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Shellfish
Shellfish
is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found in freshwater. In addition, a few species of land crabs are eaten, for example Cardisoma guanhumi
Cardisoma guanhumi
in the Caribbean. Despite the name, shellfish are not a kind of fish, but are simply water-dwelling animals. Many varieties of shellfish (crustaceans in particular) are actually closely related to insects and arachnids, making up one of the main classes of the phylum Arthropoda. Cephalopods
Cephalopods
(squids, octopuses, cuttlefish) and bivalves (clams, oysters) are molluscs, as are Gastropods
Gastropods
(aquatic species such as whelks and winkles; also land species such as snails and slugs). Shells are used as a food source by humans include many species of clams, mussels, oysters, winkles, and scallops. Some crustaceans that are commonly eaten are shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, and crabs.[1] Echinoderms are not as frequently harvested for food as molluscs and crustaceans; however, sea urchin roe is quite popular in many parts of the world.[2][3] Most shellfish eat a diet composed primarily of phytoplankton and zooplankton.[4] Shellfish
Shellfish
are among the most common food allergens.[5]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Shellfish
Shellfish
in various cuisines

2.1 In Japan 2.2 In the United States

3 Around the world 4 Religious dietary restrictions 5 Allergy 6 Toxic content 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Terminology[edit]

Cooked mussels

The term shellfish is used both broadly and specifically. In common parlance, as in having "shellfish" for dinner, it can refer to anything from clams and oysters to lobster and shrimp. For regulatory purposes it is often narrowly defined as filter-feeding molluscs such as clams, mussels, and oyster to the exclusion of crustaceans and all else.[6] Although the term is primarily applied to marine species, edible freshwater invertebrates such as crayfish and river mussels are also sometimes grouped under the umbrella term "shellfish". Although their shells may differ, all shellfish are invertebrates. As non-mammalian animals that spend their entire lives in water they are "fish" in an informal sense; however the term finfish is sometimes used to distinguish fish as animals defined by having vertebrae from shellfish in modern terminology. The word "shellfish" is both singular and plural; the rarely used "shellfishes" is sometimes employed to distinguish among various types of shellfish.[7] Shellfish
Shellfish
in various cuisines[edit] Archaeological finds have shown that humans have been making use of shellfish as a food item for hundreds of thousands of years. In the present, shellfish dishes are a feature of almost all the cuisines of the world, providing an important source of protein in many cuisines around the world, especially in the countries with coastal areas.

Sakura ebi

In Japan[edit] In the Japanese cuisine, chefs often use shellfish and their roe in different dishes. Sushi
Sushi
(vinegared rice, topped with other ingredients, including shellfish, fish, meat and vegetables) features both raw and cooked shellfish. Sashimi
Sashimi
primarily consists of very fresh raw seafood, sliced into thin pieces. Both sushi and sashimi are served with soy sauce and wasabi paste (a Japanese horseradish root, a spice with extremely strong, hot flavor), thinly sliced pickled ginger root, and a simple garnish such as shiso (a kitchen herb, member of the mint family) or finely shredded daikon radish, or both. In the United States[edit]

Boiled Maine
Maine
lobster

Lobster
Lobster
in particular is a great delicacy in the United States, where families in the Northeast region make them into the centerpiece of a clam bake, usually for special occasions. Lobsters are eaten on much of the East Coast; the American lobster
American lobster
ranges from Newfoundland down to about the Carolinas, but is most often associated with Maine. A typical meal involves boiling the lobster with some slight seasoning and then serving it with drawn butter, baked potato, and corn on the cob. Clamming is done both commercially and recreationally along the Northeast coastline of the US. Various type of clams are incorporated into the cuisine of New England. The soft-shelled clam is eaten either fried or steamed (and then called "steamers"). Many types of clams can be used for clam chowder, but the quahog, a hard shelled clam also known as a chowder clam, is often used because the long cooking time softens its tougher meat. The Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
and Maryland
Maryland
region has generally been associated more with crabs, but in recent years the area has been trying to reduce its catch of blue crabs, as wild populations have been depleted. This has not, however, stemmed the demand: Maryland-style crabcakes are still a well known treat in crabhouses all over the bay, though the catch now comes from points farther south.[citation needed]

Scallop
Scallop
sandwich served in San Diego

In the Southeast, and particularly the gulf states, shrimping is an important industry. Copious amounts of shrimp are harvested each year in the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to satisfy a national demand for shrimp. Locally, prawns and shrimp are often deep fried; in the Cajun and Creole kitchens of Louisiana, shrimp and prawns are a common addition to traditional recipes like jambalaya and certain stews. Crawfish[8] are a well known and much eaten delicacy there, often boiled in huge pots and heavily spiced. In many major cities with active fishing ports, raw oyster bars are also a feature of shellfish consumption. When served freshly shucked (opened) and iced, one may find a liquid inside the shell, called the liquor. Some believe that oysters have the properties of an aphrodisiac.[9] Inter-tidal herbivorous shellfish such as mussels and clams can help people reach a healthy balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fats in their diets, instead of the current Western diets.[10] For this reason, the eating of shellfish is often encouraged by dietitians. Shellfish
Shellfish
are also a rich source of the amino acid taurine. Around the world[edit]

Large shrimp or prawns for sale in Italy

A dish of cooked freshwater nerites from the Rajang River, Sarawak, Malaysia

Shellfish
Shellfish
is a common part of indigenous cuisines throughout the globe. Some popular dishes using shellfish:

Ceviche Cioppino Callaloo Clam
Clam
chowder Curanto Fruits de mer Paella Sashimi Shrimp
Shrimp
cocktail Lobster
Lobster
bisque She-crab soup Sliced fish soup Sushi Shrimp
Shrimp
Saganaki

Religious dietary restrictions[edit] Main article: Jewish dietary laws The Old Testament forbids the consumption of shellfish, particularly in the books of Leviticus
Leviticus
and Deuteronomy.[11] Observant Jews therefore do not eat shellfish. Allergy[edit] While estimates vary from shellfish, approximately 1% of the population is estimated to suffer from seafood allergy, which is more common in teenage and adult life than very early childhood. An estimated 20% will grow out of their allergy with time. Toxic content[edit] Some shellfish, such as whelk, contain arsenic. A sample of whelk was found to have a total content of arsenic at 15.42 mg/kg of which 1% is inorganic arsenic.[12] See also[edit]

Seafood Seashell Spotted trunkfish
Spotted trunkfish
(also known as "shellfish" in many Caribbean countries) Shellfish Association of Great Britain
Shellfish Association of Great Britain
(SAGB)

Notes[edit]

^ " Shellfish
Shellfish
climbs up the popularity ladder; the category is gaining chefs' attention for one-of-a-kind signature menu items". HighBeam Research. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  ^ Fabricant, Florence (1998). " Sea urchin
Sea urchin
makes waves, popularity increases on American menus". Nation's Restaurant News
Nation's Restaurant News
via BNET. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  ^ "The sea urchin market in Japan". Marine Fisheries
Fisheries
Review via BNET. 1989. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  ^ "Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food
Food
for Aquaculture". Food
Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  ^ " Shellfish
Shellfish
Alergies". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  ^ Maryland
Maryland
Shellfish
Shellfish
Harvesting Areas Archived 11 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Maryland
Maryland
Department of the Environment ^ Festing, Sally (1999). Fishermen: A Community living from the Sea (Revised ed.). Stamford: Shaun Tyas. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-900289-22-1.  ^ " Crawfish
Crawfish
Nutritional Facts" Valuepenguin.com ^ O'Connor, Anahad (2005-05-10). "The Claim: Oysters Are Aphrodisiacs". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-01-31.  ^ Robson, A. 2006. " Shellfish
Shellfish
view of omega-3 and sustainable fisheries." Nature 444, 1002. ^ Leviticus
Leviticus
11:9-12 ^ "82/05 October 2005 Arsenic
Arsenic
in fish and shellfish" (PDF). food.gov.uk. 2010-09-08. Retrieved 2013-04-06. 

References[edit]

Pawley, Andrew (2004) "Are crustaceans shellfish? A whiff of scandal in English lexicography" Australian Style, 12 (1): 1–3.

External links[edit]

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Shellfish

BC Shellfish
Shellfish
Growers Association East Coast Shellfish
Shellfish
Growers Association Pacific Coast Shellfish
Shellfish
Growers Association Shellfish
Shellfish
News Shellfish
Shellfish
Gallery Shellfish
Shellfish
Guide Freshwater
Freshwater
and Marine Image Bank—Shellfish[permanent dead link] at the University of Washington Libraries, Digital Collection Nutrition Facts for Various Shellfish

v t e

Seafood

Fish

Anchovy Barramundi Billfish Carp Catfish Cod Eel Flatfish Flounder Herring Mackerel Salmon Sardine Shark Sturgeon Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Whitebait

Shellfish

Abalone Cockles Crab
Crab
meat Crayfish Geoduck Krill Lobster Mussels Oysters Scallops Shrimp Sea urchins Crustaceans Molluscs

Other seafood

Edible seaweed Jellyfish Marine mammals Octopus Sea cucumber Squid Whale meat Sea vegetables Algae List of seafoods more...

Processed seafood

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Fish
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Fish
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Shrimp
paste Smoked fish Stockfish Surimi Roe more...

Seafood
Seafood
dishes

List of seafood dishes List of crab dishes List of fish dishes Bisque Chowder Fish
Fish
and chips Fish
Fish
pie Fish
Fish
soup Fried fish Raw fish Seafood
Seafood
boil Shark fin soup Sushi more...

Health hazards

Ciguatera Fish
Fish
diseases and parasites Mercury in fish Metagonimiasis Scombroid food poisoning Shellfish
Shellfish
poisoning

Advisory services

Seafood
Seafood
mislabelling Sustainable seafood Sustainable seafood
Sustainable seafood
advisory lists and certification

Animal welfare

Declawing of crabs Eyestalk ablation Eating live seafood Live fish trade Pain in fish Pain in crustaceans Shark finning

Related topics

Fish
Fish
preservation Fish
Fish
processing Gathering seafood by hand History of seafood History of sushi List of seafood companies Raw bar Salmon cannery Seafood
Seafood
restaurant Umami

v t e

Edible mollusks

Bivalves

Clams

Atlantic jackknife Atlantic surf Geoduck Grooved carpet shell Hard clam Horse Mactra stultorum Blunt gaper Ocean quahog Pacific razor Venus California butterclam Senilia senilis Smooth clam Soft-shell Triangle shell Tuatua Japanese littleneck Razor clam Pod razor Ensis
Ensis
(razor genus) Paphies

Cockles

Common Blood Goolwa New Zealand Sydney

Mussels

Blue Mediterranean New Zealand green-lipped California Brown Asian/Philippine green Date Mytilidae
Mytilidae
(mussel family)

Oysters

Auckland Eastern Olympia Southern mud Colchester native Pacific Portuguese Windowpane Rock Sydney rock Ostra chilena/Bluff Gillardeau oysters Crassostrea
Crassostrea
("true oyster" genus)

Scallops

Atlantic bay Great/king New Zealand Pecten jacobaeus Peruvian calico Yesso Placopecten magellanicus

Gastropods

Abalone

White Red Black Green Pink Blacklip Greenlip Green ormer Pāua
Pāua
(group of three species) South African abalone Chilean

Conches

Queen Elegant Dog

Limpets

Black-foot opihi/Hawaiian Turtle/talc Yellow-foot opihi China Common European Rayed Mediterranean Ribbed Mediterranean Rustic

Periwinkles

Common Banded Littorina sitkana

Whelks

Common Kellet's Knobbed Lightning Channeled

Other snails

Sea

Mud-flat Korean mud Chorus giganteus

Land

Cornu aspersum Helix lucorum Helix pomatia

Freshwater

Nerites

Inkfish

Cuttlefish

Spineless Bottletail

Octopus

Common Atlantic white-spotted Big blue Pacific giant Southern red Mimic Amphioctopus fangsiao

Squid

New Zealand arrow Japanese flying Humboldt Neon flying

Chitons

Chiton
Chiton
magnificus Acanthopleura granulata

Related topics Oyster
Oyster
farming Land snail
Land snail
farming Gastropod anatomy Bivalve anatomy

Authority control

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