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The SICHERHEITSPOLIZEI (English: Security Police), often abbreviated as SIPO, was a term used in Germany
Germany
for security police. In the Nazi era, it was used to describe the state political and criminal investigation security agencies. It was made up by the combined forces of the Gestapo
Gestapo
(secret state police) and the Kripo (criminal police) between 1936 and 1939. As a formal agency, the SiPo was folded into the RSHA in 1939, but the term continued to be used informally until the end of World War II
World War II
in Europe .

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Nazi Era * 3 Merger * 4 Grades and pay 1938–1945 * 5 Cold War * 6 See also

* 7 References

* 7.1 Citations * 7.2 Bibliography

ORIGINS

The term originated in August 1919 when the Reichswehr set up the Sicherheitswehr as a militarised police force to take action during times of riots or strikes. However owing to limitations in army numbers, it was renamed the Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
to avoid attention. They wore a green uniform, and were sometimes called the "Green Police". However it was a military body, recruiting largely from the Freikorps
Freikorps
, with NCOs and officers from the old German Imperial Army
German Imperial Army
.

NAZI ERA

When the Nazis came to power, Germany, as a federal state, had myriad local and centralised police agencies, which often were un-coordinated and had overlapping jurisdictions. Himmler
Himmler
and Heydrich's grand plan was to fully absorb all the police and security apparatus into the structure of the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS). To this end, Himmler
Himmler
took command first of the Gestapo
Gestapo
(itself developed from the Prussian Secret Police ). Then on 17 June 1936 all police forces throughout Germany
Germany
were united, following Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
's appointment of Himmler
Himmler
as Chef der Deutschen Polizei (Chief of German Police). As such he was nominally subordinate to Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
, but in practice Himmler
Himmler
answered to no-one but Hitler.

Himmler
Himmler
immediately reorganised the police, with the state agencies statutorily divided into two groups: the Ordnungspolizei (Order Police; Orpo), consisting of both the national uniformed police and the municipal police, and the Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
(Security Police; SiPo), consisting of the Kripo and Gestapo. Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
was appointed chief of the SiPo and was already head of the party Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(Security Service; SD) and the Gestapo. The two police branches were commonly known as the Orpo and SiPo ( Kripo and Gestapo
Gestapo
combined), respectively.

The idea was to fully identify the party agency (SD) with the state agency (SiPo). Most of the SiPo members were encouraged or volunteered to become members of the SS and many held a rank in both organisations. In practice, however, the SiPo and the SD frequently came into jurisdictional and operational conflict with each other, due in large part to the fact that the Gestapo
Gestapo
and Kripo had many experienced, professional policemen and investigators, that considered the SD as an organisation of amateurs and often thought the SD a rather incompetent agency. The Hauptamt Sicherheitspolizei was founded by Himmler, in order to create a centralized main office under Heydrich's overall command of the SiPo.

The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were formed under the direction of Heydrich and operated by the SS before and during World War II
World War II
. The Einsatzgruppen had its origins in the ad hoc Einsatzkommando formed by Heydrich to secure government buildings and documents following the Anschluss
Anschluss
in Austria
Austria
in March 1938. Originally part of the SiPo, two units of Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were stationed in the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
in October 1938. When military action turned out not to be necessary because of the Munich Agreement , the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were assigned to confiscate government papers and police documents. They also secured government buildings, questioned senior civil servants, and arrested as many as 10,000 Czech communists and German citizens.

MERGER

In September 1939, with the founding of the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA), the Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
as a functioning state agency ceased to exist as the department was merged into the RSHA. Further, the RSHA obtained overall command of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
units from that time forward. Members of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
units at this point were drawn from the SS, the SD and the police. They were used during the invasion of Poland to forcefully de-politicise the Polish people and kill members of groups most clearly identified with Polish national identity: the intelligentsia, members of the clergy, teachers, and members of the nobility. When the units were re-formed prior to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the men of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were recruited from the SD, Gestapo, Kripo, Orpo and Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
. These mobile death squads were active in the implementation of the Final Solution
Final Solution
in the territories overrun by the Nazi war machine. The term SiPo was also used to describe security police force officials (but not the SD members of the RSHA).

GRADES AND PAY 1938–1945

Officials of the Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
belonged to Kripo and Gestapo which both had the same grade structure and pay grades as civil servants.

PAY GRADE ANNUAL PAY IN REICHSMARK Grades in the junior executive service ( einfachen Vollzugsdienst der Sicherheitspolizei) Grades in the senior executive service (leitenden Vollzugsdienst der Sicherheitspolizei) Corresponding rank in SS (in Wehrmacht-Heer)

A8c2 2 160–2 340 Kriminalassistent

SS-Oberscharführer (Feldwebel)

A7c A8a 2 000–3 000 Kriminaloberassistent

SS-Hauptscharführer (Oberfeldwebel)

A7a 2 350–3 500 Kriminalsekretär

SS-Untersturmführer
SS-Untersturmführer
(Leutnant)

A5b 2 300–4 200 Kriminalobersekretär

SS-Untersturmführer
SS-Untersturmführer
(Leutnant)

A4c2 2 800–5000 Kriminalinspektor

SS-Obersturmführer
SS-Obersturmführer
(Oberleutnant)

A4c1 2 800–5 300

Kriminalkommissar < three years in grade SS-Obersturmführer
SS-Obersturmführer
(Oberleutnant)

A4c1 2 800–5 300

Kriminalkommissar > three years in grade SS-Hauptsturmführer (Hauptmann)

A3b 4 800–7 000

Kriminalrat < three years in grade SS-Hauptsturmführer (Hauptmann)

A3b 4 800–7 000

Kriminalrat > three years in grade SS-Sturmbannführer
SS-Sturmbannführer
(Major)

A2d 4 800–7 800

Kriminaldirektor SS-Sturmbannführer
SS-Sturmbannführer
(Major)

A2c2 4 800–8 400

Regierungs-und Kriminalrat SS-Sturmbannführer
SS-Sturmbannführer
(Major)

A2b 7 000–9 700

Oberregierungs-und Kriminalrat SS-Obersturmbannführer
SS-Obersturmbannführer
(Oberstleutnant)

A1b 6 200–10 600

Regierungs- und Kriminaldirektor SS-Standartenführer (Oberst)

A1b 6 200–10 600

Reichskriminaldirektor SS-Standartenführer (Oberst)

Mean annual pay for an industrial worker was 1,459 Reichsmark
Reichsmark
1939, and for a privately employed white-collar worker 2,772 Reichsmark.

COLD WAR

Following the end of the Second World War
Second World War
, the phrase Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
appeared in East Germany
Germany
as a title for some components of the East German secret police forces.

SEE ALSO

* Glossary of Nazi Germany
Germany

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ Robert Gellately. "The Gestapo
Gestapo
and German Society". Retrieved 2009-06-02. * ^ Edmonds, James (1987). The Occupation of the Rhineland. London: HMSO. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-11-290454-0 . * ^ A B C Williams 2001 , p. 77. * ^ A B Weale 2010 , pp. 134, 135. * ^ Williams 2001 , p. 61. * ^ A B Streim 1989 , p. 436. * ^ Longerich 2012 , pp. 405, 412. * ^ Weale 2012 , pp. 140, 141. * ^ A B Longerich 2010 , p. 144. * ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 185. * ^ McNab 2009 , pp. 113, 123, 124. * ^ A B C D E Siegfried Beer, "Die Gestapostelle Linz, 1938–1945. Eine dokumentarische Rekonstruktion auf Basis der Recherchen des amerikanischen Militärgeheimdienstes CIC/MIS aus dem Jahre 1946." Klaus Luger/Johann Mayr (red.), Stadtgesellschaft. Werte und Positionen. Bürgermeister Franz Dobusch zum 60. Geburtstag gewidmet (Linz 2011): 315–356. * ^ Andrew Mollo, Uniforms of the SS, vol. 5: "Sicherheitsdienst und Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
1931-1945" (London 1971). * ^ Die Besoldung eines Soldaten der Wehrmacht Retrieved 2013-11-26

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5 . * Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6 . * McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. London: Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5 . * Streim, Alfred (1989). "The Tasks of the SS Einsatzgruppen, pages 436–454". In Marrus, Michael . The Nazi Holocaust, Part 3, The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder, Volume 2. Westpoint, CT: Meckler. ISBN 0-88736-266-4 . * Weale, Adrian (2010). The SS: A New History. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1408703045 . * Weale, Adrian (2012). Army of Evil: A History of the SS. New York: Caliber Printing. ISBN 978-0-451-23791-0 . * Williams, Max (2001). Reinhard Heydrich: The Biography, Volume 1—Road To War. Church Stretton: Ulric Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9537577-5-6 .

* v * t * e

Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS)

BRANCHES

* Allgemeine SS
Allgemeine SS
* Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) * Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS

LEADERSHIP

* Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
* SS and Police Leader
SS and Police Leader
* SS personnel * SS commands

LEADERS

* Julius Schreck * Joseph Berchtold * Erhard Heiden * Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke

MAIN DEPARTMENTS

* Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
* SS Main Office * Head Operational Office * Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office
(RSHA) * Economics and Administration Office * Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) * Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) * Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV)

* Courts Office * Personnel Office * Education Office

IDEOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS

* Ahnenerbe
Ahnenerbe
* Das Schwarze Korps * SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz * Lebensborn
Lebensborn

POLICE AND SECURITY SERVICES

* Regular uniform police (Orpo) * Schutzpolizei (Schupo) * Criminal police (Kripo) * Secret State police (Gestapo) * State Security police (SiPo) * SS Security Service (SD)

FüHRER PROTECTION

* SS-Begleitkommando des Führers * Reichssicherheitsdienst

PARAMILITARY UNITS

* Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
* Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
* Belarusian Auxiliary Police * Latvian Police Battalions * Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys
* Lithuanian Security Police * Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions * Rollkommando Hamann * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Trawnikis * Estonian Auxiliary Police * Police Regiment Centre

WAFFEN-SS DIVISIONS

* Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) * Leibstandarte (LSSAH) * SS Division Das Reich
SS Division Das Reich
* SS Division Totenkopf * SS Polizei Division * SS Division Wiking

FOREIGN SS UNITS

* Germanic-SS * Germaansche SS in Nederland * Germaansche SS in Vlaanderen * Germanske SS Norge * Schalburg Corps * Britisches Freikorps
Freikorps
* S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. * Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS

SS-CONTROLLED ENTERPRISES

* Ostindustrie * Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe * Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke
Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke
* DEST
DEST
* Allach porcelain * Apollinaris * Mattoni * Sudetenquell * Anton Loibl

SS AWARDS

* SS Sword of Honour * SS Honour Ring * SS Honor Dagger

RANKS, UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA

* Uniforms and insignia of the SS * Ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
* Ranks and insignia of the Orpo * Corps colours of the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND :

.