Shirley Anita Chisholm (née St. Hill; November 30, 1924 – January
1, 2005) was an American politician, educator, and author. In 1968,
she became the first black woman elected to the United States
Congress, and she represented New York's 12th Congressional
District for seven terms from 1969 to 1983. In 1972, she became the
first black candidate for a major party's nomination for President of
the United States, and the first woman to run for the Democratic
Party's presidential nomination.
In 2015, Chisholm was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of
1 Early life and education
2 Career as educator
3 State legislator
4 Member of Congress
4.1 Initial election
4.2 Early terms
4.3 1972 presidential campaign
4.4 Later terms
5 Subsequent years and death
7 Awards and honors
9 See also
12 External links
Early life and education
Shirley Anita St. Hill was born on November 30, 1924, in Brooklyn, New
York, to immigrant parents from the Caribbean region. She had three
younger sisters, two born within three years after St. Hill, one
later. Their father, Charles Christopher St. Hill, was born in
British Guiana, lived in
Barbados for a while, and then arrived
United States via Antilla, Cuba, on April 10, 1923, aboard the
S.S. Munamar in New York City. Their mother, Ruby Seale, was born
in Christ Church, Barbados, and arrived in
New York City
New York City aboard the
S.S. Pocone on March 8, 1921.
Her father was an unskilled laborer who sometimes worked in a factory
that made burlap bags, but when he could not find factory employment
instead worked as a baker's helper, while her mother was a skilled
seamstress and domestic worker who had trouble working and raising the
children at the same time. As a consequence, in November 1929
as St. Hill turned five, she and her two sisters were sent to Barbados
on the S.S. Vulcana to live with their maternal grandmother, Emaline
Seale. There they lived on the grandmother's farm in the Vauxhall
village in Christ Church, where she attended a one-room schoolhouse
that took education seriously. She did not return to the United
States until May 19, 1934, aboard the
SS Nerissa in New York. As a
result, St. Hill spoke with a recognizable West Indian accent
throughout her life. In her 1970 autobiography Unbought and
Unbossed, she wrote: "Years later I would know what an important gift
my parents had given me by seeing to it that I had my early education
in the strict, traditional, British-style schools of Barbados. If I
speak and write easily now, that early education is the main
reason." As a result of her time on the island, and regardless of
her U.S. birth, St. Hill would always consider herself a Barbadian
American. Regarding the role of her grandmother, she later said,
"Granny gave me strength, dignity, and love. I learned from an early
age that I was somebody. I didn't need the black revolution to tell me
Beginning in 1939, St. Hill attended
Girls' High School
Girls' High School in the
Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, a highly regarded,
integrated school that attracted girls from throughout Brooklyn.
St. Hill earned her
Bachelor of Arts from
Brooklyn College in 1946,
where she won prizes for her debating skills. She was a member of
Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta sorority.
St. Hill met Conrad O. Chisholm in the late 1940s. He had come
to the U.S. from
Jamaica in 1946 and later became a private
investigator who specialized in negligence-based lawsuits. They
married in 1949 in a large West Indian-style wedding.
Chisholm taught in a nursery school while furthering her education,
earning her MA in elementary education from
Teachers College at
Columbia University in 1952.
Career as educator
From 1953 to 1959, she was director of the Friends Day Nursery in
Brownsville, Brooklyn, and of the Hamilton-Madison Child Care Center
in lower Manhattan. From 1959 to 1964, she was an educational
consultant for the Division of Day Care. She became known as an
authority on issues involving early education and child welfare.
Running a day care center got her interested in politics, and during
this time she formed the basis of her political career, working as a
volunteer for white-dominated political clubs in Brooklyn, and with
the Bedford-Stuyvesant Political League and the League of Women
Voters. With the Political League she was part of a committee
that chose the recipient of its annual Brotherhood Award. She also
was a representative of the
Brooklyn branch of the National
Association of College Women.
Chisholm reviewing political statistics in 1965.
Chisholm was a Democratic member of the
New York State Assembly
New York State Assembly from
1965 to 1968, sitting in the 175th, 176th and 177th New York State
Legislatures. By May 1965 she had already been honored in a "Salute to
Women Doers" affair in New York. One of her early activities in
the Assembly was to argue against the state's literacy test requiring
English, holding that just because a person "functions better in his
native language is no sign a person is illiterate." By early 1966
she was a leader in a push by the statewide Council of Elected Negro
Democrats for black representation on key committees in the
Her successes in the legislature included getting unemployment
benefits extended to domestic workers. She also sponsored the
introduction of a SEEK program (Search for Education, Elevation and
Knowledge) to the state, which provided disadvantaged students the
chance to enter college while receiving intensive remedial
In August 1968, she was elected as the Democratic National
Committeewoman from New York State.
Member of Congress
In 1968 she ran for the
U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives from New York's
12th congressional district, which as part of a court-mandated
reapportionment plan had been significantly redrawn to focus on
Bedford-Stuyvesant and was thus expected to result in Brooklyn's first
black member of Congress. (
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. had, in 1945,
become the first black member of Congress from
New York City
New York City as a
whole.) As a result of the redrawing, the white incumbent in the
former 12th, Representative Edna F. Kelly, sought re-election in a
different district. Chisholm announced her candidacy around
January 1968 and established some early organizational support.
Her campaign slogan was "Unbought and unbossed". In the June 18,
1968, Democratic primary, Chisholm defeated two other black opponents,
State Senator William S. Thompson and labor official Dollie
Robertson. In the general election, she staged an upset victory
over James L. Farmer, Jr., the former director of the Congress of
Racial Equality who was running as a Liberal Party candidate with
Republican support, winning by an approximately two-to-one margin.
Chisholm thereby became the first black woman elected to Congress.
Chisholm was assigned to the House Agricultural Committee. Given her
urban district, she felt the placement was irrelevant to her
constituents. When Chisholm confided to Rabbi Menachem M.
Schneerson that she was upset and insulted by her assignment,
Schneerson suggested that she use the surplus food to help the poor
and hungry. Chisholm subsequently met Robert Dole, and worked to
expand the food stamp program. She later played a critical role in the
creation of the
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,
Infants and Children (WIC) program. Chisholm would credit Schneerson
for the fact that so many "poor babies [now] have milk and poor
children have food." Chisholm was then also placed on the
Veterans' Affairs Committee. Soon after, she voted for Hale Boggs
House Majority Leader
House Majority Leader over John Conyers. As a reward for her
support, Boggs assigned her to the much-prized Education and Labor
Committee, which was her preferred committee. She was the third
highest-ranking member of this committee when she retired from
All those Chisholm hired for her office were women; half of these were
black. Chisholm said that she had faced much more discrimination
during her New York legislative career because she was a woman than
because of her race.
Chisholm joined the
Congressional Black Caucus
Congressional Black Caucus in 1971 as one of its
founding members. In the same year, she was also a founding member
of the National Women's Political Caucus.
In May 1971 she, along with fellow New York Congresswoman Bella Abzug,
introduced a bill to provide $10 billion in federal funds for child
care services by 1975. A less expensive version introduced by
Senator Walter Mondale eventually passed the House and Senate as
the Comprehensive Child Development Bill, but was vetoed by President
Richard Nixon in December 1971, who said it was too expensive and
would undermine the institution of the family.
Portrait of Chisholm by
Kadir Nelson in the Collection of the U.S.
House of Representatives
1972 presidential campaign
Chisholm began exploring her candidacy in July 1971, and formally
announced her presidential bid on January 25, 1972, in a Baptist
church in her district in Brooklyn. There she called for a
"bloodless revolution" at the forthcoming Democratic nomination
convention. Chisholm became the first black major-party candidate
to run for President of the United States, in the 1972 U.S.
presidential election, making her also the first woman ever to run for
the Democratic Party's presidential nomination (U.S. Senator Margaret
Chase Smith had previously run for the Republican presidential
nomination in 1964).
Her campaign was underfunded, only spending $300,000 in total. She
also struggled to be regarded as a serious candidate instead of as a
symbolic political figure; she was ignored by much of the
Democratic political establishment and received little support from
her black male colleagues. She later said, "When I ran for the
Congress, when I ran for president, I met more discrimination as a
woman than for being black. Men are men." In particular, she
expressed frustration about the "black matriarch thing", saying, "They
think I am trying to take power from them. The black man must step
forward, but that doesn't mean the black woman must step back." Her
husband, however, was fully supportive of her candidacy and said, "I
have no hangups about a woman running for president." Security was
also a concern, as during the campaign three confirmed threats were
made against her life; Conrad Chisholm served as her bodyguard until
U.S. Secret Service
U.S. Secret Service protection was given to her in May 1972.
Chisholm skipped the initial March 7 New Hampshire contest, instead
focusing on the March 14
Florida primary, which she thought would be
receptive due to its "blacks, youth and a strong women's movement".
But due to organizational difficulties and Congressional
responsibilities, she only made two campaign trips there and ended
with 3.5 percent of the vote for a seventh-place finish.
Chisholm had difficulties gaining ballot access, but campaigned or
received votes in primaries in fourteen states. Her largest number
of votes came in the June 6 California primary, where she received
157,435 votes for 4.4 percent and a fourth-place finish, while her
best percentage in a competitive primary came in the May 6 North
Carolina one, where she got 7.5 percent for a third-place finish.
Overall, she won 28 delegates during the primaries process
itself. Chisholm's base of support was ethnically diverse and
included the National Organization for Women.
Betty Friedan and Gloria
Steinem attempted to run as Chisholm delegates in New York.
Altogether during the primary season, she received 430,703 votes,
which was 2.7 percent of the total of nearly 16 million cast and
represented seventh place among the Democratic contenders.
1972 Democratic National Convention
1972 Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida,
there were still efforts taking place by the campaign of former Vice
Hubert H. Humphrey
Hubert H. Humphrey to stop the nomination of Senator George
McGovern. After that failed and McGovern's nomination was assured, as
a symbolic gesture, Humphrey released his black delegates to
Chisholm. This, combined with defections from disenchanted
delegates from other candidates, as well as the delegates she had won
in the primaries, gave her a total of 152 first-ballot votes for the
nomination during the July 12 roll call. (Her precise total was
151.95.) Her largest support overall came from Ohio, with 23
delegates (slightly more than half of them white), even though she
had not been on the ballot in the May 2 primary there. Her
total gave her fourth place in the roll call tally, behind McGovern's
winning total of 1,728 delegates. Chisholm said she ran for the
office "in spite of hopeless odds ... to demonstrate the sheer will
and refusal to accept the status quo." Among the volunteers who
were inspired by her campaign was Barbara Lee, who continued to be
politically active and was elected as a congresswoman 25 years
It is sometimes stated that Chisholm won a primary during 1972, or won
three states overall, with New Jersey, Louisiana, and Mississippi
being so identified. None of these fit the usual definition of winning
a plurality of the contested popular vote or delegate allocations at
the time of a state primary or caucus or state convention. In the June
6 New Jersey primary, there was a complex ballot that featured both a
delegate selection vote and a non-binding, non-delegate-producing
"beauty contest" presidential preference vote. In the delegate
selection vote, Democratic front-runner Senator George McGovern
defeated his main rival at that point, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, and
won the large share of available delegates. Most of the Democratic
candidates were not on the preference ballot, including McGovern and
Humphrey; of the two that were, Chisholm and former governor of North
Carolina Terry Sanford, Sanford had withdrawn from the contest
three weeks earlier. In the actual preference ballot voting, which
Associated Press described as "meaningless", Chisholm received
the majority of votes: 51,433, which was 66.9 percent. During
the actual balloting at the national convention, Chisholm received
votes from only 4 of New Jersey's 109 delegates, with 89 going to
McGovern. In the May 13 Louisiana caucuses, there was a battle
between forces of McGovern and Governor George Wallace; nearly all of
the delegates chosen were those who identified as uncommitted, many of
them black. Leading up to the convention, McGovern was thought to
control 20 of Louisiana's 44 delegates, with most of the rest
uncommitted. During the actual roll call at the national
convention, Louisiana passed at first, then cast 18½ of its 44 votes
for Chisholm, with the next best finishers being McGovern and Senator
Henry M. Jackson
Henry M. Jackson with 10¼ each. As one delegate explained,
"Our strategy was to give Shirley our votes for sentimental reasons on
the first ballot. However, if our votes would have made the
difference, we would have gone with McGovern." In Mississippi,
there were two rival party factions that each selected delegates at
their own state conventions and caucuses: "regulars" representing the
mostly white state Democratic Party and "loyalists" representing many
blacks and white liberals. Each slate professed to be largely
uncommitted, but the regulars were thought to favor Wallace and the
loyalists McGovern. By the time of the national convention, the
loyalists were seated following a credentials challenge, and their
delegates were characterized as mostly supporting McGovern, with some
support for Humphrey. During the convention, some McGovern
delegates became angry about what they saw as statements from McGovern
that backed away from his commitment to end U.S. involvement in
Southeast Asia, and cast protest votes for Chisholm as a result.
During the actual balloting, Mississippi went in the first half of the
roll call, and cast 12 of its 25 votes for Chisholm, with McGovern
coming next with 10 votes.
During the campaign the German filmmaker
Peter Lilienthal shot the
Shirley Chisholm for President for German Television
Chisholm at the 1984 Democratic National Convention
Chisholm created controversy when she visited rival and ideological
George Wallace in the hospital soon after his shooting in May
1972, during the presidential primary campaign. Several years later,
when Chisholm worked on a bill to give domestic workers the right to a
minimum wage, Wallace helped gain votes of enough Southern congressmen
to push the legislation through the House.
From 1977 to 1981, during the 95th Congress and 96th Congress,
Chisholm was elected to a position in the House Democratic leadership,
as Secretary of the House Democratic Caucus.
Throughout her tenure in Congress, Chisholm worked to improve
opportunities for inner-city residents. She was a vocal opponent of
the draft and supported spending increases for education, health care
and other social services, and reductions in military spending.
In the area of national security and foreign policy, Chisholm worked
for the revocation of Internal Security Act of 1950. She opposed
the American involvement in the
Vietnam War and the expansion of
weapon developments. During the
Jimmy Carter administration, she
called for better treatment of Haitian refugees.
Chisholm's first marriage ended in divorce in February 1977. Later
that year she married Arthur Hardwick, Jr., a former New York State
Assemblyman whom Chisholm had known when they both served in that body
and who was now a Buffalo liquor store owner. Chisholm had no
Hardwick was subsequently injured in an automobile accident; desiring
to take care of him, and also dissatisfied with the course of liberal
politics in the wake of the Reagan Revolution, she announced her
retirement from Congress in 1982. Hardwick died in 1986.
Subsequent years and death
Shirley Chisholm (center) with Congressman
Edolphus Towns (left) and
his wife, Gwen Towns (right)
Shirley Chisholm Memorial Service, Congressional Black Caucus,
February 15, 2005, C-SPAN
After leaving Congress, Chisholm made her home in suburban
Williamsville, New York. She resumed her career in education,
being named to the Purington Chair at the all-women Mount Holyoke
College in Massachusetts. As such she was not a member of any
particular department, but would be able to teach classes in a variety
of areas; those previously holding the position included W. H.
Auden, Bertrand Russell, and Arna Bontemps.
At Mount Holyoke, she taught politics and sociology from 1983 to
1987. She focused on undergraduate courses that covered politics
as it involved women and race. Dean of faculty
Joseph Ellis later
said that Chisholm "contributed to the vitality of the College and
gave the College a presence." In 1985 she was a visiting scholar
at Spelman College.
During those years, she continued to give speeches at colleges, by her
own count visiting over 150 campuses since becoming nationally
known. She told students to avoid polarization and intolerance:
"If you don't accept others who are different, it means nothing that
you've learned calculus." Continuing to be involved politically,
she traveled to visit different minority groups and urging them to
become a strong force at the local level. In 1984 and 1988, she
Jesse Jackson for the presidential elections. In
1990, Chisholm, along with 15 other black women and men, formed the
African-American Women for Reproductive Freedom.
Chisholm retired to
Florida in 1991. In 1993, President Bill
Clinton nominated her to be
United States Ambassador to Jamaica, but
she could not serve due to poor health and the nomination was
withdrawn. In the same year she was inducted into the National
Women's Hall of Fame.
Chisholm died on January 1, 2005, in Ormond Beach near Daytona Beach,
after suffering several strokes. She is buried in the Oakwood
Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Buffalo, where the legend
inscribed on her vault reads: "Unbought and Unbossed".
In February 2005,
Shirley Chisholm '72: Unbought and Unbossed, a
documentary film, aired on U.S public television. It chronicled
Chisholm's 1972 bid for the Democratic presidential nomination. It was
directed and produced by independent African-American filmmaker Shola
Lynch. The film was featured at the Sundance Film Festival in 2004. On
April 9, 2006, the film was announced as a winner of a Peabody
Chisholm's legacy came into renewed prominence during the 2008
Democratic presidential primaries, when
Barack Obama and Hillary
Clinton staged their historic 'firsts' battle – where the victor
would either be the first major party African-American nominee, or the
first woman nominee – with at least one observer crediting
Chisholm's 1972 campaign as having paved the way for both of them.
Shirley Chisholm Center for Research on Women exists at Brooklyn
College to promote research projects and programs on women and to
preserve the legacy of Chisholm. The college's library also houses
an archive called the
Shirley Chisholm Project on
In 2014, the first adult biography of Chisholm was published, Shirley
Chisholm: Catalyst for Change, by
Brooklyn College history professor
Barbara Winslow. Until then, only several juvenile biographies had
Chisholm's speech "For the Equal Rights Amendment", given in 1970, is
listed as #91 in American Rhetoric's Top 100 Speeches of the 20th
Century (listed by rank).
Chisholm has had a profound impact on other women of color in
politics. California Congresswoman
Barbara Lee stated in 2017
interview that Chisholm had a profound impact on her career.
Awards and honors
Chisholm was the keynote speaker at Hunter College's graduation in
In 1974, Chisholm was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree by
Aquinas College and was their commencement speaker.
In 1975, Chisholm was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree by
In 1991, Chisholm was the commencement speaker at East Stroudsburg
University in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, where she received the
first ever conferred honorary doctorate from the university. An annual
ESU student award was created in her honor.
In 1993, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.
In 1996, she was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree by Stetson
University, in Deland, Florida.
In 2002, scholar
Molefi Kete Asante
Molefi Kete Asante listed
Shirley Chisholm on his
list of 100 Greatest African Americans.
On January 31, 2014, the
Forever Stamp was
issued. It is the 37th stamp in the Black Heritage series of U.S.
In November 2015, Chisholm was posthumously awarded the Presidential
Medal of Freedom by President
Barack Obama at a ceremony in the White
Chisholm wrote two autobiographical books.
Chisholm, Shirley (1970). Unbought and Unbossed. Houghton Mifflin.
Chisholm, Shirley (2010). Scott Simpson, ed. Unbought and Unbossed:
Expanded 40th Anniversary Edition. Take Root Media.
ISBN 978-0-9800590-2-1. Also available via the editor Scott
Chisholm, Shirley (1973). The Good Fight. Harper Collins.
List of African-American
United States Representatives
Women in the
United States House of Representatives
This article incorporates material from the
"Shirley Chisholm", which is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL.
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^ Charles R. Babcock, "Rep. Chisholm Asks Equity For Haiti's Black
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Shirley Chisholm Sees Pat
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^ "Statement on the Withdrawal of the Nomination of Shirley Chisholm
To Be Ambassador to Jamaica". The White House. October 13, 1993.
^ National Women's Hall of Fame, Women of the Hall - Shirley Chisholm
^ Steve Skafte (18 January 2004). "Chisholm '72: Unbought &
Unbossed (2004)". IMDb.
^ 65th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2006.
Shirley Chisholm Center for Research on Women".
Retrieved March 28, 2014.
Shirley Chisholm Project on
Brooklyn Women's Activism Content".
Brooklyn College. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
^ Winslow, Shirley Chisholm, p. 153.
^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (2009-02-13). "Top 100 Speeches of the 20th
Century by Rank". American Rhetoric. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (1970-08-10). "
Shirley Chisholm - For the
Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment (Aug 10, 1970)". American Rhetoric. Retrieved
^ "Street Heat w/ Congresswoman
Barbara Lee & Linda Sarsour,
episode #45 of Politically Re-Active with W. Kamau Bell and Hari
Kondabolu on Earwolf". www.earwolf.com. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
^ "Past Commencement Speakers and Honorary Degree Recipients". Aquinas
College (Michigan). Archived from the original on March 28, 2014.
Retrieved March 28, 2014.
^ "Honorary Degrees". Smith College. Archived from the original on
March 27, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
Shirley Chisholm To Address E. Stroudsburg Graduates". Retrieved 11
^ "Home - National Women's Hall of Fame". National Women’s Hall of
Fame. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
Stetson University Commencement Program". Stetson University. May
^ "Scott new Issues Update". Linn's Stamp News. Sidney, Ohio: Amos
Press, Inc.,. 87 (4455): 60–61. March 17, 2014.
Brooks-Bertram, Peggy; Nevergold, Barbara A. (2009). Uncrowned Queens,
Volume 3: African American Women Community Builders of Western New
York. In Commemoration of the Centennial of the Niagara Movement.
Buffalo, New York. ISBN 0-9722977-2-3.
Winslow, Barbara (2014). Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change. Lives
of American Women. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Fitzpatrick, Ellen (2016). The Highest Glass Ceiling : Women's
Quest for the American Presidency. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press. ISBN 9780674088931. LCCN 2015045620.
Appearances on C-SPAN
Shirley Chisholm declaring presidential bid, January 25, 1972
Shirley Chisholm's Unbought and Unbossed book web site by editor Scot
Shirley Chisholm's oral history video excerpts at The National
Visionary Leadership Project
Biography by Jone Johnson Lewis
Shirley Chisholm at the National Women's History Museum
United States Congress. "
Shirley Chisholm (id: C000371)". Biographical
Directory of the
United States Congress.
Chisholm speech on the Equal Rights Amendment
Shirley Chisholm Biography at Encyclopaedia Britannica
Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign
Before Hillary Clinton, there was Shirley Chisholm, Rajini
Vaidyanathan BBC News, Washington, 26 January 2016
Chisholm '72 - Unbought & Unbossed PBS American Documentary POV
documentary by Shola Lynch
Chisholm '72 - Unbought & Unbossed Women Make Movies documentary
by Shola Lynch
Feature on Shirley Chisholm, with writing from
Gloria Steinem and
video clips from Chisholm '72 Unbought & Unbossed, by the
International Museum of Women.
Shirley Chisholm at Find a Grave
New York Assembly
Member of the New York Assembly
from King's 17th district
Member of the New York Assembly
from the 45th district
Member of the New York Assembly
from the 55th district
U.S. House of Representatives
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 12th congressional district
Party political offices
Secretary of the House Democratic Caucus
United States presidential election, 1972
United States presidential election, 1972 (→ 1976)
John M. Ashbrook
Walter E. Fauntroy
Fred R. Harris
Henry M. Jackson
Third party and independent candidates
American Independent Party
John G. Schmitz
Thomas J. Anderson
E. Harold Munn
Socialist Labor Party
Socialist Workers Party
Alternate nominee: Evelyn Reed
Other 1972 elections: House
Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame
Susan B. Anthony
Mary McLeod Bethune
Pearl S. Buck
Margaret Chase Smith
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Helen Brooke Taussig
Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias
Juliette Gordon Low
Elizabeth Bayley Seton
Carrie Chapman Catt
Mary "Mother" Harris Jones
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Billie Jean King
Florence B. Seibert
Gertrude Belle Elion
Ethel Percy Andrus
Marian Wright Edelman
Martha Wright Griffiths
Fannie Lou Hamer
Constance Baker Motley
Ellen Swallow Richards
Katherine Siva Saubel
Madam C. J. Walker
Rosalyn S. Yalow
Annie Jump Cannon
Jane Cunningham Croly
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Helen LaKelly Hunt
Zora Neale Hurston
Frances Wisebart Jacobs
Susette La Flesche
Betty Bone Schiess
Elizabeth Hanford Dole
Anne Dallas Dudley
Mary Baker Eddy
Matilda Joslyn Gage
Lillian Moller Gilbreth
Nannerl O. Keohane
Sandra Day O'Connor
Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin
Hannah Greenebaum Solomon
Louisa May Alcott
Charlotte Anne Bunch
Frances Xavier Cabrini
Mary A. Hallaren
Oveta Culp Hobby
Wilhelmina Cole Holladay
Anne Morrow Lindbergh
Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose
Lydia Moss Bradley
Mary Steichen Calderone
Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd Cary
Joan Ganz Cooney
Julia Ward Howe
Shirley Ann Jackson
Katharine Dexter McCormick
Rozanne L. Ridgway
Edith Nourse Rogers
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Angelina Grimké Weld
Faye Glenn Abdellah
Emma Smith DeVoe
Marjory Stoneman Douglas
Sylvia A. Earle
Leontine T. Kelly
Frances Oldham Kelsey
Anna Howard Shaw
Wilma L. Vaught
Mary Edwards Walker
Annie Dodge Wauneka
Frances E. Willard
Dorothy H. Andersen
Lydia Maria Child
Marian de Forest
Beatrice A. Hicks
Harriet Williams Russell Strong
Emily Howell Warner
Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Mary Engle Pennington
Mercy Otis Warren
Linda G. Alvarado
Donna de Varona
Martha Matilda Harper
Patricia Roberts Harris
Stephanie L. Kwolek
Mildred Robbins Leet
Patsy Takemoto Mink
Sheila E. Widnall
Florence Ellinwood Allen
Ruth Fulton Benedict
Rita Rossi Colwell
Mother Marianne Cope
Maya Y. Lin
Patricia A. Locke
Blanche Stuart Scott
Mary Burnett Talbert
Eleanor K. Baum
Martha Coffin Pelham Wright
Judith L. Pipher
Catherine Filene Shouse
Allie B. Latimer
Rebecca Talbot Perkins
St. Katharine Drexel
Dorothy Harrison Eustis
Loretta C. Ford
Abby Kelley Foster
Helen Murray Free
Coretta Scott King
Barbara A. Mikulski
Donna E. Shalala
Ina May Gaskin
Mary Joseph Rogers
Carlotta Walls LaNier
Mary Harriman Rumsey
Clare Boothe Luce
ISNI: 0000 0000 2181 2965
BNF: cb12843106q (data)
US Congress: C000