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(i)

Coordinates: 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21

Republic of Serbia Република Србија (Serbian) Republika Srbija  (Serbian)

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem:  "Боже правде / Bože pravde" "God of Justice"

Location of Serbia
Serbia
(green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo
Kosovo
(light green) in Europe
Europe
(dark grey).

Location of Serbia
Serbia
in the World

Capital and largest city Belgrade 44°48′N 20°28′E / 44.800°N 20.467°E / 44.800; 20.467

Official languages Serbian

Ethnic groups (2011)

83.3% Serbs 3.5% Hungarians 2.1% Roma 2% Bosniaks 9% others (excluding Kosovo)

Demonym Serbian

Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

• President

Aleksandar Vučić

• Prime Minister

Ana Brnabić

Legislature National Assembly

Formation

• Medieval principality

late 8th century

• Medieval kingdom/empire

1217/1346

• Ottoman conquesta

1459–1556

• Principality of Serbia

1815

• Internationally recognized

1878

• National unification

1912–1918

• Independent Republic

5 June 2006

Area

• Including Kosovo

88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) (111th)

• Excluding Kosovo

77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi)[1]

Population

• 2017 estimate

7,058,322 (excluding Kosovo) [2] (104th)

• Density

91.1/km2 (235.9/sq mi) (121th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$112.475 billion[3] (78th)

• Per capita

$16,063 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (83rd)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$42.378 billion[3] (86th)

• Per capita

$6,052 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (88th)

Gini (2013) 29.6[4] low

HDI (2015)  0.776[5] high · 66th

Currency Serbian dinar
Serbian dinar
(RSD)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST)

CEST (UTC+2)

Drives on the right

Calling code +381

ISO 3166 code RS

Internet TLD

.rs .срб

From the fall of Smederevo
Smederevo
until conquest of Belgrade, Mačva
Mačva
and Vojvodina

Serbia
Serbia
(/ˈsɜːrbiə/ ( listen), Serbian: Србија / Srbija, IPA: [sř̩bija]), officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central[6] and Southeast Europe
Europe
in the southern Pannonian Plain
Pannonian Plain
and the central Balkans.[7] It borders Hungary
Hungary
to the north; Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the east; Macedonia to the south; Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro
Montenegro
to the west and claims a border with Albania
Albania
through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia
Serbia
numbers around 7 million residents.[8] Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest[9][7] and largest cities in southeastern Europe. Following the Slavic migrations
Slavic migrations
to the Balkans
Balkans
postdating the 6th century, Serbs
Serbs
established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome
Rome
and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, reaching its peak in 1346 as a relatively short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entire modern-day Serbia
Serbia
was annexed by the Ottomans, at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia
Central Serbia
from the end of the 17th century, while maintaining a foothold in modern-day Vojvodina. In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution
Serbian Revolution
established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory.[10] Following disastrous casualties in World War I, and the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
(and other territories) with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia
Serbia
formed a union with Montenegro, which dissolved peacefully in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo
Kosovo
unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia
Serbia
is a member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA and it is acceding to the WTO.[11] Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European union
European union
by 2025[12] and is the only country in the current enlargement agenda which is designated as "free" by Freedom House.[13] Since 2007, Serbia
Serbia
formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. An upper-middle income economy[14] with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high by the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(66th),[15] Social Progress Index (45th)[16] as well as the Global Peace Index
Global Peace Index
(56th).[17]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Ancient history 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Ottoman and Habsburg rule 2.5 Revolution and independence 2.6 Balkan Wars, World War I
World War I
and the First Yugoslavia 2.7 World War II and the Second Yugoslavia 2.8 Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
and political transition

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Hydrology 3.3 Environment

4 Politics

4.1 Law and criminal justice 4.2 Foreign relations 4.3 Military 4.4 Administrative divisions

5 Demographics

5.1 Religion 5.2 Language

6 Economy

6.1 Agriculture 6.2 Industry 6.3 Energy 6.4 Transport 6.5 Telecommunications 6.6 Tourism

7 Education and science 8 Culture

8.1 Art and architecture 8.2 Literature 8.3 Music 8.4 Theatre and cinema 8.5 Media 8.6 Cuisine 8.7 Sports

9 Public holidays 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Etymology See also: Names of the Serbs
Serbs
and Serbia
Serbia
and Origin hypotheses of the Serbs

Vinča culture
Vinča culture
figure, 4000–4500 BC

The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs
Serbs
(Serbian: Srbi / Срби) and Sorbs
Sorbs
(Upper Sorbian: Serbja; Lower Sorbian: Serby) in different variants: Surbii, Suurbi, Serbloi, Zeriuani, Sorabi, Surben, Sarbi, Serbii, Serboi, Zirbi, Surbi, Sorben,[18] etc. These authors used these names to refer to Serbs
Serbs
and Sorbs
Sorbs
in areas where their historical (or current) presence was/is not disputed (notably in the Balkans
Balkans
and Lusatia), but there are also sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World (most notably in the Asiatic Sarmatia
Sarmatia
in the Caucasus). Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb (пасерб, "stepson"), Ukrainian pryserbytysia (присербитися, "join in"), Old Indic sarbh- ("fight, cut, kill"), Latin sero ("make up, constitute"), and Greek siro (ειρω, "repeat").[19] However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond (1906–1982) derived the denomination of Srb from srbati (cf. sorbo, absorbo).[20] Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать (Russian), сьорбати (Ukrainian), сёрбаць (Belarusian), srbati (Slovak), сърбам(Bulgarian) and серебати (Old Russian).[21] From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia
Serbia
was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia
Socialist Republic of Serbia
from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". History Main article: History of Serbia Prehistory Main article: Prehistoric sites in Serbia

Lepenski Vir
Lepenski Vir
culture figure, 7000 BC

Archeological evidence of Paleolithic
Paleolithic
settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia
Serbia
are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw, was found in Sićevo
Sićevo
(Mala Balanica) and believed to be up to 525,000—397,000 years old.[22] Approximately around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of the Southeastern Europe, (as well as parts of Central Europe
Central Europe
and Asia Minor).[23][24] Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir
Lepenski Vir
and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. Ancient history Main article: Roman heritage in Serbia During the Iron Age, Thracians, Dacians, and Illyrians
Illyrians
were encountered by the Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia
Serbia
in the 4th century BC; the northwesternmost point of Alexander the Great's empire being the town of Kale-Krševica.[25][better source needed] The Celtic tribe of Scordisci
Scordisci
settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum
Singidunum
(present-day Belgrade) and Naissos (present-day Niš).

Remnants of Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province
Roman province
of Illyricum was established; the remainder was conquered around 75 BC, forming the Roman province
Roman province
of Moesia Superior; the modern-day Srem region was conquered in 9 BC; and Bačka and Banat
Banat
in 106 AD after the Dacian Wars. As a result of this, contemporary Serbia
Serbia
extends fully or partially over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Pannonia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia, Dacia
Dacia
and Macedonia. The chief towns of Upper Moesia
Moesia
(and wider) were: Singidunum (Belgrade), Viminacium
Viminacium
(now Old Kostolac), Remesiana
Remesiana
(now Bela Palanka), Naissos (Niš), and Sirmium
Sirmium
(now Sremska Mitrovica), the latter of which served as a Roman capital during the Tetrarchy.[26] Seventeen Roman Emperors were born in the area of modern-day Serbia, second only to contemporary Italy.[27] The most famous of these was Constantine the Great, the first Christian Emperor, who issued an edict ordering religious tolerance throughout the Empire. When the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was divided in 395, most of Serbia
Serbia
remained under the Eastern Roman Empire, while its northwestern parts were included in the Western Roman Empire. By the early 6th century, South Slavs were present throughout the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in large numbers.[28] Middle Ages Main article: Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages

The Proclamation of Dušan's Law Codex
The Proclamation of Dušan's Law Codex
in Skopje Fortress
Skopje Fortress
in 1349

Serbs, a Slavic tribe that settled the Balkans
Balkans
in the 6th or early 7th century, established the Serbian Principality by the 8th century. It was said in 822 that the Serbs
Serbs
inhabited the greater part of Roman Dalmatia, their territory spanning what is today southwestern Serbia and parts of neighbouring countries. Meanwhile, the Byzantine Empire and Bulgarian Empire held other parts of the territory. Christianity was adopted by the Serbian rulers in ca. 870, and by the mid-10th-century the Serbian state stretched the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by the Neretva, the Sava, the Morava, and Skadar. Between 1166 and 1371 Serbia
Serbia
was ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty
Nemanjić dynasty
(which legacy is especially cherished), under whom the state was elevated to a kingdom (and briefly an empire) and Serbian bishopric to an autocephalous archbishopric (through the effort of Sava, the country's patron saint). Monuments of the Nemanjić period survives in many monasteries (several being World Heritage) and fortifications. During these centuries the Serbian state (and influence) expanded significantly. The northern part, Vojvodina, was ruled by the Kingdom of Hungary. The period known as the Fall of the Serbian Empire
Serbian Empire
saw the once-powerful state fragmented into duchies, culminating in the Battle of Kosovo (1389) against the rising Ottoman Empire. The Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
was finally conquered by the Ottomans in 1459. The Ottoman threat and eventual conquest saw large migrations of Serbs
Serbs
to the west and north.[29] Ottoman and Habsburg rule Main articles: Ottoman Serbia, Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
(1718–39), and Great Migrations of the Serbs After the loss of independence to the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the Ottoman Empire, Serbia
Serbia
briefly regained sovereignty under Jovan Nenad in the 16th century. Three Habsburg invasions and numerous rebellions constantly challenged Ottoman rule. One famous incident was the Banat Uprising in 1595, which was part of the Long War between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs.[30] The area of modern Vojvodina
Vojvodina
endured a century-long Ottoman occupation before being ceded to the Habsburg Empire at the end of the 17th century under the Treaty of Karlowitz.

The Great Migrations into Habsburg Empire, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević

In all Serb lands south of the rivers Danube
Danube
and Sava, the nobility was eliminated and the peasantry was enserfed to Ottoman masters, while much of the clergy fled or were confined to the isolated monasteries. Under the Ottoman system, Serbs, as Christians, were considered an inferior class of people and subjected to heavy taxes, and a small portion of the Serbian populace experienced Islamisation. The Ottomans abolished the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć
Serbian Patriarchate of Peć
(1463), but reestablished it in 1557, providing for limited continuation of Serbian cultural traditions within the empire.[31][32] As the Great Serb Migrations
Great Serb Migrations
depopulated most of southern Serbia, the Serbs
Serbs
sought refuge across the Danube
Danube
River in Vojvodina
Vojvodina
to the north and the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
in the west, where they were granted rights by the Austrian crown under measures such as the Statuta Wallachorum of 1630. The ecclesiastical center of the Serbs
Serbs
also moved northwards, to the Metropolitanate of Sremski Karlovci, as the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć was once-again abolished by the Ottomans in 1766.[33] Following several petitions, the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I formally granted Serbs
Serbs
who wished to leave the right to their autonomous crownland.[34] In 1718–39, the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
occupied Central Serbia
Central Serbia
and established the "Kingdom of Serbia". Apart from Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Northern Belgrade
Belgrade
which were absorbed into the Habsburg Empire, Central Serbia was occupied by the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
again in 1686–91 and in 1788–92.

Karađorđe
Karađorđe
Petrović elected as Supreme Leader he became the central figure and driving force of the national liberation movement of the Serbian people

Revolution and independence Main articles: Serbian Revolution, Principality of Serbia, and Kingdom of Serbia See also: Serbian Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and May Overthrow The Serbian Revolution
Serbian Revolution
for independence from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
lasted eleven years, from 1804 until 1815.[35] The revolution comprised two separate uprisings which gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
that eventually evolved towards full independence (1835–1867).[36][37] During the First Serbian Uprising, led by Duke Karađorđe
Karađorđe
Petrović, Serbia
Serbia
was independent for almost a decade before the Ottoman army was able to reoccupy the country. Shortly after this, the Second Serbian Uprising began.

Miloš Obrenović
Miloš Obrenović
leader of the Second Serbian Uprising
Second Serbian Uprising
in Takovo, the second phase of the Serbian Revolution.

Led by Miloš Obrenović, it ended in 1815 with a compromise between Serbian revolutionaries and Ottoman authorities.[38] Likewise, Serbia was one of the first nations in the Balkans
Balkans
to abolish feudalism.[39] The Convention of Ackerman in 1826, the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829 and finally, the Hatt-i Sharif, recognized the suzerainty of Serbia. The first Serbian Constitution
Constitution
was adopted on 15 February 1835.[40][41] Following the clashes between the Ottoman army and Serbs
Serbs
in Belgrade in 1862, and under pressure from the Great Powers, by 1867 the last Turkish soldiers left the Principality, making the country de facto independent. By enacting a new constitution without consulting the Porte, Serbian diplomats confirmed the de facto independence of the country. In 1876, Serbia
Serbia
declared war on the Ottoman Empire, proclaiming its unification with Bosnia. The formal independence of the country was internationally recognized at the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
in 1878, which formally ended the Russo-Turkish War; this treaty, however, prohibited Serbia
Serbia
from uniting with Bosnia by placing Bosnia under Austro-Hungarian occupation, alongside the occupation of Sanjak of Novi Pazar.[42] From 1815 to 1903, the Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia
was ruled by the House of Obrenović, save for the rule of Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević between 1842 and 1858. In 1882, Serbia
Serbia
became a Kingdom, ruled by King Milan I. The House of Karađorđević, descendants of the revolutionary leader Karađorđe
Karađorđe
Petrović, assumed power in 1903 following the May Overthrow. In the north, the 1848 revolution in Austria
Austria
led to the establishment of the autonomous territory of Serbian Vojvodina; by 1849, the region was transformed into the Voivodeship of Serbia
Serbia
and Banat
Banat
of Temeschwar. Balkan Wars, World War I
World War I
and the First Yugoslavia Main articles: Balkan Wars, Serbian Campaign of World War I, and Kingdom of Yugoslavia In the course of the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
in 1912, the Balkan League defeated the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and captured its European territories, which enabled territorial expansion into Raška and Kosovo. The Second Balkan War soon ensued when Bulgaria
Bulgaria
turned on its former allies, but was defeated, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest. In two years, Serbia
Serbia
enlarged its territory by 80% and its population by 50%;[citation needed] it also suffered high casualties on the eve of World War I, with around 20,000 dead.[43] Austria- Hungary
Hungary
became wary of the rising regional power on its borders and its potential to become an anchor for unification of all South Slavs, and the relationship between the two countries became tense.

Nikola Pašić, Prime Minister during World War I.

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnia organization, led to Austria- Hungary
Hungary
declaring war on Serbia.[44] In defense of Serbia, and to maintain her status as a Great Power, Russia mobilized its troops, which resulted in Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declaring war on Russia.[45] Serbia
Serbia
won the first major battles of World War I, including the Battle of Cer
Battle of Cer
and Battle of Kolubara
Battle of Kolubara
– marking the first Allied victories against the Central Powers
Central Powers
in World War I.[46] Despite initial success, it was eventually overpowered by the Central Powers in 1915. Most of its army and some people fled through Albania to Greece
Greece
and Corfu, suffering immense losses on the way. Serbia
Serbia
was occupied by the Central Powers. After the Central Powers
Central Powers
military situation on other fronts worsened, the remains of the Serb army returned east and lead a final breakthrough through enemy lines on 15 September 1918, liberating Serbia
Serbia
and defeating the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Bulgaria.[47] Serbia, with its campaign, was a major Balkan Entente Power[48] which contributed significantly to the Allied victory in the Balkans
Balkans
in November 1918, especially by helping France force Bulgaria's capitulation.[49] Serbia
Serbia
was classified as a minor Entente power.[50] Serbia's casualties accounted for 8% of the total Entente military deaths; 58% (243,600) soldiers of the Serbian army perished in the war.[51] The total number of casualties is placed around 700,000,[52] more than 16% of Serbia's prewar size,[53] and a majority (57%) of its overall male population.[54][55][56] As the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed, the territory of Syrmia united with Serbia
Serbia
on 24 November 1918, followed by Banat, Bačka and Baranja
Banat, Bačka and Baranja
a day later, thereby bringing the entire Vojvodina
Vojvodina
into the Serb Kingdom.

Picture from the scene of the assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in Marseilles

On 26 November 1918, the Podgorica Assembly deposed the House of Petrović-Njegoš and united Montenegro
Montenegro
with Serbia.[citation needed] On 1 December 1918, at Krsmanović's House at Terazije, Serbian Prince Regent Alexander of Serbia
Serbia
proclaimed the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes[57] under King Peter I of Serbia. King Peter was succeeded by his son, Alexander, in August 1921. Serb centralists and Croat autonomists clashed in the parliament, and most governments were fragile and short-lived. Nikola Pašić, a conservative prime minister, headed or dominated most governments until his death. King Alexander changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and changed the internal divisions from the 33 oblasts to nine new banovinas. The effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non- Serbs
Serbs
from the idea of unity.[58] Alexander was assassinated in Marseille, during an official visit in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, member of the IMRO. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council was headed by his cousin, Prince Paul. In August 1939 the Cvetković–Maček Agreement
Cvetković–Maček Agreement
established an autonomous Banate of Croatia
Croatia
as a solution to Croatian concerns. World War II and the Second Yugoslavia Main articles: World War II in Yugoslavia
World War II in Yugoslavia
and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia See also: Invasion of Yugoslavia, Axis occupation of Serbia, and World War II persecution of Serbs

Yugoslav coup d'état, demonstrations in capital Belgrade
Belgrade
against Yugoslav accession to the Tripartite Pact.

In 1941, in spite of Yugoslav attempts to remain neutral in the war, the Axis powers
Axis powers
invaded Yugoslavia. The territory of modern Serbia
Serbia
was divided between Hungary, Bulgaria, Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(NDH) and Italy
Italy
(greater Albania
Albania
and Montenegro), while the remaining part of Serbia
Serbia
was placed under German Military administration, with Serbian puppet governments led by Milan Aćimović
Milan Aćimović
and Milan Nedić. The occupied territory was the scene of a civil war between royalist Chetniks
Chetniks
commanded by Draža Mihailović
Draža Mihailović
and communist partisans commanded by Josip Broz Tito. Against these forces were arrayed Axis auxiliary units of the Serbian Volunteer Corps and the Serbian State Guard. Draginac and Loznica
Loznica
massacre of 2,950 villagers in Western Serbia
Serbia
in 1941 was the first large execution of civilians in occupied Serbia
Serbia
by Germans, with Kragujevac massacre
Kragujevac massacre
and Novi Sad Raid
Novi Sad Raid
of Jews and Serbs
Serbs
by Hungarian fascists being the most notorious, with over 3,000 victims in each case.[59][60][61]

Serbia
Serbia
(right) occupied by Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Croatia

After one year of occupation, around 16,000 Serbian Jews
Serbian Jews
were murdered in the area, or around 90% of its pre-war Jewish population. Many concentration camps were established across the area. Banjica concentration camp was the largest concentration camp, with primary victims being Serbian Jews, Roma, and Serb political prisoners.[62] During this period, hundreds of thousands of Serbs
Serbs
fled the Axis puppet state known as the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
and sought refuge in Serbia, seeking to escape the large-scale persecution and genocide of Serbs, Jews, and Roma being committed by the Ustaše regime.[63] The Republic of Užice
Republic of Užice
was a short-lived liberated territory established by the Partisans and the first liberated territory in World War II Europe, organized as a military mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in the west of occupied Serbia. By late 1944, the Belgrade
Belgrade
Offensive swung in favour of the partisans in the civil war; the partisans subsequently gained control of Yugoslavia.[64] Following the Belgrade
Belgrade
Offensive, the Syrmian Front
Syrmian Front
was the last major military action of World War II in Serbia. The victory of the Communist Partisans resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and a subsequent constitutional referendum. A one-party state was soon established in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, between 60,000 and 70,000 people were killed in Serbia during the communist takeover.[65] All opposition was suppressed and people deemed to be promoting opposition to socialism or promoting separatism were imprisoned or executed for sedition. Serbia
Serbia
became a constituent republic within the SFRY known as the Socialist Republic of Serbia, and had a republic-branch of the federal communist party, the League of Communists of Serbia.

People of Belgrade
Belgrade
celebrating liberation from the Axis powers, 20 October 1944.

Serbia's most powerful and influential politician in Tito-era Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was Aleksandar Ranković, one of the "big four" Yugoslav leaders, alongside Tito, Edvard Kardelj, and Milovan Đilas.[66] Ranković was later removed from the office because of the disagreements regarding Kosovo's nomenklatura and the unity of Serbia.[66] Ranković's dismissal was highly unpopular among Serbs.[67] Pro-decentralization reformers in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
succeeded in the late 1960s in attaining substantial decentralization of powers, creating substantial autonomy in Kosovo
Kosovo
and Vojvodina, and recognizing a Yugoslav Muslim nationality.[67] As a result of these reforms, there was a massive overhaul of Kosovo's nomenklatura and police, that shifted from being Serb-dominated to ethnic Albanian-dominated through firing Serbs
Serbs
on a large scale.[67] Further concessions were made to the ethnic Albanians of Kosovo
Kosovo
in response to unrest, including the creation of the University of Pristina as an Albanian language institution.[67] These changes created widespread fear among Serbs
Serbs
of being treated as second-class citizens.[68] Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
and political transition Main articles: Breakup of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav Wars, and Republic of Serbia
Serbia
(1992–2006) In 1989, Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
rose to power in Serbia. Milošević promised a reduction of powers for the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, where his allies subsequently took over power, during the Anti-bureaucratic revolution.[69] This ignited tensions between the communist leadership of the other republics, and awoke nationalism across the country that eventually resulted in its breakup, with Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo declaring independence.[70][better source needed] Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
remained together as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). Fueled by ethnic tensions, the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
erupted, with the most severe conflicts taking place in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia, where the large ethnic Serb communities opposed independence from Yugoslavia. The FRY remained outside the conflicts, but provided logistic, military and financial support to Serb forces in the wars. In response, the UN imposed sanctions against Serbia
Serbia
which led to political isolation and the collapse of the economy (GDP was $24 billion in 1990 to under $10 billion in 1993). Multi-party democracy was introduced in Serbia
Serbia
in 1990, officially dismantling the one-party system. Critics of Milošević claimed that the government continued to be authoritarian despite constitutional changes, as Milošević maintained strong political influence over the state media and security apparatus.[71][72] When the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia
Serbia
refused to accept its defeat in municipal elections in 1996, Serbians engaged in large protests against the government.

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
and territories of Serb breakaway states ( Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
Krajina) during the Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
(1991–95)

In 1998, peace was broken again, when the situation in Kosovo
Kosovo
worsened with continued clashes between the Albanian guerilla Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army and Yugoslav security forces. The confrontations led to the short Kosovo
Kosovo
War (1998–99), in which NATO
NATO
intervened, leading to the withdrawal of Serbian forces and the establishment of UN administration in the province.[73] After presidential elections in September 2000, opposition parties accused Milošević of electoral fraud. A campaign of civil resistance followed, led by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia
Democratic Opposition of Serbia
(DOS), a broad coalition of anti-Milošević parties. This culminated on 5 October when half a million people from all over the country congregated in Belgrade, compelling Milošević to concede defeat.[74] The fall of Milošević ended Yugoslavia's international isolation. Milošević was sent to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The DOS announced that FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
would seek to join the European Union. In 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
was renamed Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro; the EU opened negotiations with the country for the Stabilization and Association Agreement. Serbia's political climate remained tense and in 2003, the prime minister Zoran Đinđić was assassinated as result of a plot originating from circles of organized crime and former security officials. On 21 May 2006, Montenegro
Montenegro
held a referendum to determine whether to end its union with Serbia. The results showed 55.4% of voters in favor of independence, which was just above the 55% required by the referendum. On 5 June 2006, the National Assembly of Serbia
National Assembly of Serbia
declared Serbia
Serbia
to be the legal successor to the former state union.[75] The Assembly of Kosovo
Kosovo
unilaterally declared independence from Serbia
Serbia
on 17 February 2008. Serbia
Serbia
immediately condemned the declaration and continues to deny any statehood to Kosovo. The declaration has sparked varied responses from the international community, some welcoming it, while others condemned the unilateral move.[76] Status-neutral talks between Serbia
Serbia
and Kosovo-Albanian authorities are held in Brussels, mediated by the EU. In April 2008 Serbia
Serbia
was invited to join the Intensified Dialogue programme with NATO
NATO
despite the diplomatic rift with the alliance over Kosovo.[77] Serbia
Serbia
officially applied for membership in the European Union on 22 December 2009,[78] and received candidate status on 1 March 2012, following a delay in December 2011.[79][80] Following a positive recommendation of the European Commission
European Commission
and European Council in June 2013, negotiations to join the EU commenced in January 2014.[81] Geography Main article: Geography of Serbia

Topographic map of Serbia

Located at the crossroads between Central[14][82][83] and Southern Europe, Serbia
Serbia
is found in the Balkan peninsula
Balkan peninsula
and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia
Serbia
lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E. The country covers a total of 88,361 km2 (including Kosovo), which places it at 113th place in the world; with Kosovo
Kosovo
excluded, the total area is 77,474 km2,[1] which would make it 117th. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km ( Albania
Albania
115 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia
Croatia
241 km, Hungary
Hungary
151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Montenegro
Montenegro
203 km and Romania
Romania
476 km).[1] All of Kosovo's border with Albania
Albania
(115 km), Macedonia (159 km) and Montenegro
Montenegro
(79 km)[84] are under control of the Kosovo
Kosovo
border police.[85] Serbia
Serbia
treats the 352 km long border between Kosovo and rest of Serbia
Serbia
as an "administrative line"; it is under shared control of Kosovo
Kosovo
border police and Serbian police forces, and there are 11 crossing points.[86] The Pannonian Plain
Pannonian Plain
covers the northern third of the country ( Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Mačva[87]) while the easternmost tip of Serbia
Serbia
extends into the Wallachian Plain. The terrain of the central part of the country, with the region of Šumadija
Šumadija
at its heart, consists chiefly of hills traversed by rivers. Mountains dominate the southern third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
stretch in the west and the southwest, following the flow of the rivers Drina
Drina
and Ibar. The Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
and Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
stretch in a north–south direction in eastern Serbia.[88] Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the country belong to the Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system. Elevation ranges from the Midžor
Midžor
peak of the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
at 2,169 metres (7,116 feet) (the highest peak in Serbia, excluding Kosovo) to the lowest point of just 17 metres (56 feet) near the Danube
Danube
river at Prahovo.[89] The largest lake is Đerdap Lake
Đerdap Lake
(163 square kilometres or 63 square miles) and the longest river passing through Serbia
Serbia
is the Danube
Danube
(587.35 kilometres or 364.96 miles).

Đavolja Varoš, natural wonder in southern Serbia

Kopaonik, ski resort in south-central Serbia

Zlatibor

Tara National Park in western Serbia

Veliki Krš, part of Serbian Carpathians

Climate Main article: Climate of Serbia The climate of Serbia
Serbia
is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and Mediterranean Sea. With mean January temperatures around 0 °C (32 °F), and mean July temperatures of 22 °C (72 °F), it can be classified as a warm-humid continental or humid subtropical climate.[90] In the north, the climate is more continental, with cold winters, and hot, humid summers along with well distributed rainfall patterns. In the south, summers and autumns are drier, and winters are relatively cold, with heavy inland snowfall in the mountains. Differences in elevation, proximity to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and large river basins, as well as exposure to the winds account for climate variations.[91] Southern Serbia
Serbia
is subject to Mediterranean influences.[92] The Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
and other mountain ranges contribute to the cooling of most of the warm air masses. Winters are quite harsh in the Pešter
Pešter
plateau, because of the mountains which encircle it.[93] One of the climatic features of Serbia
Serbia
is Košava, a cold and very squally southeastern wind which starts in the Carpathian Mountains and follows the Danube
Danube
northwest through the Iron Gate where it gains a jet effect and continues to Belgrade
Belgrade
and can spread as far south as Niš.[94] The average annual air temperature for the period 1961–1990 for the area with an altitude of up to 300 m (984 ft) is 10.9 °C (51.6 °F). The areas with an altitude of 300 to 500 m (984 to 1,640 ft) have an average annual temperature of around 10.0 °C (50.0 °F), and over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) of altitude around 6.0 °C (42.8 °F).[95] The lowest recorded temperature in Serbia
Serbia
was −39.5 °C (−39.1 °F) on 13 January 1985, Karajukića Bunari
Karajukića Bunari
in Pešter, and the highest was 44.9 °C or 112.8 °F, on 24 July 2007, recorded in Smederevska Palanka.[96] Serbia
Serbia
is one of few European countries with very high risk exposure to natural hazards (earthquakes, storms, floods, droughts).[97] It is estimated that potential floods, particularly in areas of Central Serbia, threaten over 500 larger settlements and an area of 16,000 square kilometers.[98] The most disastrous were the floods in May 2014, when 57 people died and a damage of over a 1.5 billion euro was inflicted.[99] Hydrology Main articles: List of rivers of Serbia
List of rivers of Serbia
and List of lakes of Serbia

Iron Gates

Almost all of Serbia's rivers drain to the Black Sea, by way of the Danube
Danube
river. The Danube, the second largest European river, passes through Serbia
Serbia
with 588 kilometers (21% of its overall length) and represents the largest source of fresh water. It is joined by its biggest tributaries, the Great Morava
Great Morava
(longest river entirely in Serbia
Serbia
with 493 km of length), Sava
Sava
and Tisza
Tisza
rivers.[100] One notable exception is the Pčinja which flows into the Aegean. Drina river forms the natural border between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Serbia, and represents the main kayaking and rafting attraction in both countries. Due to configuration of the terrain, natural lakes are sparse and small; most of them are located in the lowlands of Vojvodina, like the aeolian lake Palić or numerous oxbow lakes along river flows (like Zasavica and Carska Bara). However, there are numerous artificial lakes, mostly due to hydroelectric dams, the biggest being Đerdap (Iron Gates) on the Danube
Danube
with 163 km2 on the Serbian side (a total area of 253 km2 is shared with Romania) as well as the deepest (with maximum depth of 92 m); Perućac
Perućac
on the Drina, and Vlasina. The largest waterfall, Jelovarnik, located in Kopaonik, is 71 m high.[101] Abundance of relatively unpolluted surface waters and numerous underground natural and mineral water sources of high water quality presents a chance for export and economy improvement; however, more extensive exploitation and production of bottled water began only recently. Environment See also: List of protected natural resources in Serbia

Uvac
Uvac
Gorge is considered one of the last habitats of the griffon vulture in Europe

With 29.1% of its territory covered by forest, Serbia
Serbia
is considered to be a middle-forested country, compared on a global scale to world forest coverage at 30%, and European average of 35%. The total forest area in Serbia
Serbia
is 2,252,000 ha (1,194,000 ha or 53% are state-owned, and 1,058,387 ha or 47% are privately owned) or 0.3 ha per inhabitant.[102] The most common trees are oak, beech, pines and firs. Serbia
Serbia
is a country of rich ecosystem and species diversity – covering only 1.9% of the whole European territory Serbia
Serbia
is home to 39% of European vascular flora, 51% of European fish fauna, 40% of European reptile and amphibian fauna, 74% of European bird fauna, 67% European mammal fauna.[103] Its abundance of mountains and rivers make it an ideal environment for a variety of animals, many of which are protected including wolves, lynx, bears, foxes and stags. There are 17 snake species living all over the country, 8 of them are venomous.[104] Serbia
Serbia
is home to highly protected owl species. In the northernmost part of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
plain, in the city of Kikinda, a number of endangered 145 long-eared owls is noted, making this town the world's biggest settlement of these species.[105] Serbia
Serbia
is considerably rich with threatened species of bats and butterflies.[106]

Balkan Mountains, south-east Serbia

Mountain of Tara in western Serbia
Serbia
is one of the last regions in Europe
Europe
where bears can still live in absolute freedom.[107] Serbia
Serbia
is also home to about 380 species of bird. In Carska Bara, there are over 300 bird species on just a few square kilometers.[108] Uvac
Uvac
Gorge is considered one of the last habitats of the griffon vulture in Europe.[109] There are 377 protected areas of Serbia, encompassing 4,947 square kilometers or 6.4% of the country. The "Spatial plan of the Republic of Serbia" states that the total protected area should be increased to 12% by 2021.[103] Those protected areas include 5 national parks (Đerdap, Tara, Kopaonik, Fruška Gora
Fruška Gora
and Šar Mountain), 15 nature parks, 15 "landscapes of outstanding features", 61 nature reserves, and 281 natural monuments.[101] Air pollution is a significant problem in Bor area, due to work of large copper mining and smelting complex, and Pančevo
Pančevo
where oil and petrochemical industry is based.[110] Some cities suffer from water supply problems, due to mismanagement and low investments in the past, as well as water pollution (like the pollution of the Ibar River
Ibar River
from the Trepča zinc-lead combinate, affecting the city of Kraljevo, or the presence of natural arsenic in underground waters in Zrenjanin). Poor waste management has been identified as one of the most important environmental problems in Serbia
Serbia
and the recycling is a fledgling activity, with only 15% of its waste being turned back for reuse.[111] The 1999 NATO
NATO
bombing caused serious damage to the environment, with several thousand tons of toxic chemicals stored in targeted factories and refineries released into the soil and water basins. Politics Main article: Politics of Serbia See also: List of political parties in Serbia Serbia
Serbia
is a parliamentary republic, with the government divided into legislative, executive and judiciary branches.

House of the National Assembly

Serbia
Serbia
had one of the first modern constitutions in Europe, the 1835 Constitution
Constitution
(known as "Sretenje Constitution"), which was at the time considered among the most progressive and liberal constitutions in the world. Since then it has adopted 10 different constitutions.[112] The current constitution was adopted in 2006 in the aftermath of Montenegro
Montenegro
independence referendum which by consequence renewed the independence of Serbia
Serbia
itself.[113] The Constitutional Court rules on matters regarding the Constitution.

Aleksandar Vučić President Ana Brnabić Prime Minister

The President of the Republic (Predsednik Republike) is the head of state, is elected by popular vote to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution
Constitution
to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy. [114] Aleksandar Vučić
Aleksandar Vučić
of the Serbian Progressive Party
Serbian Progressive Party
is the current president following the 2017 presidential election.[115] Seat of the presidency is Novi Dvor. The Government (Vlada) is composed of the prime minister and cabinet ministers. The Government is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies. The current prime minister is Ana Brnabić
Ana Brnabić
of the Serbian Progressive Party.[116] The National Assembly (Narodna skupština) is a unicameral legislative body. The National Assembly has the power to enact laws, approve the budget, schedule presidential elections, select and dismiss the Prime Minister and other ministers, declare war, and ratify international treaties and agreements.[117] It is composed of 250 proportionally elected members who serve four-year terms. The largest political parties in Serbia
Serbia
are the centre-right Serbian Progressive Party, leftist Socialist Party of Serbia
Socialist Party of Serbia
and far-right Serbian Radical Party.[118] Law and criminal justice Main article: Law of Serbia Serbia
Serbia
has a three-tiered judicial system, made up of the Supreme Court of Cassation as the court of the last resort, Courts of Appeal as the appellate instance, and Basic and High courts as the general jurisdictions at first instance. Courts of special jurisdictions are the Administrative Court, commercial courts (including the Commercial Court of Appeal at second instance) and misdemeanor courts (including High Misdemeanor Court at second instance).[119] The judiciary is overseen by the Ministry of Justice. Serbia
Serbia
has a typical civil law legal system. Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Serbian Police, which is subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. Serbian Police fields 26,527 uniformed officers.[120] National security and counterintelligence are the responsibility of the Security Intelligence Agency (BIA).[121] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Serbia See also: Accession of Serbia to the European Union
Accession of Serbia to the European Union
and Political status of Kosovo

  States which recognize the Province of Kosovo
Kosovo
as an integral part of Serbia   States which recognize Kosovo
Kosovo
as an independent country

Serbia
Serbia
has established diplomatic relations with 188 UN member states, the Holy See, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and the European Union.[122] Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Serbia
Serbia
has a network of 65 embassies and 23 consulates internationally.[123] There are 65 foreign embassies, 5 consulates and 4 liaison offices in Serbia.[124] Serbian foreign policy is focused on achieving the strategic goal of becoming a member state of the European Union
European Union
(EU). Serbia
Serbia
started the process of joining the EU by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement on 29 April 2008 and officially applied for membership in the European Union
European Union
on 22 December 2009.[125] It received a full candidate status on 1 March 2012 and started accession talks on 21 January 2014.[126][127] The European Commission
European Commission
considers accession possible by 2025.[128] The province of Kosovo
Kosovo
declared independence from Serbia
Serbia
on 17 February 2008, which sparked varied responses from the international community, some welcoming it, while others condemn the unilateral move.[76] In protest, Serbia
Serbia
initially recalled its ambassadors from countries that recognized Kosovo′s independence.[129] The resolution of 26 December 2007 by the National Assembly stated that both the Kosovo
Kosovo
declaration of independence and recognition thereof by any state would be gross violation of international law.[130] Serbia
Serbia
began cooperation and dialogue with NATO
NATO
in 2006, when the country joined the Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The country′s military neutrality was formally proclaimed by a resolution adopted by Serbia′s parliament in December 2007, which makes joining any military alliance contingent on a popular referendum,[131][132] a stance acknowledged by NATO.[133][134][135] On the other hand, Serbia′s relations with Russia
Russia
are habitually described by mass media as a ″centuries-old religious, ethnic and political alliance″[136] and Russia
Russia
is said to have sought to solidify its relationship with Serbia
Serbia
since the imposition of sanctions against Russia
Russia
in 2014.[137] Military Main articles: Serbian Armed Forces
Serbian Armed Forces
and Military history of Serbia

Serbian Air Force
Serbian Air Force
MiG-29

The Serbian Armed Forces
Serbian Armed Forces
are subordinate to the Ministry of Defence, and are composed of the Army and the Air Force. Although a landlocked country, Serbia
Serbia
operates a River Flotilla which patrols on the Danube, Sava, and Tisza
Tisza
rivers. The Serbian Chief of the General Staff reports to the Defence Minister. The Chief of Staff is appointed by the President, who is the Commander-in-chief.[114] As of 2017[update], Serbia
Serbia
defence budget amounts to $503 million or an estimated 1.4% of the country's GDP.[138] Traditionally having relied on a large number of conscripts, Serbian Armed Forces went through a period of downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation. Conscription
Conscription
was abolished in 2011.[139] Serbian Armed Forces have 28,000 active troops,[140] supplemented by the "active reserve" which numbers 20,000 members and "passive reserve" with about 170,000.[141][142] Serbia
Serbia
participates in the NATO
NATO
Individual Partnership Action Plan program,[133] but has no intention of joining NATO, due to significant popular rejection, largely a legacy of the NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999.[143] It is an observer member of the Collective Securities Treaty Organization (CSTO)[144] The country also signed the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. The Serbian Armed Forces
Serbian Armed Forces
take part in several multinational peacekeeping missions, including deployments in Lebanon, Cyprus, Ivory Coast, and Liberia.[145] Serbia
Serbia
is a major producer and exporter of military equipment in the region. Defence exports totaled around $483 million in 2016.[146] Serbia
Serbia
exports across the world, notably to the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and North America.[147] The defence industry has seen significant growth over the years and it continues to grow on a yearly basis.[148][149]

Districts of Serbia

Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of Serbia Serbia
Serbia
is a unitary state[150] composed of municipalities/cities, districts, and two autonomous provinces. In Serbia, excluding Kosovo, there are 138 municipalities (opštine) and 23 cities (gradovi), which form the basic units of local self-government.[151] Apart from municipalities, there are 24 districts (okruzi, 10 most populated listed below), with the City of Belgrade
Belgrade
constituting an additional district. Except for Belgrade, which has an elected local government, districts are regional centers of state authority, but have no powers of their own; they present purely administrative divisions.[151] Serbia
Serbia
has two autonomous provinces, Vojvodina
Vojvodina
in the north, and Kosovo
Kosovo
and Metohija in the south,[151] while the remaining area, "Central Serbia", never had its own regional authority. Following the Kosovo
Kosovo
War, UN peacekeepers entered Kosovo, as per UNSC Resolution 1244. In 2008, Kosovo
Kosovo
declared independence.[152] The government of Serbia
Serbia
did not recognize the declaration, considering it illegal and illegitimate.[153] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Serbia
Demographics of Serbia
and Demographic history of Serbia As of 2011[update] census, Serbia
Serbia
(excluding Kosovo) has a total population of 7,186,862 and the overall population density is medium as it stands at 92.8 inhabitants per square kilometer.[154] The census was not conducted in Kosovo
Kosovo
which held its own census that numbered their total population at 1,739,825,[155] excluding Serb-inhabited North Kosovo, as Serbs
Serbs
from that area (about 50,000) boycotted the census.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Serbia [156]

Rank Name District Pop. Rank Name District Pop.

Belgrade

Novi Sad 1 Belgrade Belgrade 1,233,796 11 Smederevo Podunavlje District 64,175

Niš

Kragujevac

2 Novi Sad South Bačka 277,522 12 Leskovac Jablanica District 60,288

3 Niš Nišava District 187,544 13 Valjevo Kolubara District 58,932

4 Kragujevac Šumadija
Šumadija
District 150,835 14 Kruševac Rasina District 58,745

5 Subotica North Bačka 105,681 15 Vranje Pčinja District 55,138

6 Zrenjanin Central Banat 76,511 16 Šabac Mačva
Mačva
District 53,919

7 Pančevo South Banat 76,203 17 Užice Zlatibor
Zlatibor
District 52,646

8 Čačak Moravica District 73,331 18 Sombor West Bačka 47,623

9 Novi Pazar Raška District 66,527 19 Požarevac Braničevo District 44,183

10 Kraljevo Raška District 64,175 20 Pirot Pirot
Pirot
District 38,785

Serbia
Serbia
has been enduring a demographic crisis since the beginning of the 1990s, with a death rate that has continuously exceeded its birth rate, and a total fertility rate of 1.43 children per mother, one of the lowest in the world.[157] Serbia
Serbia
subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 42.9 years,[2] and its population is shrinking at one of the fastest rates in the world.[158] A fifth of all households consist of only one person, and just one-fourth of four and more persons.[159] Average Life expectancy in Serbia
Serbia
at birth is 74.8 years.[160]

Ethnic composition (2011)

Serbs

83.3%

Hungarians

3.5%

Roma

2.1%

Bosniaks

2%

Croats

0.8%

Slovaks

0.7%

Other

4.7%

Unspecified/Unknown

3.3%

During the 1990s, Serbia
Serbia
used to have the largest refugee population in Europe.[161] Refugees
Refugees
and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Serbia
Serbia
formed between 7% and 7.5% of its population at the time – about half a million refugees sought refuge in the country following the series of Yugoslav wars, mainly from Croatia
Croatia
(and to a lesser extent from Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the IDPs from Kosovo.[162] Meanwhile, it is estimated that 300,000 people left Serbia
Serbia
during the 1990s, 20% of which had a higher education.[163][164] Serbs
Serbs
with 5,988,150 are the largest ethnic group in Serbia, representing 83% of the total population (excluding Kosovo). With a population of 253,899, Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Serbia, concentrated predominantly in northern Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and representing 3.5% of the country's population (13% in Vojvodina). Romani population stands at 147,604 according to the 2011 census but unofficial estimates place their actual number between 400,000 and 500,000.[165] Bosniaks
Bosniaks
with 145,278 are concentrated in Raška (Sandžak), in the southwest. Other minority groups include Croats, Slovaks, Albanians, Montenegrins, Vlachs, Romanians, Macedonians and Bulgarians. Chinese, estimated at about 15,000, are the only significant immigrant minority.[166][167] The majority of the population, or 59.4%, reside in urban areas and some 16.1% in Belgrade
Belgrade
alone. Belgrade
Belgrade
is the only city with more than a million inhabitants and there are four more with over 100,000 inhabitants.[156] Religion Main articles: Religion in Serbia
Religion in Serbia
and Serbian Orthodox Church

Saint Sava
Sava
Cathedral is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world

[168]

Studenica Monastery

The Constitution of Serbia
Constitution of Serbia
defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom. Orthodox Christians with 6,079,396 comprise 84.5% of country's population. The Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia
Serbia
include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians. Roman Catholics number 356,957 in Serbia, or roughly 6% of the population, mostly in Vojvodina
Vojvodina
(especially its northern part) which is home to minority ethnic groups such as Hungarians, Croats, Bunjevci, as well as to some Slovaks and Czechs.[169] Protestantism
Protestantism
accounts for about 1% of the country's population, chiefly Lutheranism
Lutheranism
among Slovaks in Vojvodina
Vojvodina
as well as Calvinism among Reformed Hungarians. Greek Catholic Church is adhered by around 25,000 citizens (0.37% of the population), mostly Rusyns in Vojvodina.[170] Muslims, with 222,282 or 3% of the population, form the third largest religious group. Islam has a strong historic following in the southern regions of Serbia, primarily in southern Raška. Bosniaks
Bosniaks
are the largest Islamic community in Serbia; estimates are that around a third of the country's Roma people are Muslim. There are only 578 Jews by faith in Serbia.[171] Atheists
Atheists
numbered 80,053 or 1.1% of the population and an additional 4,070 declared themselves to be agnostics.[171]

Serbian Latin alphabet (top) and Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet (bottom)

Language Main articles: Languages of Serbia
Languages of Serbia
and Serbian language The official language is Serbian, native to 88% of the population.[171] Serbian is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic
Cyrillic
and Latin alphabets. Serbian Cyrillic is designated in the Constitution
Constitution
as the "official script" and was devised in 1814 by Serbian philologist Vuk Karadžić, who based it on phonemic principles.,[172] while the Latin alphabet is given status of "script in official use" by the constitution. A survey from 2014 showed that 47% of Serbians favour the Latin alphabet, 36% favour the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
one and 17% have no preference.[173] Recognized minority languages are: Hungarian, Bosnian, Slovak, Croatian, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn. All these languages are in official use in municipalities or cities where the ethnic minority exceeds 15% of the total population.[174] In Vojvodina, the provincial administration uses, besides Serbian, five other languages (Hungarian, Slovak, Croatian, Romanian and Rusyn).

Economy Main article: Economy of Serbia

NIS headquarters in Novi Sad

Serbia
Serbia
has an emerging market economy in upper-middle income range.[175] According to the IMF, Serbian nominal GDP in 2017 is officially estimated at $39.366 billion or $5,599 per capita while purchasing power parity GDP was $106.602 billion or $15,163 per capita.[3] The economy is dominated by services which accounts for 60.8% of GDP, followed by industry with 31.3% of GDP, and agriculture at 7.9% of GDP.[176] The official currency of Serbia
Serbia
is Serbian dinar (ISO code: RSD), and the central bank is National Bank of Serbia. The Belgrade
Belgrade
Stock Exchange is the only stock exchange in the country, with market capitalization of $8.65 billion and BELEX15 as the main index representing the 15 most liquid stocks.[177] The economy has been affected by the global economic crisis. After almost a decade of strong economic growth (average of 4.45% per year), Serbia
Serbia
entered the recession in 2009 with negative growth of −3% and again in 2012 and 2014 with −1% and −1.8%, respectively.[178] As the government was fighting effects of crisis the public debt has more than doubled: from pre-crisis level of just under 30% to about 70% of GDP and trending downwards recently to around 60%.[179][180] Labor force stands at 3.1 million, of whom 56.2% are employed in services sector, 24.4% are employed in the agriculture and 19.4% are employed in industry.[181] The average monthly net salary in November 2017 stood at 47,575 dinars or $480.[182] The unemployment remains an acute problem, with rate of 13% as of 2017[update].[181] Since 2000, Serbia
Serbia
has attracted over $25 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI).[183] Blue-chip corporations making investments include: Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Siemens, Bosch, Philip Morris, Michelin, Coca-Cola, Carlsberg and others.[184] In the energy sector, Russian energy giants, Gazprom
Gazprom
and Lukoil
Lukoil
have made large investments.[185] Serbia
Serbia
has an unfavorable trade balance: imports exceed exports by 23%. Serbia's exports, however, recorded a steady growth in last couple of years reaching $17 billion in 2017.[186] The country has free trade agreements with the EFTA and CEFTA, a preferential trade regime with the European Union, a Generalized System of Preferences with the United States, and individual free trade agreements with Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Turkey.[187] Agriculture Main article: Agriculture in Serbia

Vineyards in Fruška Gora, near Sremski Karlovci, Serbia
Serbia
was the 11th largest wine producer in Europe
Europe
and 19th in the world in 2014.

Serbia
Serbia
has very favourable natural conditions (land and climate) for varied agricultural production. It has 5,056,000 ha of agricultural land (0.7 ha per capita), out of which 3,294,000 ha is arable land (0.45 ha per capita).[188] In 2016, Serbia
Serbia
exported agricultural and food products worth $3.2 billion, and the export-import ratio was 178%.[189] Agricultural exports constitute more than one-fifth of all Serbia's sales on the world market. Serbia
Serbia
is one of the largest provider of frozen fruit to the EU (largest to the French market, and 2nd largest to the German market).[190] Agricultural production is most prominent in Vojvodina
Vojvodina
on the fertile Pannonian Plain. Other agricultural regions include Mačva, Pomoravlje, Tamnava, Rasina, and Jablanica.[191] In the structure of the agricultural production 70% is from the crop field production, and 30% is from the livestock production.[191] Serbia
Serbia
is world's second largest producer of plums (582,485 tons; second to China), second largest of raspberries (89,602 tons, second to Poland), it is also significant producer of maize (6.48 million tons, ranked 32nd in the world) and wheat (2.07 million tons, ranked 35th in the world).[101][192] Other important agricultural products are: sunflower, sugar beet, soybean, potato, apple, pork meat, beef, poultry and dairy. There are 56,000 ha of vineyards in Serbia, producing about 230 million litres of wine annually.[101][188] Most famous viticulture regions are located in Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Šumadija. Industry See also: Automotive industry in Serbia

The Fiat 500L, assembled at the FCA plant in Kragujevac

The industry is the economy sector which was hardest hit by the UN sanctions and trade embargo and NATO
NATO
bombing during the 1990s and transition to market economy during the 2000s.[193] The industrial output saw dramatic downsizing: in 2013 it was expected to be only a half of that of 1989.[194] Main industrial sectors include: automotive, mining, non-ferrous metals, food-processing, electronics, pharmaceuticals, clothes. Automotive industry (with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
as a forebearer) is dominated by cluster located in Kragujevac
Kragujevac
and its vicinity, and contributes to export with about $2 billion.[195] Serbia's mining industry is comparatively strong: Serbia
Serbia
is the 18th largest producer of coal (7th in the Europe) extracted from large deposits in Kolubara and Kostolac
Kostolac
basins; it is also world's 23rd largest (3rd in Europe) producer of copper which is extracted by RTB Bor, a large domestic copper mining company; significant gold extraction is developed around Majdanpek. Serbia
Serbia
notably manufactures intel smartphones named Tesla smartphones.[196] Food industry is well known both regionally and internationally and is one of the strong points of the economy.[197] Some of the international brand-names established production in Serbia: PepsiCo and Nestlé
Nestlé
in food-processing sector; Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
(Belgrade), Heineken (Novi Sad) and Carlsberg (Bačka Palanka) in beverage industry; Nordzucker in sugar industry.[190] Serbia's electronics industry had its peak in the 1980s and the industry today is only a third of what it was back then, but has witnessed a something of revival in last decade with investments of companies such as Siemens
Siemens
(wind turbines) in Subotica, Panasonic
Panasonic
(lighting devices) in Svilajnac, and Gorenje (electrical home appliances) in Valjevo.[198] The pharmaceutical industry in Serbia
Serbia
comprises a dozen manufacturers of generic drugs, of which Hemofarm in Vršac and Galenika in Belgrade, account for 80% of production volume. Domestic production meets over 60% of the local demand.[199] Energy Main article: Energy in Serbia The energy sector is one of the largest and most important sectors to the country's economy. Serbia
Serbia
is a net exporter of electricity and importer of key fuels (such as oil and gas). Serbia
Serbia
has an abundance of coal, and significant reserves of oil and gas. Serbia's proven reserves of 5.5 billion tons of coal lignite are the 5th largest in the world (second in Europe, after Germany).[200][201] Coal is found in two large deposits: Kolubara (4 billion tons of reserves) and Kostolac
Kostolac
(1.5 billion tons).[200] Despite being small on a world scale, Serbia's oil and gas resources (77.4 million tons of oil equivalent and 48.1 billion cubic meters, respectively) have a certain regional importance since they are largest in the region of former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
as well as the Balkans (excluding Romania).[202] Almost 90% of the discovered oil and gas are to be found in Banat
Banat
and those oil and gas fields are by size among the largest in the Pannonian basin but are average on a European scale.[203]

Đerdap 1 Hydroelectric Power Station, the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power stations in Europe

The production of electricity in 2015 in Serbia
Serbia
was 36.5 billion kilowatt-hours (KWh), while the final electricity consumption amounted to 35.5 billion kilowatt-hours (KWh).[204] Most of the electricity produced comes from thermal-power plants (72.7% of all electricity) and to a lesser degree from hydroelectric-power plants (27.3%).[205] There are 6 lignite-operated thermal-power plants with an installed power of 3,936 MW; largest of which are 1,502 MW- Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
1 and 1,160 MW- Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
2, both in Obrenovac.[206] Total installed power of 9 hydroelectric-power plants is 2,831 MW, largest of which is Đerdap 1 with capacity of 1,026 MW.[207] In addition to this, there are mazute and gas-operated thermal-power plants with an installed power of 353 MW.[208] The entire production of electricity is concentrated in Elektroprivreda Srbije
Elektroprivreda Srbije
(EPS), public electric-utility power company. The current oil production in Serbia
Serbia
amounts to over 1.1 million tons of oil equivalent[209] and satisfies some 43% of country's needs while the rest is imported.[210] National petrol company, Naftna Industrija Srbije (NIS), was acquired in 2008 by Gazprom
Gazprom
Neft. The company has completed $700 million modernisation of oil-refinery in Pančevo (capacity of 4.8 million tons) and is currently in the midst of converting oil refinery in Novi Sad
Novi Sad
into lubricants-only refinery. It also operates network of 334 filling stations in Serbia
Serbia
(74% of domestic market) and additional 36 stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 31 in Bulgaria, and 28 in Romania.[211][212] There are 155 kilometers of crude oil pipelines connecting Pančevo
Pančevo
and Novi Sad
Novi Sad
refineries as a part of trans-national Adria oil pipeline.[213] Serbia
Serbia
is heavily dependent on foreign sources of natural gas, with only 17% coming from domestic production (totalling 491 million cubic meters in 2012) and the rest is imported, mainly from Russia
Russia
(via gas pipelines that run through Ukraine
Ukraine
and Hungary).[210] Srbijagas, public gas company, operates the natural gas transportation system which comprise 3,177 kilometers of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines and a 450 million cubic meter underground gas storage facility at Banatski Dvor.[214] Transport Main article: Transport in Serbia Serbia
Serbia
has a strategic transportation location since the country's backbone, Morava Valley, represents by far the easiest route of land travel from continental Europe
Europe
to Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Near East. Serbian road network carries the bulk of traffic in the country. Total length of roads is 45,419 km of which 782 km are "class-Ia state roads" (i.e. motorways); 4,481 km are "class-Ib state roads" (national roads); 10,941 km are "class-II state roads" (regional roads) and 23,780 km are "municipal roads".[215][216][217] The road network, except for the most of class-Ia roads, are of comparatively lower quality to the Western European standards because of lack of financial resources for their maintenance in the last 20 years.

Motorway network   in service   under construction   planned

There are currently 124 kilometers of motorways under construction: two sections 34 km-long of the A1 motorway (from south of Leskovac
Leskovac
to Bujanovac), 67 km-long segment of A2 (between Belgrade
Belgrade
and Ljig), and 23 kilometers on the A4 (east of Niš
Niš
to the Bulgarian border).[218][219][220] Coach transport is very extensive: almost every place in the country is connected by bus, from largest cities to the villages; in addition there are international routes (mainly to countries of Western Europe
Europe
with large Serb diaspora). Routes, both domestic and international, are served by more than 100 bus companies, biggest of which are Lasta and Niš-Ekspres. As of 2015[update], there were 1,833,215 registered passenger cars or 1 passenger car per 3.8 inhabitants.[181]

Serbian Railways

Air Serbia

Serbia
Serbia
has 3,819 kilometers of rail tracks, of which 1,279 are electrified and 283 kilometers are double-track railroad.[101] The major rail hub is Belgrade
Belgrade
(and to a lesser degree Niš), while the most important railroads include: Belgrade–Bar (Montenegro), Belgrade–Šid–Zagreb (Croatia)/Belgrade–Niš–Sofia (Bulgaria) (part of Pan-European Corridor X), Belgrade–Subotica–Budapest (Hungary) and Niš–Thessaloniki (Greece). Although still a major mode of freight transportation, railroads face increasing problems with the maintenance of the infrastructure and lowering speeds. All rail services are operated by public rail company, Serbian Railways.[221] There are only two airports with regular passenger traffic: Belgrade
Belgrade
Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
Airport served almost 5 million passengers in 2016, and is a hub of flagship carrier Air Serbia
Air Serbia
which carried some 2.6 million passengers in 2016.[222][223] Niš Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
Airport is mainly catering low-cost airlines.[224] Serbia
Serbia
has a developed inland water transport since there are 1,716 kilometers of navigable inland waterways (1,043 km of navigable rivers and 673 km of navigable canals), which are almost all located in northern third of the country.[101] The most important inland waterway is the Danube
Danube
(part of Pan-European Corridor VII). Other navigable rivers include Sava, Tisza, Begej and Timiş River, all of which connect Serbia
Serbia
with Northern and Western Europe
Europe
through the Rhine–Main– Danube
Danube
Canal and North Sea
North Sea
route, to Eastern Europe via the Tisza, Begej and Danube
Danube
Black Sea
Black Sea
routes, and to Southern Europe
Europe
via the Sava
Sava
river. More than 2 million tons of cargo were transported on Serbian rivers and canals in 2016 while the largest river ports are: Novi Sad, Belgrade, Pančevo, Smederevo, Prahovo
Prahovo
and Šabac.[101][225] Telecommunications Main article: Telecommunications in Serbia Fixed telephone lines connect 81% of households in Serbia, and with about 9.1 million users the number of cellphones surpasses the total population of by 28%.[226] The largest mobile operator is Telekom Srbija with 4.2 million subscribers, followed by Telenor with 2.8 million users and Vip mobile
Vip mobile
with about 2 million.[226] Some 58% of households have fixed-line (non-mobile) broadband Internet connection while 67% are provided with pay television services (i.e. 38% cable television, 17% IPTV, and 10% satellite).[226] Digital television transition has been completed in 2015 with DVB-T2
DVB-T2
standard for signal transmission.[227][228] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Serbia

Subotica, city built in Art Nouveau style, northern Serbia.

About 37 percent of all tourism in Serbia
Serbia
is spa-related[229], on the picture Vrnjačka Banja
Vrnjačka Banja
spa center.

Serbia
Serbia
is not a mass-tourism destination but nevertheless has a diverse range of touristic products.[230] In 2017, total of over 3 million tourists were recorded in accommodations, of which some 1.5 million were foreign.[231] Foreign exchange earnings from tourism were estimated at $1.44 billion.[232] Tourism is mainly focused on the mountains and spas of the country, which are mostly visited by domestic tourists, as well as Belgrade and, to a lesser degree, Novi Sad, which are preferred choices of foreign tourists (almost two-thirds of all foreign visits are made to these two cities).[233][234] The most famous mountain resorts are Kopaonik, Stara Planina, and Zlatibor. There are also many spas in Serbia, the biggest of which are Vrnjačka Banja, Soko Banja, and Banja Koviljača. City-break and conference tourism is developed in Belgrade
Belgrade
and Novi Sad.[235] Other touristic products that Serbia
Serbia
offer are natural wonders like Đavolja varoš,[236] Christian pilgrimage to the many Orthodox monasteries across the country[237] and the river cruising along the Danube. There are several internationally popular music festivals held in Serbia, such as EXIT (with 25–30,000 foreign visitors coming from 60 different countries) and the Guča trumpet festival.[238] Education and science Main article: Education in Serbia

Milutin Milanković, mathematician, astronomer, climatologist and geophysicist, ranked among the top fifteen minds of all time in the field of earth sciences.[239]

Dositej Obradović, an influential protagonist of the Serbian national and cultural renaissance, he advocated Enlightenment and rationalist ideas.

According to 2011 census, literacy in Serbia
Serbia
stands at 98% of population while computer literacy is at 49% (complete computer literacy is at 34.2%).[240] Same census showed the following levels of education: 16.2% of inhabitants have higher education (10.6% have bachelors or master's degrees, 5.6% have an associate degree), 49% have a secondary education, 20.7% have an elementary education, and 13.7% have not completed elementary education.[241] Education in Serbia
Education in Serbia
is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Education starts in either preschools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools at the age of seven. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school. Students have the opportunity to attend gymnasiums and vocational schools for another four years, or to enroll in vocational training for 2 to 3 years. Following the completion of gymnasiums or vocational schools, students have the opportunity to attend university.[242] Elementary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognised minorities in Serbia, where classes are held in Hungarian, Slovak, Albanian, Romanian, Rusyn, Bulgarian as well as Bosnian and Croatian languages. There are 17 universities in Serbia
Serbia
(eight public universities with a total number of 85 faculties and nine private universities with 51 faculties).[243] In 2010/2011 academic year, 181,362 students attended 17 universities (148,248 at public universities and some 33,114 at private universities) while 47,169 attended 81 "higher schools".[101] Public universities in Serbia
Serbia
are: the University of Belgrade
Belgrade
(oldest, founded in 1808, and largest university with 89,827 undergraduates and graduates[244]), University of Novi Sad
Novi Sad
(founded in 1960 and with student body of 47,826[245]), University of Niš
Niš
(founded in 1965; 27,000 students), University of Kragujevac
Kragujevac
(founded in 1976; 14,000 students), University of Priština – Kos. Mitrovica, Public University of Novi Pazar
Novi Pazar
as well as two specialist universities – University of Arts and University of Defence. Largest private universities include John Naisbitt University
John Naisbitt University
and Singidunum University, both in Belgrade, and Educons University in Novi Sad. Public universities tend to be of a better quality and therefore more renowned than private ones. The University of Belgrade
Belgrade
(placed in 301–400 bracket on 2013 Shanghai Ranking of World Universities, being best-placed university in Southeast Europe
Southeast Europe
after those in Athens and Thessaloniki) and University of Novi Sad
Novi Sad
are generally considered as the best institutions of higher learning in the country.[246]

Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
, inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Serbia
Serbia
spent 0.64% of GDP on scientific research in 2012, which is one of the lowest R&D budgets in Europe.[247] Serbia
Serbia
has a long history of excellence in maths and computer sciences which has created a strong pool of engineering talent, although economic sanctions during the 1990s and chronic underinvestment in research forced many scientific professionals to leave the country.[248] Nevertheless, there are several areas in which Serbia
Serbia
still excels such as growing information technology sector, which includes software development as well as outsourcing. It generated $200 million in exports in 2011, both from international investors and a significant number of dynamic homegrown enterprises.[249] In 2005 the global technology giant, Microsoft, founded the Microsoft
Microsoft
Development Center, only its fourth such centre in the world. Among the scientific institutes operating in Serbia, the largest are the Mihajlo Pupin Institute
Mihajlo Pupin Institute
and Vinča Nuclear Institute, both in Belgrade. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is a learned society promoting science and arts from its inception in 1841.[250] With a strong science and technological ecosystem, Serbia has produced a number of renowned scientists that have greatly contributed to the field of science and technology. Culture Main articles: Serbian culture
Serbian culture
and Cultural Heritage of Serbia For centuries straddling the boundaries between East and West, the territory of Serbia
Serbia
had been divided among the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire; then between Byzantium
Byzantium
and the Kingdom of Hungary; and in the Early modern period between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Habsburg Empire. These overlapping influences have resulted in cultural varieties throughout Serbia; its north leans to the profile of Central Europe, while the south is characteristic of the wider Balkans
Balkans
and even the Mediterranean. The Byzantine influence on Serbia was profound, firstly through the introduction of Eastern Christianity (Orthodoxy) in the Early Middle Ages. The Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
has had an enduring status in Serbia, with the many Serbian monasteries constituting the most valuable cultural monuments left from Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages. Serbia
Serbia
has seen influences of Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
as well, mainly though trade, literature and romanesque architecture. Serbia
Serbia
has five cultural monuments inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage: the early medieval capital Stari Ras
Stari Ras
and the 13th-century monastery Sopoćani; the 12th-century Studenica monastery; the Roman complex of Gamzigrad–Felix Romuliana; medieval tombstones Stećci; and finally the endangered Medieval Monuments in Kosovo
Kosovo
(the monasteries of Visoki Dečani, Our Lady of Ljeviš, Gračanica and Patriarchal Monastery of Peć). There are two literary monuments on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme: the 12th-century Miroslav Gospel, and scientist Nikola Tesla's valuable archive. The slava (patron saint veneration) is inscribed on UNESCO
UNESCO
Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. The Ministry of Culture and Information is tasked with preserving the nation's cultural heritage and overseeing its development. Further activities supporting development of culture are undertaken at local government level. Art and architecture Main articles: Serbian art
Serbian art
and Serbian architecture

Kosovo
Kosovo
Maiden by Uroš Predić, arguably the most famous Serbian painting, depicting a girl walking over Kosovo
Kosovo
field after Kosovo Battle in 1389, and helping wounded warriors.

Traces of Roman and early Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
architectural heritage are found in many royal cities and palaces in Serbia, like Sirmium, Felix Romuliana and Justiniana Prima. Serbian monasteries are the pinnacle of Serbian medieval art. At the beginning, they were under the influence of Byzantine Art
Byzantine Art
which was particularly felt after the fall of Constantinople in 1204, when many Byzantine artists fled to Serbia. The most noted of these monasteries is Studenica (built around 1190). It was a model for later monasteries, like the Mileševa, Sopoćani, Žiča, Gračanica and Visoki Dečani. In the end of 14th and the 15th centuries, autochotonous architectural style known as Morava style evolved in area around Morava Valley. A characteristic of this style was the wealthy decoration of the frontal church walls. Examples of this include Manasija, Ravanica
Ravanica
and Kalenić monasteries.

The White Angel
White Angel
(1235) fresco from Mileševa
Mileševa
monastery. This fresco was sent as a message in the first satellite broadcast signal from Europe
Europe
to America after the Cuban Missile Crisis, as a symbol of peace and civilization.[251]

Icons and fresco paintings are often considered the peak of Serbian art. The most famous frescos are White Angel
White Angel
( Mileševa
Mileševa
monastery), Crucifixion (Studenica monastery) and Dormition of the Virgin (Sopoćani). Country is dotted with many well-preserved medieval fortifications and castles such as Smederevo
Smederevo
Fortress (largest lowland fortress in Europe), Golubac, Maglič, Soko grad, Ostrvica and Ram. During the time of Ottoman occupation, Serbian art
Serbian art
was virtually non-existent, with the exception of several Serbian artists who lived in the lands ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. Traditional Serbian art showed some Baroque
Baroque
influences at the end of the 18th century as shown in the works of Nikola Nešković, Teodor Kračun, Zaharije Orfelin and Jakov Orfelin.[252] Serbian painting showed the influence of Biedermeier, Neoclassicism and Romanticism during the 19th century. The most important Serbian painters of the first half of the 20th century were Paja Jovanović and Uroš Predić
Uroš Predić
of Realism, Cubist Sava
Sava
Šumanović, Milena Pavlović-Barili and Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
of Impressionism, Expressionist Milan Konjović. Noted painters of the second half of 20th century include Marko Čelebonović, Petar Lubarda, Milo Milunović, and Vladimir Veličković.[253] Anastas Jovanović
Anastas Jovanović
was one of the earliest photographes in the world, while Marina Abramović
Marina Abramović
is one of the world leading performance artists. Pirot
Pirot
carpet is known as one of the most important traditional handicrafts in Serbia. There are around 100 art museums in Serbia, of which the most prominent is the National Museum of Serbia, founded in 1844; it houses one of the largest art collections in the Balkans
Balkans
with more than 400,000 exhibits, over 5,600 paintings and 8,400 drawings and prints, including many foreign masterpiece collections. Other art museums of note are Museum of Contemporary Art in Belgrade
Belgrade
and Museum of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
in Novi Sad. Literature Main article: Serbian literature

Miroslav's Gospel
Miroslav's Gospel
(1186)

The beginning of Serbian literacy dates back to the activity of the brothers Cyril and Methodius
Cyril and Methodius
in the Balkans. Monuments of Serbian literacy from the early 11th century can be found, written in Glagolitic. Starting in the 12th century, books were written in Cyrillic. From this epoch, the oldest Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
book editorial are the Miroslav Gospels
Miroslav Gospels
from 1186. The Miroslav Gospels
Miroslav Gospels
are considered to be the oldest book of Serbian medieval history and as such has entered UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.[254] Notable medieval authors include Saint Sava, Jefimija, Stefan Lazarević, Constantine of Kostenets and others.[255] Due to Ottoman occupation, when every aspect of formal literacy stopped, Serbia stayed excluded from the entire Renaissance
Renaissance
flow in Western culture. However, the tradition of oral story-telling blossomed, shaping itself through epic poetry inspired by at the times still recent Kosovo battle and folk tales deeply rooted in Slavic mythology. Serbian epic poetry in those times has seen as the most effective way in preserving the national identity.[256][257] The oldest known, entirely fictional poems, gather around Non-historic cycle; this one is followed by poems inspired by events before, during and after Kosovo
Kosovo
Battle. The special cycles are dedicated to Serbian legendary hero, Marko Kraljević, then about hajduks and uskoks, and the last one dedicated to the liberation of Serbia
Serbia
in 19th century. Some of the best known folk ballads are The Death of the Mother of the Jugović Family and The Mourning Song of the Noble Wife of the Asan Aga (1646), translated into European languages by Goethe, Walter Scott, Pushkin
Pushkin
and Mérimée. The most notable tale from Serbian folklore is The Nine Peahens and the Golden Apples.[258] Baroque
Baroque
trends in Serbian literature
Serbian literature
emerged in the late 17th century. Notable Baroque-influenced authors were Gavril Stefanović Venclović, Jovan Rajić, Zaharije Orfelin, Andrija Zmajević
Andrija Zmajević
and others.[259] Dositej Obradović
Dositej Obradović
was the most prominent figure of the Age of Enlightenment, while the most notable Classicist writer was Jovan Sterija Popović, although his works also contained elements of Romanticism.[260] In the era of national revival, in the first half of the 19th century, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
collected Serbian folk literature, and reformed the Serbian language
Serbian language
and spelling,[261] paving the way for Serbian Romanticism. The first half of the 19th century was dominated by Romanticism, with Branko Radičević, Đura Jakšić, Jovan Jovanović Zmaj
Jovan Jovanović Zmaj
and Laza Kostić
Laza Kostić
being the most notable representatives, while the second half of the century was marked by Realist writers such as Milovan Glišić, Laza Lazarević, Simo Matavulj, Stevan Sremac, Vojislav Ilić, Branislav Nušić, Radoje Domanović
Radoje Domanović
and Borisav Stanković.

Ivo Andrić, Serbian writer and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, in his home in Belgrade

The 20th century was dominated by the prose writers Meša Selimović (Death and the Dervish), Miloš Crnjanski
Miloš Crnjanski
(Migrations), Isidora Sekulić (The Cronicle of a Small Town Cemetery), Branko Ćopić (Eagles Fly Early), Borislav Pekić
Borislav Pekić
(The Time of Miracles), Danilo Kiš (The Encyclopedia of the Dead), Dobrica Ćosić
Dobrica Ćosić
(The Roots), Aleksandar Tišma, Milorad Pavić
Milorad Pavić
and others.[262][263] Pavić is the most widely acclaimed Serbian author of the beginning of the 21st century, most notably for his Dictionary of the Khazars (Хазарски речник/Hazarski rečnik), which has been translated into 24 languages. Notable poets include Milan Rakić, Jovan Dučić, Vladislav Petković Dis, Rastko Petrović, Stanislav Vinaver, Dušan Matić, Branko Miljković, Vasko Popa, Oskar Davičo, Miodrag Pavlović, and Stevan Raičković.[264] Notable contemporary authors include David Albahari, Svetislav Basara, Goran Petrović, Gordana Kuić, Vuk Drašković, and Vladislav Bajac. Ivo Andrić
Ivo Andrić
(The Bridge on the Drina) is possibly the best-known Serbian author,;[265] he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1961. The most beloved face of Serbian literature
Serbian literature
was Desanka Maksimović, who for seven decades remained the leading lady of Yugoslav poetry.[266][267][268][269][270] She is honored with statues, and postage stamps, and streets are named for her.[271][272][271] [273] There are 551 public libraries biggest of which are: National Library of Serbia
Serbia
in Belgrade
Belgrade
with funds of about 5 million volumes, and Matica Srpska
Matica Srpska
(oldest Serbian cultural institution, founded in 1826) in Novi Sad
Novi Sad
with nearly 3.5 million volumes.[274][275] In 2010, there were 10,989 books and brochures published.[101] The book publishing market is dominated by several major publishers such as Laguna and Vulkan (both of which operate their own bookstore chains) and the industry's centerpiece event, annual Belgrade
Belgrade
Book Fair, is the most visited cultural event in Serbia
Serbia
with 158,128 visitors in 2013.[276] The highlight of the literary scene is awarding of NIN Prize, given every January since 1954 for the best newly published novel in Serbian language (during times of Yugoslavia, in Serbo-Croatian language).[277] Music Main article: Music of Serbia Composer and musicologist Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac
Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac
is considered the founder of modern Serbian music.[278][279] The Serbian composers of the first generation Petar Konjović, Stevan Hristić, and Miloje Milojević maintained the national expression and modernized the romanticism into the direction of impressionism. Other famous classical Serbian composers include Isidor Bajić, Stanislav Binički and Josif Marinković.[280] There are three opera houses in Serbia: Opera of the National Theatre and Madlenianum Opera, both in Belgrade, and Opera of the Serbian National Theatre
Serbian National Theatre
in Novi Sad. Four symphonic orchestra operate in the country: Belgrade
Belgrade
Philharmonic Orchestra, Niš
Niš
Symphony Orchestra, Symphonic Orchestra of Radio Television of Serbia, and Novi Sad
Novi Sad
Philharmonic Orchestra. The Choir of Radio Television of Serbia
Serbia
is a leading vocal ensemble in the country.[281] The BEMUS is one of the most prominent classical music festivals in the South East Europe.

Filip Višnjić
Filip Višnjić
sings to the gusle

Traditional Serbian music includes various kinds of bagpipes, flutes, horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums and cymbals. The kolo is the traditional collective folk dance, which has a number of varieties throughout the regions. The most popular are those from Užice
Užice
and Morava region. Sung epic poetry has been an integral part of Serbian and Balkan music for centuries. In the highlands of Serbia
Serbia
these long poems are typically accompanied on a one-string fiddle called the gusle, and concern themselves with themes from history and mythology. There are records of gusle being played at the court of the 13th-century King Stefan Nemanjić.[282] Pop music
Pop music
has mainstream popularity. Željko Joksimović
Željko Joksimović
won second place at the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest
2004 Eurovision Song Contest
and Marija Šerifović managed to win the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest
2007 Eurovision Song Contest
with the song "Molitva", and Serbia
Serbia
was the host of the 2008 edition of the contest. Most popular pop singers include likes of Đorđe Balašević, Goca Tržan, Zdravko Čolić, Aleksandra Radović, Vlado Georgiev, Jelena Tomašević and Nataša Bekvalac among others. The Serbian rock
Serbian rock
which was during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s part of former Yugoslav rock scene, used to be well developed, featuring various rock genres, and was well covered in the media, which included numerous magazines, radio and TV shows. During the 1990s and 2000s popularity of rock music declined in Serbia, and although several major mainstream acts managed to sustain their popularity, an underground and independent music scene developed. The 2000s saw a revival of the mainstream scene and the appearance of a large number of notable acts. The most notable Serbian rock
Serbian rock
acts include Bajaga i Instruktori, Disciplina Kičme, Ekatarina Velika, Električni Orgazam, Eva Braun, Kerber, Neverne Bebe, Partibrejkers, Ritam Nereda, Orthodox Celts, Rambo Amadeus, Riblja Čorba, S.A.R.S., Smak, Van Gogh, YU Grupa and others. Folk music
Folk music
in its original form has been a prominent music style since World War One
World War One
following the early success of Sofka Nikolić. The music has been further promoted by Danica Obrenić, Anđelija Milić, Nada Mamula, and even later, during 60s and 70s, with stars like Silvana Armenulić, Toma Zdravković, Lepa Lukić, Vasilija Radojčić, Vida Pavlović and Gordana Stojićević.

Serbia
Serbia
won Eurovision Song Contest 2007

Turbo-folk
Turbo-folk
music is subgenre that has developed in Serbia
Serbia
in the late 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s and has since enjoyed an immense popularity through acts of Dragana Mirković, Zorica Brunclik, Šaban Šaulić, Ana Bekuta, Sinan Sakić, Vesna Zmijanac, Mile Kitić, Snežana Đurišić, Šemsa Suljaković, and Nada Topčagić. It is a blend of folk music with pop and/or dance elements and can be seen as a result of the urbanization of folk music. In recent period turbo-folk featured even more pop music elements, and some of the performers were labeled as pop-folk. The most famous among them are Ceca (often considered to be the biggest music star of Serbia), Jelena Karleuša, Aca Lukas, Seka Aleksić, Dara Bubamara, Indira Radić, Saša Matić, Viki Miljković, Stoja and Lepa Brena, arguably the most prominent performer of former Yugoslavia. Balkan Brass, or truba ("trumpet") is a popular genre, especially in Central and Southern Serbia
Serbia
where Balkan Brass originated. The music has its tradition from the First Serbian Uprising. The trumpet was used as a military instrument to wake and gather soldiers and announce battles, the trumpet took on the role of entertainment during downtime, as soldiers used it to transpose popular folk songs. When the war ended and the soldiers returned to the rural life, the music entered civilian life and eventually became a music style, accompanying births, baptisms, weddings, and funerals. There are two main varieties of this genre, one from Western Serbia
Serbia
and the other from Southern Serbia. The best known Serbian Brass musician is Boban Marković, also one of the biggest names in the world of modern brass band bandleaders. Most popular music festival are Guča Trumpet
Trumpet
Festival with over 300,000 annual visitors and EXIT in Novi Sad
Novi Sad
("The best European festival" in 2007 by UK Festival Awards and Yourope – the European Association of the 40 largest festivals in Europe) with 200,000 visitors in 2013.[283][284] Other festivals include Nišville
Nišville
Jazz Festival in Niš
Niš
and Gitarijada
Gitarijada
rock festival in Zaječar. Theatre and cinema Main article: Cinema of Serbia Serbia
Serbia
has a well-established theatrical tradition with Joakim Vujić considered the founder of modern Serbian theater.[285] Serbia
Serbia
has 38 professional theatres, the most important of which are National Theatre in Belgrade, Serbian National Theatre
Serbian National Theatre
in Novi Sad, National Theatre in Subotica, National Theatre in Niš
Niš
and Knjaževsko-srpski teatar in Kragujevac
Kragujevac
(the oldest theatre in Serbia, established in 1835). The Belgrade
Belgrade
International Theatre Festival – BITEF, founded in 1967, is one of the oldest theater festivals in the world, and it has become one of the five biggest European festivals.[286] Sterijino pozorje is, on the other hand, festival showcasing national drama plays. The most important Serbian playwrighters were Jovan Sterija Popović and Branislav Nušić, while today renowned names are Dušan Kovačević and Biljana Srbljanović.[287]

Emir Kusturica, most famous Serbian film director, won the Palme d'Or twice at Cannes Film Festival.

The Serbian cinema
Serbian cinema
is one of the most dynamic smaller European cinematographies. Serbia's film industry is heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through grants approved by the Film Centre of Serbia. In 2011, there were 17 domestic feature films produced.[288] There are 22 operating cinemas in the country, of which 12 are multiplexes, with total attendance exceeding 2.6 million and comparatively high percentage of 32.3% of total sold tickets for domestic films.[289][290] Modern PFI Studios located in Šimanovci
Šimanovci
is nowadays Serbia's only film studio complex; it consists of 9 state-of-the-art sound stages and attracts mainly international productions, primarily American and West European.[291] The Yugoslav Film Archive used to be former Yugoslavia's and now is Serbia
Serbia
national film archive – with over 95 thousand film prints, it is among five largest film archives in the world.[292] Serbian cinema
Serbian cinema
dates back to 1896 with the release of the oldest movie in the Balkans, The Life and Deeds of the Immortal Vožd Karađorđe, a biography about Serbian revolutionary leader, Karađorđe.[293][294] The most famous Serbian filmmaker is Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
who won two Golden Palms for Best Feature Film at the Cannes Film Festival, for When Father Was Away on Business in 1985 and then again for Underground in 1995.[295] Other renowned directors include Goran Paskaljević, Dušan Makavejev, Želimir Žilnik, Goran Marković, Srđan Dragojević
Srđan Dragojević
and Srdan Golubović
Srdan Golubović
among others. Steve Tesich, Serbian-American screenwriter, won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Screenplay
Best Original Screenplay
in 1979 for the movie Breaking Away. Some of the most prominent movie stars in Serbia
Serbia
have left celebrated heritage in cinematography of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
as well. Notable mentions are Zoran Radmilović, Pavle Vuisić, Radmila Savićević, Olivera Marković, Mija Aleksić, Miodrag Petrović Čkalja, Ružica Sokić, Velimir Bata Živojinović, Danilo Bata Stojković, Seka Sablić, Olivera Katarina, Dragan Nikolić, Mira Stupica, Nikola Simić, Bora Todorović, and others. Milena Dravić
Milena Dravić
is the most celebrated actress in Serbian cinematography. The actress has won Best Actress Award on Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
in 1980. Media Main articles: Media of Serbia
Media of Serbia
and Media freedom in Serbia The freedom of the press and the freedom of speech are guaranteed by the constitution of Serbia.[296] Serbia
Serbia
is ranked 54th out of 180 countries in the 2014 Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
report compiled by Reporters Without Borders.[297] Both reports noted that media outlets and journalists continue to face partisan and government pressure over editorial policies. Also, the media are now more heavily dependent on advertising contracts and government subsidies to survive financially.[298]

Avala Tower, the tallest tower in the Balkans

According to AGB Nielsen Research in 2009, Serbs
Serbs
on average watch five hours of television per day, making it the highest average in Europe.[299] There are seven nationwide free-to-air television channels, with public broadcaster Radio Television of Serbia
Radio Television of Serbia
(RTS) operating three (RTS1, RTS2 and RTS3) and remaining four are private broadcasters: Pink, Happy TV, Prva, and O2.TV. Viewing shares for these channels in 2016 were as follows: 20.2% for RTS1, 14.1% for Pink, 9.4% for Happy TV, 9.0% for Prva, 4.7% for O2.TV, and 2.5% for RTS2.[300] There are 28 regional television channels and 74 local television channels.[101] Besides terrestrial channels there are dozens Serbian television channels available only on cable or satellite. There are 247 radio stations in Serbia.[101] Out of these, six are radio stations with national coverage, including two of public broadcaster Radio Television of Serbia
Radio Television of Serbia
(Radio Belgrade
Belgrade
1 and Radio Belgrade
Belgrade
2/Radio Belgrade
Belgrade
3) and four private ones (Radio S1, Radio S2, Play Radio, and Radio Hit FM). Also, there are 34 regional stations and 207 local stations.[301] There are 305 newspapers published in Serbia[181] of which 12 are daily newspapers. Dailies Politika
Politika
and Danas are Serbia's papers of record, former being the oldest newspaper in the Balkans, founded in 1904.[302] Highest circulation newspapers are tabloids Večernje Novosti, Blic, Kurir, and Informer, all with more than 100,000 copies sold.[303] There are one daily newspaper devoted to sports – Sportski žurnal, one business daily Privredni pregled, two regional newspapers (Dnevnik published in Novi Sad
Novi Sad
and Narodne novine from Niš), and one minority-language daily ( Magyar Szo in Hungarian, published in Subotica). There are 1,351 magazines published in the country.[181] Those include weekly news magazines NIN, Vreme
Vreme
and Nedeljnik, popular science magazine of Politikin Zabavnik, women's Lepota & Zdravlje, auto magazine SAT revija, IT magazine Svet kompjutera. In addition, there is a wide selection of Serbian editions of international magazines, such as Cosmopolitan, Elle, Grazia, Men's Health, National Geographic, Le Monde diplomatique, Playboy, Hello! and others. There are two main news agencies, Beta and Fonet. As of 2017[update], out of 432 web-portals (mainly on the .rs domain)[304] the most visited are online editions of printed dailies Blic
Blic
and Kurir, news web-portal B92, and classifieds KupujemProdajem.[305]

Serbian Christmas
Christmas
meal; Šljivovica, the national drink

Cuisine Main article: Serbian cuisine Serbian cuisine
Serbian cuisine
is largely heterogeneous, sharing characteristics of the Balkans
Balkans
(especially former Yugoslavia), the Mediterranean (Greek in particular), Turkish, and Central European (especially Austrian and Hungarian) cuisines. Food is very important in Serbian social life, particularly during religious holidays such as Christmas, Easter
Easter
and feast days i.e. slava.[306] Staples of the Serbian diet include bread, meat, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Bread is the basis of all Serbian meals, and it plays an important role in Serbian cuisine
Serbian cuisine
and can be found in religious rituals. A traditional Serbian welcome is to offer bread and salt to guests. Meat is widely consumed, as is fish. Serbian specialties include ćevapčići (caseless sausages made of minced meat, which is always grilled and seasoned), pljeskavica, sarma, kajmak (a dairy product similar to clotted cream), gibanica (cheese and kajmak pie), ajvar (a roasted red pepper spread), proja (cornbread), and kačamak (corn-flour porridge).[307] Serbians claim their country as the birthplace of rakia (rakija), a highly alcoholic drink primarily distilled from fruit. Rakia
Rakia
in various forms is found throughout the Balkans, notably in Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Hungary
Hungary
and Turkey. Slivovitz (šljivovica), a plum brandy, is a type of rakia which is considered the national drink of Serbia.[308] Sports Main article: Sport in Serbia Sports play an important role in Serbian society, and the country has a strong sporting history. The most popular sports in Serbia
Serbia
are football, basketball, tennis, volleyball, water polo and handball. Professional sports in Serbia
Serbia
are organized by sporting federations and leagues (in case of team sports). One of particularities of Serbian professional sports is existence of many multi-sports clubs (called "sports societies"), biggest and most successful of which are Red Star, Partizan, and Beograd in Belgrade, Vojvodina
Vojvodina
in Novi Sad, Radnički in Kragujevac, Spartak in Subotica.

Novak Djokovic, considered one of the greatest tennis players of all time.

Football is the most popular sport in Serbia, and the Football Association of Serbia
Serbia
with 146,845 registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.[309] Dragan Džajić
Dragan Džajić
was officially recognized as "the best Serbian player of all times" by the Football Association of Serbia, and more recently the likes of Nemanja Vidić, Dejan Stanković
Dejan Stanković
and Branislav Ivanović
Branislav Ivanović
play for the elite clubs of Europe, developing the nation's reputation as one of the world's biggest exporters of footballers.[310] The Serbia national football team
Serbia national football team
lacks relative success although it qualified for three of the last four FIFA World Cups. Serbia
Serbia
national youth football teams have won 2013 U-19 European Championship and 2015 U-20 World Cup. The two main football clubs in Serbia
Serbia
are Red Star (winner of the 1991 European Cup) and Partizan (finalist of the 1966 European Cup), both from Belgrade. The rivalry between the two clubs is known as the "Eternal Derby", and is often cited as one of the most exciting sports rivalries in the world. Serbia
Serbia
is one of the traditional powerhouses of world basketball, as Serbia
Serbia
men's national basketball team have won two World Championships (in 1998 and 2002), three European Championships (1995, 1997, and 2001) and two Olympic silver medals (in 1996 and 2016) as well. The women's national basketball team won the European Championship in 2015 and Olympic bronze medal in 2016. A total of 31 Serbian players have played in the NBA in last two decades, including Predrag "Peja" Stojaković (three-time NBA All-Star) and Vlade Divac
Vlade Divac
(2001 NBA All-Star and FIBA Hall of Famer).[311] The renowned "Serbian coaching school" produced many of the most successful European basketball coaches of all times, such as Željko Obradović, who won a record 9 Euroleague titles as a coach. KK Partizan
KK Partizan
basketball club was the 1992 European champion.

Serbia men's national water polo team
Serbia men's national water polo team
are current Olympic and European champions

Recent success of Serbian tennis players has led to an immense growth in the popularity of tennis in the country. Novak Đoković, twelve-time Grand Slam champion, finished in 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2015 as No. 1 in the world.[312] Ana Ivanovic
Ana Ivanovic
(champion of 2008 French Open) and Jelena Janković
Jelena Janković
were both ranked No. 1 in the WTA Rankings. There were two No. 1 ranked-tennis double players as well: Nenad Zimonjić (three-time men's double and four-time mixed double Grand Slam champion) and Slobodan Živojinović. The Serbia
Serbia
men's tennis national team won the 2010 Davis Cup
2010 Davis Cup
while Serbia
Serbia
women's tennis national team reached the final at 2012 Fed Cup.[313] Serbia
Serbia
is one of the leading volleyball countries in the world. Its men's national team won the gold medal at 2000 Olympics, and has won the European Championship twice. The women's national volleyball team won the European Championship twice as well as Olympic silver medal in 2016. The Serbia men's national water polo team
Serbia men's national water polo team
is the second most successful national team after Hungary, having won Olympic gold medal in 2016, three World Championships (2005, 2009 and 2015), and six European Championships in 2001, 2003, 2006, 2012, 2014 and 2016 respectively.[314] VK Partizan
VK Partizan
has won a joint-record seven European champion titles. Other noted Serbian athletes include: swimmers Milorad Čavić
Milorad Čavić
(2009 World champion on 50 meters butterfly and silver medalist on 100 meters butterfly as well as 2008 Olympic silver medalist on 100 meters butterfly in historic race with American swimmer Michael Phelps) and Nađa Higl
Nađa Higl
(2009 World champion in 200 meters breaststroke – the first Serbian woman to become a world champion in swimming); track and field athlete Ivana Španović
Ivana Španović
(long-jumper; 2016 European champion and bronze medalist at the 2016 Olympics); wrestler Davor Štefanek (2016 Olympic gold medalist), and taekwondoist Milica Mandić
Milica Mandić
(2012 Olympic gold medalist). Serbia
Serbia
has hosted several major sport competitions in the last ten years, including the 2005 Men's European Basketball
Basketball
Championship, 2005 Men's European Volleyball
Volleyball
Championship, 2006 and 2016 Men's European Water Polo Championships, 2009 Summer Universiade, 2012 European Men's Handball
Handball
Championship, and 2013 World Women's Handball
Handball
Championship. The most important annual sporting events held in the country are Belgrade
Belgrade
Marathon and Tour de Serbie cycling race. Public holidays The public holidays in Serbia
Serbia
are defined by the Law of national and other holidays in the Republic of Serbia.

Date Name Local Name 2015 Date 2016 Date Remarks

1 January New Year's Day Nova Godina 1 January

7 January Julian Orthodox Christmas Božić 7 January Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
uses the Julian calendar

15 February Statehood Day Dan državnosti 15 February Anniversary of the First Serbian Uprising
First Serbian Uprising
in 1804 and the first Serbian Constitution
Constitution
in 1835

See Date of Easter Orthodox Good Friday Veliki petak 10 April 29 April Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
calculates Easter
Easter
using Orthodox Computus

Orthodox Easter Vaskrs 12 April 1 May

Orthodox Easter
Easter
Monday Vaskrsni ponedeljak 13 April 2 May

1 May May Day
May Day
/ International Workers' Day Praznik rada 1 May

11 November Armistice Day Dan primirja 11 November

See also

Serbia
Serbia
portal

National colours of Serbia International rankings of Serbia Outline of Serbia Timeline of Serbian history

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Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

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The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

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Republics and autonomous provinces of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Macedonia Montenegro Serbia

Vojvodina Kosovo

Slovenia

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Balkan Peninsula
Balkan Peninsula
countries

Geographically fully located

Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Kosovo1 Macedonia Montenegro

Significantly located

Serbia Greece Croatia

Mostly outside of the peninsula

Romania Slovenia Turkey

See also

Southeast Europe History of the Balkans Balkan languages (Sprachbund) Balkanization

1 Declared independence from Serbia
Serbia
on 17 February 2008 and is recognised by 113 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

International organizations

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Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

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Enlargement and partners of the European Union

Previous enlargements

1973 1981 1986 1995 2004 2007 2013 Statistics

Negotiating

  Montenegro
Montenegro
(status)   Serbia
Serbia
(status)   Turkey
Turkey
(status)

Candidate status

  Albania
Albania
(status)  Macedonia (status)

Potential candidates

  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(status)  Kosovo* (under the Belgrade–Pristina agreement; status)

Partnerships

Free trade agreements

  Iceland
Iceland
(relations)   Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
(relations)   Norway
Norway
(relations)    Switzerland
Switzerland
(relations)

Eastern Partnership

  Armenia
Armenia
(relations)   Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(relations)   Belarus
Belarus
(relations)  Georgia (relations) (accession)   Moldova
Moldova
(relations)   Ukraine
Ukraine
(relations)

Northern Dimension

  Russia
Russia
(relations)   Norway
Norway
(relations)

Union for the Mediterranean

 Algeria  Egypt   Israel
Israel
(relations)   Jordan
Jordan
(relations)   Lebanon
Lebanon
(relations)  Mauritania  Monaco   Morocco
Morocco
(relations)  Palestine (relations)  Syria  Tunisia

Current membership Criteria Withdrawal

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Members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement

Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo/UNMIK Macedonia Moldova Montenegro Serbia

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Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
(BSEC)

   

 Albania  Armenia  Azerbaijan

 Bulgaria  Georgia  Greece

 Moldova  Romania  Russia

 Serbia  Turkey  Ukraine

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Non-Aligned Movement

Members

List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Non-Aligned Movement Egypt
Egypt
and the Non-Aligned Movement

Structure

Organizations

NAM News Network

Principles

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Summits

Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement

Founders

Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
(Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)

People

Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro

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La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

New Brunswick Quebec

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon

Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam

Observers

Argentina Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay

1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151202876 LCCN: n85195919 ISNI: 0000 0000 9526 6709 GND: 4054598-2 HDS: 4

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