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Shah
Shah
(/ʃɑː/; Persian: شاه‎, translit. Šāh, pronounced [ʃɒːh], "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran
Iran
(historically also known as Persia). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan
Shirvan
(a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia) namely the Shirvanshahs, the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(in that context spelled as Şah and Şeh), Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate,[1] as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran
Iran
(Persia and Greater Persia) the title was continuously used; rather than King
King
in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Šāhanšāh ( King
King
of Kings) or Emperor
Emperor
of the Persian Empire. The word descends from Old Persian
Old Persian
xšāyaθiya "king", which (for reasons of historical phonology) must be a borrowing from Median,[2] and is derived from the same root as Avestan
Avestan
xšaϑra-, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(Old Indic) kṣatra- (same meaning), from which kṣatriya-, "warrior", is derived. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām or Šāhe Šāhān, " King
King
of Kings"[3] or "Emperor".

Contents

1 History 2 Ruler styles 3 Shahzadeh 4 Other styles 5 Related terms 6 References 7 External links

History[edit]

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shahanshah of Iran
Iran
from 1941 to 1979, was the last ruler to hold the title of shah.

Šāh, or Šāhanšāh ( King
King
of Kings) to use the full-length term, was the title of the Persian emperors. It includes rulers of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid dynasty, who unified Persia in the sixth century BC, and created a vast intercontinental empire, as well as rulers of succeeding dynasties throughout history until the twentieth century and the Imperial House of Pahlavi. While the Ottoman Sultans never styled themselves as Shah, but rather Sultan, their male offspring received the title of Şehzade, or prince (literally, "offspring of the Shah", from Persian shahzadeh). The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was Xšāyaθiya Xšāyaθiyānām, literally " King
King
of Kings" in Old Persian, corresponding to Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Šāhān Šāh, and Modern Persian شاهنشاه (Šāhanšāh).[4][5] In Greek, this phrase was translated as βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλέων (basileus tōn basiléōn), " King
King
of Kings", equivalent to "Emperor". Both terms were often shortened to their roots shah and basileus. In Western languages, Shah
Shah
is often used as an imprecise rendering of Šāhanšāh. The term was first recorded in English in 1564 as a title for the King
King
of Persia and with the spelling Shaw. For a long time, Europeans thought of Shah
Shah
as a particular royal title rather than an imperial one, although the monarchs of Persia regarded themselves as emperors of the Persian Empire (later the Empire of Iran). The European opinion changed in the Napoleonic era, when Persia was an ally of the Western powers eager to make the Ottoman Sultan release his hold on various (mainly Christian) European parts of the Ottoman Empire, and western (Christian) emperors had obtained the Ottoman acknowledgement that their western imperial styles were to be rendered in Turkish as padishah. In the twentieth century, the Shah
Shah
of Persia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Šāhanšāh and, in western languages, the rendering Emperor. He also styled his wife شهبانو Shahbānu ("Empress"). Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
was the last Shah, as the Iranian monarchy was abolished after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Ruler styles[edit]

From the reign of Ashot III (952/53–77), the Bagratid kings of Armenia used the title shahanshah, meaning "king of kings".[6] The title padishah (Great King) was adopted from the Iranians by the Ottomans and by various other monarchs claiming imperial rank, such as the Mughals
Mughals
that established their dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. Another subsidiary style of the Ottoman and Mughal rulers was Shah-i-Alam Panah, meaning "King, refuge of the world". The Shah-Armens
Shah-Armens
("Kings of Armenia", sometimes known as Ahlahshahs), used the title Shāh-i Arman (lit. " Shah
Shah
of Armenia").[7] Some monarchs were known by a contraction of the kingdom's name with shah, such as Khwarezmshah, ruler of the short-lived Muslim realm of Khwarezmia, or the Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
of the historical Iranian region of Shirvan
Shirvan
(present-day Republic of Azerbaijan) The kings of Georgia called themselves shahanshah alongside their other titles.[citation needed] Georgian title mepetmepe (also meaning King
King
of Kings [Mepe-king in Georgian]) was also inspired by the shahanshah title.

Shahzadeh[edit] Shahzadeh (Persian شاهزاده Šāhzādeh). In the realm of a shah (or a more lofty derived ruler style), a prince or princess of the blood was logically called shahzada as the term is derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -zādeh or -zāda, "born from" or "descendant of". However the precise full styles can differ in the court traditions of each shah's kingdom. This title was given to the princes of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Şehzade, Ottoman Turkish: شهزاده) and was used by the princes of Islamic India (Shahzāda, Urdu: شہزاده) such as in the Mughal Empire. It is to be noted, however, that the Mughals
Mughals
and the Sultans of Delhi were not of Indian origin but of Mongol-Turkic origin and were heavily influenced by Persian culture,[8][9][10] a continuation of traditions and habits ever since Persian language
Persian language
was first introduced into the region by Persianised Turkic and Afghan dynasties centuries earlier.[11][12] Thus, in Oudh, only sons of the sovereign shah bahadur (see above) were by birth-right styled "Shahzada [personal title] Mirza
Mirza
[personal name] Bahadur", though this style could also be extended to individual grandsons and even further relatives. Other male descendants of the sovereign in the male line were merely styled " Mirza
Mirza
[personal name]" or "[personal name] Mirza". This could even apply to non-Muslim dynasties. For example, the younger sons of the ruling Sikh
Sikh
maharaja of Punjab were styled "Shahzada [personal name] Singh Bahadur". The corruption shahajada, "Shah's son", taken from the Mughal title Shahzada, is the usual princely title borne by the grandsons and male descendants of a Nepalese sovereign, in the male line of the Shah dynasty. For the heir to a "Persian-style" shah's royal throne, more specific titles were used, containing the key element Vali Ahad, usually in addition to shahzada, where his junior siblings enjoyed this style.[13] Other styles[edit]

Shahbanu
Shahbanu
(Persian شهبانو, Šahbānū): Persian term using the word shah and the Persian suffix -banu ("lady"): Empress, in modern times, the official title of Empress Farah Pahlavi. Shahmam (Persian شهمام, "Šahmām") : Empress mother. Shahdokht (Persian شاهدخت Šāhdoxt) is also another term derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -dokht "daughter, female descendant", to address the Princess
Princess
of the imperial households. Shahpur (Persian شاهپور Šāhpu:r) also been derived from shah using the archaic Persian suffix -pur "son, male descendant", to address the Prince. Şehzade (Ottoman Turkish), (شاهزاده): Ottoman Turkish termination for prince (lit; offspring of the Shah) derived from Persian Shahzadeh. malik al-muluk "king of kings", an Arabic title used by the Iranian Buyids, a Persianized form of the Abbasid amir al-umara

Related terms[edit]

Satrap, the term in Western languages for a governor of a Persian province, is a distortion of xšaθrapāvan, literally "guardian of the realm", which derives from the word xšaθra, an Old Persian
Old Persian
word meaning "realm, province" and related etymologically to shah. Maq'ad-i-Shah, (Persian مقعد شاه Maq'ad-i-Shah), the phrase from which the name of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
is believed to be derived, which means "seat of the Shah", a reflection of the city's early Persian influence.[14] The English word "check", in all senses, is in fact derived from "shah" (from Persian via Arabic, Latin and French). Related terms such as "checker" and "chess" and "exchequer" likewise originate from the Persian word, their modern senses having developed from the original meaning of the king piece.[citation needed]

References[edit]

^ Hasan, Perween (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh.  ^ An introduction to Old Persian
Old Persian
(p. 149). Prods Oktor Skjærvø. Harvard University. 2003. ^ Old Persian. Appendices, Glossaries, Indices & Transcriptions. Prods Oktor Skjærvø. Harvard University. 2003. ^ D. N. MacKenzie. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Routledge Curzon, 2005. ISBN 0-19-713559-5 ^ M. Mo’in. An Intermediate Persian Dictionary. Six Volumes. Amir Kabir Publications, Teheran, 1992. ^ Tim Greenwood, Emergence of the Bagratuni Kingdoms, p. 52, in Armenian Kars and Ani, Richard Hovannisian, ed. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth "The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual". "The Shāh-i Armanids", p. 197. ^ Richards, John F. (1995), The Mughal Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 6, ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2  ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (2004), The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture, Reaktion Books, p. 22, ISBN 978-1-86189-185-3  ^ Balabanlilar, Lisa (15 January 2012), Imperial Identity in Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern Central Asia, I.B.Tauris, p. 2, ISBN 978-1-84885-726-1  ^ Sigfried J. de Laet. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century UNESCO, 1994. ISBN 9231028138 p 734 ^ "South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny". Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ Shahzada son of shah, Newsvine.com ^ David D. Laitin, Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, (Westview Press: 1987), p. 12.

External links[edit]

Look up shah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Last name: Shah
Shah
at surnamedb.com WorldStatesmen – here Iran; see each present country Etymology OnLine

Iran
Iran
portal Asia portal Monarchy portal Royalty portal

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