The SICHERHEITSPOLIZEI, or security police, was a paramilitary German
police group set up in most countries of the
In view of the unstable internal political situation in the Weimar
Republic , especially in the imperial capital of
* 1 Conversion and Reorganization * 2 Strength, training, and equipment * 3 Evolution after 1933 * 4 Gallery * 5 References * 6 Bibliography
CONVERSION AND REORGANIZATION
In response to protest from the French government in 1920, the national level security police units were dissolved were either sent to perform local policing. France feared a clandestine rearmament and saw the new para-military police force as a threat to its security. The planned airborne component of some security police had to be abandoned and their use of artillery and tanks were prohibited. France demanded the abolition of the green uniform, which they viewed as camouflage clothing. A blue uniform was introduced in most regions. Only Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Mecklenburg, and Bremen retained uniform components of a dark green color. The pants were mostly black or black-blue. Particularly striking was the Saxon version with a fairly light medium blue color. However, it took some years before the uniforming was completed, since the uniforms already purchased had to be used up before new ones could be requisitioned. Steel helmets were generally abolished and were not reissued until around 1930. The terms "Sipo" and "green police" continued in popular usage until the Nazi reorganization and disbandment of local police forces in 1935.
STRENGTH, TRAINING, AND EQUIPMENT
Police cadets at an Academy in Brandenburg an der Havel practice marching insurgents.
The training of the security police was tailored to a para-militarily force. The standard service period, analogous to the Reichswehr, was 12 years. The transfer to the local police or gendarmerie was by no means guaranteed, although in general a takeover was planned for the administrative service. With the global economic crisis of 1929, this could no longer be realized, as all countries had to save on personnel costs.
Equipment and armament was entirely designed for combat against heavily armed insurgents. Depending on the size of the member state, the security police had a number of so-called special cars, mostly British Daimler DZVR 21s or German Ehrhardt 21s, which were usually equipped with two turrets with one machine gun each. Machine guns, carbines, and grenades were also issued. The entire training, equipment and armament aimed at a civil war-like use both in large cities and in the countryside.
The security police were deployed extensively, combating the
EVOLUTION AFTER 1933
The Nazi concept of the role of the police originally called for only
a very small force. Like the Communists, the National Socialists saw a
kind of praetorian guardianship of the mainstream democratic parties,
especially the SPD in Prussia, which continuously constituted the
government there from 1919 to 1932. Moreover, on 9 November 1923, the
Hitler\'s putsch was defeated in Munich by the intervention of the
Bavarian state police . As early as 1933, the transformation of the
remaining local police into the national state police had begun. From
August 1934 until the end of 1935 these were dissolved and its members
transferred to the
An Ehrhardt 21 armored car of the police forces.
Providing a security cordon at the Reichstag building in 1930.
* ^ Geitinger 2009 , pp. 167-169. * ^ Geitinger 2009 , p. 168. * ^ Geitinger 2009 , p. 169.
* Leßmann-Faust, Peter (2012). Die preußische Schutzpolizei in der
Weimarer Republik: Streifendienst und Straßenkampf (in German).
Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Publisher for Police Science. ISBN
* Knatz, Christian (2000). Ein Heer im grünen Rock"? Der
mitteldeutsche Aufstand 1921, die preußische Schutzpolizei und die
Fraß der inneren Sicherheit in der Weimarer Republik (in German).
* Lankenau, Heinrich: Denkschrift aus Anlaß des 10-jährigen Bestehens der Oldenburger Ordnungspolizei , Oldenburg 1929. * Hellmuth Witt: Ergänzungen Lothar Danner: Ordnungspolizei Hamburg , Hamburg 1985. * Zaika, Siegfried (1979). Polizeigeschichte. Die Exekutive im Lichte der historischen Konfliktforschung (in German). Lübeck: Schmidt-Römhild. ISBN 978-3801620011 . * Schmidt, Daniel (2010). "Keine Kommissare. Preußische Polizeioffiziere zwischen soldatischem Selbstverständnis und polizeilicher Professionalität 1919 bis 1935". Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift (in German). Munich , Germany: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. 69. * Rettinghaus, Tessin (1974). Deutsche Verbände und Truppen 1918-1939. Altes Heer. Freiwilligenverbände. Reichswehr. Heer. Luftwaffe. Landespolizei (in German). Osnabrück: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 9783764810009 . * Neufeldt, Hans-Joachim; Huck, Jürgen; Tessin, Georg (1987). Zur Geschichte der Ordnungspolizei 1936-1945 (in German). Berlin: Bundesarchiv. ISSN 0435-706X . * Boldt, Erwin B. (2002). Die verschenkte Reform. Der Neuaufbau der Hamburger Polizei zwischen Weimarer Tradition und den Vorgaben der brittchen Besatzungsmacht 1945 - 1955 (in German). Munster, Germany: Southword Editions. ISBN 3-8258