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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama
Shahnama
(Persian: شاهنامه‎ pronounced [ʃɒːhnɒːˈme], "The Book
Book
of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran. Consisting of some 50,000 "distichs" or couplets (two-line verses),[1] the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is the world's longest epic poem written by a single poet. It tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia
Islamic conquest of Persia
in the 7th century. Modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the greater region influenced by the Persian culture (such as Georgia, Armenia, Turkey
Turkey
and Dagestan) celebrate this national epic. The work is of central importance in Persian culture, regarded as a literary masterpiece, and definitive of the ethno-national cultural identity of modern-day Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan.[2] It is also important to the contemporary adherents of Zoroastrianism, in that it traces the historical links between the beginnings of the religion and the death of the last Sassanid ruler of Persia
Persia
during the Muslim conquest which brought an end to the Zoroastrian influence in Iran.

Faramarz, son of Rostam, mourns the death of his father, and of his uncle, Zavareh.

Contents

1 Composition 2 Content

2.1 Mythical age 2.2 Heroic age 2.3 Historical age 2.4 Message

3 Influence on Persian language 4 Cultural influence

4.1 On Georgian identity 4.2 On Turkic identity

5 Legacy

5.1 Biographies 5.2 Poets 5.3 Persian historiography

6 Illustrated copies 7 Modern editions

7.1 Scholarly editions 7.2 Arabic translations 7.3 English translations 7.4 Gujarati translation 7.5 Spanish translation

8 In culture 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Further reading

11.1 Persian text 11.2 Adaptations

12 External links

Composition

The assassination of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
in a manuscript of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Shah
Shah
Tahmasp made by Abd al-Samad
Abd al-Samad
in 1535

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
started writing the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
in 977 A. D and completed it on 8 March 1010.[3] The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is a monument of poetry and historiography, being mainly the poetical recast of what Ferdowsi, his contemporaries, and his predecessors regarded as the account of Iran's ancient history. Many such accounts already existed in prose, an example being the Abu-Mansuri Shahnameh. A small portion of Ferdowsi's work, in passages scattered throughout the Shahnameh, is entirely of his own conception. The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is an epic poem of over 50,000 couplets, written in early Modern Persian. It is based mainly on a prose work of the same name compiled in Ferdowsi's earlier life in his native Tus. This prose Shahnameh
Shahnameh
was in turn and for the most part the translation of a Pahlavi (Middle Persian) work, known as the Xwadāynāmag (" Book
Book
of Kings"), a late Sassanid compilation of the history of the kings and heroes of Persia
Persia
from mythical times down to the reign of Khosrau II (590–628). The Xwadāynāmag contained historical information on the later Sassanid period, but it does not appear to have drawn on any historical sources for the earlier Sassanid period (3rd to 4th centuries).[4] Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
added material continuing the story to the overthrow of the Sassanids by the Arabs in the middle of the 7th century. The first to undertake the versification of the Pahlavi chronicle was Abu-Mansur Daqiqi, a contemporary of Ferdowsi, poet at the court of the Samanids, who came to a violent end after completing only 1,000 verses. These verses, which deal with the rise of the prophet Zoroaster, were afterward incorporated by Ferdowsi, with acknowledgment, in his own poem. The style of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
shows characteristics of both written and oral literature. Some claim that Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
also used Zoroastrian nasks, such as the now-lost Chihrdad, as sources as well.[5] Many other Pahlavi sources were used in composing the epic, prominent being the Kārnāmag-ī Ardaxšīr-ī Pābagān, which was originally written during the late Sassanid era and gave accounts of how Ardashir I came to power which, because of its historical proximity, is thought to be highly accurate. The text is written in the late Middle Persian, which was the immediate ancestor of Modern Persian. A great portion of the historical chronicles given in Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is based on this epic and there are in fact various phrases and words which can be matched between Ferdowsi's poem and this source, according to Zabihollah Safa.[6] According to one account of the sources, a Persian named Dehqan in the court of King Anushehrawan Dadgar had composed a voluminous book in prose form, known as Khoday Nameh. After the fall of the Iranian Empire, Khoday Nameh came into the possession of King Yaqub Lais and then the Samani
Samani
king Nuh ordered the poet Daqiqi to complete it, but Daqiqi was killed by his slave. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
obtained the book through a friend. Content

This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (December 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Kai Khorso enthroned holding the sword with which he will execute Afrasiyab for the murder of Siyavash

The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
provides a poetic account of the prehistory and history of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world and the introduction of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law), and ending with the Islamic Conquest of Persia. The work is not precisely chronological, but there is a general movement through time. Some of the characters live for hundreds of years but most have normal life spans. There are many shāhs who come and go, as well as heroes and villains, who also come and go. The only lasting images are those of Greater Persia
Greater Persia
itself, and of a succession of sunrises and sunsets, no two ever exactly alike, yet illustrative of the passage of time. The work is divided into three successive parts: the "mythical", "heroic", and "historical" ages. Father Time, a Saturn-like image, is a reminder of the tragedy of death and loss, yet the next sunrise comes, bringing with it hope of a new day. In the first cycle of creation, evil is external (the devil). In the second cycle, we see the beginnings of family hatred, bad behavior, and evil permeating human nature. Shāh Fereydūn's two eldest sons feel greed and envy toward their innocent younger brother and, thinking their father favors him, they murder him. The murdered prince's son avenges the murder, and all are immersed in the cycle of murder and revenge, blood and more blood. In the third cycle, we encounter a series of flawed shahs. There is a Phaedra-like story of Shāh Kay Kāvus, his wife Sūdābeh, and her passion for and rejection by her stepson, Sīyāvash. It is only in the characterizations of the work's many figures, both male and female, that Zoroaster's original view of the human condition comes through. Zoroaster
Zoroaster
emphasized human free will. All of Ferdowsi's characters are complex; none is an archetype or a puppet. [clarification needed] The best characters have flaws, and the worst have moments of humanity. Traditional historiography in Iran
Iran
has claimed that Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
was grieved by the fall of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and its subsequent rule by "Arabs" and "Turks". The Shahnameh, the argument goes, is largely his effort to preserve the memory of Persia's golden days and transmit it to a new generation so that they could learn and try to build a better world.[7] Although most scholars have contended that Ferdowsi's main concern was the preservation of the pre-Islamic legacy of myth and history, a number of authors have formally challenged this view.[8] Mythical age

Scenes from the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
carved into reliefs at Ferdowsi's mausoleum in Tus, Iran

This portion of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is relatively short, amounting to some 2,100 verses or four percent of the entire book, and it narrates events with the simplicity, predictability, and swiftness of a historical work. After an opening in praise of God
God
and Wisdom, the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
gives an account of the creation of the world and of man as believed by the Sassanians. This introduction is followed by the story of the first man, Keyumars, who also became the first king after a period of mountain dwelling. His grandson Hushang, son of Sīyāmak, accidentally discovered fire and established the Sadeh
Sadeh
Feast in its honor. Stories of Tahmuras, Jamshid, Zahhāk, Kawa or Kaveh, Fereydūn and his three sons Salm, Tur, and Iraj, and his grandson Manuchehr
Manuchehr
are related in this section. Heroic age Almost two-thirds of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is devoted to the age of heroes, extending from Manuchehr's reign until the conquest of Alexander the Great (Eskandar). The main feature of this period is the major role played by the Saka
Saka
or Sistānī heroes who appear as the backbone of the Persian Empire. Garshāsp is briefly mentioned with his son Narimān, whose own son Sām acted as the leading paladin of Manuchehr while reigning in Sistān in his own right. His successors were his son Zāl
Zāl
and Zal's son Rostam, the bravest of the brave, and then Farāmarz. Among the stories described in this section are the romance of Zal
Zal
and Rudāba, the Seven Stages (or Labors) of Rostam, Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab, Sīyāvash and Sudāba, Rostam
Rostam
and Akvān Dīv, the romance of Bijan and Manijeh, the wars with Afrāsīyāb, Daqiqi's account of the story of Goshtāsp and Arjāsp, and Rostam
Rostam
and Esfandyār.

Courtiers of Bayasanghori playing chess

Historical age A brief mention of the Arsacid dynasty follows the history of Alexander and precedes that of Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid Empire. After this, Sassanid history is related with a good deal of accuracy. The fall of the Sassanids and the Arab conquest of Persia are narrated romantically. Message Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
did not expect his readers to pass over historical events indifferently, but asked them to think carefully, to see the grounds for the rise and fall of individuals and nations; and to learn from the past in order to improve the present, and to better shape the future.[original research?] Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
stresses his belief that since the world is transient, and since everyone is merely a passerby, one is wise to avoid cruelty, lying, avarice, and other evils; instead one should strive for justice, honor, truth, order, and other virtues.[original research?] The singular message[original research?] that the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
strives to convey is the idea that the history of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
was a complete and immutable whole: it started with Keyumars, the first man, and ended with his fiftieth scion and successor, Yazdegerd III, six thousand years of history of Iran. The task of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
was to prevent this history from being lost to future Persian generations. According to Jalal Khaleghi Mutlaq, the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
teaches a wide variety of moral virtues, like worship of one God; religious uprightness; patriotism; love of wife, family and children; and helping the poor.[9] Influence on Persian language

Rustam
Rustam
kills the Turanian hero Alkus with his lance

After the Shahnameh, a number of other works similar in nature surfaced over the centuries within the cultural sphere of the Persian language. Without exception, all such works were based in style and method on the Shahnameh, but none of them could quite achieve the same degree of fame and popularity. Some experts[who?] believe the main reason the Modern Persian
Modern Persian
language today is more or less the same language as that of Ferdowsi's time over 1000 years ago is due to the very existence of works like the Shahnameh, which have had lasting and profound cultural and linguistic influence. In other words, the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
itself has become one of the main pillars of the modern Persian language. Studying Ferdowsi's masterpiece also became a requirement for achieving mastery of the Persian language
Persian language
by subsequent Persian poets, as evidenced by numerous references to the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
in their works. It is claimed that Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
went to great lengths to avoid any words drawn from the Arabic language, words which had increasingly infiltrated the Persian language
Persian language
following the Arab conquest of Persia in the 7th century. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
is even quoted: بسی رنج بردم در این سال سی؛ ‌عجم زنده کردم بدین پارسی This translates to: "I have struggled much these thirty years in order to keep Persian 'ajam' (meaning non-Arabic, or specifically Iranian)". Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
followed this path not only to preserve and purify the Persian language, but also as a stark political statement against the Arab conquest of Persia.[10] This assertion has been called into question by Mohammed Moinfar, who has noted that there are numerous examples of Arabic words in the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
which are effectively synonyms for Persian words previously used in the text. This calls into question the idea of Ferdowsi's deliberate eschewing of Arabic words.[11] The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
has 62 stories, 990 chapters, and some 50,000 rhyming couplets, making it more than three times the length of Homer's Iliad, and more than twelve times the length of the German Nibelungenlied. According to Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
himself, the final edition of the Shahnameh contained some sixty thousand distichs. But this is a round figure; most of the relatively reliable manuscripts have preserved a little over fifty thousand distichs. Nezami-e Aruzi reports that the final edition of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
sent to the court of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni was prepared in seven volumes. Cultural influence

A battle scene from the Baysonghori Shahnameh

The Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
dynasty adopted many of their names from the Shahnameh. The relationship between Shirwanshah and his son, Manuchihr, is mentioned in chapter eight of Nizami's Leili o Majnoon. Nizami advises the king's son to read the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
and to remember the meaningful sayings of the wise.[12] According to the Turkish historian Mehmet Fuat Köprülü:

Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai Khosrow, Kay Kāvus, and Kai Kobad; and that Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya
Konya
and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya
Konya
courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact (i.e. the importance of Persian influence) is undeniable.[13]

Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
(d.1524), the founder of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran, was also deeply influenced by the Persian literary tradition, particularly by the Shahnameh, which probably explains the fact that he named all of his sons after Shahnameh
Shahnameh
characters. Dickson and Welch suggest that Ismail's Shāhnāmaye Shāhī was intended as a present to the young Tahmāsp.[14] After defeating Muhammad Shaybāni's Uzbeks, Ismāil asked Hātefī, a famous poet from Jam (Khorasan), to write a Shahnameh-like epic about his victories and his newly established dynasty. Although the epic was left unfinished, it was an example of mathnawis in the heroic style of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
written later on for the Safavid
Safavid
kings.[15] The Shahnameh's influence has extended beyond the Persian sphere. Professor Victoria Arakelova of Yerevan University states:

During the ten centuries passed after Firdausi composed his monumental work, heroic legends and stories of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
have remained the main source of the storytelling for the peoples of this region: Persians, Pashtuns, Kurds, Gurans, Talishis, Armenians, Georgians, North Caucasian peoples, etc.[16]

On Georgian identity

Georgian manuscript of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
written in the Georgian script.

Jamshid
Jamshid
Sh. Giunashvili remarks on the connection of Georgian culture with that of Shahnameh:

The names of many Šāh-nāma heroes, such as Rostom-i, Thehmine, Sam-i, or Zaal-i, are found in 11th- and 12th-century Georgian literature. They are indirect evidence for an Old Georgian translation of the Šāh-nāma that is no longer extant. ...

The Šāh-nāma was translated, not only to satisfy the literary and aesthetic needs of readers and listeners, but also to inspire the young with the spirit of heroism and Georgian patriotism. Georgian ideology, customs, and worldview often informed these translations because they were oriented toward Georgian poetic culture. Conversely, Georgians consider these translations works of their native literature. Georgian versions of the Šāh-nāma are quite popular, and the stories of Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrāb, or Bījan and Maniža became part of Georgian folklore.[17]

On Turkic identity Despite some popular belief, the Turanians of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
(whose sources are based on Avesta
Avesta
and Pahlavi texts) have no relationship with the ethno-linguistic group Turk today.[18] The Turanians of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
are an Iranian people representing Iranian nomads of the Eurasian Steppes and have no relationship to the culture of the Turks.[18] Turan, which is the Persian name for the areas of Central Asia beyond the Oxus up to the 7th century (where the story of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
ends), was generally an Iranian-speaking land.[19] According to Richard Frye, "The extent of influence of the Iranian epic is shown by the Turks who accepted it as their own ancient history as well as that of Iran... The Turks were so much influenced by this cycle of stories that in the eleventh century AD we find the Qarakhanid
Qarakhanid
dynasty in Central Asia calling itself the 'family of Afrasiyab' and so it is known in the Islamic history."[20] Turks, as an ethno-linguistic group, have been influenced by the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
since advent of Saljuqs.[21] Toghrul III of Seljuqs is said to have recited the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
while swinging his mace in battle.[21] According to Ibn Bibi, in 618/1221[clarification needed] the Saljuq of Rum Ala' al-Din Kay-kubad decorated the walls of Konya
Konya
and Sivas
Sivas
with verses from the Shahnameh.[22] The Turks themselves connected their origin not with Turkish tribal history but with the Turan
Turan
of Shahnameh.[23] Specifically in India, through the Shahnameh, they felt themselves to be the last outpost tied to the civilized world by the thread of Iranianism.[23] Legacy

A battle between the hosts of Iran
Iran
and Turan
Turan
during the reign of Kay Khusraw

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
concludes the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
by writing:

I've reached the end of this great history And all the land will talk of me: I shall not die, these seeds I've sown will save My name and reputation from the grave, And men of sense and wisdom will proclaim When I have gone, my praises and my fame.[24]

Another translation of by Reza Jamshidi Safa:

Much I have suffered in these thirty years, I have revived the Ajam with my verse. I will not die then alive in the world, For I have spread the seed of the word. Whoever has sense, path and faith, After my death will send me praise.[25]

This prediction of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
has come true and many Persian literary figures, historians and biographers have praised him and the Shahnameh. The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is considered by many to be the most important piece of work in Persian literature. Western writers have also praised the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
and Persian literature in general. Persian literature
Persian literature
has been considered by such thinkers as Goethe
Goethe
as one of the four main bodies of world literature.[26] Goethe was inspired by Persian literature, which moved him to write his West-Eastern Divan. Goethe
Goethe
wrote:

When we turn our attention to a peaceful, civilized people, the Persians, we must—since it was actually their poetry that inspired this work—go back to the earliest period to be able to understand more recent times. It will always seem strange to the historians that no matter how many times a country has been conquered, subjugated and even destroyed by enemies, there is always a certain national core preserved in its character, and before you know it, there re-emerges a long-familiar native phenomenon. In this sense, it would be pleasant to learn about the most ancient Persians and quickly follow them up to the present day at an all the more free and steady pace.[27]

Biographies Sargozasht-Nameh or biography of important poets and writers has long been a Persian tradition. Some of the biographies of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
are now considered apocryphal, nevertheless this shows the important impact he had in the Persian world. Among the famous biographies are:[28]

Chahar Maqaleh ("Four Articles") by Nezami 'Arudi-i Samarqandi Tazkeret Al-Shu'ara ("The Biography of poets") by Dowlat Shah-i Samarqandi Baharestan ("Abode of Spring") by Jami Lubab ul-Albab by Mohammad 'Awfi Natayej al-Afkar by Mowlana Muhammad Qudrat Allah Arafat Al-'Ashighin by Taqqi Al-Din 'Awhadi Balyani

Poets

Bizhane receives an invitation through Manizheh's nurse

Famous poets of Persia
Persia
and the Persian tradition have praised and eulogized Ferdowsi. Many of them were heavily influenced by his writing and used his genre and stories to develop their own Persian epics, stories and poems:[28]

Anvari remarked about the eloquence of the Shahnameh, "He was not just a Teacher and we his students. He was like a God
God
and we are his slaves".[29] Asadi Tusi was born in the same city as Ferdowsi. His Garshaspnama was inspired by the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
as he attests in the introduction. He praises Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in the introduction[30] and considers Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
the greatest poet of his time.[31] Masud Sa'ad Salman showed the influence of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
only 80 years after its composition by reciting its poems in the Ghaznavid court of India. Othman Mokhtari, another poet at the Ghaznavid court of India, remarked, "Alive is Rustam
Rustam
through the epic of Ferdowsi, else there would not be a trace of him in this World".[32] Sanai
Sanai
believed that the foundation of poetry was really established by Ferdowsi.[33] Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
was influenced greatly by Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and three of his five "treasures" had to do with pre-Islamic Persia. His Khosro-o-Shirin, Haft Peykar and Eskandar-nameh used the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
as a major source. Nizami remarks that Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
is "the wise sage of Tus" who beautified and decorated words like a new bride.[34] Khaghani, the court poet of the Shirvanshah, wrote of Ferdowsi:

"The candle of the wise in this darkness of sorrow, The pure words of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
of the Tusi are such, His pure sense is an angelic birth, Angelic born is anyone who's like Ferdowsi."[35]

Attar wrote about the poetry of Ferdowsi: "Open eyes and through the sweet poetry see the heavenly eden of Ferdowsi."[36] In a famous poem, Sa'adi wrote:

"How sweetly has conveyed the pure-natured Ferdowsi, May blessing be upon his pure resting place, Do not harass the ant that's dragging a seed, because it has life and sweet life is dear."[37]

In the Baharestan, Jami
Jami
wrote, "He came from Tus and his excellence, renown and perfection are well known. Yes, what need is there of the panegyrics of others to that man who has composed verses as those of the Shah-nameh?"

Many other poets, e.g. Hafez, Rumi
Rumi
and other mystical poets, have used imageries of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
heroes in their poetry. Persian historiography The Shahnameh's impact on Persian historiography was immediate and some historians decorated their books with the verses of Shahnameh. Below is sample of ten important historians who have praised the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
and Ferdowsi:[28]

The unknown writer of the Tarikh Sistan
Sistan
("History of Sistan") written around 1053 The unknown writer of Majmal al-Tawarikh wa Al-Qasas (c. 1126) Mohammad Ali Ravandi, the writer of the Rahat al-Sodur wa Ayat al-Sorur (c. 1206) Ibn Bibi, the writer of the history book, Al-Awamir al-'Alaiyah, written during the era of 'Ala ad-din KayGhobad Ibn Esfandyar, the writer of the Tarikh-e Tabarestan Muhammad Juwayni, the early historian of the Mongol era in the Tarikh-e Jahan Gushay ( Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
era) Hamdollah Mostowfi
Hamdollah Mostowfi
Qazwini also paid much attention to the Shahnameh and wrote the Zafarnamah based on the same style in the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
era Hafez-e Abru (1430) in the Majma' al-Tawarikh Khwand Mir in the Habab al-Siyar (c. 1523) praised Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and gave an extensive biography on Ferdowsi The Arab historian Ibn Athir remarks in his book, Al-Kamil, that, "If we name it the Quran of 'Ajam, we have not said something in vain. If a poet writes poetry and the poems have many verses, or if someone writes many compositions, it will always be the case that some of their writings might not be excellent. But in the case of Shahnameh, despite having more than 40 thousand couplets, all its verses are excellent."[38]

Illustrated copies

An image illustrating the parable of the ship of faith from the Houghton Shahnameh
Houghton Shahnameh
(Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Illustrated copies of the work are among the most sumptuous examples of Persian miniature painting. Several copies remain intact, although two of the most famous, the Houghton Shahnameh
Houghton Shahnameh
and the Great Mongol Shahnameh, were broken up for sheets to be sold separately in the 20th century. A single sheet from the former was sold for £904,000 in 2006.[39] The Baysonghori Shahnameh, an illuminated manuscript copy of the work (Golestan Palace, Iran), is included in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register of cultural heritage items.[40] The Mongol rulers in Iran
Iran
revived and spurred the patronage of the Shanameh in its manuscript form.[41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51] The "Great Mongol" or Demotte Shahnameh, produced during the reign of the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
Sultan Abu Sa'id, is one of the most illustrative and important copies of the Shahnameh.[52] The Timurids continued the tradition of manuscript production. For them, it was considered de rigueur for the members of the family to have personal copies of the epic poem.[53] Consequently, three of Timur’s grandsons—Bāysonḡor, Ebrāhim Solṭān, and Moḥammad Juki—each commissioned such a volume.[53] Among these, the Baysonghor Shahnameh
Baysonghor Shahnameh
commissioned by Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Bāysonḡor is one of the most voluminous and artistic Shahnameh
Shahnameh
manuscripts.[54] The production of illustrated Shahnameh
Shahnameh
manuscripts in the 15th century remained vigorous[53] during the Qarā-Qoyunlu or Black Sheep (1380–1468) and Āq Qoyunlu or White Sheep (1378–1508) Turkman dynasties.[53] Many of the extant illustrated copies, with more than seventy or more paintings, are attributable to Tabriz, Shiraz, and Baghdad
Baghdad
beginning in about the 1450s–60s and continuing to the end of the century.[53] The Safavid
Safavid
era saw a resurgence of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
productions.[53] Shah Ismail I
Ismail I
used the epic for propaganda purposes: as a gesture of Persian patriotism, as a celebration of renewed Persian rule, and as a reassertion of Persian royal authority.[53] The Safavids commissioned elaborate copies of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
to support their legitimacy.[55][56] Among the high points of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
illustrations was the series of 250 miniatures commissioned by Shah
Shah
Ismail for his son's Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Shah Tahmasp.[57] Two similar cycles of illustration of the mid-17th century, the Shahnameh of Rashida
Shahnameh of Rashida
and the Windsor Shahnameh, come from the last great period of the Persian miniature. In honour of the Shahnameh's millennial anniversary, in 2010 the Fitzwilliam Museum
Fitzwilliam Museum
in Cambridge hosted a major exhibition, called "Epic of the Persian Kings: The Art of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh", which ran from September 2010 to January 2011.[58] The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, DC also hosted an exhibition of folios from the 14th through the 16th centuries, called "Shahnama: 1000 Years of the Persian Book
Book
of Kings", from October 2010 to April 2011.[59] In 2013 Hamid Rahmanian illustrated a new English translation of Shanameh (translated by Ahmad Sadri) using images from various pictures of old manuscripts of the book to create new imagery.[60][61] Modern editions

An illustration from the Shahnameh

Scholarly editions Scholarly editions have been prepared of the Shahnameh. An early edition was prepared in 1829 in India
India
by T. Macan. It was based on a comparison of 17 manuscript copies. Between 1838 and 1878, an edition appeared in Paris
Paris
by French scholar J. Mohl, which was based on a comparison of 30 manuscripts. Both editions lacked critical apparatuses and were based on secondary manuscripts dated after the 15th century; much later than the original work. Between 1877 and 1884, the German scholar J. A. Vullers prepared a synthesized text of the Macan and Mohl editions, but only three of its expected nine volumes were published. The Vullers edition was later completed in Tehran by the Iranian scholars S. Nafisi, Iqbal, and M. Minowi for the millennial jubilee of Ferdowsi, held between 1934 and 1936. The first modern critical edition of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
was prepared by a Russian team led by E. E. Bertels, using the oldest known manuscripts at the time, dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, with heavy reliance on the 1276 manuscript from the British Museum
British Museum
and the 1333 Leningrad manuscript, the latter of which has now been considered a secondary manuscript. In addition, two other manuscripts used in this edition have been so demoted. It was published in Moscow
Moscow
by the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in nine volumes between 1960 and 1971.[62] For many years, the Moscow
Moscow
edition was the standard text. In 1977, an early 1217 manuscript was rediscovered in Florence. The 1217 Florence manuscript is one of the earliest known copies of the Shahnameh, predating the Moghul invasion and the following destruction of important libraries and manuscript collections. Using it as the chief text, Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh began the preparation of a new critical edition in 1990. The number of manuscripts that were consulted during the preparation of Khaleghi-Motlagh edition goes beyond anything attempted by the Moscow
Moscow
team. The critical apparatus is extensive and a large number of variants for many parts of the poem were recorded. The last volume was published in 2008, bringing the eight-volume enterprise to a completion. According to Dick Davis, professor of Persian at Ohio State University, it is "by far the best edition of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
available, and it is surely likely to remain such for a very long time".[63] Arabic translations The earliest known Arabic translation of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
was done in c. 1220 by al-Fath bin Ali al-Bondari, a Persian scholar from Isfahan
Isfahan
and at the request of the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
ruler of Damascus Al-Mu'azzam Isa. The translation is Nathr (unrhyming) and was largely forgotten until it was republished in full in 1932 in Egypt, by historian Abdelwahhab Azzam. This modern edition was based on incomplete and largely imprecise fragmented copies found in Cambridge, Paris, Astana, Cairo and Berlin. The latter had the most complete, least inaccurate and well-preserved Arabic version of the original translation by al-Bondari. English translations There have been a number of English translations, almost all abridged. James Atkinson of the East India
India
Company's medical service undertook a translation into English in his 1832 publication for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, now part of the Royal Asiatic Society. Between 1905 and 1925, the brothers Arthur and Edmond Warner published a translation of the complete work in nine volumes, now out of print. There are also modern incomplete translations of the Shahnameh: Reuben Levy's 1967 prose version (later revised by Amin Banani), and another by Dick Davis in a mixture of poetry and prose which appeared in 2006.[64] Also a new English translation of the book in prose by Ahmad Sadri was published in 2013.[65] The Parsis, Zoroastrians, whose ancestors had migrated to India
India
in the 8th or 10th century so they could continue practice of their religion in peace, have also kept the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
traditions alive. Dr. Bahman Sohrabji Surti, assisted by Marzban Giara, published between 1986 and 1988 the first detailed and complete translation of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
from the original Persian verse into English prose, in seven volumes.[citation needed] Gujarati translation Dastur Faramroz Kutar and his brother Ervad Mahiyar Kutar translated the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
into Gujarati verse and prose and published 10 volumes between 1914 and 1918.[citation needed] Spanish translation A Spanish translation has been published in 2 volumes by the Islamic Research Institute of the Tehran Branch of McGill University.[citation needed] In culture

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The Shahnameh, especially the legend of Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab, is cited and plays an important role in the novel The Kite Runner
The Kite Runner
by Afghan-American writer Khaled Hosseini.[citation needed] Shahnameh
Shahnameh
has also been adapted to many films and animations:

In a 1971–1976, Tajikfilm trilogy comprising Skazanie o Rustame[1], Rustam
Rustam
i Sukhrab[2] and Skazanie o Sijavushe[3]. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has made a blockbuster film, Shourab Rustom, in 1993.[citation needed] A Bollywood film, Rustom Sohrab
Sohrab
[4], based on the story of Rustam
Rustam
and Sohrab, was made in 1963 and starred Prithviraj Kapoor. Persian TV series Chehel Sarbaz (Forty Soldiers), released on 2007, directed by Mohammad Nourizad, concurrently tells the story of Rostam and Esfandiar, biography of Ferdowsi, and a few other historical events.[66] Persian short animation Zal
Zal
& Simorgh, 1977, directed by Ali Akbar Sadeghi, narrates the story of Zal
Zal
from birth until returning to the human society. The Legend of Mardoush
The Legend of Mardoush
(2005), a long animated Persian trilogy, tells the mythical stories of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
from the kingdom of Jamshid
Jamshid
to the victory of Fereydun
Fereydun
over Zahhak. The Last Fiction (2017), a long animated movie, has an open interpretation of the story of Zahhak.[67] The movie is preceded by the graphic novels Jamshid
Jamshid
Dawn 1 & 2 (created by the same team) whose aim is to familiarize adolescents and youth with the myth of Jamshid.

See also

List of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
characters Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab, an opera by Loris Tjeknavorian Sohrab
Sohrab
and Rustum, an 1853 poem by Matthew Arnold Naqqāli, a performing art based on Shahnameh Vis and Rāmin, an epic poem similar to the Shahnameh Shahrokh Meskoob Mir Jalaleddin Kazzazi

Notes

^ Lalani, Farah (13 May 2010). "A thousand years of Firdawsi's Shahnama
Shahnama
is celebrated". The Ismaili. Retrieved 24 May 2010.  ^ Ashraf, Ahmad (30 March 2012). "Iranian Identity iii. Medieval Islamic Period". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved April 2010.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Khaleghi-Motlagh, Djalal (26 January 2012). "Ferdowsi, Abu'l Qāsem i. Life". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 27 May 2012. the poet refers... to the date of the Šāh-nāma’s completion as the day of Ard (i.e., 25th) of Esfand in the year 378 Š. (400 Lunar)/8 March 1010  ^ Zaehner, Robert Charles (1955). Zurvan: a Zoroastrian Dilemma. Biblo and Tannen. p. 10. ISBN 0819602809.  ^ "A possible predecessor to the Khvatay-Namak could be the Chihrdad, one of the destroyed books of the Avesta
Avesta
(known to us because of its listing and description in the Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Zoroastrian text, the Dinkard 8.13)." K.E. Eduljee, Zoroastrian Heritage, "Ferdowsi's Shahnameh," http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/shahnameh/ ^ Safa, Zabihollah (2000). Hamase-sarâ’i dar Iran, Tehran 1945.  ^ Shahbazi, A. Shapur (1991). Ferdowsī: A Critical Biography. Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda Publishers. p. 49. ISBN 0939214830.  ^ Khatibi, Abolfazl (1384/2005). Anti-Arab verses in the Shahnameh. 21, 3, Autumn 1384/2005: Nashr Danesh.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ Mutlaq, Jalal Khaleqi (1993). " Iran
Iran
Garai dar Shahnameh" [Iran-centrism in the Shahnameh]. Hasti Magazine. Tehran: Bahman Publishers. 4.  ^ "Ferdowsi's "Shahnameh": The Book
Book
of Kings". The Economist. 16 September 2010.  ^ Perry, John (23 June 2010). "Šāh-nāma v. Arabic Words". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ Seyed-Gohrab, Ali Ashgar (2003). Laylī and Majnūn: Love, Madness and Mystic Longing in Niẓāmī's Epic Romance. Leiden: Brill. p. 276. ISBN 9004129421.  ^ Köprülü, Mehmed Fuad (2006). Early Mystics in Turkish Literature. Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff. London: Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 0415366860. ^ Dickson, M.B.; and Welch, S.C. (1981). The Houghton Shahnameh. Volume I. Cambridge, MA and London. p. 34. ^ Savory, R. M. "Safavids". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
(2nd ed.).  ^ Arakelova, Victoria. " Shahnameh
Shahnameh
in the Kurdish and Armenian Oral Tradition (abridged)" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ Giunshvili, Jamshid
Jamshid
Sh. (15 June 2005). "Šāh-nāma Translations ii. Into Georgian". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ a b Bosworth, C.E. "Barbarian Incursions: The Coming of the Turks into the Islamic World". In Islamic Civilization, ed. D.S. Richards. Oxford, 1973. p. 2. "Firdawsi's Turan
Turan
are, of course, really Indo-European nomads of Eurasian Steppes... Hence as Kowalski has pointed out, a Turkologist seeking for information in the Shahnama
Shahnama
on the primitive culture of the Turks would definitely be disappointed. " ^ Bosworth, C.E. "The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia under the Umayyads and the Establishment of Islam". In History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, ed. M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth. Multiple History Series. Paris: Motilal Banarsidass Publ./ UNESCO
UNESCO
Publishing, 1999. p. 23. "Central Asia in the early seventh century, was ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose people used various Middle Iranian languages." ^ Frye, Richard N. (1963). The Heritage of Persia: The Pre-Islamic History of One of the World's Great Civilizations. New York: World Publishing Company. pp. 40–41.  ^ a b Özgüdenli, Osman G. (15 November 2006). "Šāh-nāma Translations i. Into Turkish". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Blair, Sheila S. (1992). The Monumental Inscriptions from Early Islamic Iran
Iran
and Transoxiana. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 11. ISBN 9004093672. According to Ibn Bibi, in 618/1221 the Saljuq of Rum Ala' al-Din Kay-kubad decorated the walls of Konya
Konya
and Sivas
Sivas
with verses from the Shah-nama  ^ a b Schimmel, Annemarie. "Turk and Hindu: A Poetical Image and Its Application to Historical Fact". In Islam and Cultural Change in the Middle Ages, ed. Speros Vryonis, Jr. Undena Publications, 1975. pp. 107–26. "In fact as much as early rulers felt themselves to be Turks, they connected their Turkish origin not with Turkish tribal history but rather with the Turan
Turan
of Shahnameh: in the second generation their children bear the name of Firdosi’s heroes, and their Turkish lineage is invariably traced back to Afrasiyab—whether we read Barani in the fourteenth century or the Urdu master poet Ghalib
Ghalib
in the nineteenth century. The poets, and through them probably most of the educated class, felt themselves to be the last outpost tied to the civilized world by the thread of Iranianism. The imagery of poetry remained exclusively Persian. " ^ Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(2006). Shahnameh: The Persian Book
Book
of Kings. Translated by Dick Davis. New York: Viking. ISBN 0670034851. ^ Ferdowsi's poet, (2010). Shahnameh: The Persian Book
Book
of Kings. Translated by Reza Jamshidi Safa. Tehran, Iran. ^ Christensen, Karen; Levinson, David, eds. (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 48. ISBN 0684806177.  ^ Azodi, Wiesehöfer (August 18, 2001). Ancient Persia: From 550 BC to 650 AD (New ed.). London: I. B. Tauris. p. Introduction. ISBN 1860646751.  ^ a b c Nurian, Mahdi (1993). "Afarin Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
az Zaban Pishinian" [Praises of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
from the Tongue of the Ancients]. Hasti Magazine. Tehran: Bahman Publishers. 4.  ^ Persian: "آفرين بر روان فردوسی / آن همايون نهاد و فرخنده / او نه استاد بود و ما شاگرد / او خداوند بود و ما بنده" ^ Persian: "که فردوسی طوسی پاک مغز / بدادست داد سخنهای نغز / به شهنامه گیتی بیاراستست / بدان نامه نام نکو خواستست" ^ Persian: "که از پیش گویندگان برد گوی" ^ Persian: "زنده رستم به شعر فردوسی است / ور نه زو در جهان نشانه کجاست؟" ^ Persian: "چه نکو گفت آن بزرگ استاد / که وی افکند نظم را بنیاد" ^ Persian: "سخن گوی دانای پیشین طوسکه آراست روی سخن چون عروس" ^ Persian: "شمع جمع هوشمندان است در دیجور غم / نکته ای کز خاطر فردوسی طوسی بود / زادگاه طبع پاکش جملگی حوراوش اند / زاده حوراوش بود چون مرد فردوسی بود" ^ Persian: "باز کن چشم و ز شعر چون شکر / در بهشت عدن فردوسی نگر" ^ Persian: "چه خوش گفت فردوسی پاکزاد / که رحمت بر آن تربت پاک باد / میازار موری که دانه کش است / که جان دارد و جان شیرین خوش است" ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-25.  ^ "Ten Most Expensive Books of 2006". Fine Books & Collections.  ^ ""Bayasanghori Shâhnâmeh" (Prince Bayasanghor's Book
Book
of the Kings)". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ Lawrence, Lee (Dec 6, 2013). "Politics and the Persian Language". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on Dec 8, 2013.  ^ Simpson, Marianna Shreve (April 21, 2009). "ŠĀH-NĀMA iv. Illustrations". iranicaonline.org. Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Eduljee, K. E. " Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Shahnameh
Shahnameh
Manuscripts". www.heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 22 August 2016.  ^ Michael Burgan (2009). Empire of the Mongols. Infobase Publishing. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-60413-163-5.  ^ Sarah Foot; Chase F. Robinson (25 October 2012). The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 2: 400-1400. OUP Oxford. pp. 271–. ISBN 978-0-19-163693-6.  ^ Adamjee, Authors: Stefano Carboni, Qamar. "The Art of the Book
Book
in the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
Period - Essay - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.  ^ Komaroff, Authors: Suzan Yalman, Linda. "The Art of the Ilkhanid Period (1256–1353) - Essay - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.  ^ Vladimir Lukonin; Anatoly Ivanov (30 June 2012). Persian Art. Parkstone International. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-1-78042-893-2.  ^ " Bahram Gur
Bahram Gur
in a Peasant's House, Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
Dynasty". Khan Academy.  ^ "Leaf from the Shahnama
Shahnama
( Book
Book
of Kings) « Islamic Arts and Architecture".  ^ "Style in Islamic Art (1250 - 1500 A.D) « Islamic Arts and Architecture".  ^ Blair, Sheila S. "Rewriting the History of the Great Mongol Shahnama". In Shahnama: The Visual Language of the Persian Book
Book
of Kings, ed. Robert Hillenbrand. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004. p. 35. ISBN 0754633675. ^ a b c d e f g Simpson, Marianna Shreve Simpson (7 May 2012). "Šāh-nāma iv. Illustrations". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Motlagh, Khaleghi; T. Lentz (15 December 1989). "Bāysonḡorī Šāh-nāma". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (1999). The Oxford History of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 0195107993. To support their legitimacy, the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran
Iran
(1501–1732) devoted a cultural policy to establish their regime as the reconstruction of the historic Iranian monarchy. To the end, they commissioned elaborate copies of the Shahnameh, the Iranian national epic, such as this one made for Tahmasp in the 1520s.  ^ Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 445. ISBN 0521779332. To bolster the prestige of the state, the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
sponsored an Iran-Islamic style of culture concentrating on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions.  ^ Ahmed, Akbar S. (2002). Discovering Islam: Making Sense of Muslim History and Society (2nd ed.). London: Psychology Press. p. 70. ISBN 0415285259. Perhaps the high point was the series of 250 miniatures which illustrated the Shah
Shah
Nama commissioned by Shah
Shah
Ismail for his son Tahmasp.  ^ "Exhibition: Epic of the Persian Kings: The Art of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh". The Fitzwilliam Museum. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.  ^ "Shahnama: 1000 Years of the Persian Book
Book
of Kings". Freer and Sackler Galleries. Retrieved 29 May 2012.  ^ Fassihi, Farnaz (4: 58 pm ET May 23, 2013). "Shahnameh, a Persian Masterpiece, Still Relevant Today". The Wall Street Journal. IRAN.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "Shahnameh : The Epic of the Persian Kings by Sheila Canby, Ahmad Sadri and Abolqasem Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(2013, Hardcover) - eBay". www.ebay.com.  ^ Osmanov, M. N. O. "Ferdowsi, Abul Qasim". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Davis, Dick (Aug 1995). "Review: The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
by Abul-Qasem Ferdowsi, Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh". International Journal of Middle East Studies. Cambridge University Press. 27 (3): 393–395. JSTOR 176284.  ^ Loloi, Parvin (2014). "Šāh-Nāma Translations iii. Into English". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 8 October 2015.  ^ Lyden, Jacki. "'Heart' Of Iranian Identity Reimagined For A New Generation". NPR. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ Producer's web site (Persian) ^ " Iran
Iran
animation invited to Cannes Film Festival - ISNA". En.isna.ir. 2016-05-01. Retrieved 2016-10-29. 

Further reading

‘Azīz Mahdī, Imperviousness in Shāhnāmeh and Mahābhārata, Quarterly Naqd-O-Taḥqīq, ISSN 2454-2563, Editor: S. Naqi Abbas (Kaify), Volume 1, Issue I, pp. 80-87, Jan-Feb-Mar. 2015, New Delhi (in Persian) ‘Azīz Mahdī, ‘Fire Trial’ in Rāmāyana and Shāhnāmeh, Quarterly Naqd-O-Taḥqīq, ISSN 2454-2563, Editor: S. Naqi Abbas (Kaify), Volume 1, Issue II, pp. 147-158, Jan-Feb-Mar. 2015, New Delhi (in Persian) Owahedur Zaman, Ḥāfiẓ Maḥmūd Shīrānī’s Contribution to Shāhnāmeh Studies and Indo-Persian Literature, Quarterly Naqd-O-Taḥqīq, ISSN 2454-2563, Editor: S. Naqi Abbas (Kaify), Volume 1, Issue I, pp. 95-102, Jan-Feb-Mar. 2015, New Delhi (in Persian) Poet Moniruddin Yusuf (1919–1987) translated the full version of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
into the Bengali Language
Bengali Language
(1963–1981). It was published by the National Organisation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangla Academy, in six volumes, in February 1991. Borjian, Habib and Maryam Borjian. 2005–2006. The Story of Rostam and the White Demon in Māzandarāni. Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstān 5/1-2 (ser. nos. 9 & 10), pp. 107–116. Shirzad Aghaee, Imazh-ha-ye mehr va mah dar Shahnama-ye Ferdousi
Ferdousi
(Sun and Moon in the Shahnama
Shahnama
of Ferdousi, Spånga, Sweden, 1997. (ISBN 91-630-5369-1) Shirzad Aghaee, Nam-e kasan va ja'i-ha dar Shahnama-ye Ferdousi (Personalities and Places in the Shahnama
Shahnama
of Ferdousi, Nyköping, Sweden, 1993. (ISBN 91-630-1959-0) Eleanor Sims. 1992. The Illustrated Manuscripts of Firdausī's "shāhnāma" Commissioned by Princes of the House of Tīmūr. Ars Orientalis 22. The Smithsonian Institution: 43–68. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4629424.

Persian text

A. E. Bertels (editor), Shax-nāme: Kriticheskij Tekst, nine volumes (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1960–71) (scholarly Persian text) Jalal Khāleghi Motlagh (editor), The Shahnameh, in 12 volumes consisting of eight volumes of text and four volumes of explanatory notes. (Bibliotheca Persica, 1988–2009) (scholarly Persian text). See: Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University.

Adaptations Modern English graphic novels:

Rostam: Tales from the Shahnameh, Hyperwerks, 2005, ISBN 0-9770213-1-9 , about the story of Rostam
Rostam
& Sohrab. Rostam: Return of the King, Hyperwerks, 2007, ISBN 0-9770213-2-7 , about the story of Kai-Kavous and Soodabeh. Rostam: Battle with The Deevs, Hyperwerks, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9770213-3-8 , the story of the evil White Deev. Rostam: Search for the King, Hyperwerks, 2010, ISBN 978-0-9770213-4-5 , the story of Rostam's childhood.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shahnameh.

Persian Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: شاهنامه

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Shah
Shah
Nameh

Iraj Bashiri, Characters of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Iran
Iran
Chamber Society, 2003. Encyclopædia Iranica entry on Baysonghori Shahnameh Pages from the Illustrated Manuscript of the Shahnama
Shahnama
at the Brooklyn Museum Folios from the Great Mongol Shahnama
Shahnama
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
Project, Cambridge University (includes large database of miniatures) Ancient Iran’s Geographical Position in Shah-Nameh A richly illuminated and almost complete copy of the Shahnamah in Cambridge Digital Library

English translations by

Helen Zimmern, 1883, Iran
Iran
Chamber Society, MIT Arthur and Edmond Warner, 1905–1925, (in nine volumes) at the Internet Archive: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 A king's book of kings: the Shah-nameh of Shah
Shah
Tahmasp, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
(fully available online as PDF) Firdowsi & the Shahname Kaveh Farrokh Text of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
in Persian, section by section

v t e

Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi

Characters

Pishdadian

Keyumars Hushang Tahmuras Jamshid Fereydun Iraj Manuchehr Nowzar Zaav Garshasp

Kayanian

Kay Kawād Kay Kāvus Kay Khosrow Kay Lohrasp Goshtāsb Kay Bahman Homai Kay Darab Dara

Characters

Siamak Mardas Zahhak Shahrasp Abtin Kayanoush Kāve Arash Salm Tur Qobád Qaren Tous Gostaham Nariman Sām Zāl Rostam Sohrab Esfandiyār Pashotan Faramarz Fariborz Siyâvash Farud Zangay-i Shavaran Kashvad Goudarz Rohham Hojir Bahram Giv Bizhan Japasp Garshasp Gorgin Mehrab Kaboli Zavara Shaghad Rostam
Rostam
Farrokhzād

Women

Faranak Arnavāz Shahrnāz Sindukht Rudaba Sudabeh Tahmina Gordafarid Farangis Manizheh Katāyoun

Turanian

Zadashm Pashang Aghrirat Garsivaz Afrasiab Shideh Arjasp Viseh Nastihan Piran Viseh Houman Barman Biderafsh

Clans and families

Kashvadian House of Goudarz House of Viseh House of Nowzar House of Sasan House of Sām

Creatures & animals

Akvan Div Khazawran-i Div Arzhang Div Div-e Sepid Koulad-Ghandi Huma bird Simurgh Rakhsh Shabdiz Shabrang

Places

Iran Turan Zabulistan Sistan Kabul Balkh Ctesiphon Estakhr Mazandaran Alborzkouh Mount Damavand Tammisha Kasa-Roud ...

Structures

Gonbadan Castle Dez-i Roein White Castle Bahman Castle Dez-i Alanan Kang-dez

Manuscripts

Baysonghor Shahnameh Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Shah
Shah
Tahmasp Florence Shahnameh Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Rashida Windsor Shahnameh Great Mongol Shahnameh
Great Mongol Shahnameh
(or Demotte) Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ghavam al-Din

See also

Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Abu-Mansuri Shahnameh Derafsh Kaviani Babr-e Bayan Zal
Zal
and Rudabeh Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab Rostam's Seven Labours Davazdah Rokh Khosrow and Shirin Bijan and Manijeh Persian mythology

Category Book

v t e

Ferdowsi

Books

Shahnameh

Places

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Metro Station Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Square, Tehran Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Street Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Street, Tabriz Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad Tomb of Ferdowsi

Lands

Ghazni List of places in Shahnameh Turan Tus Zabulistan

Organizations

Firdeusi Institute

People

Abolhassan Sadighi Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Asadi Tusi Bondari Esfahani Hooshang Seyhoun Julius von Mohl Keikhosrow Shahrokh Mir Jalaleddin Kazzazi Mohammad-Ali Eslami Nodooshan Mohammad-Amin Riahi

Memorial

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
millennial celebration Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
millennial celebration in Berlin Firdousi (crater)

Depictions in others' Works

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(film) A New Prologue to the Shahnameh

Related topics

Abu-Mansuri Shahnameh Bizhan Nama Borzu Nama Derafsh Kaviani Kurdish Shahnameh Persian art Persian mythology Persians and I Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
(opera) Rustam
Rustam
and Zohrab Rustom O Sohrab

Category Book Template

v t e

Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh

Characters

Rostam Sohrab

Operas

Rustam
Rustam
and Zohrab (1910 Hajibeyov) Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
(1963 Tjeknavorian)

Other

Rustom O Sohrab
Sohrab
(play) Sohrab and Rustum (epic poem) Battle of the Kings: Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab
Sohrab
(film) Farsala Trilogy
Trilogy
(novels)

v t e

Persian literature

Old

Behistun Inscription Old Persian inscriptions Ganjnameh Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

Middle

Ayadgar-i Zariran Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan Dēnkard Book
Book
of Jamasp Book
Book
of Arda Viraf Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan Cube of Zoroaster Dana-i Menog Khrat Shabuhragan
Shabuhragan
of Mani Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr Bundahishn Menog-i Khrad Jamasp Namag Dadestan-i Denig Anthology of Zadspram Warshtmansr Zand-i Wahman yasn Drakht-i Asurig Shikand-gumanig Vizar

Classical

900s

Rudaki Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(Shahnameh) Abu Shakur Balkhi Abu Tahir Khosrovani Shahid Balkhi Bal'ami Rabia Balkhi Abusaeid Abolkheir
Abusaeid Abolkheir
(967–1049) Avicenna
Avicenna
(980–1037) Unsuri Asjadi Kisai Marvazi Ayyuqi

1000s

Bābā Tāher Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(1004–1088) Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
(1006–1088) Asadi Tusi Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(1018–1092) Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121) Moezi Neyshapuri Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani Ahmad Ghazali Hujwiri Manuchehri Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) Uthman Mukhtari Abu-al-Faraj Runi Sanai Banu Goshasp Borzu-Nama Afdal al-Din Kashani Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami Mu'izzi Mahsati
Mahsati
Ganjavi

1100s

Hakim Iranshah Suzani Samarqandi Hassan Ghaznavi Faramarz
Faramarz
Nama Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
(1155–1191) Adib Sabir Falaki Shirvani Am'aq Najm al-Din Razi Attār (1142–c.1220) Khaghani
Khaghani
(1120–1190) Anvari (1126–1189) Faramarz-e Khodadad Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Kamal al-din Esfahani Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200s

Abu Tahir Tarsusi Awhadi Maraghai Shams al-Din Qays Razi Sultan Walad Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī Afdal al-Din Kashani Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Mahmud Shabistari
Mahmud Shabistari
(1288–1320s) Abu'l Majd Tabrizi Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) Saadi (Bustan / Golestān) Bahram-e-Pazhdo Pur-Baha Jami Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo Rumi Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) Nozhat al-Majales Khwaju Kermani Sultan Walad

1300s

Ibn Yamin Shah
Shah
Ni'matullah Wali Hafez Abu Ali Qalandar Fazlallah Astarabadi Nasimi Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400s

Ubayd Zakani Salman Sawaji Hatefi Jami Kamal Khujandi Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) Fuzûlî
Fuzûlî
(1483–1556) Ismail I
Ismail I
(1487–1524) Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500s

Faizi (1547–1595) Abu'l-Fazl (1551–1602) Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) 'Orfi Shirazi

1600s

Taleb Amoli Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) Kalim Kashani Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) Saba Kashani Bēdil Dehlavi (1642–1720) Naw'i Khabushani

1700s

Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800s

Ghalib
Ghalib
(1797–1869) Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

Contemporary

Poetry

Iran

Ahmadreza Ahmadi Mehdi Akhavan-Sales Hormoz Alipour Qeysar Aminpour Aref Qazvini Manouchehr Atashi Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani Mohammad-Taqi Bahar Reza Baraheni Simin Behbahani Dehkhoda Hushang Ebtehaj Bijan Elahi Parviz Eslampour Parvin E'tesami Forough Farrokhzad Hossein Monzavi Hushang Irani Iraj Mirza Bijan Jalali Siavash Kasraie Esmail Khoi Shams Langeroodi Mohammad Mokhtari Nosrat Rahmani Yadollah Royaee Tahereh Saffarzadeh Sohrab
Sohrab
Sepehri Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Ahmad Shamlou Manouchehr Sheybani Nima Yooshij Fereydoon Moshiri Rasoul Yunan

Armenia

Edward Haghverdian

Afghanistan

Nadia Anjuman Wasef Bakhtari Raziq Faani Khalilullah Khalili Youssof Kohzad Massoud Nawabi Abdul Ali Mustaghni

Tajikistan

Sadriddin Ayni Farzona Iskandar Khatloni Abolqasem Lahouti Gulrukhsor Safieva Loiq Sher-Ali Payrav Sulaymoni Mirzo Tursunzoda

Uzbekistan

Asad Gulzoda

Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal

Novels

Ali Mohammad Afghani Ghazaleh Alizadeh Bozorg Alavi Reza Amirkhani Mahshid Amirshahi Reza Baraheni Simin Daneshvar Mahmoud Dowlatabadi Reza Ghassemi Houshang Golshiri Aboutorab Khosravi Ahmad Mahmoud Shahriyar Mandanipour Abbas Maroufi Iraj Pezeshkzad

Short stories

Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Shamim Bahar Sadeq Chubak Simin Daneshvar Nader Ebrahimi Ebrahim Golestan Houshang Golshiri Sadegh Hedayat Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh Aboutorab Khosravi Mostafa Mastoor Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi Houshang Moradi Kermani Bijan Najdi Shahrnush Parsipur Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Bahram Sadeghi Goli Taraqqi

Plays

Reza Abdoh Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh Hamid Amjad Bahram Beyzai Mohammad Charmshir Alireza Koushk Jalali Hadi Marzban Bijan Mofid Hengameh Mofid Abbas Nalbandian Akbar Radi Pari Saberi Mohammad Yaghoubi

Screenplays

Saeed Aghighi Rakhshan Bani-E'temad Bahram Beyzai Hajir Darioush Pouran Derakhshandeh Asghar Farhadi Bahman Farmanara Farrokh Ghaffari Behrouz Gharibpour Bahman Ghobadi Fereydun
Fereydun
Gole Ebrahim Golestan Ali Hatami Abolfazl Jalili Ebrahim Hatamikia Abdolreza Kahani Varuzh Karim-Masihi Samuel Khachikian Abbas Kiarostami David Mahmoudieh Majid Majidi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Dariush Mehrjui Reza Mirkarimi Rasoul Mollagholipour Amir Naderi Jafar Panahi Kambuzia Partovi Rasul Sadr Ameli Mohammad Sadri Parviz Shahbazi Sohrab
Sohrab
Shahid-Saless

Translators

Amrollah Abjadian Jaleh Amouzgar Najaf Daryabandari Behzad Ghaderi Sohi Mohammad Ghazi Lili Golestan Sadegh Hedayat Saleh Hosseini Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Mohammad Moin Ebrahim Pourdavoud Hamid Samandarian Jalal Sattari Jafar Shahidi Ahmad Shamlou Ahmad Tafazzoli Abbas Zaryab

Essayists

Aydin Aghdashloo Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languag

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