The Shahnameh, also transliterated as
شاهنامه pronounced [ʃɒːhnɒːˈme], "The
Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi
between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Consisting of some 50,000 "distichs" or couplets (two-line verses),
Shahnameh is the world's longest epic poem written by a single
poet. It tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical
past of the
Persian Empire from the creation of the world until the
Islamic conquest of Persia
Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century. Modern Iran,
Afghanistan and the greater region influenced by the
Persian culture (such as Georgia, Armenia,
Turkey and Dagestan)
celebrate this national epic.
The work is of central importance in Persian culture, regarded as a
literary masterpiece, and definitive of the ethno-national cultural
identity of modern-day Iran,
Afghanistan and Tajikistan. It is also
important to the contemporary adherents of Zoroastrianism, in that it
traces the historical links between the beginnings of the religion and
the death of the last Sassanid ruler of
Persia during the Muslim
conquest which brought an end to the Zoroastrian influence in Iran.
Faramarz, son of Rostam, mourns the death of his father, and of his
2.1 Mythical age
2.2 Heroic age
2.3 Historical age
3 Influence on Persian language
4 Cultural influence
4.1 On Georgian identity
4.2 On Turkic identity
5.3 Persian historiography
6 Illustrated copies
7 Modern editions
7.1 Scholarly editions
7.2 Arabic translations
7.3 English translations
7.4 Gujarati translation
7.5 Spanish translation
8 In culture
9 See also
11 Further reading
11.1 Persian text
12 External links
The assassination of
Khosrau II in a manuscript of the
Shah Tahmasp made by
Abd al-Samad in 1535
Ferdowsi started writing the
Shahnameh in 977 A. D and completed it on
8 March 1010. The
Shahnameh is a monument of poetry and
historiography, being mainly the poetical recast of what Ferdowsi, his
contemporaries, and his predecessors regarded as the account of Iran's
ancient history. Many such accounts already existed in prose, an
example being the Abu-Mansuri Shahnameh. A small portion of Ferdowsi's
work, in passages scattered throughout the Shahnameh, is entirely of
his own conception.
Shahnameh is an epic poem of over 50,000 couplets, written in
early Modern Persian. It is based mainly on a prose work of the same
name compiled in Ferdowsi's earlier life in his native Tus. This prose
Shahnameh was in turn and for the most part the translation of a
Pahlavi (Middle Persian) work, known as the Xwadāynāmag ("
Kings"), a late Sassanid compilation of the history of the kings and
Persia from mythical times down to the reign of Khosrau II
(590–628). The Xwadāynāmag contained historical information on the
later Sassanid period, but it does not appear to have drawn on any
historical sources for the earlier Sassanid period (3rd to 4th
Ferdowsi added material continuing the story to the
overthrow of the Sassanids by the Arabs in the middle of the 7th
The first to undertake the versification of the Pahlavi chronicle was
Abu-Mansur Daqiqi, a contemporary of Ferdowsi, poet at the court of
the Samanids, who came to a violent end after completing only 1,000
verses. These verses, which deal with the rise of the prophet
Zoroaster, were afterward incorporated by Ferdowsi, with
acknowledgment, in his own poem. The style of the
characteristics of both written and oral literature. Some claim that
Ferdowsi also used Zoroastrian nasks, such as the now-lost Chihrdad,
as sources as well.
Many other Pahlavi sources were used in composing the epic, prominent
being the Kārnāmag-ī Ardaxšīr-ī Pābagān, which was originally
written during the late Sassanid era and gave accounts of how Ardashir
I came to power which, because of its historical proximity, is thought
to be highly accurate. The text is written in the late Middle Persian,
which was the immediate ancestor of Modern Persian. A great portion of
the historical chronicles given in
Shahnameh is based on this epic and
there are in fact various phrases and words which can be matched
between Ferdowsi's poem and this source, according to Zabihollah
According to one account of the sources, a Persian named Dehqan in the
court of King Anushehrawan Dadgar had composed a voluminous book in
prose form, known as Khoday Nameh. After the fall of the Iranian
Empire, Khoday Nameh came into the possession of King Yaqub Lais and
Samani king Nuh ordered the poet
Daqiqi to complete it, but
Daqiqi was killed by his slave.
Ferdowsi obtained the book through a
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Kai Khorso enthroned holding the sword with which he will execute
Afrasiyab for the murder of Siyavash
Shahnameh provides a poetic account of the prehistory and history
of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world and the introduction
of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law), and
ending with the Islamic Conquest of Persia. The work is not precisely
chronological, but there is a general movement through time. Some of
the characters live for hundreds of years but most have normal life
spans. There are many shāhs who come and go, as well as heroes and
villains, who also come and go. The only lasting images are those of
Greater Persia itself, and of a succession of sunrises and sunsets, no
two ever exactly alike, yet illustrative of the passage of time.
The work is divided into three successive parts: the "mythical",
"heroic", and "historical" ages.
Father Time, a Saturn-like image, is a reminder of the tragedy of
death and loss, yet the next sunrise comes, bringing with it hope of a
new day. In the first cycle of creation, evil is external (the devil).
In the second cycle, we see the beginnings of family hatred, bad
behavior, and evil permeating human nature. Shāh Fereydūn's two
eldest sons feel greed and envy toward their innocent younger brother
and, thinking their father favors him, they murder him. The murdered
prince's son avenges the murder, and all are immersed in the cycle of
murder and revenge, blood and more blood. In the third cycle, we
encounter a series of flawed shahs. There is a Phaedra-like story of
Shāh Kay Kāvus, his wife Sūdābeh, and her passion for and
rejection by her stepson, Sīyāvash.
It is only in the characterizations of the work's many figures, both
male and female, that Zoroaster's original view of the human condition
Zoroaster emphasized human free will. All of Ferdowsi's
characters are complex; none is an archetype or a puppet.
[clarification needed] The best characters have flaws, and the worst
have moments of humanity.
Traditional historiography in
Iran has claimed that
grieved by the fall of the
Sassanid Empire and its subsequent rule by
"Arabs" and "Turks". The Shahnameh, the argument goes, is largely his
effort to preserve the memory of Persia's golden days and transmit it
to a new generation so that they could learn and try to build a better
world. Although most scholars have contended that Ferdowsi's main
concern was the preservation of the pre-Islamic legacy of myth and
history, a number of authors have formally challenged this view.
Scenes from the
Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Ferdowsi's mausoleum
in Tus, Iran
This portion of the
Shahnameh is relatively short, amounting to some
2,100 verses or four percent of the entire book, and it narrates
events with the simplicity, predictability, and swiftness of a
After an opening in praise of
God and Wisdom, the
Shahnameh gives an
account of the creation of the world and of man as believed by the
Sassanians. This introduction is followed by the story of the first
man, Keyumars, who also became the first king after a period of
mountain dwelling. His grandson Hushang, son of Sīyāmak,
accidentally discovered fire and established the
Sadeh Feast in its
honor. Stories of Tahmuras, Jamshid, Zahhāk, Kawa or Kaveh, Fereydūn
and his three sons Salm, Tur, and Iraj, and his grandson
related in this section.
Almost two-thirds of the
Shahnameh is devoted to the age of heroes,
extending from Manuchehr's reign until the conquest of Alexander the
Great (Eskandar). The main feature of this period is the major role
played by the
Saka or Sistānī heroes who appear as the backbone of
the Persian Empire. Garshāsp is briefly mentioned with his son
Narimān, whose own son
Sām acted as the leading paladin of Manuchehr
while reigning in Sistān in his own right. His successors were his
Zāl and Zal's son Rostam, the bravest of the brave, and then
Among the stories described in this section are the romance of
Rudāba, the Seven Stages (or Labors) of Rostam,
Rostam and Sohrab,
Sīyāvash and Sudāba,
Rostam and Akvān Dīv, the romance of Bijan
and Manijeh, the wars with Afrāsīyāb, Daqiqi's account of the story
of Goshtāsp and Arjāsp, and
Rostam and Esfandyār.
Courtiers of Bayasanghori playing chess
A brief mention of the Arsacid dynasty follows the history of
Alexander and precedes that of Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid
Empire. After this, Sassanid history is related with a good deal of
accuracy. The fall of the Sassanids and the Arab conquest of Persia
are narrated romantically.
Ferdowsi did not expect his readers to pass over historical events
indifferently, but asked them to think carefully, to see the grounds
for the rise and fall of individuals and nations; and to learn from
the past in order to improve the present, and to better shape the
Ferdowsi stresses his belief that since
the world is transient, and since everyone is merely a passerby, one
is wise to avoid cruelty, lying, avarice, and other evils; instead one
should strive for justice, honor, truth, order, and other
The singular message[original research?] that the
Ferdowsi strives to convey is the idea that the history of the
Sassanid Empire was a complete and immutable whole: it started with
Keyumars, the first man, and ended with his fiftieth scion and
successor, Yazdegerd III, six thousand years of history of Iran. The
Ferdowsi was to prevent this history from being lost to future
According to Jalal Khaleghi Mutlaq, the
Shahnameh teaches a wide
variety of moral virtues, like worship of one God; religious
uprightness; patriotism; love of wife, family and children; and
helping the poor.
Influence on Persian language
Rustam kills the Turanian hero Alkus with his lance
After the Shahnameh, a number of other works similar in nature
surfaced over the centuries within the cultural sphere of the Persian
language. Without exception, all such works were based in style and
method on the Shahnameh, but none of them could quite achieve the same
degree of fame and popularity.
Some experts[who?] believe the main reason the
Modern Persian language
today is more or less the same language as that of Ferdowsi's time
over 1000 years ago is due to the very existence of works like the
Shahnameh, which have had lasting and profound cultural and linguistic
influence. In other words, the
Shahnameh itself has become one of the
main pillars of the modern Persian language. Studying Ferdowsi's
masterpiece also became a requirement for achieving mastery of the
Persian language by subsequent Persian poets, as evidenced by numerous
references to the
Shahnameh in their works.
It is claimed that
Ferdowsi went to great lengths to avoid any words
drawn from the Arabic language, words which had increasingly
Persian language following the Arab conquest of Persia
in the 7th century.
Ferdowsi is even quoted:
بسی رنج بردم در این سال سی؛
عجم زنده کردم بدین پارسی
This translates to: "I have struggled much these thirty years in order
to keep Persian 'ajam' (meaning non-Arabic, or specifically Iranian)".
Ferdowsi followed this path not only to preserve and purify the
Persian language, but also as a stark political statement against the
Arab conquest of Persia. This assertion has been called into
question by Mohammed Moinfar, who has noted that there are numerous
examples of Arabic words in the
Shahnameh which are effectively
synonyms for Persian words previously used in the text. This calls
into question the idea of Ferdowsi's deliberate eschewing of Arabic
Shahnameh has 62 stories, 990 chapters, and some 50,000 rhyming
couplets, making it more than three times the length of Homer's Iliad,
and more than twelve times the length of the German Nibelungenlied.
Ferdowsi himself, the final edition of the Shahnameh
contained some sixty thousand distichs. But this is a round figure;
most of the relatively reliable manuscripts have preserved a little
over fifty thousand distichs. Nezami-e Aruzi reports that the final
edition of the
Shahnameh sent to the court of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
was prepared in seven volumes.
A battle scene from the Baysonghori Shahnameh
Shirvanshah dynasty adopted many of their names from the
Shahnameh. The relationship between Shirwanshah and his son,
Manuchihr, is mentioned in chapter eight of Nizami's Leili o Majnoon.
Nizami advises the king's son to read the
Shahnameh and to remember
the meaningful sayings of the wise.
According to the Turkish historian Mehmet Fuat Köprülü:
Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that
Persian influence was paramount among the
Seljuks of Anatolia. This is
clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne
after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient
Persian mythology, like Kai Khosrow, Kay Kāvus, and Kai Kobad; and
that Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname
inscribed on the walls of
Konya and Sivas. When we take into
consideration domestic life in the
Konya courts and the sincerity of
the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian
literature, then this fact (i.e. the importance of Persian influence)
Ismail I (d.1524), the founder of the
Safavid dynasty of Iran,
was also deeply influenced by the Persian literary tradition,
particularly by the Shahnameh, which probably explains the fact that
he named all of his sons after
Shahnameh characters. Dickson and Welch
suggest that Ismail's Shāhnāmaye Shāhī was intended as a present
to the young Tahmāsp. After defeating Muhammad Shaybāni's
Uzbeks, Ismāil asked Hātefī, a famous poet from Jam (Khorasan), to
write a Shahnameh-like epic about his victories and his newly
established dynasty. Although the epic was left unfinished, it was an
example of mathnawis in the heroic style of the
later on for the
The Shahnameh's influence has extended beyond the Persian sphere.
Professor Victoria Arakelova of Yerevan University states:
During the ten centuries passed after Firdausi composed his monumental
work, heroic legends and stories of
Shahnameh have remained the main
source of the storytelling for the peoples of this region: Persians,
Pashtuns, Kurds, Gurans, Talishis, Armenians, Georgians, North
Caucasian peoples, etc.
On Georgian identity
Georgian manuscript of
Shahnameh written in the Georgian script.
Jamshid Sh. Giunashvili remarks on the connection of Georgian culture
with that of Shahnameh:
The names of many Šāh-nāma heroes, such as Rostom-i, Thehmine,
Sam-i, or Zaal-i, are found in 11th- and 12th-century Georgian
literature. They are indirect evidence for an Old Georgian translation
of the Šāh-nāma that is no longer extant. ...
The Šāh-nāma was translated, not only to satisfy the literary and
aesthetic needs of readers and listeners, but also to inspire the
young with the spirit of heroism and Georgian patriotism. Georgian
ideology, customs, and worldview often informed these translations
because they were oriented toward Georgian poetic culture. Conversely,
Georgians consider these translations works of their native
literature. Georgian versions of the Šāh-nāma are quite popular,
and the stories of
Rostam and Sohrāb, or Bījan and Maniža became
part of Georgian folklore.
On Turkic identity
Despite some popular belief, the Turanians of
Shahnameh (whose sources
are based on
Avesta and Pahlavi texts) have no relationship with the
ethno-linguistic group Turk today. The Turanians of
an Iranian people representing Iranian nomads of the Eurasian Steppes
and have no relationship to the culture of the Turks. Turan, which
is the Persian name for the areas of Central Asia beyond the Oxus up
to the 7th century (where the story of the
Shahnameh ends), was
generally an Iranian-speaking land.
According to Richard Frye, "The extent of influence of the Iranian
epic is shown by the Turks who accepted it as their own ancient
history as well as that of Iran... The Turks were so much influenced
by this cycle of stories that in the eleventh century AD we find the
Qarakhanid dynasty in Central Asia calling itself the 'family of
Afrasiyab' and so it is known in the Islamic history."
Turks, as an ethno-linguistic group, have been influenced by the
Shahnameh since advent of Saljuqs. Toghrul III of Seljuqs is said
to have recited the
Shahnameh while swinging his mace in battle.
According to Ibn Bibi, in 618/1221[clarification needed] the Saljuq of
Rum Ala' al-Din Kay-kubad decorated the walls of
verses from the Shahnameh. The Turks themselves connected their
origin not with Turkish tribal history but with the
Shahnameh. Specifically in India, through the Shahnameh, they felt
themselves to be the last outpost tied to the civilized world by the
thread of Iranianism.
A battle between the hosts of
Turan during the reign of Kay
Ferdowsi concludes the
Shahnameh by writing:
I've reached the end of this great history
And all the land will talk of me:
I shall not die, these seeds I've sown will save
My name and reputation from the grave,
And men of sense and wisdom will proclaim
When I have gone, my praises and my fame.
Another translation of by Reza Jamshidi Safa:
Much I have suffered in these thirty years,
I have revived the Ajam with my verse.
I will not die then alive in the world,
For I have spread the seed of the word.
Whoever has sense, path and faith,
After my death will send me praise.
This prediction of
Ferdowsi has come true and many Persian literary
figures, historians and biographers have praised him and the
Shahnameh is considered by many to be the most
important piece of work in Persian literature.
Western writers have also praised the
Shahnameh and Persian literature
Persian literature has been considered by such thinkers as
Goethe as one of the four main bodies of world literature. Goethe
was inspired by Persian literature, which moved him to write his
When we turn our attention to a peaceful, civilized people, the
Persians, we must—since it was actually their poetry that inspired
this work—go back to the earliest period to be able to understand
more recent times. It will always seem strange to the historians that
no matter how many times a country has been conquered, subjugated and
even destroyed by enemies, there is always a certain national core
preserved in its character, and before you know it, there re-emerges a
long-familiar native phenomenon. In this sense, it would be pleasant
to learn about the most ancient Persians and quickly follow them up to
the present day at an all the more free and steady pace.
Sargozasht-Nameh or biography of important poets and writers has long
been a Persian tradition. Some of the biographies of
Ferdowsi are now
considered apocryphal, nevertheless this shows the important impact he
had in the Persian world. Among the famous biographies are:
Chahar Maqaleh ("Four Articles") by Nezami 'Arudi-i Samarqandi
Tazkeret Al-Shu'ara ("The Biography of poets") by Dowlat Shah-i
Baharestan ("Abode of Spring") by Jami
Lubab ul-Albab by Mohammad 'Awfi
Natayej al-Afkar by Mowlana Muhammad Qudrat Allah
Arafat Al-'Ashighin by Taqqi Al-Din 'Awhadi Balyani
Bizhane receives an invitation through Manizheh's nurse
Famous poets of
Persia and the Persian tradition have praised and
eulogized Ferdowsi. Many of them were heavily influenced by his
writing and used his genre and stories to develop their own Persian
epics, stories and poems:
Anvari remarked about the eloquence of the Shahnameh, "He was not just
a Teacher and we his students. He was like a
God and we are his
Asadi Tusi was born in the same city as Ferdowsi. His Garshaspnama was
inspired by the
Shahnameh as he attests in the introduction. He
Ferdowsi in the introduction and considers
greatest poet of his time.
Masud Sa'ad Salman showed the influence of the
Shahnameh only 80 years
after its composition by reciting its poems in the Ghaznavid court of
Othman Mokhtari, another poet at the Ghaznavid court of India,
remarked, "Alive is
Rustam through the epic of Ferdowsi, else there
would not be a trace of him in this World".
Sanai believed that the foundation of poetry was really established by
Nizami Ganjavi was influenced greatly by
Ferdowsi and three of his
five "treasures" had to do with pre-Islamic Persia. His
Khosro-o-Shirin, Haft Peykar and Eskandar-nameh used the
a major source. Nizami remarks that
Ferdowsi is "the wise sage of Tus"
who beautified and decorated words like a new bride.
Khaghani, the court poet of the Shirvanshah, wrote of Ferdowsi:
"The candle of the wise in this darkness of sorrow,
The pure words of
Ferdowsi of the Tusi are such,
His pure sense is an angelic birth,
Angelic born is anyone who's like Ferdowsi."
Attar wrote about the poetry of Ferdowsi: "Open eyes and through the
sweet poetry see the heavenly eden of Ferdowsi."
In a famous poem, Sa'adi wrote:
"How sweetly has conveyed the pure-natured Ferdowsi,
May blessing be upon his pure resting place,
Do not harass the ant that's dragging a seed,
because it has life and sweet life is dear."
In the Baharestan,
Jami wrote, "He came from Tus and his excellence,
renown and perfection are well known. Yes, what need is there of the
panegyrics of others to that man who has composed verses as those of
Many other poets, e.g. Hafez,
Rumi and other mystical poets, have used
Shahnameh heroes in their poetry.
The Shahnameh's impact on Persian historiography was immediate and
some historians decorated their books with the verses of Shahnameh.
Below is sample of ten important historians who have praised the
Shahnameh and Ferdowsi:
The unknown writer of the Tarikh
Sistan ("History of Sistan") written
The unknown writer of Majmal al-Tawarikh wa Al-Qasas (c. 1126)
Mohammad Ali Ravandi, the writer of the Rahat al-Sodur wa Ayat
al-Sorur (c. 1206)
Ibn Bibi, the writer of the history book, Al-Awamir al-'Alaiyah,
written during the era of 'Ala ad-din KayGhobad
Ibn Esfandyar, the writer of the Tarikh-e Tabarestan
Muhammad Juwayni, the early historian of the Mongol era in the
Tarikh-e Jahan Gushay (
Hamdollah Mostowfi Qazwini also paid much attention to the Shahnameh
and wrote the Zafarnamah based on the same style in the
Hafez-e Abru (1430) in the Majma' al-Tawarikh
Khwand Mir in the Habab al-Siyar (c. 1523) praised
Ferdowsi and gave
an extensive biography on Ferdowsi
The Arab historian
Ibn Athir remarks in his book, Al-Kamil, that, "If
we name it the Quran of 'Ajam, we have not said something in vain. If
a poet writes poetry and the poems have many verses, or if someone
writes many compositions, it will always be the case that some of
their writings might not be excellent. But in the case of Shahnameh,
despite having more than 40 thousand couplets, all its verses are
An image illustrating the parable of the ship of faith from the
Houghton Shahnameh (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Illustrated copies of the work are among the most sumptuous examples
of Persian miniature painting. Several copies remain intact, although
two of the most famous, the
Houghton Shahnameh and the Great Mongol
Shahnameh, were broken up for sheets to be sold separately in the 20th
century. A single sheet from the former was sold for £904,000 in
2006. The Baysonghori Shahnameh, an illuminated manuscript copy of
the work (Golestan Palace, Iran), is included in UNESCO's Memory of
the World Register of cultural heritage items.
The Mongol rulers in
Iran revived and spurred the patronage of the
Shanameh in its manuscript
form. The "Great Mongol"
or Demotte Shahnameh, produced during the reign of the
Abu Sa'id, is one of the most illustrative and important copies of the
Timurids continued the tradition of manuscript production. For
them, it was considered de rigueur for the members of the family to
have personal copies of the epic poem. Consequently, three of
Timur’s grandsons—Bāysonḡor, Ebrāhim Solṭān, and Moḥammad
Juki—each commissioned such a volume. Among these, the
Baysonghor Shahnameh commissioned by Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Bāysonḡor
is one of the most voluminous and artistic
The production of illustrated
Shahnameh manuscripts in the 15th
century remained vigorous during the Qarā-Qoyunlu or Black Sheep
(1380–1468) and Āq Qoyunlu or White Sheep (1378–1508) Turkman
dynasties. Many of the extant illustrated copies, with more than
seventy or more paintings, are attributable to Tabriz, Shiraz, and
Baghdad beginning in about the 1450s–60s and continuing to the end
of the century.
Safavid era saw a resurgence of
Shahnameh productions. Shah
Ismail I used the epic for propaganda purposes: as a gesture of
Persian patriotism, as a celebration of renewed Persian rule, and as a
reassertion of Persian royal authority. The Safavids commissioned
elaborate copies of the
Shahnameh to support their legitimacy.
Among the high points of
Shahnameh illustrations was the series of 250
miniatures commissioned by
Shah Ismail for his son's
Shahnameh of Shah
Tahmasp. Two similar cycles of illustration of the mid-17th
Shahnameh of Rashida
Shahnameh of Rashida and the Windsor Shahnameh, come from
the last great period of the Persian miniature.
In honour of the Shahnameh's millennial anniversary, in 2010 the
Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge hosted a major exhibition, called
"Epic of the Persian Kings: The Art of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh", which
ran from September 2010 to January 2011. The Arthur M. Sackler
Gallery of the
Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC also hosted
an exhibition of folios from the 14th through the 16th centuries,
called "Shahnama: 1000 Years of the Persian
Book of Kings", from
October 2010 to April 2011.
Hamid Rahmanian illustrated a new English translation of
Shanameh (translated by Ahmad Sadri) using images from various
pictures of old manuscripts of the book to create new imagery.
An illustration from the Shahnameh
Scholarly editions have been prepared of the Shahnameh. An early
edition was prepared in 1829 in
India by T. Macan. It was based on a
comparison of 17 manuscript copies. Between 1838 and 1878, an edition
Paris by French scholar J. Mohl, which was based on a
comparison of 30 manuscripts. Both editions lacked critical
apparatuses and were based on secondary manuscripts dated after the
15th century; much later than the original work. Between 1877 and
1884, the German scholar J. A. Vullers prepared a synthesized text of
the Macan and Mohl editions, but only three of its expected nine
volumes were published. The Vullers edition was later completed in
Tehran by the Iranian scholars S. Nafisi, Iqbal, and M. Minowi for the
millennial jubilee of Ferdowsi, held between 1934 and 1936.
The first modern critical edition of the
Shahnameh was prepared by a
Russian team led by E. E. Bertels, using the oldest known manuscripts
at the time, dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, with heavy
reliance on the 1276 manuscript from the
British Museum and the 1333
Leningrad manuscript, the latter of which has now been considered a
secondary manuscript. In addition, two other manuscripts used in this
edition have been so demoted. It was published in
Moscow by the
Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR
in nine volumes between 1960 and 1971.
For many years, the
Moscow edition was the standard text. In 1977, an
early 1217 manuscript was rediscovered in Florence. The 1217 Florence
manuscript is one of the earliest known copies of the Shahnameh,
predating the Moghul invasion and the following destruction of
important libraries and manuscript collections. Using it as the chief
text, Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh began the preparation of a new critical
edition in 1990. The number of manuscripts that were consulted during
the preparation of Khaleghi-Motlagh edition goes beyond anything
attempted by the
Moscow team. The critical apparatus is extensive and
a large number of variants for many parts of the poem were recorded.
The last volume was published in 2008, bringing the eight-volume
enterprise to a completion. According to Dick Davis, professor of
Persian at Ohio State University, it is "by far the best edition of
Shahnameh available, and it is surely likely to remain such for a
very long time".
The earliest known Arabic translation of the
Shahnameh was done in c.
1220 by al-Fath bin Ali al-Bondari, a Persian scholar from
at the request of the
Ayyubid ruler of Damascus Al-Mu'azzam Isa. The
translation is Nathr (unrhyming) and was largely forgotten until it
was republished in full in 1932 in Egypt, by historian Abdelwahhab
Azzam. This modern edition was based on incomplete and largely
imprecise fragmented copies found in Cambridge, Paris, Astana, Cairo
and Berlin. The latter had the most complete, least inaccurate and
well-preserved Arabic version of the original translation by
There have been a number of English translations, almost all abridged.
James Atkinson of the East
India Company's medical service undertook a
translation into English in his 1832 publication for the Oriental
Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, now part of the Royal
Asiatic Society. Between 1905 and 1925, the brothers Arthur and Edmond
Warner published a translation of the complete work in nine volumes,
now out of print. There are also modern incomplete translations of the
Shahnameh: Reuben Levy's 1967 prose version (later revised by Amin
Banani), and another by Dick Davis in a mixture of poetry and prose
which appeared in 2006. Also a new English translation of the book
in prose by
Ahmad Sadri was published in 2013.
The Parsis, Zoroastrians, whose ancestors had migrated to
India in the
8th or 10th century so they could continue practice of their religion
in peace, have also kept the
Shahnameh traditions alive. Dr. Bahman
Sohrabji Surti, assisted by Marzban Giara, published between 1986 and
1988 the first detailed and complete translation of the
the original Persian verse into English prose, in seven
Dastur Faramroz Kutar and his brother Ervad Mahiyar Kutar translated
Shahnameh into Gujarati verse and prose and published 10 volumes
between 1914 and 1918.
A Spanish translation has been published in 2 volumes by the Islamic
Research Institute of the Tehran Branch of McGill University.[citation
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The Shahnameh, especially the legend of
Rostam and Sohrab, is cited
and plays an important role in the novel
The Kite Runner
The Kite Runner by
Afghan-American writer Khaled Hosseini.
Shahnameh has also been adapted to many films and animations:
In a 1971–1976,
Tajikfilm trilogy comprising Skazanie o Rustame,
Rustam i Sukhrab and Skazanie o Sijavushe.
Bangladesh has made a blockbuster film, Shourab Rustom, in
A Bollywood film, Rustom
Sohrab , based on the story of
Sohrab, was made in 1963 and starred Prithviraj Kapoor.
Persian TV series Chehel Sarbaz (Forty Soldiers), released on 2007,
directed by Mohammad Nourizad, concurrently tells the story of Rostam
and Esfandiar, biography of Ferdowsi, and a few other historical
Persian short animation
Zal & Simorgh, 1977, directed by Ali Akbar
Sadeghi, narrates the story of
Zal from birth until returning to the
The Legend of Mardoush
The Legend of Mardoush (2005), a long animated Persian trilogy, tells
the mythical stories of
Shahnameh from the kingdom of
Jamshid to the
Fereydun over Zahhak.
The Last Fiction (2017), a long animated movie, has an open
interpretation of the story of Zahhak. The movie is preceded by
the graphic novels
Jamshid Dawn 1 & 2 (created by the same team)
whose aim is to familiarize adolescents and youth with the myth of
Rostam and Sohrab, an opera by Loris Tjeknavorian
Sohrab and Rustum, an 1853 poem by Matthew Arnold
Naqqāli, a performing art based on Shahnameh
Vis and Rāmin, an epic poem similar to the Shahnameh
Mir Jalaleddin Kazzazi
^ Lalani, Farah (13 May 2010). "A thousand years of Firdawsi's
Shahnama is celebrated". The Ismaili. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
^ Ashraf, Ahmad (30 March 2012). "Iranian Identity iii. Medieval
Islamic Period". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved April 2010.
Check date values in: access-date= (help)
^ Khaleghi-Motlagh, Djalal (26 January 2012). "Ferdowsi, Abu'l Qāsem
i. Life". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 27 May 2012. the poet
refers... to the date of the Šāh-nāma’s completion as the day of
Ard (i.e., 25th) of Esfand in the year 378 Š. (400 Lunar)/8 March
^ Zaehner, Robert Charles (1955). Zurvan: a Zoroastrian Dilemma. Biblo
and Tannen. p. 10. ISBN 0819602809.
^ "A possible predecessor to the Khvatay-Namak could be the Chihrdad,
one of the destroyed books of the
Avesta (known to us because of its
listing and description in the
Middle Persian Zoroastrian text, the
Dinkard 8.13)." K.E. Eduljee, Zoroastrian Heritage, "Ferdowsi's
^ Safa, Zabihollah (2000). Hamase-sarâ’i dar Iran, Tehran
^ Shahbazi, A. Shapur (1991). Ferdowsī: A Critical Biography. Costa
Mesa, Calif.: Mazda Publishers. p. 49.
^ Khatibi, Abolfazl (1384/2005). Anti-Arab verses in the Shahnameh.
21, 3, Autumn 1384/2005: Nashr Danesh. Check date values in:
^ Mutlaq, Jalal Khaleqi (1993). "
Iran Garai dar Shahnameh"
[Iran-centrism in the Shahnameh]. Hasti Magazine. Tehran: Bahman
^ "Ferdowsi's "Shahnameh": The
Book of Kings". The Economist. 16
^ Perry, John (23 June 2010). "Šāh-nāma v. Arabic Words".
Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
^ Seyed-Gohrab, Ali Ashgar (2003). Laylī and Majnūn: Love, Madness
and Mystic Longing in Niẓāmī's Epic Romance. Leiden: Brill.
p. 276. ISBN 9004129421.
^ Köprülü, Mehmed Fuad (2006). Early Mystics in Turkish Literature.
Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff. London: Routledge. p.
149. ISBN 0415366860.
^ Dickson, M.B.; and Welch, S.C. (1981). The Houghton Shahnameh.
Volume I. Cambridge, MA and London. p. 34.
^ Savory, R. M. "Safavids".
Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.).
^ Arakelova, Victoria. "
Shahnameh in the Kurdish and Armenian Oral
Tradition (abridged)" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2012.
Jamshid Sh. (15 June 2005). "Šāh-nāma Translations
ii. Into Georgian". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 28 May
^ a b Bosworth, C.E. "Barbarian Incursions: The Coming of the Turks
into the Islamic World". In Islamic Civilization, ed. D.S. Richards.
Oxford, 1973. p. 2. "Firdawsi's
Turan are, of course, really
Indo-European nomads of Eurasian Steppes... Hence as Kowalski has
pointed out, a Turkologist seeking for information in the
the primitive culture of the Turks would definitely be disappointed. "
^ Bosworth, C.E. "The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia under
the Umayyads and the Establishment of Islam". In History of
Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750
to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social
and Economic Setting, ed. M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth. Multiple
History Series. Paris: Motilal Banarsidass Publ./
1999. p. 23. "Central Asia in the early seventh century, was
ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose people used various
Middle Iranian languages."
^ Frye, Richard N. (1963). The Heritage of Persia: The Pre-Islamic
History of One of the World's Great Civilizations. New York: World
Publishing Company. pp. 40–41.
^ a b Özgüdenli, Osman G. (15 November 2006). "Šāh-nāma
Translations i. Into Turkish". Encyclopædia Iranica.
^ Blair, Sheila S. (1992). The Monumental Inscriptions from Early
Iran and Transoxiana. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 11.
ISBN 9004093672. According to Ibn Bibi, in 618/1221 the Saljuq of
Rum Ala' al-Din Kay-kubad decorated the walls of
verses from the Shah-nama
^ a b Schimmel, Annemarie. "Turk and Hindu: A Poetical Image and Its
Application to Historical Fact". In Islam and Cultural Change in the
Middle Ages, ed. Speros Vryonis, Jr. Undena Publications, 1975. pp.
107–26. "In fact as much as early rulers felt themselves to be
Turks, they connected their Turkish origin not with Turkish tribal
history but rather with the
Turan of Shahnameh: in the second
generation their children bear the name of Firdosi’s heroes, and
their Turkish lineage is invariably traced back to Afrasiyab—whether
we read Barani in the fourteenth century or the Urdu master poet
Ghalib in the nineteenth century. The poets, and through them probably
most of the educated class, felt themselves to be the last outpost
tied to the civilized world by the thread of Iranianism. The imagery
of poetry remained exclusively Persian. "
Ferdowsi (2006). Shahnameh: The Persian
Book of Kings. Translated by
Dick Davis. New York: Viking. ISBN 0670034851.
^ Ferdowsi's poet, (2010). Shahnameh: The Persian
Book of Kings.
Translated by Reza Jamshidi Safa. Tehran, Iran.
^ Christensen, Karen; Levinson, David, eds. (2002). Encyclopedia of
Modern Asia. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 48.
^ Azodi, Wiesehöfer (August 18, 2001). Ancient Persia: From 550 BC to
650 AD (New ed.). London: I. B. Tauris. p. Introduction.
^ a b c Nurian, Mahdi (1993). "Afarin
Ferdowsi az Zaban Pishinian"
Ferdowsi from the Tongue of the Ancients]. Hasti Magazine.
Tehran: Bahman Publishers. 4.
^ Persian: "آفرين بر روان فردوسی / آن همايون
نهاد و فرخنده / او نه استاد بود و ما
شاگرد / او خداوند بود و ما بنده"
^ Persian: "که فردوسی طوسی پاک مغز / بدادست
داد سخنهای نغز / به شهنامه گیتی
بیاراستست / بدان نامه نام نکو خواستست"
^ Persian: "که از پیش گویندگان برد گوی"
^ Persian: "زنده رستم به شعر فردوسی است / ور
نه زو در جهان نشانه کجاست؟"
^ Persian: "چه نکو گفت آن بزرگ استاد / که وی
افکند نظم را بنیاد"
^ Persian: "سخن گوی دانای پیشین طوسکه آراست
روی سخن چون عروس"
^ Persian: "شمع جمع هوشمندان است در دیجور غم
/ نکته ای کز خاطر فردوسی طوسی بود /
زادگاه طبع پاکش جملگی حوراوش اند / زاده
حوراوش بود چون مرد فردوسی بود"
^ Persian: "باز کن چشم و ز شعر چون شکر / در
بهشت عدن فردوسی نگر"
^ Persian: "چه خوش گفت فردوسی پاکزاد / که
رحمت بر آن تربت پاک باد / میازار موری که
دانه کش است / که جان دارد و جان شیرین
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved
^ "Ten Most Expensive Books of 2006". Fine Books &
^ ""Bayasanghori Shâhnâmeh" (Prince Bayasanghor's
Book of the
Kings)". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
^ Lawrence, Lee (Dec 6, 2013). "Politics and the Persian Language".
The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on Dec 8,
^ Simpson, Marianna Shreve (April 21, 2009). "ŠĀH-NĀMA iv.
Illustrations". iranicaonline.org. Encyclopædia Iranica.
^ Eduljee, K. E. "
www.heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
^ Michael Burgan (2009). Empire of the Mongols. Infobase Publishing.
pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-60413-163-5.
^ Sarah Foot; Chase F. Robinson (25 October 2012). The Oxford History
of Historical Writing: Volume 2: 400-1400. OUP Oxford.
pp. 271–. ISBN 978-0-19-163693-6.
^ Adamjee, Authors: Stefano Carboni, Qamar. "The Art of the
Ilkhanid Period - Essay - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The
Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art
^ Komaroff, Authors: Suzan Yalman, Linda. "The Art of the Ilkhanid
Period (1256–1353) - Essay - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The
Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art
^ Vladimir Lukonin; Anatoly Ivanov (30 June 2012). Persian Art.
Parkstone International. pp. 65–.
Bahram Gur in a Peasant's House,
Ilkhanid Dynasty". Khan
^ "Leaf from the
Book of Kings) « Islamic Arts and
^ "Style in Islamic Art (1250 - 1500 A.D) « Islamic Arts and
^ Blair, Sheila S. "Rewriting the History of the Great Mongol
Shahnama". In Shahnama: The Visual Language of the Persian
Kings, ed. Robert Hillenbrand. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004. p. 35.
^ a b c d e f g Simpson, Marianna Shreve Simpson (7 May 2012).
"Šāh-nāma iv. Illustrations". Encyclopædia Iranica.
^ Motlagh, Khaleghi; T. Lentz (15 December 1989). "Bāysonḡorī
Šāh-nāma". Encyclopædia Iranica.
^ John L. Esposito, ed. (1999). The Oxford History of Islam. New York:
Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 0195107993. To support
their legitimacy, the
Safavid dynasty of
Iran (1501–1732) devoted a
cultural policy to establish their regime as the reconstruction of the
historic Iranian monarchy. To the end, they commissioned elaborate
copies of the Shahnameh, the Iranian national epic, such as this one
made for Tahmasp in the 1520s.
^ Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd
ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 445.
ISBN 0521779332. To bolster the prestige of the state, the
Safavid dynasty sponsored an Iran-Islamic style of culture
concentrating on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture
that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also
the glory of the ancient Persian traditions.
^ Ahmed, Akbar S. (2002). Discovering Islam: Making Sense of Muslim
History and Society (2nd ed.). London: Psychology Press. p. 70.
ISBN 0415285259. Perhaps the high point was the series of 250
miniatures which illustrated the
Shah Nama commissioned by
for his son Tahmasp.
^ "Exhibition: Epic of the Persian Kings: The Art of Ferdowsi's
Shahnameh". The Fitzwilliam Museum. Archived from the original on 11
April 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
^ "Shahnama: 1000 Years of the Persian
Book of Kings". Freer and
Sackler Galleries. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
^ Fassihi, Farnaz (4: 58 pm ET May 23, 2013). "Shahnameh, a Persian
Masterpiece, Still Relevant Today". The Wall Street Journal.
IRAN. Check date values in: date= (help)
^ "Shahnameh : The Epic of the Persian Kings by Sheila Canby,
Ahmad Sadri and Abolqasem
Ferdowsi (2013, Hardcover) - eBay".
^ Osmanov, M. N. O. "Ferdowsi, Abul Qasim". TheFreeDictionary.com.
Retrieved 11 September 2010.
^ Davis, Dick (Aug 1995). "Review: The
Shahnameh by Abul-Qasem
Ferdowsi, Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh". International Journal of Middle
East Studies. Cambridge University Press. 27 (3): 393–395.
^ Loloi, Parvin (2014). "Šāh-Nāma Translations iii. Into English".
Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
^ Lyden, Jacki. "'Heart' Of Iranian Identity Reimagined For A New
Generation". NPR. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
^ Producer's web site (Persian)
Iran animation invited to Cannes Film Festival - ISNA". En.isna.ir.
2016-05-01. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
‘Azīz Mahdī, Imperviousness in Shāhnāmeh and Mahābhārata,
Quarterly Naqd-O-Taḥqīq, ISSN 2454-2563, Editor: S. Naqi Abbas
(Kaify), Volume 1, Issue I, pp. 80-87, Jan-Feb-Mar. 2015, New Delhi
‘Azīz Mahdī, ‘Fire Trial’ in Rāmāyana and Shāhnāmeh,
Quarterly Naqd-O-Taḥqīq, ISSN 2454-2563, Editor: S. Naqi Abbas
(Kaify), Volume 1, Issue II, pp. 147-158, Jan-Feb-Mar. 2015, New Delhi
Owahedur Zaman, Ḥāfiẓ Maḥmūd Shīrānī’s Contribution to
Shāhnāmeh Studies and Indo-Persian Literature, Quarterly
Naqd-O-Taḥqīq, ISSN 2454-2563, Editor: S. Naqi Abbas (Kaify),
Volume 1, Issue I, pp. 95-102, Jan-Feb-Mar. 2015, New Delhi (in
Poet Moniruddin Yusuf (1919–1987) translated the full version of
Shahnameh into the
Bengali Language (1963–1981). It was published by
the National Organisation of
Bangladesh Bangla Academy, in six
volumes, in February 1991.
Borjian, Habib and Maryam Borjian. 2005–2006. The Story of Rostam
and the White Demon in Māzandarāni. Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstān 5/1-2
(ser. nos. 9 & 10), pp. 107–116.
Shirzad Aghaee, Imazh-ha-ye mehr va mah dar Shahnama-ye
and Moon in the
Shahnama of Ferdousi, Spånga, Sweden, 1997.
Shirzad Aghaee, Nam-e kasan va ja'i-ha dar Shahnama-ye Ferdousi
(Personalities and Places in the
Shahnama of Ferdousi, Nyköping,
Sweden, 1993. (ISBN 91-630-1959-0)
Eleanor Sims. 1992. The Illustrated Manuscripts of Firdausī's
"shāhnāma" Commissioned by Princes of the House of Tīmūr. Ars
Orientalis 22. The Smithsonian Institution: 43–68.
A. E. Bertels (editor), Shax-nāme: Kriticheskij Tekst, nine volumes
(Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1960–71) (scholarly Persian text)
Jalal Khāleghi Motlagh (editor), The Shahnameh, in 12 volumes
consisting of eight volumes of text and four volumes of explanatory
notes. (Bibliotheca Persica, 1988–2009) (scholarly Persian text).
See: Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University.
Modern English graphic novels:
Rostam: Tales from the Shahnameh, Hyperwerks, 2005,
ISBN 0-9770213-1-9 , about the story of
Rostam & Sohrab.
Rostam: Return of the King, Hyperwerks, 2007,
ISBN 0-9770213-2-7 , about the story of Kai-Kavous and
Rostam: Battle with The Deevs, Hyperwerks, 2008,
ISBN 978-0-9770213-3-8 , the story of the evil White Deev.
Rostam: Search for the King, Hyperwerks, 2010,
ISBN 978-0-9770213-4-5 , the story of Rostam's childhood.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shahnameh.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Iraj Bashiri, Characters of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh,
Encyclopædia Iranica entry on Baysonghori Shahnameh
Pages from the Illustrated Manuscript of the
Shahnama at the Brooklyn
Folios from the Great Mongol
Shahnama at the Metropolitan Museum of
Shahnameh Project, Cambridge University (includes large database
Ancient Iran’s Geographical Position in Shah-Nameh
A richly illuminated and almost complete copy of the Shahnamah in
Cambridge Digital Library
English translations by
Helen Zimmern, 1883,
Iran Chamber Society, MIT
Arthur and Edmond Warner, 1905–1925, (in nine volumes) at the
Internet Archive: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
A king's book of kings: the Shah-nameh of
Shah Tahmasp, an exhibition
catalog from The
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as
Firdowsi & the Shahname Kaveh Farrokh
Text of the
Shahnameh in Persian, section by section
Shahnameh of Ferdowsi
Clans and families
House of Goudarz
House of Viseh
House of Nowzar
House of Sasan
House of Sām
Shahnameh of Rashida
Great Mongol Shahnameh
Great Mongol Shahnameh (or Demotte)
Shahnameh of Ghavam al-Din
Zal and Rudabeh
Rostam and Sohrab
Rostam's Seven Labours
Khosrow and Shirin
Bijan and Manijeh
Ferdowsi Metro Station
Ferdowsi Square, Tehran
Ferdowsi Street, Tabriz
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Tomb of Ferdowsi
List of places in Shahnameh
Julius von Mohl
Mir Jalaleddin Kazzazi
Mohammad-Ali Eslami Nodooshan
Ferdowsi millennial celebration
Ferdowsi millennial celebration in Berlin
A New Prologue to the Shahnameh
Persians and I
Rustam and Zohrab
Rustom O Sohrab
Sohrab from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh
Rustam and Zohrab (1910 Hajibeyov)
Sohrab (1963 Tjeknavorian)
Sohrab and Rustum (epic poem)
Battle of the Kings:
Old Persian inscriptions
Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress
Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island
Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan
Book of Jamasp
Book of Arda Viraf
Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan
Cube of Zoroaster
Dana-i Menog Khrat
Shabuhragan of Mani
Anthology of Zadspram
Zand-i Wahman yasn
Abu Shakur Balkhi
Abu Tahir Khosrovani
Abusaeid Abolkheir (967–1049)
Nasir Khusraw (1004–1088)
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari (1006–1088)
Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072)
Nizam al-Mulk (1018–1092)
Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121)
Omar Khayyām (1048–1131)
Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani
Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131)
Afdal al-Din Kashani
Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1155–1191)
Najm al-Din Razi
Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209)
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209)
Kamal al-din Esfahani
Shams Tabrizi (d.1248)
Abu Tahir Tarsusi
Shams al-Din Qays Razi
Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī
Afdal al-Din Kashani
Mahmud Shabistari (1288–1320s)
Abu'l Majd Tabrizi
Amir Khusro (1253–1325)
Saadi (Bustan / Golestān)
Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo
Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314)
Shah Ni'matullah Wali
Abu Ali Qalandar
Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani
Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535)
Ismail I (1487–1524)
Baba Faghani Shirzani
Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583)
Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670)
Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766)
Bēdil Dehlavi (1642–1720)
Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)
Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)
Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani
Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani
Abdul Ali Mustaghni
Ali Mohammad Afghani
Houshang Moradi Kermani
Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh
Alireza Koushk Jalali
Rasul Sadr Ameli
Behzad Ghaderi Sohi
Ahmad Kamyabi Mask
Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi
Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but
writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time,
Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic
Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan
and one of the two official languag