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Shetland
Shetland
/ˈʃɛtlənd/ (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland
Shetland
Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland
Scotland
that lies northeast of Great Britain. The islands lie some 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast of Orkney, 168 km (104 mi) from the Scottish mainland and 280 km (170 mi) southeast of the Faroe Islands. They form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west and the North Sea
North Sea
to the east. The total area is 1,466 km2 (566 sq mi),[1] and the population totalled 23,210 in 2011.[2] Comprising the Shetland
Shetland
constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the islands' administrative centre and only burgh is Lerwick, which has also been the capital of Shetland
Shetland
since taking over from Scalloway
Scalloway
in 1708. The largest island, known as the "Mainland", has an area of 967 km2 (373 sq mi), making it the third-largest Scottish island[3] and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands. The archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills. Humans have lived in Shetland
Shetland
since the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period. The earliest written references to the islands date to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences, especially from Norway, and the islands did not become part of Scotland
Scotland
until the 15th century. When Scotland
Scotland
became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
in 1707, trade with northern Europe decreased. Fishing
Fishing
has continued to be an important aspect of the economy up to the present day. The discovery of North Sea
North Sea
oil in the 1970s significantly boosted Shetland's economy, employment and public sector revenues. The local way of life reflects the Scottish and Norse heritage of the isles, including the Up Helly Aa
Up Helly Aa
fire festival, and a strong musical tradition, especially the traditional fiddle style. The islands have produced a variety of writers of prose and poetry, often in the distinct Shetland dialect of Scots. There are numerous areas set aside to protect the local fauna and flora, including a number of important sea bird nesting sites. The Shetland pony
Shetland pony
and Shetland Sheepdog
Shetland Sheepdog
are two well-known Shetland
Shetland
animal breeds. Other local breeds include the Shetland
Shetland
sheep, cow, goose, and duck. The Shetland
Shetland
pig, or grice, has been extinct since about 1930. The islands' motto, which appears on the Council's coat of arms, is "Með lögum skal land byggja." This Old Norse
Old Norse
phrase is taken from the Danish 1241 Basic Law, Code of Jutland, and is also mentioned in Njáls saga, and means "By law shall land be built".[4]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography and geology 3 Climate 4 Prehistory 5 History

5.1 Scandinavian colonisation 5.2 Increased Scottish interest 5.3 Annexation by Scotland 5.4 18th and 19th centuries 5.5 20th century

6 Economy

6.1 Quarries 6.2 Transport

7 Public services 8 Education 9 Sport 10 Churches and religion 11 Politics 12 Shetland
Shetland
Flag 13 Local culture and the arts

13.1 Music 13.2 Writers 13.3 Films and television

14 Wildlife

14.1 Flora 14.2 Fauna 14.3 Domesticated animals

15 See also

15.1 Lists 15.2 About Shetland 15.3 Other

16 Notes 17 References

17.1 General references

18 Further reading 19 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Northern Isles The name of Shetland
Shetland
is derived from the Old Norse
Old Norse
words, hjalt (hilt), and land (land).[5][6] In AD 43 and 77 the Roman authors Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
and Pliny the Elder referred to the seven islands they respectively called Haemodae and Acmodae, both of which are assumed to be Shetland. Another possible early written reference to the islands is Tacitus' report in Agricola in AD 98, after describing the discovery and conquest of Orkney, that the Roman fleet had seen "Thule, too".[Note 1] In early Irish literature, Shetland
Shetland
is referred to as Inse Catt—"the Isles of Cats", which may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for the islands. The Cat tribe also occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland and their name can be found in Caithness, and in the Gaelic name for Sutherland
Sutherland
(Cataibh, meaning "among the Cats").[9][Note 2] The oldest version of the modern name Shetland
Shetland
is Hetlandensis, the Latinised adjectival form of the Old Norse
Old Norse
name recorded in a letter from Harald, Count of Shetland
Shetland
in 1190,[11] becoming Hetland in 1431 after various intermediate transformations. It is possible that the Pictish "cat" sound forms part of this Norse name. It then became Hjaltland in the 16th century.[12][13][Note 3] As Norn was gradually replaced by Scots in the form of the Shetland dialect, Hjaltland became Ȝetland. The initial letter is the Middle Scots letter, "yogh", the pronunciation of which is almost identical to the original Norn sound, "/hj/". When the use of the letter yogh was discontinued, it was often replaced by the similar-looking letter z, hence Zetland, the form used in the name of the pre-1975 county council.[14][15] This is also the source of the ZE postcode used for Shetland. Most of the individual islands have Norse names, although the derivations of some are obscure and may represent pre-Norse, possibly Pictish or even pre-Celtic names or elements.[16] Geography and geology[edit] Main article: List of Shetland
Shetland
islands

Shetland
Shetland
geological map

Fort Charlotte overlooking Lerwick, Shetland's largest settlement.

Broch
Broch
of Mousa

Shetland
Shetland
is around 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of mainland Scotland, covers an area of 1,468 square kilometres (567 sq mi) and has a coastline 2,702 kilometres (1,679 mi) long.[1] Lerwick, the capital and largest settlement, has a population of 6,958 and about half of the archipelago's total population of 23,167 people live within 16 kilometres (10 mi) of the town.[17] Scalloway
Scalloway
on the west coast, which was the capital until 1708, has a population of less than 1,000.[18] Only 16 of about 100 islands are inhabited. The main island of the group is known as Mainland. The next largest are Yell, Unst, and Fetlar, which lie to the north, and Bressay
Bressay
and Whalsay, which lie to the east. East and West Burra, Muckle Roe, Papa Stour, Trondra
Trondra
and Vaila
Vaila
are smaller islands to the west of Mainland. The other inhabited islands are Foula
Foula
28 kilometres (17 mi) west of Walls, Fair Isle 38 kilometres (24 mi) south-west of Sumburgh Head, and the Out Skerries to the east.[Note 4] The uninhabited islands include Mousa, known for the Broch
Broch
of Mousa, the finest preserved example in Scotland
Scotland
of an Iron Age
Iron Age
broch; Noss
Noss
to the east of Bressay, which has been a national nature reserve since 1955; St Ninian's Isle, connected to Mainland by the largest active tombolo in the UK; and Out Stack, the northernmost point of the British Isles.[19][20][21] Shetland's location means that it provides a number of such records: Muness is the most northerly castle in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Skaw the most northerly settlement.[22] The geology of Shetland
Shetland
is complex, with numerous faults and fold axes. These islands are the northern outpost of the Caledonian orogeny, and there are outcrops of Lewisian, Dalradian
Dalradian
and Moine metamorphic rocks with histories similar to their equivalents on the Scottish mainland. There are also Old Red Sandstone
Old Red Sandstone
deposits and granite intrusions. The most distinctive features are the ultrabasic[clarification needed] ophiolite, peridotite and gabbro on Unst
Unst
and Fetlar, which are remnants of the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
floor.[23] Much of Shetland's economy depends on the oil-bearing sediments in the surrounding seas.[24] Geological evidence shows that in around 6100 BC a tsunami caused by the Storegga Slides hit Shetland, as well as the rest of the east coast of Scotland, and may have created a wave of up to 25 metres (82 ft) high in the voes where modern populations are highest.[25] The highest point of Shetland
Shetland
is Ronas Hill
Ronas Hill
at 450 metres (1,480 ft). The Pleistocene
Pleistocene
glaciations entirely covered the islands. During that period, the Stanes of Stofast, a 2000-tonne glacial erratic, came to rest on a prominent hilltop in Lunnasting.[26] Shetland
Shetland
is a National Scenic Area which, unusually, includes a number of discrete locations: Fair Isle, Foula, South West Mainland (including the Scalloway
Scalloway
Islands), Muckle Roe, Esha Ness, Fethaland and Herma Ness.[27] Climate[edit] Shetland
Shetland
has an oceanic temperate maritime climate (Köppen: Cfb), bordering on, but very slightly above average in summer temperatures, the subpolar variety, with long but cool winters and short mild summers. The climate all year round is moderate due to the influence of the surrounding seas, with average night-time low temperatures a little above 1 °C (34 °F) in January and February and average daytime high temperatures of near 14 °C (57 °F) in July and August.[28] Temperatures over 25 °C (77 °F) are very rare. The highest temperature on record was 28.4 °C (83.1 °F) in July 1991 and the lowest −8.9 °C (16.0 °F) in the Januaries of 1952 and 1959.[29] The frost-free period may be as little as three months.[30] In contrast, inland areas of nearby Scandinavia
Scandinavia
on similar latitudes experience significantly larger temperature differences between summer and winter, with the average highs of regular July days comparable to Lerwick's all-time record heat that is around 23 °C (73 °F), further demonstrating the moderating effect of the Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, winters are considerably milder than those expected in nearby continental areas, even comparable to winter temperatures of many parts of England
England
and Wales
Wales
much further south. The general character of the climate is windy and cloudy with at least 2 mm (0.08 in) of rain falling on more than 250 days a year. Average yearly precipitation is 1,003 mm (39.5 in), with November and December the wettest months. Snowfall is usually confined to the period November to February, and snow seldom lies on the ground for more than a day. Less rain falls from April to August although no month receives less than 50 mm (2 in). Fog
Fog
is common during summer due to the cooling effect of the sea on mild southerly airflows.[28][29] Due to the islands' latitude, on clear winter nights the "northern lights" can sometimes be seen in the sky, while in summer there is almost perpetual daylight, a state of affairs known locally as the "simmer dim".[31] Annual bright sunshine averages 1110 hours, and overcast days are common.[32]

Climate data for Shetland
Shetland
Isles,82m asl, 1981-2010, extremes 1922-

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 11.7 (53.1) 13.3 (55.9) 16.1 (61) 20.7 (69.3) 23.3 (73.9) 23.4 (74.1) 22.1 (71.8) 19.4 (66.9) 17.2 (63) 13.9 (57) 12.3 (54.1) 23.4 (74.1)

Average high °C (°F) 5.4 (41.7) 5.3 (41.5) 6.3 (43.3) 8.0 (46.4) 10.3 (50.5) 12.6 (54.7) 14.2 (57.6) 14.4 (57.9) 12.7 (54.9) 10.3 (50.5) 7.7 (45.9) 6.2 (43.2) 14.4 (57.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 3.5 (38.3) 4.2 (39.6) 5.8 (42.4) 7.9 (46.2) 10.1 (50.2) 12.1 (53.8) 12.4 (54.3) 10.8 (51.4) 8.3 (46.9) 5.9 (42.6) 4.3 (39.7) 7.5 (45.5)

Average low °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 1.1 (34) 1.9 (35.4) 3.0 (37.4) 5.2 (41.4) 7.6 (45.7) 9.6 (49.3) 9.9 (49.8) 8.4 (47.1) 6.3 (43.3) 3.7 (38.7) 2.1 (35.8) 5.3 (41.5)

Record low °C (°F) −8.9 (16) −7.4 (18.7) −8.3 (17.1) −5.7 (21.7) −2.2 (28) −0.6 (30.9) 3.5 (38.3) 2.8 (37) −0.6 (30.9) −3.3 (26.1) −5.7 (21.7) −8.2 (17.2) −8.9 (16)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 142.6 (5.614) 120.8 (4.756) 124.6 (4.906) 70.4 (2.772) 53.4 (2.102) 58.2 (2.291) 66.8 (2.63) 83.7 (3.295) 106.3 (4.185) 141.5 (5.571) 146.0 (5.748) 142.6 (5.614) 1,256.8 (49.48)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 21.6 18.5 19.9 14.1 10.8 11.0 12.1 12.9 16.7 20.8 21.4 21.8 201.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 27.2 55.2 94.1 131.8 181.0 146.2 124.4 127.9 101.3 68.8 33.8 18.1 1,109.9

Source: [33][34]

Prehistory[edit] Main article: Prehistoric Shetland

The preserved ruins of a wheelhouse and broch at Jarlshof, described as "one of the most remarkable archaeological sites ever excavated in the British Isles".[35]

Due to the practice, dating to at least the early Neolithic, of building in stone on virtually treeless islands, Shetland
Shetland
is extremely rich in physical remains of the prehistoric eras and there are over 5,000 archaeological sites all told.[36] A midden site at West Voe on the south coast of Mainland, dated to 4320–4030 BC, has provided the first evidence of Mesolithic
Mesolithic
human activity on Shetland.[37][38] The same site provides dates for early Neolithic
Neolithic
activity and finds at Scord of Brouster
Scord of Brouster
in Walls have been dated to 3400 BC.[Note 5] " Shetland
Shetland
knives" are stone tools that date from this period made from felsite from Northmavine.[40] Pottery shards found at the important site of Jarlshof
Jarlshof
also indicate that there was Neolithic
Neolithic
activity there although the main settlement dates from the Bronze Age.[41] This includes a smithy, a cluster of wheelhouses and a later broch. The site has provided evidence of habitation during various phases right up until Viking
Viking
times.[35][42] Heel-shaped cairns, are a style of chambered cairn unique to Shetland, with a particularly large example on Vementry.[40] Numerous brochs were erected during the Iron Age. In addition to Mousa there are significant ruins at Clickimin, Culswick, Old Scatness
Old Scatness
and West Burrafirth, although their origin and purpose is a matter of some controversy.[43] The later Iron Age
Iron Age
inhabitants of the Northern Isles were probably Pictish, although the historical record is sparse. Hunter (2000) states in relation to King Bridei I of the Picts
Picts
in the sixth century AD: "As for Shetland, Orkney, Skye and the Western Isles, their inhabitants, most of whom appear to have been Pictish in culture and speech at this time, are likely to have regarded Bridei as a fairly distant presence.”[44] In 2011, the collective site, "The Crucible of Iron Age
Iron Age
Shetland", including Broch
Broch
of Mousa, Old Scatness and Jarlshof, joined the UKs "Tentative List" of World Heritage Sites.[45][46] History[edit] Main article: History of Shetland Scandinavian colonisation[edit]

Shetland
Shetland
(boxed) in relation to surrounding territories including Norway
Norway
(to the east), the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
(to the north west), and Orkney
Orkney
and the rest of the British Isles
British Isles
(to the south west)

14th-century Flateyjarbók
Flateyjarbók
image of Harald Hårfagre, who took control of Hjaltland c. 875.

The expanding population of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
led to a shortage of available resources and arable land there and led to a period of Viking expansion, the Norse gradually shifting their attention from plundering to invasion.[47] Shetland
Shetland
was colonised during the late 8th and 9th centuries,[48] the fate of the existing indigenous population being uncertain. Modern Shetlanders have almost identical proportions of Scandinavian matrilineal and patrilineal genetic ancestry, suggesting that the islands were settled by both men and women in equal measure.[49] Vikings then used the islands as a base for pirate expeditions to Norway
Norway
and the coasts of mainland Scotland. In response, Norwegian king Harald Hårfagre ("Harald Fair Hair") annexed the Northern Isles (comprising Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland) in 875.[Note 6] Rognvald Eysteinsson received Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
from Harald as an earldom as reparation for the death of his son in battle in Scotland, and then passed the earldom on to his brother Sigurd the Mighty.[51] The islands converted to Christianity
Christianity
in the late 10th century. King Olav Tryggvasson summoned the jarl Sigurd the Stout
Sigurd the Stout
during a visit to Orkney
Orkney
and said, "I order you and all your subjects to be baptised. If you refuse, I'll have you killed on the spot and I swear I will ravage every island with fire and steel." Unsurprisingly, Sigurd agreed and the islands became Christian
Christian
at a stroke.[52] Unusually, from c. 1100 onwards the Norse jarls owed allegiance both to Norway
Norway
and to the Scottish crown through their holdings as Earls of Caithness.[53] In 1194, when Harald Maddadsson
Harald Maddadsson
was Earl
Earl
of Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, a rebellion broke out against King Sverre Sigurdsson
Sverre Sigurdsson
of Norway. The Øyskjeggs ("Island Beardies") sailed for Norway
Norway
but were beaten in the Battle of Florvåg
Battle of Florvåg
near Bergen. After his victory King Sverre placed Shetland
Shetland
under direct Norwegian rule, a state of affairs that continued for nearly two centuries.[54][55] Increased Scottish interest[edit] From the mid-13th century onwards Scottish monarchs increasingly sought to take control of the islands surrounding the mainland. The process was begun in earnest by Alexander II and was continued by his successor Alexander III. This strategy eventually led to an invasion of Scotland
Scotland
by Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norway. His fleet assembled in Bressay
Bressay
Sound before sailing for Scotland. After the stalemate of the Battle of Largs, Haakon retreated to Orkney, where he died in December 1263, entertained on his deathbed by recitations of the sagas. His death halted any further Norwegian expansion in Scotland and following this ill-fated expedition, the Hebrides
Hebrides
and Mann were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth, although the Scots recognised continuing Norwegian sovereignty over Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland.[56][57][58] Annexation by Scotland[edit]

James III and Margaret, whose betrothal led to Shetland
Shetland
passing from Norway
Norway
to Scotland

In the 14th century, Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
remained a Norwegian possession, but Scottish influence was growing. Jon Haraldsson, who was murdered in Thurso
Thurso
in 1231, was the last of an unbroken line of Norse jarls,[59] and thereafter the earls were Scots noblemen of the houses of Angus and St Clair.[60] On the death of Haakon VI in 1380,[61] Norway
Norway
formed a political union with Denmark, after which the interest of the royal house in the islands declined.[54] In 1469, Shetland
Shetland
was pledged by Christian
Christian
I, in his capacity as King of Norway, as security against the payment of the dowry of his daughter Margaret, betrothed to James III of Scotland. As the money was never paid, the connection with the Crown of Scotland
Scotland
became permanent.[Note 7] In 1470, William Sinclair, 1st Earl
Earl
of Caithness
Caithness
ceded his title to James III, and the following year the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
were directly annexed to the Crown of Scotland,[64] an action confirmed by the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
in 1472.[65] Nonetheless, Shetland's connection with Norway
Norway
has proved to be enduring.[Note 8] From the early 15th century on the Shetlanders sold their goods through the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
of German merchantmen. The Hansa would buy shiploads of salted fish, wool and butter, and import salt, cloth, beer and other goods. The late 16th century and early 17th century were dominated by the influence of the despotic Robert Stewart, Earl of Orkney, who was granted the islands by his half-sister Mary Queen of Scots, and his son Patrick. The latter commenced the building of Scalloway
Scalloway
Castle, but after his imprisonment in 1609 the Crown annexed Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
again until 1643 when Charles I granted them to William Douglas, 7th Earl
Earl
of Morton. These rights were held on and off by the Mortons until 1766, when they were sold by James Douglas, 14th Earl
Earl
of Morton to Laurence Dundas.[66][67] 18th and 19th centuries[edit]

Full-rigged ship Maella, of Oslo, in Bressay
Bressay
Sound, around 1922

The trade with the North German towns lasted until the 1707 Act of Union, when high salt duties prevented the German merchants from trading with Shetland. Shetland
Shetland
then went into an economic depression, as the local traders were not as skilled in trading salted fish. However, some local merchant-lairds took up where the German merchants had left off, and fitted out their own ships to export fish from Shetland
Shetland
to the Continent. For the independent farmers of Shetland this had negative consequences, as they now had to fish for these merchant-lairds.[68] Smallpox
Smallpox
afflicted the islands in the 17th and 18th centuries, but as vaccines became common after 1760 the population increased to a maximum of 31,670 in 1861. However, British rule came at price for many ordinary people as well as traders. The Shetlanders' nautical skills were sought by the Royal Navy. Some 3,000 served during the Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic wars
from 1800 to 1815 and press gangs were rife. During this period 120 men were taken from Fetlar
Fetlar
alone, and only 20 of them returned home. By the late 19th century 90% of all Shetland
Shetland
was owned by just 32 people, and between 1861 and 1881 more than 8,000 Shetlanders emigrated.[69][70] With the passing of the Crofters' Act in 1886 the Liberal prime minister William Gladstone emancipated crofters from the rule of the landlords. The Act enabled those who had effectively been landowners' serfs to become owner-occupiers of their own small farms.[71] By this time fishermen from Holland, who had traditionally gathered each year off the coast of Shetland
Shetland
to fish for herring, triggered an industry in the islands that boomed from around 1880 until the 1920s when stocks of the fish began to dwindle.[72] The production peaked in 1905 at more than a million barrels, of which 708,000 were exported.[73] 20th century[edit]

Leif "Shetland" Larsen, Norwegian leader of the Shetland
Shetland
Bus operations in World War II, the most highly decorated allied naval officer of the war.[74]

During World War I
World War I
many Shetlanders served in the Gordon Highlanders, a further 3,000 served in the Merchant Navy, and more than 1,500 in a special local naval reserve. The 10th Cruiser Squadron was stationed at Swarbacks Minn (the stretch of water to the south of Muckle Roe), and during a single year from March 1917 more than 4,500 ships sailed from Lerwick
Lerwick
as part of an escorted convoy system. In total, Shetland lost more than 500 men, a higher proportion than any other part of Britain, and there were further waves of emigration in the 1920s and 1930s.[70][75] During World War II
World War II
a Norwegian naval unit nicknamed the "Shetland Bus" was established by the Special Operations Executive
Special Operations Executive
in the autumn of 1940 with a base first at Lunna and later in Scalloway
Scalloway
to conduct operations around the coast of Norway. About 30 fishing vessels used by Norwegian refugees were gathered and the Shetland Bus
Shetland Bus
conducted covert operations, carrying intelligence agents, refugees, instructors for the resistance, and military supplies. It made over 200 trips across the sea, and Leif Larsen, the most highly decorated allied naval officer of the war, made 52 of them.[74][76] Several RAF airfields and sites were also established at Sullom Voe
Sullom Voe
and several lighthouses suffered enemy air attacks.[75] Oil reserves discovered in the later 20th century in the seas both east and west of Shetland
Shetland
have provided a much-needed alternative source of income for the islands. The East Shetland Basin is one of Europe's largest oil fields and as a result of the oil revenue and the cultural links with Norway, a small Home Rule movement developed briefly to recast the constitutional position of Shetland. It saw as its models the Isle of Man, as well as Shetland's closest neighbour, the Faroe Islands, an autonomous dependency of Denmark.[77] Economy[edit]

More than half of the Shetland
Shetland
catch by weight and value is mackerel.[78]

Today, the main revenue producers in Shetland
Shetland
are agriculture, aquaculture, fishing, renewable energy, the petroleum industry (crude oil and natural gas production), the creative industries and tourism.[79] Fishing
Fishing
remains central to the islands' economy today, with the total catch being 75,767 tonnes (74,570 long tons; 83,519 short tons) in 2009, valued at over £73.2 million. Mackerel makes up more than half of the catch in Shetland
Shetland
by weight and value, and there are significant landings of haddock, cod, herring, whiting, monkfish and shellfish.[78] Farming is mostly concerned with the raising of Shetland
Shetland
sheep, known for their unusually fine wool.[18][80][81] Crops raised include oats and barley; however, the cold, windswept islands make for a harsh environment for most plants. Crofting, the farming of small plots of land on a legally restricted tenancy basis, is still practised and is viewed as a key Shetland
Shetland
tradition as well as an important source of income.[82]

Apache Corporation's Beryl alpha oil platform in the East Shetland Basin

Oil and gas were first landed in 1978 at Sullom Voe, which has subsequently become one of the largest terminals in Europe.[83] Taxes from the oil have increased public sector spending on social welfare, art, sport, environmental measures and financial development. Three quarters of the islands' workforce is employed in the service sector,[84][85] and the Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
alone accounted for 27.9% of output in 2003.[86][87] Shetland's access to oil revenues has funded the Shetland
Shetland
Charitable Trust, which in turn funds a wide variety of local programmes. The balance of the fund in 2011 was £217 million, i.e., about £9,500 per head.[88][Note 9] In January 2007, the Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
signed a partnership agreement with Scottish and Southern Energy
Scottish and Southern Energy
for the Viking
Viking
Wind Farm, a 200-turbine wind farm and subsea cable. This renewable energy project would produce about 600 megawatts and contribute about £20 million to the Shetland
Shetland
economy per year.[90] The plan met with significant opposition within the islands, primarily resulting from the anticipated visual impact of the development.[91] The PURE project on Unst
Unst
is a research centre which uses a combination of wind power and fuel cells to create a wind hydrogen system. The project is run by the Unst
Unst
Partnership, the local community's development trust.[92][93]

Shetland

Knitwear is important both to the economy and culture of Shetland, and the Fair Isle
Fair Isle
design is well known. However, the industry faces challenges due to plagiarism of the word "Shetland" by manufacturers operating elsewhere, and a certification trademark, "The Shetland Lady", has been registered.[94] Shetland
Shetland
is served by a weekly local newspaper, The Shetland Times and the online Shetland
Shetland
News http://www.shetnews.co.uk/ with radio service being provided by BBC Radio Shetland and the commercial radio station SIBC.[95] Shetland
Shetland
is a popular destination for cruise ships, and in 2010 the Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
guide named Shetland
Shetland
as the sixth best region in the world for tourists seeking unspoilt destinations. The islands were described as "beautiful and rewarding" and the Shetlanders as "a fiercely independent and self-reliant bunch".[96] Overall visitor expenditure was worth £16.4 million in 2006, in which year just under 26,000 cruise liner passengers arrived at Lerwick
Lerwick
Harbour. In 2009, the most popular visitor attractions were the Shetland
Shetland
Museum, the RSPB
RSPB
reserve at Sumburgh Head, Bonhoga Gallery at Weisdale Mill
Weisdale Mill
and Jarlshof.[97] Quarries[edit]

Brindister: 60°06′52″N 1°12′57″W / 60.114475°N 1.215874°W / 60.114475; -1.215874 Scord: 60°08′32″N 1°15′42″W / 60.142287°N 1.261629°W / 60.142287; -1.261629 [3] Sullom: 60°26′24″N 1°22′56″W / 60.439953°N 1.382306°W / 60.439953; -1.382306 Vatster: 60°12′46″N 1°13′15″W / 60.212887°N 1.220861°W / 60.212887; -1.220861

Transport[edit]

Loganair
Loganair
aircraft on Fair Isle, midway between Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland

Transport between islands is primarily by ferry, and Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council operates various inter-island services.[98] Shetland
Shetland
is also served by a domestic connection from Lerwick
Lerwick
to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
on mainland Scotland. This service, which takes about 12 hours, is operated by NorthLink Ferries. Some services also call at Kirkwall, Orkney, which increases the journey time between Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Lerwick
Lerwick
by 2 hours.[99][100] There are plans for road tunnels to some of the islands, especially Bressay
Bressay
and Whalsay, however it is hard to convince the mainland government to finance them.[101] Sumburgh Airport, the main airport on Shetland, is located close to Sumburgh Head, 40 km (25 mi) south of Lerwick. Loganair operates flights to other parts of Scotland
Scotland
up to ten times a day, the destinations being Kirkwall, Aberdeen, Inverness, Glasgow
Glasgow
and Edinburgh.[102] Lerwick/ Tingwall Airport
Tingwall Airport
is located 11 km (6.8 mi) west of Lerwick. Operated by Directflight Limited in partnership with Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council, it is devoted to inter-island flights from the Shetland
Shetland
Mainland to most of the inhabited islands.[103][104] Scatsta Airport
Scatsta Airport
near Sullom Voe
Sullom Voe
allows frequent charter flights from Aberdeen
Aberdeen
to transport oilfield workers and this small terminal has the fifth largest number of international passengers in Scotland.[105] Public bus services are operated on Mainland, Whalsay, Burra, Unst
Unst
and Yell.[106] The archipelago is exposed to wind and tide, and there are numerous sites of wrecked ships.[107] Lighthouses are sited as an aid to navigation at various locations.[108] Public services[edit] The Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
is the Local Government authority for all the islands and is based in Lerwick
Lerwick
Town Hall. Shetland
Shetland
is sub-divided into 18 community council areas[109] and into 12 civil parishes that are used for statistical purposes.[110]

Civil Parish included areas[111] Area km²[112] Population Census 2011-03-27[111] Density

Bressay   27.8 368 13.2

Delting Brae, Muckle Roe 131.7 1917 14.6

Dunrossness Cunningsburgh, Fair Isle, Sandwick 120.5 3216 26.7

Fetlar   41.4 61 1.5

Lerwick Gulberwick, Quarff, Burra 32.2 8607 267.3

Nesting Skerries, Whalsay 105.6 1759 16.7

Northmaven   204.1 741 3.6

Sandsting   162.4 831 5.1

Tingwall Scalloway, Trondra 118.9 3091 26.0

Unst   122.2 632 5.2

Walls and Sandness Foula, Papa Stour, Vaila 78.6 978 12.4

Yell   211.7 966 4.6

Shetland   1357.1 23167 17.1

Dunrossness Lerwick Bressay Tingwall Sandsting Walls and Sandness Nesting Delting Northmavine Yell Fetlar Unst

Education[edit] In Shetland
Shetland
there are two high schools—Anderson and Brae—five junior high schools, and 24 primary schools.[113] Shetland
Shetland
is also home to the North Atlantic Fisheries College, the Centre for Nordic Studies and Shetland
Shetland
College, which are all associated with the University of the Highlands and Islands.[114][115]

Sport[edit] The islands are represented by the Shetland football team
Shetland football team
who regularly compete in the Island Games. The islands' senior football league is the G&S Flooring Premier League.[116] Churches and religion[edit]

Religion in Shetland
Shetland
(2011)[117]   Non-religious (45.4%)   Church of Scotland
Scotland
(29.9%)    Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(4.1%)   Other Christian
Christian
(10.6%)   Islam (0.4%)   Other religions (1.1%)   Not stated (8.5%)

Haroldswick
Haroldswick
Methodist Church, the most northerly church building in the UK

Lerwick

The Reformation
Reformation
reached the archipelago in 1560. This was an apparently peaceful transition and there is little evidence of religious intolerance in Shetland's recorded history.[118] In the 2011 census, Shetland
Shetland
registered a higher proportion of people with no religion than the Scottish average.[117] Nevertheless, a variety of religious denominations are represented in the islands. The Methodist Church has a relatively high membership in Shetland, which is a District of the Methodist Church (with the rest of Scotland comprising a separate District).[119] The Church of Scotland
Scotland
has a Presbytery of Shetland
Shetland
that includes St. Columba's Church in Lerwick.[120] The Catholic
Catholic
population is served by the church of St. Margaret and the Sacred Heart in Lerwick. The Parish is part of the Diocese of Aberdeen. The Scottish Episcopal Church
Scottish Episcopal Church
(part of the Anglican Communion) has regular worship at St Magnus' Church, Lerwick, St Colman's Church, Burravoe, and the Chapel of Christ the Encompasser, Fetlar, the last of which is maintained by the Society of Our Lady of the Isles, the most northerly and remote Anglican religious order
Anglican religious order
of nuns. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
has a congregation in Lerwick. The former print works and offices of the local newspaper, The Shetland
Shetland
Times, has been converted into a chapel. Politics[edit] Shetland
Shetland
is represented in the House of Commons as part of the Orkney and Shetland
Shetland
constituency, which elects one Member of Parliament. Since 2001 the MP has been Alistair Carmichael. This seat has been held by the Liberal Democrats or their predecessors the Liberal Party since 1950, longer than any other they represent in the UK.[121][122][123] In the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
the Shetland
Shetland
constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
(MSP) by the first past the post system. Tavish Scott
Tavish Scott
of the Scottish Liberal Democrats
Scottish Liberal Democrats
has held the seat since the creation of the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
in 1999.[124] Shetland
Shetland
is within the Highlands and Islands electoral region. The political composition of the Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
is 21 Independents and 1 Scottish National Party.[125] The Wir Shetland movement was set up in 2015 to campaign for greater autonomy.[126] As of early 2018, however, the movement appears to be inactive.[127][128] Shetland
Shetland
Flag[edit] Roy Grönneberg, who founded the local chapter of the Scottish National Party in 1966, designed the flag of Shetland
Shetland
in cooperation with Bill Adams to mark the 500th anniversary of the transfer of the islands from Norway
Norway
to Scotland. The colours are identical to those of the flag of Scotland, but are shaped in the Nordic cross. After several unsuccessful attempts, including a plebiscite in 1985, the Lord Lyon King of Arms
Lord Lyon King of Arms
approved it as the official flag of Shetland
Shetland
in 2005.[129][Note 10] Local culture and the arts[edit]

The Shetland
Shetland
Crofthouse museum

After the islands were transferred to Scotland, thousands of Scots families emigrated to Shetland
Shetland
in the 16th and 17th centuries but studies of the genetic makeup of the islands' population indicate that Shetlanders are just under half Scandinavian in origin. A sizeable component of Scandinavian patrilineal ancestry has been reported in Orkney
Orkney
(55%) and Shetland
Shetland
(68%).[49] This combination is reflected in many aspects of local life. For example, almost every place name in use can be traced back to the Vikings.[130] The Norn language
Norn language
was a form of Old Norse, which continued to be spoken until the 18th century when it was replaced by an insular dialect of Scots known as Shetlandic, which is in turn being replaced by Scottish English. Although Norn was spoken for hundreds of years it is now extinct and few written sources remain.[131] Shetlandic is used both in local radio and dialect writing, and kept alive by the Shetland
Shetland
Folk Society.[132][133][134] The Lerwick
Lerwick
Up Helly Aa
Up Helly Aa
is one of several fire festivals held in Shetland
Shetland
annually in the middle of winter—it is always started on the last Tuesday of January.[135] The festival is just over 100 years old in its present, highly organised form. Originally, a festival held to break up the long nights of winter and mark the end of Yule, the festival has become one celebrating the isles' heritage and includes a procession of men dressed as Vikings and the burning of a replica longship.[136]

The Lerwick
Lerwick
Up Helly Aa

The cuisine of Shetland
Shetland
is based on locally produced lamb, beef and seafood, much of it organic. Inevitably, the real ale-producing Valhalla Brewery
Valhalla Brewery
is the most northerly in Britain. The Shetland
Shetland
Black is a variety of blue potato with a dark skin and indigo coloured flesh markings.[137] Shetland
Shetland
competes in the biennial International Island Games, which it hosted in 2005.[138] Music[edit] Shetland's culture and landscapes have inspired a variety of musicians, writers and film-makers. The Forty Fiddlers was formed in the 1950s to promote the traditional fiddle style, which is a vibrant part of local culture today.[139] Notable exponents of Shetland
Shetland
folk music include Aly Bain, Fiddlers' Bid, and the late Tom Anderson and Peerie Willie Johnson. Thomas Fraser was a country musician who never released a commercial recording during his life, but whose work has become popular more than 20 years after his untimely death in 1978.[140] Writers[edit] Walter Scott's 1822 novel The Pirate
Pirate
is set in "a remote part of Shetland", and was inspired by his 1814 visit to the islands. The name Jarlshof
Jarlshof
meaning "Earl's Mansion" is a coinage of his.[141] Robert Cowie, a doctor born in Lerwick
Lerwick
published the 1874 work Shetland: Descriptive and Historical; Being a Graduation Thesis on the Inhabitants of the Shetland
Shetland
Islands; and a Topographical Description of the Country.  Hugh MacDiarmid, the Scots poet and writer lived in Whalsay
Whalsay
from the mid-1930s through 1942, and wrote many poems there, including a number that directly address or reflect the Shetland
Shetland
environment such as "On A Raised Beach", which was inspired by a visit to West Linga.[142] The 1975 novel North Star by Hammond Innes is largely set in Shetland
Shetland
and Raman Mundair's 2007 book of poetry A Choreographer's Cartography offers a British Asian perspective on the landscape.[143] The Shetland Quartet by Ann Cleeves, who previously lived in Fair Isle, is a series of crime novels set around the islands.[144] In 2013 her novel Red Bones became the basis of BBC
BBC
crime drama television series Shetland.[145] Vagaland, who grew up in Walls, was arguably Shetland's finest poet of the 20th century.[146] Haldane Burgess was a Shetland
Shetland
historian, poet, novelist, violinist, linguist and socialist and Rhoda Bulter (1929–94) is one of the best-known Shetland
Shetland
poets of recent times. Other 20th and 21st century poets and novelists include Christine De Luca, Robert Alan Jamieson who grew up in Sandness, the late Lollie Graham of Veensgarth, Stella Sutherland
Sutherland
of Bressay,[147] the late William J Tait from Yell[148] and Laureen Johnson.[149] There are two monthly magazines in production: Shetland
Shetland
Life and i'i' Shetland.[150][151] The quarterly The New Shetlander, founded in 1947, is said to be Scotland's longest-running literary magazine.[152] For much of the later 20th century it was the major vehicle for the work of local writers — and others, including early work by George Mackay Brown.[153] Films and television[edit] Michael Powell
Michael Powell
made The Edge of the World
The Edge of the World
in 1937, a dramatisation based on the true story of the evacuation of the last 36 inhabitants of the remote island of St Kilda on 29 August 1930. St Kilda lies in the Atlantic Ocean, 64 kilometres (40 mi) west of the Outer Hebrides
Hebrides
but Powell was unable to get permission to film there. Undaunted, he made the film over four months during the summer of 1936 on Foula
Foula
and the film transposes these events to Shetland. Forty years later, the documentary Return to the Edge of the World
Return to the Edge of the World
was filmed, capturing a reunion of cast and crew of the film as they revisited the island in 1978. A number of other films have been made on or about Shetland
Shetland
including A Crofter's Life in Shetland
Shetland
(1932)[154] A Shetland
Shetland
Lyric (1934),[155] Devil's Gate (2003) and It's Nice Up North
It's Nice Up North
(2006), a comedy documentary by Graham Fellows. An annual film festival takes place in the newly built Mareel, a cinema, music and education venue. The BBC
BBC
One television series Shetland, a crime drama, is set on the islands and is based on the book series by Ann Cleeves. The programme is filmed partly on Shetland
Shetland
and partly on the Scottish mainland.[156][157] Wildlife[edit] Shetland
Shetland
has three national nature reserves, at the seabird colonies of Hermaness and Noss, and at Keen of Hamar to preserve the serpentine flora. There are a further 81 SSSIs, which cover 66% or more of the land surfaces of Fair Isle, Papa Stour, Fetlar, Noss
Noss
and Foula. Mainland has 45 separate sites.[158]

Shetland mouse-ear
Shetland mouse-ear
(Cerastium nigrescens), on the Keen of Hamar reserve, Unst

Flora[edit] The landscape in Shetland
Shetland
is marked by the grazing of sheep and the harsh conditions have limited the total number of plant species to about 400. Native trees such as rowan and crab apple are only found in a few isolated places such as cliffs and loch islands. The flora is dominated by Arctic-alpine plants, wild flowers, moss and lichen. Spring squill, buck's-horn plantain, Scots lovage, roseroot and sea campion are abundant, especially in sheltered places. Shetland mouse-ear (Cerastium nigrescens) is an endemic flowering plant found only in Shetland. It was first recorded in 1837 by botanist Thomas Edmondston. Although reported from two other sites in the nineteenth century, it currently grows only on two serpentine hills on the island of Unst. The nationally scarce oysterplant is found on several islands and the British Red Listed bryophyte Thamnobryum
Thamnobryum
alopecurum has also been recorded.[159][160][161][162] Listed marine algae include: Polysiphonia fibrillosa (Dillwyn) Sprengel, Polysiphonia atlantica Kapraun and J.Norris, Polysiphonia brodiaei (Dillwyn) Sprengel, Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel, Polysiphonia elongella. Harvey [163] The Shetland
Shetland
Monkeyflower is unique to Shetland
Shetland
and is a mutation of the Monkeyflower (mimulus guttatus) introduced to Shetland in the 19th century.[164][165] Fauna[edit] Shetland
Shetland
has numerous seabird colonies. Birds found on the islands include Atlantic puffin, storm-petrel, red-throated diver, northern gannet and great skua (locally called the "bonxie").[166] Numerous rarities have also been recorded including black-browed albatross and snow goose, and a single pair of snowy owls bred on Fetlar
Fetlar
from 1967 to 1975.[166][167][168] The Shetland
Shetland
wren, Fair Isle
Fair Isle
wren and Shetland starling are subspecies endemic to Shetland.[169][170] There are also populations of various moorland birds such as curlew, snipe and golden plover.[171] One of the early ornithologists that wrote about the wealth of birdlife on the Shetlands was Edmund Selous
Edmund Selous
(1857-1934) in his book The Bird Watcher in the Shetlands (1905).[172] He writes extensively about the gulls and terns, about the lesser or arctic skuas, the black guillemots and many other birds (and the seals) of the islands. The geographical isolation and recent glacial history of Shetland
Shetland
have resulted in a depleted mammalian fauna and the brown rat and house mouse are two of only three species of rodent present on the islands. The Shetland
Shetland
field mouse is the third and the archipelago's fourth endemic subspecies, of which there are three varieties on Yell, Foula and Fair Isle.[170] They are variants of Apodemus sylvaticus and archaeological evidence suggests that this species was present during the Middle Iron Age
Iron Age
(around 200 BC to AD 400). It is possible that Apodemus was introduced from Orkney
Orkney
where a population has existed since at the least the Bronze Age.[173] Domesticated animals[edit]

A Shetland
Shetland
pony

Main article: Shetland
Shetland
animal breeds See also: List of domesticated Scottish breeds There is a variety of indigenous breeds, of which the diminutive Shetland pony
Shetland pony
is probably the best known, as well as being an important part of the Shetland
Shetland
farming tradition. The first written record of the pony was in 1603 in the Court Books of Shetland
Shetland
and, for its size, it is the strongest of all the horse breeds.[174][175] Others are the Shetland Sheepdog
Shetland Sheepdog
or "Sheltie", the endangered Shetland cattle[176] and Shetland
Shetland
Goose[177][178] and the Shetland sheep
Shetland sheep
which is believed to have originated prior to 1000 AD.[179] The Grice
Grice
was a breed of semi-domesticated pig that had a habit of attacking lambs, and that became extinct in 1930.[180] See also[edit]

Scotland
Scotland
portal Islands portal

Lists[edit]

List of counties of the United Kingdom List of islands

About Shetland[edit]

Mavis Grind Udal law

Other[edit]

Hjeltefjorden Battle of Florvåg Rögnvald Kali Kolsson Timeline of prehistoric Scotland Prehistoric Scotland Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland
Shetland
and the Western Isles

Notes[edit]

^ Watson (1926) is sure that Tacitus
Tacitus
was referring to Shetland, although Breeze (2002) is more sceptical. Thule
Thule
is first mentioned by Pytheas
Pytheas
of Massilia
Massilia
when he visited Britain sometime between 322 and 285 BC, but it is unlikely he meant Shetland
Shetland
as he believed it was six days sail north of Britain and one day from the frozen sea.[7][8] ^ The modern Scots Gaelic
Scots Gaelic
name for Shetland, Sealtainn ([ʃalˠ̪t̪ɪɲ]) is derived from the Old Norse
Old Norse
dative form Hjaltlandi through, as in Scots "Shetland", the process of reverse lenition of the initial /hj/ to /ʃ/.[10] In contrast with Scots, Gaelic has preserved the first l (in hjalt), but the last one (in land) is disappeared. ^ As with all western dialects of Norse, the stressed a shifts to e and so the ja became je as with Norse hjalpa which became hjelpa. Then the pronunciation changed through a process of reverse lenition of the initial /hj/ to /ʃ/. This is also found in some Norwegian dialects in for instance the word hjå (with) and the place names Hjerkinn
Hjerkinn
and Sjoa
Sjoa
(from *Hjó). Lastly the l before the t disappeared.[6] ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
state there are 15 inhabited islands, and count East and West Burra, which are joined by a bridge, as a single unit. Out Skerries
Out Skerries
has two inhabited islands: Housay
Housay
and Bruray.[1] ^ The Scord of Brouster
Scord of Brouster
site includes a cluster of six or seven walled fields and three stone circular houses that contains the earliest hoe-blades found so far in Scotland.[39] ^ Some scholars believe that this story, which appears in the Orkneyinga Saga
Orkneyinga Saga
is apocryphal and based on the later voyages of Magnus Barelegs.[50] ^ Apparently without the knowledge of the Norwegian Rigsraadet (Council of the Realm), Christian
Christian
pawned Orkney
Orkney
for 50,000 Rhenish guilders. On 28 May the next year, he also pawned Shetland
Shetland
for 8,000 Rhenish guilders.[62] He had secured a clause in the contract which gave future kings of Norway
Norway
the right to redeem the islands for a fixed sum of 210 kg of gold or 2,310 kg of silver. Several attempts were made during the 17th and 18th centuries to redeem the islands, without success.[63] ^ When Norway
Norway
became independent again in 1906, the Shetland authorities sent a letter to King Haakon VII in which they stated: "Today no 'foreign' flag is more familiar or more welcome in our voes and havens than that of Norway, and Shetlanders continue to look upon Norway
Norway
as their mother-land, and recall with pride and affection the time when their forefathers were under the rule of the Kings of Norway."[54] ^ No other part of the UK has any such oil-related fund. By comparison, as of 31 December 2010 the total value of the Government Pension Fund of Norway
Norway
was NOK 3 077 billion ($525 bn),[89] i.e., circa £68,000 per head. ^ The flag is the same design Icelandic republicans used in the early 20th century known in Iceland as Hvítbláinn, the "white-blue".[129]

References[edit]

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Shetland Islands Council
(2012) p. 4 ^ National Records of Scotland
Scotland
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Scotland
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Termonal" (pdf) BP. Retrieved 19 March 2011. ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) p. 13 ^ "Shetland's Economy". Visit.Shetland.org. Retrieved 19 March 2011. ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2005) p. 13 ^ "Public Sector". move.shetland.org. Retrieved 19 March 2011. ^ "Financial Statements 31 March 2011." Shetland
Shetland
Charitable Trust. Retrieved 8 October 2011. ^ "Fifth Best Year in the Fund's History". Norges Bank
Norges Bank
Investment Management. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.  ^ "Powering on with island wind plan" (19 January 2007). BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 19 March 2011. ^ "Shetlands storm over giant wind farm" (9 March 2008). London. The Observer. Retrieved 19 March 2011. ^ "PURE Energy Centre". Pure Energy Centre. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ " Unst
Unst
Partnership". Development Trusts Association Scotland. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2005) p. 25 ^ Shetland
Shetland
News. shetland-news.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2011. ^ Hough, Andrew (2 November 2010) " Shetland
Shetland
Islands among best places to visit, says Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
guide". London. The Telegraph. Retrieved 7 April 2011. ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) p. 26 ^ "Ferries". Shetland.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 May 2011. ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) pp. 32, 35 ^ "2011 Timetables" NorthLink Ferries. Retrieved 7 April 2011. ^ Shetland
Shetland
Isles tunnel plans ^ "Sumburgh Airport" Highlands and Islands Airports. Retrieved 16 March 2011. ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) p. 32 ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Inter-Island Scheduled Service" directflight.co.uk. Retrieved 11 May 2012. ^ "UK Airport Statistics: 2005 - Annual" Table 10: EU and Other International Terminal Passenger Comparison with Previous Year. (pdf) CAA. Retrieved 16 March 2011. ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) p. 34 ^ Ferguson, David M. (1988). Shipwrecks of Orkney, Shetland
Shetland
and the Pentland Firth. David & Charles. ISBN 9780715390573.  ^ " Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Library" Northern Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Board. Retrieved 8 July 2010. ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) pp. 51, 54, 56 ^ "Map of Parishes in the Islands of Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland". Scotlands family.com Retrieved 19 July 2013 ^ a b [1] ^ [2] Parish of Lerwick
Lerwick
(example). The parish areas add up to 1357.1 km² only. ^ "Schools in Shetland". Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ "NAFC Marine Centre" North Atlantic Fisheries College. Retrieved 17 March 2011. ^ "Welcome! " Centre for Nordic Studies. Retrieved 17 March 2011. ^ "Spurs crowned senior football champions". Shetland
Shetland
Times. (1 October 2012) Retrieved 25 July 2014. ^ a b "Area Profiles". Scotland's Census. Scottish Government. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Schei (2006) p. 14 ^ "Area 3 Districts". methodist.org.uk. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ " Lerwick
Lerwick
and Bressay
Bressay
Parish Church Profile". (pdf) shetland-communities.org.uk. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ "Alistair Carmichael: MP for Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland" alistaircarmichael.org.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2009.[full citation needed] ^ "Candidates and Constituency Assessments". alba.org.uk - "The almanac of Scottish elections and politics". Retrieved 9 February 2010.[dead link] ^ "The Untouchable Orkney
Orkney
& Shetland
Shetland
Isles " (1 October 2009) www.snptacticalvoting.com Retrieved 9 February 2010.[dead link] ^ " Tavish Scott
Tavish Scott
MSP" Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ "About your councillors". Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council. Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ Shetland
Shetland
Islands toy with idea of post-Brexit independence, EurActiv, 16 February 2017 ^ "Wir Shetland". Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ "Wir Shetland". Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ a b "Flag of Shetland". Flags of the World. Retrieved 19 March 2011. ^ Julian Richards, Vikingblod, page 236, Hermon Forlag, ISBN 82-3020-016-5 ^ "Velkomen!" nornlanguage.com. Retrieved 8 March 2011. ^ "Culture and Music". Visit.Shetland.org. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ " Shetland
Shetland
ForWirds" shetlanddialect.org. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Folk Society". Shelopedia. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ "Welcome to Up Helly Aa". Uphellyaa.org. Retrieved 8 December 2013. ^ "Up Helly Aa" Visit.Shetland.org. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ "Food and drink" Visit Shetland. Retrieved 11 May 2012. ^ "Member Profile: Shetland
Shetland
Islands". International Island Games Association. Retrieved 20 March 2011. ^ "The Forty Fiddlers" Shetlopedia. Retrieved 8 March 2011. ^ Culshaw, Peter (18 June 2006) "The Tale of Thomas Fraser", The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March 2011. ^ "Jarlshof" Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2008. ^ "Hugh MacDiarmid" Shetlopedia. Retrieved 8 March 2011. ^ Morgan, Gavin (19 April 2008) " Shetland
Shetland
author wins acclaim". Shetland
Shetland
News. Retrieved 26 March 2011. ^ "Shetland". Ann Cleeves.com. Retrieved 8 December 2013. ^ "Shetland". BBC. Retrieved 8 December 2013. ^ "Vagaland" Shetlopedia. Retrieved 8 March 2011. ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Writing and Writers: Stella Sutherland". Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council. Retrieved 6 January 2014. ^ "William J. (Billy) Tait". Shetland
Shetland
For Wirds. Retrieved 6 January 2014. ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Writing and Writers: Laureen Johnson". Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council. Retrieved 6 January 2014. ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Life" Shetlopedia. Retrieved 17 March 2011. ^ "Home" Millgaet Media. Retrieved 17 March 2011. ^ "The New Shetlander". Voluntary Action Shetland. Retrieved 8 December 2013. ^ "Life and Work: Part 3". George Mackay Brown
George Mackay Brown
website. Retrieved 8 December 2013. ^ "A Crofter's Life in Shetland" screenonline.org.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2008. ^ "The Rugged Island: A Shetland
Shetland
Lyric" IMDb. Retrieved 12 October 2008. ^ "Street Closed for Fiming Television Crime Series". Shetland
Shetland
Times. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ "Scottish actor Douglas Henshall on the perks of filming new BBC crime drama Shetland
Shetland
... in & around Glasgow". Daily Record. Glasgow. 2 March 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) p. 52 ^ Scott, W. & Palmer, R. (1987) The Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Shetland
Shetland
Islands. Shetland
Shetland
Times. Lerwick. ^ Scott, W. Harvey, P., Riddington, R. & Fisher, M. (2002) Rare Plants of Shetland. Shetland
Shetland
Amenity Trust. Lerwick. ^ "Flora" visit.shetland.org. Retrieved 7 April 2011. ^ Steer, Patrick (1999) " Shetland
Shetland
Biodiversity Audit". Shetland Amenity Trust. ^ Maggs, C.A. and Hommersand, M.H. 1993. Seaweeds of the British Isles. The Natural History Museum, London. ISBN 0-11-310045-0 ^ Macdonald, Kenneth (16 August 2017). "Scientists discover a new flower of Shetland". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 23 August 2017.  ^ Simón-Porcar, Violeta I.; Silva, Jose L.; Meeus, Sofie; Higgins, James D.; Vallejo-Marín, Mario. "Recent autopolyploidization in a naturalized population of Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/box052.  ^ a b SNH (2008) p. 16 ^ McFarlan, D., ed. (1991). The Guinness Book of Records. Enfield: Guinness Publishing. p. 35.  ^ "Home". Nature in Shetland. Retrieved 12 March 2011. ^ Williamson, Kenneth (1951) "The wrens of Fair Isle". Ibis 93(4): pp. 599-601. Retrieved 12 March 2011. ^ a b "Endemic Vertebrates of Shetland". Nature in Shetland. Retrieved 12 March 2011. ^ SNH (2008) p. 10 ^ Selous, Edmund (1905).  The Bird Watcher in the Shetlands. Wikisource.  ^ Nicholson, R.A.; Barber, P.; Bond, J.M. (2005). "New Evidence for the Date of Introduction of the House Mouse, Mus musculus domesticus Schwartz & Schwartz, and the Field Mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus (L.) to Shetland". Environmental Archaeology. 10 (2): 143–151. doi:10.1179/env.2005.10.2.143.  ^ "Breed History" Shetland
Shetland
Pony Studbook Society. Retrieved 11 May 2012. ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Pony" Equine World. Retrieved 20 July 2009. ^ "Home" Shetland
Shetland
Cattle Breeders Association. Retrieved 20 July 2009. ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Geese". feathersite.com. Retrieved 22 October 2008.  ^ " Shetland
Shetland
Goose" American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. Retrieved 20 July 2009. ^ " Sheep
Sheep
Breeds — S–St". Sheep101.info. Retrieved 1 May 2009. ^ "Extinct Island Pig Spotted Again". BBC
BBC
News Online. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2007. 

General references[edit]

Armit, I. (2003) Towers in the North: The Brochs of Scotland, Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-1932-3 Ballin Smith, B. and Banks, I. (eds) (2002) In the Shadow of the Brochs, the Iron Age
Iron Age
in Scotland. Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2517-X Barrett, James H. "The Norse in Scotland" in Brink, Stefan (ed) (2008) The Viking
Viking
World. Abingdon. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-33315-6 Clapperton, Chalmers M. (ed.) (1983) Scotland: A New Study. Newton Abbott. David & Charles. Gillen, Con (2003) Geology and landscapes of Scotland. Harpenden. Terra Publishing. ISBN 1-903544-09-2 Graham-Campbell, James (1999) Cultural Atlas of the Viking
Viking
World. Facts On File. ISBN 0-8160-3004-9 Fleming, Andrew (2005) St. Kilda and the Wider World: Tales of an Iconic Island. Windgather Press ISBN 1-905119-00-3 Gammeltoft, Peder (2010) " Shetland
Shetland
and Orkney
Orkney
Island-Names – A Dynamic Group". Northern Lights, Northern Words. Selected Papers from the FRLSU Conference, Kirkwall
Kirkwall
2009, edited by Robert McColl Millar. General Register Office for Scotland
Scotland
(28 November 2003) Scotland's Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012.

Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.  Hunter, James (2000) Last of the Free: A History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Edinburgh. Mainstream. ISBN 1-84018-376-4 Jones, Charles (ed.) (1997) The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
history of the Scots language. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0754-4 Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255082-2 Noble, Gordon; Poller, Tessa & Verrill, Lucy (2008) Scottish Odysseys: The Archaeology of Islands. Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 978-0-7524-4168-9 Omand, Donald (ed.) (2003) The Orkney
Orkney
Book. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-254-9 Nicolson, James R. (1972) Shetland. Newton Abbott. David & Charles. Sandnes, Berit (2003) From Starafjall to Starling Hill: An investigation of the formation and development of Old Norse place-names in Orkney. (pdf) Doctoral Dissertation, NTU Trondheim. Schei, Liv Kjørsvik (2006) The Shetland
Shetland
Isles. Grantown-on-Spey. Colin Baxter Photography. ISBN 978-1-84107-330-9 Scottish Natural Heritage
Scottish Natural Heritage
(2008) The Story of Hermaness National Nature Reserve. Lerwick. Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2005) " Shetland
Shetland
In Statistics 2005". (pdf) Economic Development Unit. Lerwick. Retrieved 19 March 2011. Shetland Islands Council
Shetland Islands Council
(2010) " Shetland
Shetland
in Statistics 2010" (pdf) Economic Development Unit. Lerwick. Retrieved 6 March 2011. Thomson, William P. L. (2008) The New History of Orkney. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-696-0 Turner, Val (1998) Ancient Shetland. London. B. T. Batsford/Historic Scotland. ISBN 0-7134-8000-9 Watson, William J. (1994) The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-323-5. First published 1926.

Further reading[edit]

McMillan, Ron (2008). Between Weathers: Travels in 21st Century Shetland. Dingwall, Ross-shire: Sandstone Press. ISBN 1905207204. OCLC 220008309.  Withrington, Donald J., ed. (1983). Shetland
Shetland
and the Outside World, 1469–1969. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
University Studies Series, no. 15. Oxford, UK: Published for the University of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
by Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780197141076. OCLC 8195814. 

External links[edit]

Look up Shetland
Shetland
Islands in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Islands of Shetland.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shetland.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Towns and villages in Shetland.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Shetland.

Shetland
Shetland
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council Visit.Shetland.org Shetlopedia.com - The Online Shetland
Shetland
Encyclopedia HIE Area Profile - Shetland
Shetland
(PDF file) from Highlands and Islands Enterprise Shetlink - Shetland's Online Community National Library of Scotland: Scottish Screen Archive (selection of archive films about Shetland)

v t e

Shetland

Inhabited islands

Mainland Bressay Burra

East Burra West Burra

Fair Isle Fetlar Foula Muckle Roe North Isles Out Skerries Papa Stour Trondra Unst Vaila Whalsay Yell

Other islands

Balta Bigga Brother Isle Colsay Hascosay Hildasay Lamba Linga, Muckle Roe Linga, Yell Mousa Noss Oxna Papa Papa Little Samphrey South Havra Uyea, Northmavine Uyea, Unst Vementry West Linga

Towns and villages

Lerwick Aith Baltasound Brae Grutness Gutcher Haroldswick Mossbank Quarff Scalloway Symbister Toft Ulsta Uyeasound Vidlin Voe Walls

Mainland Parishes

Delting Dunrossness Lerwick Nesting Northmavine Sandsting Tingwall Walls and Sandness

Insular Parishes

Bressay Fetlar Unst Yell

Maritime features

Balta Sound Bluemull Sound Burra Voe Busta Voe Calder's Geo St Magnus Bay Sullom Voe West Voe of Sumburgh Yell Sound

Extreme points

(N S E W)

Out Stack The Skerry, off Fair Isle Bound Skerry Waster Hoevda, Foula

Topics

Animal breeds Etymology History Prehistory

v t e

Prehistoric Shetland

Neolithic

Benie Hoose Funzie Girt Hjaltadans
Hjaltadans
Stone Circle Pettigarths Field Cairns Scord of Brouster Standing Stones of Yoxie Stanydale Temple Vementry Heel-shaped cairn

Iron Age

Crucible of Iron Age
Iron Age
Shetland Broch
Broch
of Clickimin Broch
Broch
of Culswick Broch
Broch
of Mousa Burra Ness Broch Clumlie Broch Huxter Fort Ness of Burgi Fort Snabrough Broch Broch
Broch
of West Burrafirth

Pictish

St Ninian's Isle
St Ninian's Isle
Treasure Lunnasting
Lunnasting
stone

Multi-period

Jarlshof Old Scatness

v t e

Council areas
Council areas
of Scotland

Aberdeen Aberdeenshire Angus Argyll
Argyll
and Bute Clackmannanshire Dumfries and Galloway Dundee East Ayrshire East Dunbartonshire East Lothian East Renfrewshire Edinburgh Falkirk Fife Glasgow Highland Inverclyde Midlothian Moray Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) North Ayrshire North Lanarkshire Orkney Perth and Kinross Renfrewshire Scottish Borders Shetland South Ayrshire South Lanarkshire Stirling West Dunbartonshire West Lothian

List by area, population, density

v t e

Former local government counties of Scotland

Subdivisions created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889
Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889
and abolished by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973

Aberdeenshire Angus Argyll Ayrshire Banffshire Berwickshire Bute Caithness Clackmannanshire Dumfriesshire Dunbartonshire East Lothian Fife Inverness-shire Kincardineshire Kinross-shire Kirkcudbrightshire Lanarkshire Midlothian Moray Nairnshire Orkney Peeblesshire Perthshire Renfrewshire Ross and Cromarty Roxburghshire Selkirkshire Shetland Stirlingshire Sutherland West Lothian Wigtownshire

Subdivisions abolished by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889

Cromartyshire Ross-shire

v t e

Islands of Scotland

Geography

Northern Isles

Shetland

list

Orkney

list

Hebrides

Outer Hebrides

list

Inner Hebrides

list

St Kilda

Other

Islands of the Clyde Islands of the Forth Freshwater Islands Outlying Islands

Prehistory

Prehistoric Orkney

Heart of Neolithic
Neolithic
Orkney
Orkney
World Heritage Site: Maeshowe Ness of Brodgar Ring of Brodgar Skara Brae Standing Stones of Stenness

Prehistoric Shetland

Crucible of Iron Age
Iron Age
Shetland: Broch
Broch
of Mousa Jarlshof Old Scatness

Prehistoric Western Isles

Callanish Stones Dun Carloway Rubha an Dùnain Dun Nosebridge

History

Dál Riata

Columba

Kingdom of the Isles

Scandinavian Scotland Rulers of the Kingdom of the Isles Bishop of the Isles

Lordship of the Isles

Treaty of Perth Treaty of Ardtornish-Westminster Finlaggan

Earldom of Orkney

Buckquoy spindle-whorl Udal law

18th and 19th Century

Clearances Jacobite risings Flora
Flora
MacDonald

Literature

Orkneyinga Saga Description of the Western Isles of Scotland
Scotland
(Monro) A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland
Scotland
(Martin) A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland
Scotland
(Johnson) The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides
Hebrides
(Boswell)

Etymology

General

Scottish island names Northern Isles Hebrides Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba

Specific

Arran Gigha Skye St Kilda

Economy

Towns

Kirkwall Lerwick Rothesay Stornoway Stromness

Agencies

Community Energy Scotland Crofters Commission DTA Scotland Highlands and Islands Enterprise Scottish Islands Federation

Oil industry

Flotta Sullom Voe

Culture

Shetland

Aly Bain Thomas Fraser Peerie Willie Johnson Shetland
Shetland
Amenity Trust Up Helly Aa Vagaland

Orkney

George Mackay Brown Peter Maxwell Davies F. Marian McNeill Kirkwall
Kirkwall
Ba game Orkney
Orkney
Heritage Society St Magnus Festival

Outer Hebrides

Compton Mackenzie Fèis Bharraigh Free Church of Scotland Iain Crichton Smith

Inner Hebrides

Islay whisky Runrig Sorley MacLean West Highland Free Press

Politics

Local authorities

Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council Orkney
Orkney
Islands Council Comhairle nan Eilean Siar Highland Council Argyll
Argyll
and Bute North Ayrshire

Wildlife

Fauna

Fair Isle
Fair Isle
wren Orkney
Orkney
vole Shetland
Shetland
wren St Kilda field mouse St Kilda wren

Flora

Arran whitebeams Scottish Primrose Shetland
Shetland
Mouse-ear

Domesticated animals

Cairn Terrier Eriskay Pony Hebridean Blackface Luing cattle North Ronaldsay sheep Scottie Sheltie Shetland
Shetland
cattle Shetland
Shetland
Goose Shetland
Shetland
pony Shetland
Shetland
sheep Soay sheep Westie

Geology

Shetland

Geopark Shetland

Geology of Orkney

Eday Group Orcadian Basin Yesnaby Sandstone Group

Hebrides

Colonsay Group Great Estuarine Group Hebridean Terrane Lewisian complex Lorne plateau lavas Moine Supergroup Moine Thrust Belt Rhinns complex Skye Staffa Torridonian

Islands of the Clyde

Highland Boundary Fault

v t e

National scenic areas in Scotland

Aberdeenshire

Deeside and Lochnagar

Argyll
Argyll
and Bute

Jura Ben Nevis and Glen Coe (part) Knapdale Kyles of Bute Loch Lomond
Loch Lomond
(part) Loch na Keal Lynn of Lorn Scarba, Lunga and the Garvellachs

Dumfries and Galloway

East Stewartry Coast Fleet Valley Nith Estuary

Highland

Assynt-Coigach Ben Nevis and Glen Coe (part) Cairngorms
Cairngorms
(part) Cuillin
Cuillin
Hills Dornoch Firth Glen Affric Glen Strathfarrar Kintail Knoydart Kyle of Tongue Loch Shiel Morar, Moidart
Moidart
and Ardnamurchan North West Sutherland Small Isles Trotternish Wester Ross

Moray

Cairngorms
Cairngorms
(part)

Na h-Eileanan Siar

South Lewis, Harris and North Uist South Uist
South Uist
Machair St Kilda

North Ayrshire

North Arran

Orkney

Hoy and West Mainland

Perth and Kinross

Ben Nevis and Glen Coe (part) Loch Rannoch
Loch Rannoch
and Glen Lyon (part) Loch Tummel River Earn River Tay

Scottish Borders

Eildon and Leaderfoot Upper Tweeddale

Shetland

Shetland

Stirling

Loch Lomond
Loch Lomond
(part) Loch Rannoch
Loch Rannoch
and Glen Lyon (part) The Trossachs

West Dunbartonshire

Loch Lomond
Loch Lomond
(part)

v t e

Scandinavian Scotland

Rulers

List of kings Earls of Orkney Crovan dynasty Lords of Argyll Mormaers of Caithness Uí Ímair

Notable women

Aud the Deep-Minded Bethóc, Prioress of Iona Bjaðǫk Cacht ingen Ragnaill Gormflaith ingen Murchada Gunnhild Gormsdóttir Helga Moddansdóttir Ingeborg of Norway Ingibjörg the Earls'-Mother Isabel Bruce Máel Muire ingen Amlaíb Margaret, Maid of Norway Margaret, Queen of Norway Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland Ragnhild Eriksdotter

Other notable men

Caittil Find Ingimundr Ljótólfr Olaf the White Olvir Rosta Páll Bálkason Ragnall ua Ímair Sweyn Asleifsson Thorbjorn Thorsteinsson Thorstein the Red

History

Kingdom of the Isles Dál Riata Gall-Ghàidheil Lochlann Orkney Outer Hebrides Shetland Scottish–Norwegian War
Scottish–Norwegian War
(1262-66) Scotland Norway

Archaeology

Bornish Birsay Bishop's Palace Brough of Birsay Camas Uig Cubbie Roo's Castle Earl's Bu Jarlshof Kirkwall
Kirkwall
Castle Linton Chapel Maeshowe Old Scatness Port an Eilean Mhòir boat burial Rubha an Dùnain Scar boat burial St Magnus Church

Artifacts and culture

Birlinn Chronicles of Mann Darraðarljóð Galloway Hoard Hogbacks Lewis chessmen Manx runestones Orkneyinga saga Ounceland Sen dollotar Ulaid St Magnus Cathedral Udal law

Althings

Delting Dingwall Law Ting Holm Lunnasting Nesting Sandsting Tingwall Tynwald

Language

Middle Irish Norn Old Norse Pictish Old Norwegian

Etymology

Scottish island names Northern Isles Hebrides

Battles and treaties

Bauds Brunanburh Clontarf Dollar Barry Epiphany Isle of Man Largs Renfrew Skyhill Tara Vestrajǫrðr Treaty of 1098 Treaty of Perth

Associated clans and septs

Gunn Uí Ímair Somhairle Macaulay of Lewis Mac Coitir MacDougall MacLeod Macruari MacDonald

v t e

British Isles

Terminology

Alba Albion Prydain Britain Éire Hibernia

Naming dispute

Politics

Sovereign states

Ireland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales)

Crown dependencies

Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Sark

Political cooperation

Ireland– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations British–Irish Council British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly Common Travel Area

Geography

Island groups

Channel Islands Islands of the Clyde Great Britain Hebrides

Inner Outer

Ireland Isle of Man Northern Isles

Orkney Shetland

Isles of Scilly

Lists of islands of

Bailiwick of Guernsey Ireland Bailiwick of Jersey Isle of Man United Kingdom

England Scotland Wales

History

Island groups

Ireland

Current states

Ireland United Kingdom

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man

Former states

Irish Free State Kingdom of England

Principality of Wales

Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of Scotland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland

Society

Modern languages

Germanic

English Scots

Celtic

Cornish Scottish Gaelic Irish Manx Welsh

Romance

Auregnais French Guernésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais

Other

British Sign Language Irish Sign Language Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Sign Language Shelta

People

British Cornish English English Gypsies Irish Irish Travellers Kale Manx Northern Irish Scottish Ulster-Scots Welsh

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131360572 LCCN: n81097

.