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Shanghai
Shanghai
(Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese:  Wu pronunciation; Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and the most populous city in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017[update].[13][14] It is a global financial centre[15] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[16] Located in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the middle portion of the East China
China
coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea.[17] As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai
Shanghai
grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China
China
in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement
Shanghai International Settlement
and the French Concession. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China
China
and other parts of the world (predominantly the Occident), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region in the 1930s.[18] However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. It has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai
Shanghai
Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest by market capitalization.[19] Shanghai
Shanghai
has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China;[20][21] renowned for its Lujiazui
Lujiazui
skyline, and museums and historic buildings, such as those along The Bund, as well as the City God Temple and the Yu Garden.

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Ancient history 2.2 Imperial history 2.3 Rise and golden age 2.4 Wartime era 2.5 Modern history

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Cityscape 5 Politics 6 Administrative divisions 7 Economy 8 Demographics 9 Religion 10 Education 11 Transport

11.1 Public transport 11.2 Roads 11.3 Railway 11.4 Air

12 Architecture 13 Environment

13.1 Parks and resorts 13.2 Environmental protection 13.3 Air pollution
Air pollution
and government reaction

14 Culture

14.1 Language 14.2 Museums 14.3 Cinema 14.4 Arts 14.5 Fashion

15 Media 16 Sports 17 International relations 18 See also 19 References 20 Further reading 21 External links

Names[edit] The two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 (shàng/zan, "above") and 海 (hǎi/he,"sea"), together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song Dynasty, at which time there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to exactly how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
Shanghai
Shanghai
was literally on the sea.[clarification needed][22] Shanghai
Shanghai
is officially abbreviated 沪 (Hù/Wu) in Chinese,[23] a contraction of 沪渎 (Hù Dú/Wu Doh, lit " Harpoon
Harpoon
Ditch"),[24][25] a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek
Suzhou Creek
when it was the main conduit into the ocean.[24] This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai
Shanghai
is Shēn (申) or Shēnchéng (申城, "Shen City"), from Lord Chunshen, a third-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai.[24] Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai
Shanghai
often use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F.C.
Shanghai Shenhua F.C.
and Shen Bao. Huating (华亭) was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery
Wu Commandery
Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city.[22] The city also has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and " Paris
Paris
of the East".[26][27] History[edit] Main articles: History of Shanghai
History of Shanghai
and Timeline of Shanghai See also: Shanghai
Shanghai
International Settlement, Shanghai
Shanghai
French Concession, and Greater Shanghai
Shanghai
Plan Ancient history[edit] During the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(approximately 771 to 476 BC), the Shanghai
Shanghai
area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.[28] During the Warring States period
Warring States period
(475 BC), Shanghai
Shanghai
was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai
Shanghai
its nickname of "Shen".[28] Fishermen living in the Shanghai
Shanghai
area then created a fishing tool called the hu, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek
Suzhou Creek
north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. Imperial history[edit]

Songjiang Square Pagoda, built in the 11th century

The walled Old City of Shanghai
Old City of Shanghai
in the 17th century

Section of the old city walls of Shanghai

During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town (青龙镇) in modern Qingpu District
Qingpu District
was a major trading port. Established in 746 (fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era), it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas. The famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu
Mi Fu
served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze
Yangtze
River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan
Japan
and Silla.[2] By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River
Wusong River
to Shanghai,[29] which was upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.[30] From the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in 1292 until Shanghai officially became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai
Shanghai
was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District.[31] Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. It measured 10 metres (33 feet) high and 5 kilometres (3 miles) in circumference.[32] During the Wanli reign (1573–1620), Shanghai
Shanghai
received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602. This honour was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. It probably reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status.[32] During the Qing dynasty, Shanghai
Shanghai
became one of the most important sea ports in the Yangtze
Yangtze
Delta region as a result of two important central government policy changes: In 1684, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
reversed the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
prohibition on oceangoing vessels – a ban that had been in force since 1525; and in 1732 the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
moved the customs office for Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province (江海关; see Customs House, Shanghai) from the prefectural capital of Songjiang to Shanghai, and gave Shanghai
Shanghai
exclusive control over customs collections for Jiangsu's foreign trade. As a result of these two critical decisions, by 1735 Shanghai
Shanghai
had become the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region, despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.[33] Rise and golden age[edit]

Shanghai
Shanghai
in the 1930s, with the Shanghai International Settlement
Shanghai International Settlement
and Shanghai
Shanghai
French Concession

The Bund
The Bund
in 1928; the WWI monument in the foreground was destroyed by the Japanese during WWII

Nanking Road (modern-day East Nanjing
Nanjing
Road) in the 1930s

Play media

Shanghai
Shanghai
filmed in 1937

Tallest building of Asia for decades - Shanghai
Shanghai
Park Hotel

International attention to Shanghai
Shanghai
grew in the 19th century due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze. During the First Opium War
First Opium War
(1839–1842), British forces occupied the city. The war ended with the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, which allowed the British to dictate opening the treaty ports, Shanghai
Shanghai
included, for international trade.[34] The Treaty of the Bogue signed in 1843, and the Sino-American Treaty of Wanghia
Treaty of Wanghia
signed in 1844 forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain, France
France
(under the 1844 Treaty of Whampoa), and the United States
United States
all carved out concessions outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese. The Chinese-held old city of Shanghai
Shanghai
fell to the rebels of the Small Swords Society in 1853 but was recovered by the Qing government in February 1855.[35] In 1854, the Shanghai Municipal Council
Shanghai Municipal Council
was created to manage the foreign settlements. Between 1860–1862, the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai
Shanghai
and destroyed the city's eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city.[36] In 1863, the British settlement to the south of Suzhou Creek
Suzhou Creek
(northern Huangpu District) and the American settlement to the north (southern Hongkou District) joined in order to form the Shanghai
Shanghai
International Settlement. The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council
Shanghai Municipal Council
and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest. Citizens of many countries and all continents came to Shanghai
Shanghai
to live and work during the ensuing decades; those who stayed for long periods – some for generations – called themselves "Shanghailanders".[37] In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians and Russian Jews fled the newly established Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and took up residence in Shanghai. These Shanghai Russians
Shanghai Russians
constituted the second-largest foreign community. By 1932, Shanghai
Shanghai
had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners.[38] In the 1930s, some 30,000 Jewish refugees from Europe
Europe
arrived in the city.[39] The Sino-Japanese War concluded with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which elevated Japan
Japan
to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which were soon copied by other foreign powers. Shanghai
Shanghai
was then the most important financial center in the Far East. All this international activity gave Shanghai
Shanghai
the nickname "the Great Athens of China".[40] Under the Republic of China, Shanghai's political status was raised to that of a municipality on 14 July 1927. Although the territory of the foreign concessions was excluded from their control, this new Chinese municipality still covered an area of 828.8 square kilometres (320.0 sq mi), including the modern-day districts of Baoshan, Yangpu, Zhabei, Nanshi, and Pudong. Headed by a Chinese mayor and municipal council, the new city government's first task was to create a new city center in Jiangwan town of Yangpu district, outside the boundaries of the foreign concessions. The "Greater Shanghai
Shanghai
Plan" included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed when the plan was interrupted by the Japanese invasion.[41] Wartime era[edit]

Zhabei District
Zhabei District
on fire.

"Bloody Saturday": a baby in the ruins of the old Shanghai
Shanghai
South Railway Station after Japanese bombing in August 1937

On 28 January 1932, Japanese forces invaded Shanghai
Shanghai
and the Chinese resisted, fighting to a standstill; a ceasefire was brokered in May. The Battle of Shanghai
Battle of Shanghai
in 1937 resulted in the occupation of the Chinese administered parts of Shanghai
Shanghai
outside of the International Settlement and the French Concession. The foreign concessions were ultimately occupied by the Japanese on 8 December 1941 and remained occupied until Japan's surrender in 1945, during which time many war crimes were committed.[42] On 27 May 1949, the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
took control of Shanghai. Under the new People's Republic of China
China
(PRC), Shanghai
Shanghai
was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces over the next decade (the others being Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin).[43] Shanghai underwent a series of changes in the boundaries of its subdivisions over the next decade. After 1949, most foreign firms moved their offices from Shanghai
Shanghai
to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment due to the Communist victory. Modern history[edit]

Lujiazui
Lujiazui
Finance and Trade Zone

During the 1950s and 1960s, Shanghai
Shanghai
became the center for radical leftism since it was the industrial centre of China
China
with most skilled industrial workers. The radical leftist Jiang Qing
Jiang Qing
and her three allies, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city.[44] Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the Cultural Revolution, Shanghai
Shanghai
was able to maintain high economic productivity and relative social stability. During most of the history of the PRC, Shanghai
Shanghai
has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government, with Shanghai
Shanghai
in 1983 contributing more in tax revenue to the central government than Shanghai
Shanghai
had received in investment in the prior 33 years combined.[45] This came at the cost of severely crippling welfare of Shanghainese people
Shanghainese people
and Shanghai's infrastructural and capital development. Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it economic liberalizations begun in 1978. Shanghai
Shanghai
was finally permitted to initiate economic reforms in 1991, starting the massive development still seen today and the birth of Lujiazui
Lujiazui
in Pudong. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Shanghai

This map of Shanghai
Shanghai
(center and east), Jiangsu
Jiangsu
(north), and Zhejiang (south) shows the developed areas and some developing areas around Shanghai, Nanjing
Nanjing
(dark blue), and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in green. The regions in light blue are some of the developed areas in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta. Provincial boundaries are in purple, sub-provincial boundaries in gray.

This natural-color satellite image shows the urban area of Shanghai
Shanghai
in 2016, along with its major islands of (from northwest to southeast) Chongming, Changxing, Hengsha, and the Jiuduansha
Jiuduansha
shoals off Pudong.

Shanghai
Shanghai
lies on China's east coast roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou. The Old City and modern downtown Shanghai
Shanghai
are now located in the center of an expanding peninsula between the Yangtze River Delta to the north and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay to the south, formed by the Yangtze's natural deposition and by modern land reclamation projects. The provincial-level Municipality of Shanghai
Shanghai
administers both the eastern area of this peninsula and many of its surrounding islands. It is bordered on the north and west by Jiangsu, on the south by Zhejiang, and on the east by the East China
China
Sea. Its northernmost point is on Chongming Island, now the second-largest island in mainland China
China
after its expansion during the 20th century.[46] The municipality does not, however, include an exclave of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
on northern Chongming or the two islands forming Shanghai's Yangshan Port, which are part of Zhejiang's Shengsi County. This deep-water port was made necessary by the increasing size of container ships but also the silting of the Yangtze, which narrows to less than 20 meters (66 ft) as far out as 45 miles (70 km) from Hengsha.[47] Downtown Shanghai
Shanghai
is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
that was created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period. The historic center of the city was located on the west bank of the Huangpu (Puxi), near the mouth of Suzhou
Suzhou
Creek, connecting it with Lake Tai
Lake Tai
and the Grand Canal. The central financial district Lujiazui
Lujiazui
has grown up on the east bank of the Huangpu (Pudong). The destruction of local wetlands occasioned by the creation of Pudong
Pudong
International Airport along the peninsula's eastern shore has been somewhat offset by the protection and expansion of the nearby shoals of Jiuduansha
Jiuduansha
as a nature preserve.[48] Shanghai's location on an alluvial plain means that the vast majority of its 6,340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi) land area is flat, with an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft).[8] Its sandy soil has required its skyscrapers to be built with deep concrete piles to stop them from sinking into the soft ground of the central area. The few hills such as She Shan lie to the southwest and the highest point is the peak of Dajinshan Island
Dajinshan Island
in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay (103 m or 338 ft).[8] The city has many rivers, canals, streams and lakes and is known for its rich water resources as part of the Lake Tai drainage area.[7] Climate[edit] Shanghai
Shanghai
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, with northwesterly winds from Siberia
Siberia
can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing, although most years there are only one or two days of snowfall. Summers are hot and humid, with an average of 8.7 days exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) annually; occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. The city is also susceptible to typhoons in summer and the beginning of autumn, none of which in recent years has caused considerable damage.[49] The most pleasant seasons are spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. The city averages 4.2 °C (39.6 °F) in January and 27.9 °C (82.2 °F) in July, for an annual mean of 16.1 °C (61.0 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in March to 54% in August, the city receives 1,895 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −10.1 °C (14 °F) on 31 January 1977 (unofficial record of −12.1 °C (10 °F) was set on 19 January 1893) to 39.9 °C (104 °F) on 6 and 8 August 2013. A highest record of 40.9 °C (106 °F) was registered in Xujiahui, a downtown station on 21 July 2017.[50][51][52][53][54]

Climate data for Shanghai
Shanghai
(normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.1 (71.8) 27.0 (80.6) 29.6 (85.3) 34.3 (93.7) 35.5 (95.9) 37.5 (99.5) 39.2 (102.6) 39.9 (103.8) 38.2 (100.8) 34.0 (93.2) 28.7 (83.7) 23.4 (74.1) 39.9 (103.8)

Average high °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 10.1 (50.2) 13.8 (56.8) 19.5 (67.1) 24.8 (76.6) 27.8 (82) 32.2 (90) 31.5 (88.7) 27.9 (82.2) 22.9 (73.2) 17.3 (63.1) 11.1 (52) 20.58 (69.04)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8 (40.6) 6.6 (43.9) 10.0 (50) 15.3 (59.5) 20.7 (69.3) 24.4 (75.9) 28.6 (83.5) 28.3 (82.9) 24.9 (76.8) 19.7 (67.5) 13.7 (56.7) 7.6 (45.7) 17.05 (62.69)

Average low °C (°F) 2.1 (35.8) 3.7 (38.7) 6.9 (44.4) 11.9 (53.4) 17.3 (63.1) 21.7 (71.1) 25.8 (78.4) 25.8 (78.4) 22.4 (72.3) 16.8 (62.2) 10.6 (51.1) 4.7 (40.5) 14.14 (57.45)

Record low °C (°F) −10.1 (13.8) −7.9 (17.8) −5.4 (22.3) −0.5 (31.1) 6.9 (44.4) 12.3 (54.1) 16.3 (61.3) 18.8 (65.8) 10.8 (51.4) 1.7 (35.1) −4.2 (24.4) −8.5 (16.7) −10.1 (13.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.4 (2.929) 59.1 (2.327) 93.8 (3.693) 74.2 (2.921) 84.5 (3.327) 181.8 (7.157) 145.7 (5.736) 213.7 (8.413) 87.1 (3.429) 55.6 (2.189) 52.3 (2.059) 43.9 (1.728) 1,166.1 (45.909)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.9 9.2 12.4 11.2 10.4 12.7 11.4 12.3 9.1 6.9 7.6 7.7 120.8

Average relative humidity (%) 74 73 73 72 72 79 77 78 75 72 72 71 74

Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.3 119.9 128.5 148.5 169.8 130.9 190.8 185.7 167.5 161.4 131.1 127.4 1,775.8

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration [55]

Cityscape[edit]

Panoramic view of the Bund

Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline from the Bund

Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Shanghai

The government of Shanghai
Shanghai
seated on HSBC Building, the Bund
HSBC Building, the Bund
from 1955–1995. The historic building, which was headquarters of The Hongkong and Shanghai
Shanghai
Banking Corporation from 1923 to 1955, now houses Shanghai
Shanghai
Pudong
Pudong
Development Bank.

Like virtually all governing institutions in the mainland People's Republic of China, the politics of Shanghai
Shanghai
is structured in a dual party-government system,[56] in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the Communist Party of China
China
Shanghai
Shanghai
Municipal Committee Secretary (currently Li Qiang), outranks the Mayor (currently Ying Yong). Political power in Shanghai
Shanghai
is widely seen as a stepping stone to higher positions in the national government. Since Jiang Zemin
Jiang Zemin
became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
China
in June 1989, all former Shanghai
Shanghai
party secretaries but one were elevated to the Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto highest decision-making body in China,[56] including Jiang himself (Party General Secretary),[57] Zhu Rongji
Zhu Rongji
(Premier),[58] Wu Bangguo
Wu Bangguo
(Chairman of the National People's Congress),[59] Huang Ju
Huang Ju
(Vice Premier),[60] Xi Jinping (current General Secretary),[61] and Yu Zhengsheng. Zeng Qinghong, a former deputy party secretray of Shanghai, also rose to the Politburo Standing Committee and became the Vice President and an influential power broker.[62] The only exception is Chen Liangyu, who was fired in 2006 and later convicted of corruption.[63] Officials with ties to the Shanghai
Shanghai
administration form a powerful faction in the national government, the so-called Shanghai
Shanghai
Clique, which was often thought to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions.[64] Xi Jinping, successor to Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao
as General Secretary and President, was a compromise candidate between the two groups with supporters in both camps. Dong Yunhu was elected chairman of the 13th Shanghai
Shanghai
municipal CPPCC in January 2018.[4]

Administrative divisions[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of administrative divisions of Shanghai
Shanghai
and List of township-level divisions of Shanghai.

Map of central Shanghai

Shanghai
Shanghai
is administratively equal to a province and is divided into 16 county-level districts. Even though every district has its own urban core, the real city center is between Bund to the east, Nanjing Rd to the north, Old City Temple and Huaihai Road
Huaihai Road
to the south. Prominent central business areas include Lujiazui
Lujiazui
on the east bank of the Huangpu River, and The Bund
The Bund
and Hongqiao areas in the west bank of the Huangpu River. The city hall and major administration units are located in Huangpu District, which also serve as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing
Nanjing
Road. Other major commercial areas include Xintiandi
Xintiandi
and the classy Huaihai Road
Huaihai Road
(previously Avenue Joffre) in Huangpu District and Xujiahui
Xujiahui
(formerly Romanized as Zikawei or Siccawei, reflecting the Shanghainese
Shanghainese
pronunciation) in Xuhui District. Many universities in Shanghai
Shanghai
are located in residential areas of Yangpu District
Yangpu District
and Putuo District. Seven of the districts govern Puxi
Puxi
(lit. "The West Bank"), the older part of urban Shanghai
Shanghai
on the west bank of the Huangpu River. These seven districts are collectively referred to as Shanghai
Shanghai
Proper (上海市区) or the core city (市中心), which comprise Huangpu, Xuhui, Changning, Jing'an, Putuo, Hongkou, and Yangpu. Pudong
Pudong
(lit. "The East Bank"), the newer part of urban and suburban Shanghai
Shanghai
on the east bank of the Huangpu River, is governed by Pudong
Pudong
New Area ( Chuansha County
Chuansha County
until 1992, merged with Nanhui District in 2009 and with oversight of the Jiuduansha
Jiuduansha
shoals). Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas further away from the urban core: Baoshan (Baoshan County until 1988), Minhang (original Minhang District
Minhang District
& Shanghai County
Shanghai County
until 1992), Jiading (Jiading County until 1992), Jinshan (Jinshan County until 1997), Songjiang (Songjiang County until 1998), Qingpu (Qingpu County until 1999), and Fengxian (Fengxian County until 2001). The islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most (but not all[66]) of Chongming Island
Chongming Island
form Chongming. The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong
Pudong
District in 2009. In 2011 Luwan District
Luwan District
merged with Huangpu District. As of 2015[update], these county-level divisions are further divided into the following 210 township-level divisions: 109 towns, 2 townships, 99 subdistricts. Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions: 3,661 neighborhood committees and 1,704 village committees.[67]

Administrative divisions of Shanghai

Huangpu Xuhui Changning 1 Putuo 2 Yangpu Minhang Baoshan Jiading Pudong Jinshan Songjiang Qingpu Fengxian Chongming 1. Jing'an 2. Hongkou

Division code[68] Division Area in km2[69] Population 2010[70] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[71]

Subdistricts Towns Townships Residential communities Villages

310000 Shanghai 6340.50 23,019,196 Huangpu 200000 100 107 2 4024 1610

310101 Huangpu 20.46 678,670 Waitan Subdistrict 200000 10     189  

310104 Xuhui 54.76 1,085,130 Xujiahui
Xujiahui
Subdistrict 200000 12 1   306  

310105 Changning 38.30 690,571 Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Road Subdistrict 200000 9 1   184  

310106 Jing'an 37.37 1,077,284 Jiangning Road Subdistrict 200000 13 1   283 1

310107 Putuo 54.83 1,288,881 Zhenru Town Subdistrict 200000 8 2   245 7

310109 Hongkou 23.48 852,476 Jiaxing
Jiaxing
Road Subdistrict 200000 8     226  

310110 Yangpu 60.73 1,313,222 Pingliang
Pingliang
Road Subdistrict 200000 11 1   307  

310112 Minhang 371.68 2,429,372 Xinzhuang Town 201100 3 9   408 136

310113 Baoshan 270.99 1,904,886 Youyi Road Subdistrict 201900 3 9   350 108

310114 Jiading 458.80 1,471,231 Xincheng Road Subdistrict 201800 3 7   153 146

310115 Pudong 1210.41 5,044,430 Huamu Subdistrict 201200 & 201300 12 24   829 371

310116 Jinshan 586.05 732,438 Shanyang Town 201500 1 9   88 124

310117 Songjiang 604.71 1,582,398 Fangsong Subdistrict 201600 4 11   185 86

310118 Qingpu 675.54 1,081,022 Xiayang Subdistrict 201700 3 8   97 184

310120 Fengxian 687.39 1,083,463 Nanqiao Town 201400   8   107 177

310151 Chongming 1185.49 703,722 Chengqiao Town 202100   16 2 67 270

Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations

English Chinese Pinyin Shanghainese
Shanghainese
Romanization

Shanghai
Shanghai
Municipality 上海市 Shànghǎi Shì zeon he zy

Huangpu District 黄浦区 Huángpǔ Qū waon phu chiu

Xuhui District 徐汇区 Xúhuì Qū zi we chiu

Changning District 长宁区 Chángníng Qū zan nyin chiu

Jing'an District 静安区 Jìng'ān Qū zin oe chiu

Putuo District 普陀区 Pǔtuó Qū phu du chiu

Hongkou District 虹口区 Hóngkǒu Qū ghon kheu chiu

Yangpu District 杨浦区 Yángpǔ Qū yan phu chiu

Minhang District 闵行区 Mǐnháng Qū min ghaon chiu

Baoshan District 宝山区 Bǎoshān Qū pau sae chiu

Jiading District 嘉定区 Jiādìng Qū ka din chiu

Pudong
Pudong
New Area 浦东新区 Pǔdōng Xīnqū phu ton sin chiu

Jinshan District 金山区 Jīnshān Qū cin se chiu

Songjiang District 松江区 Sōngjiāng Qū son kaon chiu

Qingpu District 青浦区 Qīngpǔ Qū tsin phu chiu

Fengxian District 奉贤区 Fèngxián Qū von yi chiu

Chongming District 崇明区 Chóngmíng Qū dzon min chiu

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of China

Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline in 2010

Increasing influence over global capital market: Shanghai
Shanghai
Stock Exchange

Shanghai Port
Shanghai Port
is the world's busiest container port

Lujiazui
Lujiazui
at night, Pudong

Shanghai
Shanghai
is the commercial and financial center of China, and ranks 13th in the 2017 edition of the Global Financial Centres Index (and fourth most competitive in Asia after Singapore, Hong Kong, and Tokyo) published by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre
Qatar Financial Centre
Authority.[72] It also ranks the most expensive city to live in Mainland China, according to the study of Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
in 2017.[73] It was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia
East Asia
during the 1930s, and rapid re-development began in the 1990s.[18] This is exemplified by the Pudong
Pudong
District, a former swampland reclaimed to serve as a pilot area for integrated economic reforms. By the end of 2009, there were 787 financial institutions, of which 170 were foreign-invested.[74] In 2009, the Shanghai Stock Exchange
Shanghai Stock Exchange
ranked third among worldwide stock exchanges in terms of trading volume and sixth in terms of the total capitalization of listed companies, and the trading volume of six key commodities including rubber, copper and zinc on the Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first in the world.[75] In September 2013, with the backing of Chinese Premier
Chinese Premier
Li Keqiang the city launched the China
China
(Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone-the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The Zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to create a preferential environment for foreign investment. In April 2014, The Banker
The Banker
reported that Shanghai
Shanghai
"has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region in the 12 months to the end of January 2014".[76] In August 2014, Shanghai
Shanghai
was named FDi magazine's Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15 due to "particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories".[77] In the last two decades Shanghai
Shanghai
has been one of the fastest developing cities in the world. Since 1992 Shanghai
Shanghai
has recorded double-digit growth almost every year except during the global recession of 2008 and 2009.[78] In 2011, Shanghai's total GDP grew to 1.92 trillion yuan (US$297 billion) with GDP per capita of 82,560 yuan (US $12,784).[11] The three largest service industries are financial services, retail, and real estate. The manufacturing and agricultural sectors accounted for 39.9 percent and 0.7 percent of the total output respectively.[74] Average annual disposable income of Shanghai
Shanghai
residents, based on the first three quarters of 2009, was 21,871 RMB.[79] Located at the heart of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, Shanghai
Shanghai
has the world's busiest container port, which handled 29.05 million TEUs in 2010.[80] Shanghai
Shanghai
aims to be an international shipping center in the near future.[81] Shanghai
Shanghai
is one of the main industrial centers of China, playing a key role in China's heavy industries. A large number of industrial zones, including Shanghai
Shanghai
Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and Shanghai
Shanghai
Caohejing High-Tech Development Zone, are backbones of Shanghai's secondary industry. Heavy industries accounted for 78% of the gross industrial output in 2009. China's largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China's largest shipbuilding base – Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Group, and the Jiangnan
Jiangnan
Shipyard, one of China's oldest shipbuilders are all located in Shanghai.[82][83] Auto manufacture is another important industry. The Shanghai-based SAIC Motor
SAIC Motor
is one of the three largest automotive corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen and General Motors.[84] The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just RMB950 (US$153).[85] As of September 2013, Shanghai
Shanghai
is also home to the largest free-trade zone in mainland China, the China
China
(Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone. The zone covers an area of 29 km2 and integrates four existing bonded zones — Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area and Pudong
Pudong
Airport Comprehensive Free Trade Zone. Several preferential policies have been implemented to attract foreign investment in various industries to the FTZ. Because the Zone is not technically considered PRC territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are not subject to duty and customs clearance as would otherwise be the case.

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Shanghai

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1954[86] 6,204,400 —    

1964[86] 10,816,500 +5.72%

1982[86] 11,859,700 +0.51%

1990[86] 13,341,900 +1.48%

2000[86] 16,407,700 +2.09%

2010[86] 23,019,200 +3.44%

2012[87] 23,804,300 +1.69%

2013[87] 24,151,500 +1.46%

2014[14] 24,256,800 +0.44%

Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.

The 2010 census put Shanghai's total population at 23,019,148, a growth of 37.53% from 16,737,734 in 2000.[88][89] 20.6 million of the total population, or 89.3%, are urban, and 2.5 million (10.7%) are rural.[90] Based on the population of its total administrative area, Shanghai
Shanghai
is the second largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest Chinese city because Chongqing's urban population is much smaller.[91] Shanghai
Shanghai
also has 150,000 officially registered foreigners, including 31,500 Japanese, 21,000 Americans and 20,700 Koreans, but the real number of foreign citizens in the city is probably much higher.[92] Shanghai
Shanghai
is also a domestic immigration city, which means a huge population of citizens come from other cities in China.[92] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 34 million.[93][10] Religion[edit]

Religion in Shanghai
Shanghai
(2012)[94]   Non religious or traditional faiths (86.9%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(10.4%)   Protestantism (1.9%)   Catholicism (0.7%)   Others (0.1%)

Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai
Shanghai
has a blend of religious heritage as shown by the religious buildings and institutions still scattered around the city. According to a 2012 survey[94] only around 13% of the population of Shanghai
Shanghai
belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 10.4%, followed by Protestants with 1.9%, Catholics with 0.7% and other faiths with 0.1%. Around 87% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities and ancestors, Confucian churches, Taoism
Taoism
and folk religious sects. There are folk religious temples such as a Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God), at the heart of the old city, and a temple dedicated to the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
general Guan Yu. The White Cloud Temple of Shanghai
Shanghai
is an important Taoist centre in the city. The Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture) is dedicated to Confucius. Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai since ancient times. The Longhua Temple, the largest temple in Shanghai, and the Jing'an Temple, were first founded in the Three Kingdoms period. Another important temple is the Jade
Jade
Buddha Temple, which is named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in the temple. In recent decades, dozens of modern temples have been built throughout the city. Islam
Islam
came into Shanghai
Shanghai
700 years ago and a mosque was built in 1295 in Songjiang. In 1843, a teachers' college was also set up. The Shanghai
Shanghai
Muslim Association is located in the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque
Xiaotaoyuan Mosque
in Huangpu. Shanghai
Shanghai
has one of the largest proportions of Catholics in China (2003).[95] Among Catholic churches, St Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui is one of the largest, while She Shan Basilica
She Shan Basilica
is an active pilgrimage site. Other forms of Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches. During World War II thousands of Jews descended upon Shanghai
Shanghai
in an effort to flee Hitler's regime. The Jews lived side-by-side in a designated area called Shanghai Ghetto
Shanghai Ghetto
and formed a vibrant community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue,[96] which is preserved remnant of this portion of Shanghai's complex religious past.[97] Education[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Shanghai

University City District in Songjiang

Shanghai
Shanghai
ranked first in the 2009 and 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide study of academic performance of 15-year-old students conducted by the OECD. Shanghai
Shanghai
students, including migrant children, scored highest in every aspect (math, reading and science) in the world. The study concludes that public-funded schools in Shanghai
Shanghai
have the highest educational quality in the world.[98][99] Critics of PISA results counter that, in Shanghai
Shanghai
and other Chinese cities, most children of migrant workers can only attend city schools up to the ninth grade, and must return to their parents' hometowns for high school due to hukou restrictions, thus skewing the composition of the city's high school students in favor of wealthier local families.[100]

Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Library

Shanghai
Shanghai
is the first city in the country to implement 9-year mandatory education. The 2010 census shows that out of Shanghai's total population, 22.0% had a college education, double the level from 2000, while 21.0% had high school, 36.5% middle school, and 1.35% primary school education. 2.74% of residents age 15 and older were illiterate.[101] Shanghai
Shanghai
has more than 930 kindergartens, 1,200 primary and 850 middle schools. Over 760,000 middle schools students and 871,000 primary school students are taught by 76,000 and 64,000 teaching staff respectively.[102] Shanghai
Shanghai
is a major center of higher education in China
China
with over 30 universities and colleges. A number of China's most prestigious universities are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai
Shanghai
Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China
China
Normal University (these universities are selected as "985 universities" by the Chinese Government in order to build world-class universities). In 2012 NYU Shanghai
NYU Shanghai
was established in Pudong
Pudong
by New York University
New York University
in partnership with East China
China
Normal University as the first Sino-US joint venture university. In 2013 the Shanghai
Shanghai
Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences
founded the ShanghaiTech University
ShanghaiTech University
in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park
Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park
in Pudong. This new research university is aiming to be a first-class institution on a national and international level.[103] The cadre school China
China
Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong
Pudong
is also located in Shanghai, as well as the China
China
Europe International Business School. Children with foreign passports are permitted to attend any public school in Shanghai. Prior to 2007 they were permitted to attend 150 select public schools. In 2006 about 2,000 non-Chinese nationals under 18 years of age attended Shanghai
Shanghai
public schools.[104] Students with Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK) above 3 or 4 may attend public schools using Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
as the medium of instruction, while students below HSK 3–4 may attend international divisions of public schools or private international schools.[105] Shanghai
Shanghai
has the largest number of international schools of any city in China. In November 2015 Christopher Cottrell of the Global Times wrote that Shanghai
Shanghai
"prides itself on its international schools".[106] Transport[edit] Public transport[edit] Main article: Public transport in Shanghai

The Maglev with a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph) exiting the Shanghai
Shanghai
Pudong
Pudong
International Airport

Shanghai
Shanghai
has an extensive public transport system, largely based on metros, buses and taxis. Payment of all these public transportation tools can be made by using the Shanghai
Shanghai
Public Transportation Card. Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai
Shanghai
Metro, incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts. As of 2017[update], there are 16 metro lines (excluding the Shanghai Maglev Train
Shanghai Maglev Train
and Jinshan Railway), 395 stations and 673 km (418 mi) of lines in operation, making it the longest network in the world.[107] On 31 December 2016, it set a record of daily ridership of 11.7 million.[108] The fare depends on the length of travel distance starting from 3 RMB. In 2010, Shanghai
Shanghai
reintroduced trams, this time as a modern rubber tyred Translohr system, in Zhangjiang area of East Shanghai
Shanghai
as Zhangjiang Tram. A separate conventional tram system being constructed in Songjiang District. Additional tram lines are under study in Hongqiao Subdistrict and Jiading District. Shanghai
Shanghai
also has the world's most extensive network of urban bus routes, with nearly one thousand bus lines, operated by numerous transportation companies.[109] The system includes the world's oldest continuously operating trolleybus system. Bus
Bus
fare normally costs 2 RMB.

A typical VW Touran Taxi in Shanghai

Taxis are plentiful in Shanghai. The base fare is currently ¥14(sedan)/¥16(MPV) (inclusive of a ¥1 fuel surcharge; ¥18 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am) which covers the first 3 km (2 mi). Additional km cost ¥2.4 each (¥3.2 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am).[110] Roads[edit] See also: Expressways of Shanghai Shanghai
Shanghai
is a major hub of China's expressway network. Many national expressways (prefixed with G) pass through or terminate in Shanghai, including G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway (overlapping G42 Shanghai–Chengdu), G15 Shenyang–Haikou, G40 Shanghai–Xi'an, G50 Shanghai–Chongqing, G60 Shanghai– Kunming
Kunming
(overlapping G92 Shanghai–Ningbo), and G1501 Shanghai
Shanghai
Ring Expressway. In addition, there are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with S (S1, S2, S20, etc.). Shanghai
Shanghai
has one bridge-tunnel crossing spanning the mouth of the Yangtze
Yangtze
to the north of the city. In the city center, there are several elevated expressways to lessen traffic pressure on surface streets, but the growth car use has made demand far outstrip capacity, with heavy congestion being commonplace. There are bicycle lanes separate from car traffic on many surface streets, but bicycles and motorcycles are banned from many main roads including the elevated expressways. Recently, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity thanks to the emergence of a large number of dockless app based bikeshares such as Mobike, Bluegogo
Bluegogo
and Ofo.[111] Private car ownership in Shanghai
Shanghai
has been rapidly increasing in recent years, but a new private car cannot be driven until the owner buys a license in the monthly private car license plate auction. Around 11,500 license plates are auctioned each month and the average price is about 84,000 RMB ($12,758). According to the municipal regulation in 2016, only those who are Shanghai
Shanghai
registered residents or have paid social insurance or individual incomer tax for over 3 years in a row. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and to alleviate congestion.[112] Railway[edit]

The lobby of Shanghai
Shanghai
South Railway Station

Shanghai
Shanghai
has four major railway stations: Shanghai
Shanghai
Railway Station, Shanghai
Shanghai
South Railway Station, Shanghai
Shanghai
West Railway Station, and Shanghai
Shanghai
Hongqiao Railway Station. All are connected to the metro network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China. Two main railways terminate in Shanghai: Jinghu Railway
Jinghu Railway
from Beijing, and Huhang Railway
Huhang Railway
from Hangzhou. Hongqiao Station also serves as the main Shanghai
Shanghai
terminus of three high-speed rail lines: the Shanghai– Hangzhou
Hangzhou
High-Speed Railway, the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway, and the Beijing– Shanghai
Shanghai
High-Speed Railway.

Shanghai
Shanghai
Pudong
Pudong
International Airport terminal at night

Air[edit] Shanghai
Shanghai
is one of the leading air transport gateways in Asia. The city has two commercial airports: Shanghai
Shanghai
Pudong
Pudong
International Airport and Shanghai
Shanghai
Hongqiao International Airport.[113] Pudong Airport is the main international airport, while Hongqiao Airport mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international flights. In 2010 the two airports served 71.7 million passengers ( Pudong
Pudong
40.4 million, Hongqiao 31.3 million), and handled 3.7 million tons of cargo ( Pudong
Pudong
3.22 million tons, Hongqiao 480 thousand tons).[114]

Architecture[edit] See also: Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Shanghai)
Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Shanghai)
and List of tallest buildings in Shanghai

Renovated shikumen lanes in Xintiandi, now a high-end restaurant and shopping center

Paramount, a historical dancehall. Art Deco
Art Deco
structure, built 1931–1932.

Shanghai
Shanghai
Exhibition Centre, an example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai

Site of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China, a typical shikumen building in the former French Concession.

Shanghai
Shanghai
has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. The Bund, located by the bank of the Huangpu River, is home to a row of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neoclassical HSBC Building to the art deco Sassoon House. Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession. Shanghai has one of the world's largest number of Art Deco
Art Deco
buildings as a result of the construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s. One of the most famous architects working in Shanghai
Shanghai
was László Hudec, a Hungarian-Slovak architect who lived in the city between 1918 and 1947. Some of his most notable Art Deco
Art Deco
buildings include the Park Hotel and the Grand Theater. Other prominent architects who contributed to the Art Deco
Art Deco
style are Parker & Palmer, who designed the Peace Hotel, Metropole Hotel, and the Broadway Mansions, and Austrian architect GH Gonda, who designed the Capital Theatre. The Bund's first revitalization started in 1986, with a new promenade by the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren, and was completed in the mid-1990s.

Shanghai World Financial Center
Shanghai World Financial Center
(left) and Jin Mao Tower
Jin Mao Tower
(right)

In recent years, a great deal of architecturally distinctive and even eccentric buildings have sprung up throughout Shanghai. Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Shanghai
Shanghai
Museum, Shanghai Grand Theatre
Shanghai Grand Theatre
in the People's Square
People's Square
precinct, and the Shanghai
Shanghai
Oriental Art Center. Despite rampant redevelopment, the old city still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as the Yuyuan Garden, an elaborate traditional garden in the Jiangnan style. One uniquely Shanghainese
Shanghainese
cultural element is the shikumen (石库门) residences, which are two- or three-story townhouses, with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. Each residence is connected and arranged in straight alleys, known as a longtang (弄堂), pronounced longdang in Shanghainese. The entrance to each alley is usually surmounted by a stylistic stone arch. The whole resembles terrace houses or townhouses commonly seen in Anglo-American countries, but distinguished by the tall, heavy brick wall in front of each house. The name "shikumen" means "stone storage door", referring to the strong gateway to each house. The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Lower Yangtze
Yangtze
(Jiangnan) Chinese architecture and social behavior. All traditional Chinese dwellings had a courtyard, and the shikumen was no exception. Yet, to compromise with its urban nature, it was much smaller and provided an "interior haven" to the commotions in the streets, allowing for raindrops to fall and vegetation to grow freely within a residence. The courtyard also allowed sunlight and adequate ventilation into the rooms. Less than Beijing, the city also has some examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture. These buildings were mostly erected during the period from the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 until the Sino-Soviet Split
Sino-Soviet Split
in the late 1960s. During this decade, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China
China
to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. Examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai
Shanghai
include what is today the Shanghai
Shanghai
Exhibition Centre. The Pudong
Pudong
district of Shanghai
Shanghai
is home to a number of skyscrapers, many of which rank among the tallest in the world. Among the most prominent examples are the Jin Mao Tower
Jin Mao Tower
and the taller Shanghai
Shanghai
World Financial Center, which at 492 metres (1,614 ft) tall is the third tallest skyscraper in mainland China
China
and ranks tenth in the world. The Shanghai
Shanghai
Tower, completed in 2015, is the tallest building in China, as well as the second tallest in the world.[115] With a height of 632 metres (2,073 ft), the building has 128 floors and a total floor area of 380,000 square metres (4,100,000 sq ft) above ground.[116] The distinctive Oriental Pearl Tower, at 468 metres (1,535 ft), is located nearby, as is One Lujiazui, standing at 269 metres (883 ft).[117] Environment[edit] Parks and resorts[edit]

People's Square
People's Square
seen from Urban Planning Exhibition Center

Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai
Shanghai
Disneyland

The extensive public park system in Shanghai
Shanghai
offers the citizens some reprieve from the urban jungle. By the year 2012, the city had 157 parks, with 138 of them free of charge.[118] Some of the parks, aside from offering a green public space to locals, became popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history or architecture. The former racetrack turned central park, People's Square
People's Square
park, located in the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located in the former French Concession of Shanghai, features formal French-style gardens and is surrounded by high end bars and cafes. Zhongshan Park
Zhongshan Park
in northwestern central Shanghai
Shanghai
is famous for its monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in the world. Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international college; today, it is known for its extensive rose and peony gardens, a large children's play area, and as the location of an important transfer station on the city's metro system. Shanghai
Shanghai
Botanical Garden is located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city center and was established in 1978. One of the newest parks is in the Xujiahui
Xujiahui
area – Xujiahui
Xujiahui
Park, built in 1999 on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has a man-made lake with a sky bridge running across the park, and offers a pleasant respite for Xujiahui
Xujiahui
shoppers. Other well-known Shanghai
Shanghai
parks include: People's Square Park, Gongqing Forest Park, Fuxing Park, Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Park, Lu Xun Park, Century Park, and Jing'an Park. The Shanghai Disney Resort
Shanghai Disney Resort
Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009,[119] and opened in 2016.[120] The $4.4 billion theme park and resort in Pudong
Pudong
features a castle that is the biggest among Disney's resorts.[121] Environmental protection[edit] Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 10-year, US$1 billion cleanup of Suzhou
Suzhou
Creek, which runs through the city-center, was expected to be finished in 2008,[122] and the government also provides incentives for transportation companies to invest in LPG buses and taxis. Additionally, the government has moved almost all the factories within the city center to either the outskirts or other provinces in the recent decades.[123] Air pollution
Air pollution
and government reaction[edit]

Huangpu District during the 2013 Eastern China
China
smog

Air pollution
Air pollution
in Shanghai
Shanghai
is low compared to other Chinese cities, but still substantial by world standards.[124] During the December 2013 Eastern China
China
smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31 times the international standard.[125][126] On 6 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter in Shanghai
Shanghai
rose above 600 micrograms per cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per cubic metre.[126] Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726 micrograms per cubic meter.[127][128] As a result, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students' outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government vehicles from the roads, while a mass of construction work was halted. Most of inbound flights were cancelled, and more than 50 flights were diverted at Pudong
Pudong
International Airport.[129] On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai
Shanghai
municipality announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
provinces.[130] The measures involved delivery of the 2013 air cleaning program, linkage mechanism with the three surrounding provinces and improvement of the ability of early warning of emergency situation.[130] On 12 February 2014, China's cabinet announced that a 10-billion-renminbi (US$1.7-billion) fund will be set up to help companies to meet new environmental standards.[131] Culture[edit]

Qibao
Qibao
Town

Mercedes-Benz Arena, previously known as the Expo Cultural Center during the World Expo in 2010.

Main article: Haipai See also: Wuyue culture Shanghai
Shanghai
is sometimes considered a center of innovation and progress in China. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car was driven and (technically) the first train tracks and modern sewers were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism, which was pioneered by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Nien Cheng and the famous French novel by André Malraux, Man's Fate, and the more "bourgeois", more romantic and aesthetically inclined writers, such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye Lingfeng and Eileen Chang.[citation needed] In the past years Shanghai
Shanghai
has been widely recognized as a new influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture.[132] Futuristic buildings such as the Oriental Pearl Tower
Oriental Pearl Tower
and the neon-illuminated Yan'an Elevated Road
Yan'an Elevated Road
are a few examples that have helped to boost Shanghai's cyberpunk image. Language[edit] The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
family. This makes it a different language from the official language nationwide, which is Mandarin, itself completely mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. Most Shanghai
Shanghai
residents are the descendants of immigrants from the two adjacent provinces of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
who moved to Shanghai
Shanghai
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The population of those regions speak different dialects of Wu Chinese. From the 1990s, many migrants outside of Wu-speaking area have come to Shanghai
Shanghai
for work. They often cannot speak the local language and therefore use Mandarin as a lingua franca. Modern Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is based on different dialects of Taihu Wu: the Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect, the Ningbo
Ningbo
dialect, and dialects of Shanghai's traditional areas (now lie within the Hongkou, Baoshan and Pudong districts). The prestige dialect of Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
is spoken within the city of Shanghai
Shanghai
prior to its modern expansion. Known as "the local tongue" (本地話), it is influenced to a lesser extent by the languages of other nearby regions from which large numbers of people have migrated to Shanghai
Shanghai
since the 20th century, and includes a significant number of terms borrowed from European languages. The prevalence of Mandarin fluency is generally higher for those born after 1949 than those born before, while the prevalence of English fluency is higher for people who received their secondary and tertiary education before 1949 than those who did so after 1949 and before the 1990s. On the other hand, however, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
started to decline and fluency amongst young speakers weakened, as Mandarin and English are being favoured and taught over the native language. In recent years though, there have been movements within the city to protect and promote the local language from ever fading out.[133][134] Museums[edit]

The Shanghai
Shanghai
Museum, located on the People's Square

Cultural curation in Shanghai
Shanghai
has seen significant growth since 2013, with several new museums having been opened in the city.[135] This is in part due to the city's most recently released city development plans, with aims in making the city "an excellent global city".[136] As such, Shanghai
Shanghai
has several museums[137] of regional and national importance.[138] The Shanghai Museum
Shanghai Museum
has one of the best collections of Chinese historical artifacts in the world, including a large collection of ancient Chinese bronzes. The China
China
Art Museum, located in the former China
China
Pavilion of Expo 2010, is the largest art museum in Asia. Power Station of Art
Power Station of Art
is built in a converted power station, similar to London's Tate Modern. The Shanghai
Shanghai
Natural History Museum and the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum
Shanghai Science and Technology Museum
are major natural history and science museums. In addition, there is a variety of smaller, specialist museums housed in important archaeological and historical sites such as the Songze Museum, the Museum of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the site of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the former Ohel Moshe Synagogue ( Shanghai
Shanghai
Jewish Refugees Museum), and the General Post Office Building ( Shanghai
Shanghai
Postal Museum). The Rockbund Art Museum
Rockbund Art Museum
is also in Shanghai. There are also many art galleries, concentrated in the M50 Art District
M50 Art District
and Tianzifang. Shanghai
Shanghai
is also home to one of China's largest aquariums, the Shanghai
Shanghai
Ocean Aquarium. MoCA, Museum of Contemporary Art of Shanghai, is a private museum centrally located in People's Park on West Nanjing
Nanjing
Road, and is committed to promote contemporary art and design. Cinema[edit] Shanghai
Shanghai
was the birthplace of Chinese cinema[139] and theater. China's first short film, The Difficult Couple (1913), and the country's first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His Grandfather (孤儿救祖记, Gu'er Jiu Zuji, 1923) were both produced in Shanghai. These two films were very influential, and established Shanghai
Shanghai
as the center of Chinese film-making. Shanghai's film industry went on to blossom during the early 1930s, generating great stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong. The exile of Shanghainese
Shanghainese
filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
and the Communist revolution
Communist revolution
contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
film industry. Many aspects of Shanghainese
Shanghainese
popular culture (" Shanghainese
Shanghainese
Pops") were transferred to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
by the numerous Shanghainese
Shanghainese
emigrants and refugees after the Communist Revolution. The movie In the Mood for Love, which was directed by Wong Kar-wai
Wong Kar-wai
(a native Shanghainese himself), depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese
Shanghainese
community in Hong Kong[140] and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan. Arts[edit]

十万图之四 (No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren Xiong, a pioneer of the Shanghai School
Shanghai School
of Chinese art, c. 1850.

The " Shanghai
Shanghai
School" was an important Chinese school of traditional arts during the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
and the 20th century. Under the masters from this school, traditional Chinese art developed into the modern style of "Chinese painting".[citation needed] The Shanghai
Shanghai
School challenged and broke the elitist tradition of Chinese art,[141] while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Members of this school were themselves educated literati who had come to question their very status and the purpose of art and had anticipated the impending modernization of Chinese society. In an era of rapid social change, works from the Shanghai School
Shanghai School
were widely innovative and diverse and often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. The best known figures from this school include Qi Baishi, Ren Xiong, Ren Bonian, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Sha Menghai, Pan Tianshou, Fu Baoshi, Xie Zhiliu, He Tianjian, and Wang Zhen. In literature, the term was used in the 1930s by some May Fourth Movement intellectuals – notably Zhou Zuoren
Zhou Zuoren
and Shen Congwen – as a derogatory label for the literature produced in Shanghai
Shanghai
at the time. They argued that Shanghai School
Shanghai School
literature was merely commercial and therefore did not advance social progress. This became known as the Jingpai versus Haipai
Haipai
( Beijing
Beijing
v. Shanghai
Shanghai
School) debate.[142] The "Songjiang School" (淞江派) was a small painting school during the Ming Dynasty. It is commonly considered as a further development of the Wu or Wumen School in the then-cultural center of the region, Suzhou. The Huating School (华亭派) was another important art school during the middle to late Ming Dynasty. Its main achievements were in traditional Chinese painting, calligraphy, and poetry. It was especially famous for its Renwen painting (人文画). Dong Qichang was one of the masters from this school. Fashion[edit]

Two women wear Shanghai-styled qipao while playing golf in this 1930s Shanghai
Shanghai
soap advertisement.

Other Shanghainese
Shanghainese
cultural artifacts include the cheongsam (Shanghainese: zansae), a modernization of the traditional Manchurian qipao. This contrasts sharply with the traditional qipao, which was designed to conceal the figure and be worn regardless of age. The cheongsam went along well with the western overcoat and the scarf, and portrayed a unique East Asian modernity, epitomizing the Shanghainese population in general. As Western fashions changed, the basic cheongsam design changed, too, introducing high-neck sleeveless dresses, bell-like sleeves, and the black lace frothing at the hem of a ball gown. By the 1940s, cheongsams came in transparent black, beaded bodices, matching capes and even velvet. Later, checked fabrics became also quite common. The 1949 Communist Revolution ended the cheongsam and other fashions in Shanghai. However, the Shanghainese styles have seen a recent revival as stylish party dresses. The fashion industry has been rapidly revitalizing in the past decade. Like Shanghai's architecture, local fashion designers strive to create a fusion of western and traditional designs, often with innovative if controversial results. In recent times Shanghai
Shanghai
has established its own fashion week called Shanghai
Shanghai
Fashion Week. It is held twice every year in October and April. The April session is a part of Shanghai
Shanghai
International Fashion Culture Festival which usually lasts for a month, while Shanghai Fashion Week lasts for seven days, and the main venue is in Fuxing Park, Shanghai, while the opening and closing ceremony is in Shanghai Fashion Center.[143] Supported by the People's Republic Ministry of Commerce, Shanghai Fashion Week is a major business and culture event of national significance hosted by the Shanghai
Shanghai
Municipal Government. Shanghai Fashion Week is aiming to build up an international and professional platform, gathering all of the top design talents of Asia. The event features international designers but the primary purpose is to showcase Chinese designers.[144] The international presence has included many of the most promising young British fashion designers.[145] Media[edit] In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled Shanghai
Shanghai
in the 1940s "it was very difficult to publish good papers – one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate like the Chronicle".[146] Newspapers include:

Jiefang Daily Oriental Sports Daily Shanghai
Shanghai
Review of Books Shanghai
Shanghai
Daily Shanghai
Shanghai
Star Xinmin Evening News Wen Hui Bao Wenhui Book Review

Newspapers formerly published in Shanghai
Shanghai
include:

Der Ostasiatische Lloyd
Der Ostasiatische Lloyd
(German) Gelbe Post North China
China
Daily News Shanghai
Shanghai
Evening Post & Mercury Shanghai
Shanghai
Gazette Shanghai
Shanghai
Jewish Chronicle Shanghai
Shanghai
Herald Shanghai
Shanghai
Mercury The Shanghai
Shanghai
Post (German paper) Shanghai
Shanghai
Times Shen Bao
Shen Bao
( Shanghai
Shanghai
News)

Broadcasters:

Shanghai
Shanghai
Media Group

Sports[edit]

F1 Chinese Grand Prix
Chinese Grand Prix
in Shanghai

Shanghai
Shanghai
Masters in Qizhong Stadium

Shanghai
Shanghai
is home to several football teams, including two in the Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League
Shanghai
Shanghai
Greenland Shenhua and Shanghai
Shanghai
SIPG. Another professional team, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shenxin, is currently in China League One. China's top tier basketball team, the Shanghai Sharks
Shanghai Sharks
of the Chinese Basketball Association, developed Yao Ming
Yao Ming
before he entered the NBA. Shanghai
Shanghai
also has an ice hockey team, China
China
Dragon, and a baseball team, the Shanghai
Shanghai
Golden Eagles, which plays in the China
China
Baseball League.

Yao Ming

Shanghai
Shanghai
is the hometown of many outstanding and well-known Chinese professional athletes, such as Yao Ming, the 110-meter hurdler Liu Xiang, the table-tennis player Wang Liqin
Wang Liqin
and the former world women's single champion and current Olympic silver medalist badminton player Wang Yihan. Beginning in 2004, Shanghai
Shanghai
started hosting the Chinese Grand Prix, one round of the Formula One World Championship. The race was staged at the Shanghai
Shanghai
International Circuit. In 2010, Shanghai
Shanghai
also became the host city of German Touring Car Masters (DTM), which raced in a street circuit in Pudong. Shanghai
Shanghai
also holds the Shanghai
Shanghai
Masters tennis tournament which is part of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, and the BMW Masters
BMW Masters
and WGC-HSBC Champions golf tournaments.[147] The Shanghai Cricket Club
Shanghai Cricket Club
is a cricket club based in Shanghai. The club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai
Shanghai
11. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members. The Shanghai cricket team was a cricket team that played various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in the rest of China
China
almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto Chinese national side. On 21 September 2017, Shanghai
Shanghai
will be one of two cities to host an National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL) ice hockey exhibition game that will feature the Los Angeles Kings
Los Angeles Kings
vs. the Vancouver Canucks
Vancouver Canucks
as an effort to garner fan interest in China
China
before the start of the 2017–18 season. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Shanghai
Shanghai
is twinned with:[148]

Yokohama, Japan
Japan
– since 1973 Osaka, Japan
Japan
– 1974 Milan, Italy
Italy
– 1979 Rotterdam, Netherlands
Netherlands
– 1979 San Francisco, United States
United States
– 1979 Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture, Japan
Japan
– 1980 Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia
– 1980 Hamhung, North Korea
North Korea
– 1982 Manila, Philippines
Philippines
– 1983 Antwerp, Belgium
Belgium
– 1984 Karachi, Pakistan
Pakistan
– 1984 Chicago, United States
United States
– 1985 Montreal, Canada
Canada
– 1985 Piraeus, Greece
Greece
– 1985 Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland
Poland
– 1985 Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan
Japan
– 1986 Hamburg, Germany
Germany
– 1986 Casablanca, Morocco
Morocco
– 1986 Gothenburg, Sweden
Sweden
– 1986 Marseille, France
France
– 1987 São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
– 1988 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russia
– 1988 Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
– 1989 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnam
– 1990 Alexandria, Egypt
Egypt
– 1992 Busan, South Korea
South Korea
– 1993 Port Vila, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
– 1994 Dunedin, New Zealand
New Zealand
– 1994 Haifa, Israel
Israel
– 1994 Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
– 1994 Porto, Portugal
Portugal
– 1995 Prague, Czech Republic[149] Aden, Yemen
Yemen
– 1995 Windhoek, Namibia
Namibia
– 1995 City of London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– 1996 Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
Cuba
– 1996 Rosario, Argentina
Argentina
– 1997[150] Espoo, Finland
Finland
– 1998 Jalisco
Jalisco
State, Mexico
Mexico
– 1998 Liverpool, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– 1999 Maputo, Mozambique
Mozambique
– 1999 Dubai, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
– 2000 Chiang Mai, Thailand
Thailand
– 2000 KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
South Africa
– 2001 Guayaquil, Ecuador
Ecuador
– 2001 Valparaíso, Chile
Chile
– 2001 Barcelona, Spain
Spain
– 2001 Oslo, Norway
Norway
– 2001 Constanța, Romania
Romania
– 2002 Algiers, Algeria
Algeria
– 2003 Colombo, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
– 2003 Aarhus County, Denmark
Denmark
– 2003 Bratislava Region, Slovakia
Slovakia
– 2003 Hauraki District, New Zealand
New Zealand
– 2003 Salzburg, Austria
Austria
– 2004 Nicosia, Cyprus
Cyprus
– 2004 Cork, Ireland
Ireland
– 2005[151] Winston-Salem, United States
United States
– 2006 New York, United States
United States
– 2007 Basel, Switzerland
Switzerland
– 2007 Borås, Sweden
Sweden
– 2007 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
– 2008 London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– 2009 Manaus, Brazil
Brazil
– 2009 Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Cambodia
– 2009 Kuopio, Finland
Finland
– 2012 Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
– 2013[152] Sofia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
– 2014[153] Mumbai, India
India
– 2014 Seoul, South Korea
South Korea
– 2014 Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
– 2014 Houston, United States
United States
– 2015

See also[edit]

Shanghai
Shanghai
portal China
China
portal Asia portal

List of attractions in Shanghai List of cities with most skyscrapers List of economic and technological development zones in Shanghai List of fiction set in Shanghai List of films set in Shanghai List of universities and colleges in Shanghai Shanghai
Shanghai
cuisine Shanghai
Shanghai
Detention Center Shanghai
Shanghai
International Football Tournament Shanghai
Shanghai
Scientific and Technical Publishers

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a New Turn in the Spotlight". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ "上海地铁客流再次刷新记录 详细线路运营调整一览". sh.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-07.  ^ "Personal Cars and China
China
(2003)". [permanent dead link] ^ "Shanghai's taxi fares up 2 yuan from today". Shanghai
Shanghai
Daily. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2011.  ^ "Ofo, Mobike, BlueGogo: China's Messy Bikeshare Market". What's on Weibo. Retrieved 2017-08-13.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
number plates worth more than a car". Europe.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 17 May 2011.  ^ "Transportation". Shanghai
Shanghai
Focus. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
Pudong". English.pudong.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.  ^ Alfred Joyner. " Shanghai
Shanghai
Tower: Asia's new tallest skyscraper presents a future vision of 'vertical cities'". International Business Times UK.  ^ Knight Frank China
China
Knight Frank China
China
Research, Shanghai
Shanghai
Office Quarterly Report, Q1 2010 ^ Emporis GmbH. "One Lujiazui, Shanghai". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ "上海公园大面积免费开放7年 各种问题逐渐暴露_新浪上海城事_新浪上海". Sina. 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2016-12-05.  ^ "The Walt Disney Company
Walt Disney Company
Reaches Another Major Milestone on Shanghai Theme Park Project". Walt Disney Company. 3 November 2009.  ^ "Disneyland Shanghai
Shanghai
to open 2016". The Independent. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ Barboza, David; Barnes, Brooks (7 April 2011). "Disney to Open Park in Shanghai". The New York Times.  ^ " Suzhou Creek
Suzhou Creek
clean-up on track". People's Daily Online. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2008.  ^ "Environmental Protection in China's Wealthiest City". The American Embassy in China. July 2001. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2008.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
Warns Children to Stay Indoors on Haze, PM2.5 Surge". Bloomberg News. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.  ^ Reuters Editorial (6 December 2013). "Flights delayed as air pollution hits record in Shanghai". Reuters.  ^ a b Liu Chen-yao. "中国出现入冬以来最大范围雾霾 局地严重污染 (Smog levels in China
China
reach record levels since the end of 2013; surrounding areas severely polluted" (in Chinese). China news agency.  ^ "上海今日PM2.5均值超600 高楼在雾霾中若隐若现". 人民日报.  ^ "新闻晨报:释疑——重度污染为何不发霾红色预警". 上视新闻频道-上海早晨栏目.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
grinds to a halt as smog nears top of air pollution scale". South China
China
Morning Post. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014.  ^ a b 中国证券网. "上海将采取三大措施治理空气污染 (Three main measures will be taken against Shanghai's air pollution" (in Chinese). www.cnstock.com.  ^ Qiu, Jane. Fight against smog ramps up (Nature, 18 February 2014). ^ Sahr Johnny, "Cybercity – Sahr Johnny's Shanghai
Shanghai
Dream" That's Shanghai, October 2005; quoted online by [1]. ^ Zat Liu (20 August 2010). "Is Shanghai's local dialect, and culture, in crisis?". CNN GO. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ Jia Feishang (13 May 2011). "Stopping the local dialect becoming derelict". Shanghai
Shanghai
Daily. Retrieved 11 February 2017.  ^ http://www.smartshanghai.com/articles/arts/3-new-museums-to-look-out-for-in-2018 ^ http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/shanghai-releases-blueprint-for-becoming-global-cosmopolis-by-2035 ^ "Museums in Shanghai". www.shanghaitourmap.com. Retrieved 2013-10-19.  ^ http://www.smartshanghai.com/listings/arts/museums/ ^ Group, SEEC Media. " Shanghai
Shanghai
Film Museum". timeoutshanghai.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.  ^ "Setting His Tale Of Love Found In a City Long Lost". The New York Times. 28 January 2001.  ^ "Chinese Art Galleries". China
China
Online Museum.  ^ "Reference about Shanghai
Shanghai
Literature for Jingpai vs HaiPai". cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013.  ^ "(dead link)". Retrieved 18 November 2011. [dead link] ^ "Photos of Shanghai Fashion Week – Scene Asia – Scene Asia – WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2011.  ^ Leisa Barnett (27 October 2008). "Aminaka Wilmont to show in Shanghai
Shanghai
(Vogue.com UK)". Vogue.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2011.  ^ Walravens, Hartmut (2003). "German Influence on the Press in China". Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers presented by the Newspapers at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter. p. 95. ISBN 978-3-11-096279-6.  ^ "European Tour, CGA unveil BMW Masters". China
China
Daily. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
Foreign Affairs". Shfao.gov.cn. Retrieved 17 May 2011.  ^ "Partnerská města HMP" [ Prague
Prague
– Twin Cities HMP]. Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [ Portal
Portal
"Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario – Buenos Aires 711. Retrieved 14 October 2014.  ^ Mulcahy, Noreen. "Cork – International Relations". Cork City Council. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ "Sanghaj is Budapest
Budapest
testvérvárosa lett". Origo.hu. Retrieved 29 August 2013.  ^ "Shanghai, Sofia
Sofia
sign intent agreement to become sister cities". Retrieved 27 January 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Danielson, Eric N. (2010). Discover Shanghai. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish.  Danielson, Eric N. (2004). Shanghai
Shanghai
and the Yangzi Delta. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-597-2.  Elvin, Mark (1977). "Market Towns and Waterways: The County of Shang-hai from 1480 to 1910". In Skinner, G. William. The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press. pp. 441–474. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0. OCLC 2883862.  Erh, Deke; Johnston, Tess (2007). Shanghai
Shanghai
Art Deco. Hong Kong: Old China
China
Hand Press.  Haarmann, Anke. Shanghai
Shanghai
(Urban Public) Space (Berlin: Jovis, 2009). 192 pp. online review Horesh, Niv (2009). Shanghai's Bund and Beyond. New Haven: Yale University Press.  Johnson, Linda Cooke (1995). Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  Johnson, Linda Cooke (1993). Cities of Jiangnan
Jiangnan
in Late Imperial China. Albany: State University of New York (SUNY). ISBN 0-7914-1424-8.  Scheen, Lena (2015). Shanghai
Shanghai
Literary Imaginings: A City in Transformation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-8964-587-6. 

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Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

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Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
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Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

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Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

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Cities along the Yangtze

Province-level

Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)

Yunnan

Lijiang (SIchuan see below) Dongchuan

Sichuan

Panzhihua (Yunan see above) Yibin Luzhou

Chongqing

Jiangjin Central Chongqing Fuling Wanzhou

Hubei

Yichang Yidu Zhijiang Songzi Jingzhou Shishou ( Hunan
Hunan
see below) Honghu Chibi Wuhan Ezhou Huangshi Huanggang Wuxue

Hunan

Yueyang Linxiang

Jiangxi

Ruichang Jiujiang

Anhui

Anqing Chizhou Tongling Wuhu Ma'anshan

Jiangsu

Nanjing Yizheng Jurong Zhenjiang Yangzhou Taizhou Yangzhong Taixing Danyang Changzhou Jingjiang Jiangyin Zhangjiagang Rugao Nantong Changshu Taicang Haimen Qidong

Shanghai

Baoshan Pudong

Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yellow River

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World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159059201 LCCN: n79063254 GND: 40520

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