed that his regency was illegitimate and demanded the surrender of John's mainland fief of Beirut
Beirut
to the imperial throne. Here he erred, for John pointed out that the kingdoms of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were constitutionally separate and he could not be punished for offences in Cyprus
Cyprus
by seizure of Beirut. This would have important consequences for the crusade, as it alienated the powerful Ibelin faction, turning them against the emperor. In the Kingdom of Jerusalem[edit] Acre, as the nominal capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the seat of the Latin Patriarchate, was split in its support for Frederick. Frederick's own army and the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
supported him, but Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne (and the clergy) followed the hostile papal line. Once news of Frederick's excommunication had spread, public support for him waned considerably. The position of the Knights Hospitaller and Knights Templar
Knights Templar
is more complicated; though they refused to join the emperor's army directly, they supported the crusade once Frederick agreed to have his name removed from official orders. The native barons greeted Frederick enthusiastically at first, but were wary of the emperor's history of centralization and his desire to impose imperial authority. This was largely due to Frederick's treatment of John of Ibelin in Cyprus, and his apparent disdain for the constitutional concerns of the barons. Diplomatic agreement with Sultan
Sultan
al-Kamil[edit] Even with the military orders on board, Frederick's force was a mere shadow of the army that had amassed when the crusade had originally been called. He realised that his only hope of success in the Holy Land was to negotiate for the surrender of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as he lacked the manpower to engage the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
empire in battle. Frederick hoped that a token show of force, a threatening march down the coast, would be enough to convince al-Kamil, the sultan of Egypt, to honor a proposed agreement that had been negotiated some years earlier, prior to the death of al-Muazzam, the governor of Damascus. The Egyptian sultan, occupied with the suppression of rebellious forces in Syria, agreed to cede Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to the Franks, along with a narrow corridor to the coast. In addition, Frederick received Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa, and Bethlehem. Other lordships may have been returned to Christian control, but sources disagree. It was, however, a treaty of compromise. The Muslims retained control over the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
area of Jerusalem, the al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Dome of the Rock. The Transjordan castles stayed in Ayyubid
Ayyubid
hands, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications, although the Crusaders did in fact restore Jerusalem's defensive walls. The treaty, completed on 18 February 1229, safeguarded a 10-year truce. One of the results of the treaty was that Jews were once more prohibited from living in Jerusalem.[3][4] The agreement is known sometimes as the Treaty of Jaffa
Jaffa
and Tell Ajul[1] to also include the agreement signed by the different Ayyubid rulers at Tell Ajul near Gaza, of which, from al-Kamil's perspective, the treaty with Frederick was just an extension.[5][6] This agreement should not be confused with the 1192 Treaty of Jaffa
Jaffa
between Saladin and Richard Lionheart. In Jerusalem[edit] Frederick entered Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on 17 March 1229, and attended a crown-wearing ceremony the following day. It is unknown whether he intended this to be interpreted as his official coronation as King of Jerusalem; in any case the absence of the patriarch, Gerald, rendered it questionable. There is evidence to suggest that the crown Frederick wore was actually the imperial one,[7] but in any case proclaiming his lordship over Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was a provocative act. Legally, he was actually only regent for his son Conrad II of Jerusalem, only child of Yolande and the grandson of Maria of Montferrat
Maria of Montferrat
and John of Brienne, who had been born shortly before Frederick left in 1228. Legacy and precedent[edit] As Frederick had matters to attend to at home, he left Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in May. It took a defeat in battle later in 1229 for the Pope
Pope
to lift the excommunication, but by now Frederick had demonstrated that a crusade could be successful even without military superiority or papal support. The ten-year expiration of Frederick's treaty with Al-Kamil
Al-Kamil
caused Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
to call for a new crusade to secure the Holy Lands for Christendom beyond 1239. This initiated the Barons' Crusade, a disorganized affair which wound up with relatively limited support from both Frederick and the pope, but which nevertheless regained more land than even the Sixth Crusade. Frederick had set a precedent, in having achieved success on crusade without papal involvement. He achieved success without fighting since he lacked manpower to engage Ayyubids. This was due to the engagement of Ayyubids
Ayyubids
with the rebellion in Syria. Further crusades would be launched by individual kings, such as Theobald I of Navarre (the Barons' Crusade), Louis IX of France
Louis IX of France
(the Seventh and Eighth Crusades), and Edward I of England
Edward I of England
(the Ninth Crusade), effectively demonstrating an erosion of papal authority. Cecelia Holland's novel Antichrist presents a heavily fictionalized account of the Sixth Crusade
Crusade
from Frederick II's perspective. See also[edit]

Seventh Crusade

References[edit] Sources

Cattaneo, Giulio (1992). Federico II di Svevia. Rome: Newton & Compton. 

Citations

^ a b Adrian J. Boas (2001). Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City Under Frankish Rule. London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 9780415230001. Retrieved 12 September 2015.  ^ Miller, Duane Alexander (2017). "Sixth Crusade". War and Religion. 3: 754–755. Retrieved 6 April 2017.  ^ http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1220&endyear=1229 ^ My Jerusalem: Essays, Reminiscences, and Poems. Edited by Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Zafar Ishaq Ansari. Page 332, note 42, quoting Joshua Prawer, "Minorities in the Crusader states" in A History of the Crusades
Crusades
(New York, 1964), 97; Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades
Crusades
(London, 1965), 467; Karen Armstrong, A History of Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths, HarperPerennial 2005, 198-299. ^ Humphreys, R. Stephen (1977). From Saladin
Saladin
to the Mongols: The Ayyubids
Ayyubids
of Damascus
Damascus
1193-1260. State University of New York (SUNY) Press. pp. 197–198. ISBN 0873952634. Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ Adrian J. Boas (2009). Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City under Frankish Rule. London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 9780415488754. Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ Crusading and the Crusader States, Jotischky, (Edinburgh, 2004), 225.

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