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Seattle
Seattle
(/siˈætəl/ ( listen)) is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States. It is the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 713,700 residents as of 2017[update],[3] Seattle
Seattle
is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region of North America. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States[7] and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%.[8] In July 2016, Seattle
Seattle
was again the fastest-growing major U.S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate.[9] The city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound
Puget Sound
(an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada– United States
United States
border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle
Seattle
is the fourth-largest port in North America
North America
in terms of container handling as of 2015[update].[10] The Seattle
Seattle
area was previously inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.[11] Arthur A. Denny
Arthur A. Denny
and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851.[12] The settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay
Elliott Bay
and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish
Suquamish
tribes. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska
Alaska
during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing
Boeing
company, which established Seattle
Seattle
as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The Seattle
Seattle
area developed into a technology center beginning in the 1980s, with companies like Microsoft
Microsoft
becoming established in the region, with Microsoft
Microsoft
founder Bill Gates
Bill Gates
having been born in Seattle. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle
Seattle
in 1994. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Seattle
Seattle
has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle
Seattle
is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters
Foo Fighters
and the alternative rock movement grunge.[13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding 1.2 Duwamps 1852–1853 1.3 Incorporations 1.4 Timber town 1.5 Gold Rush, World War I, and the Great Depression 1.6 Post-war years: aircraft and software

2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape 2.2 Topography 2.3 Climate

3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Nicknames 5.2 Performing arts 5.3 Tourism

6 Professional sports 7 Parks and recreation 8 Government and politics 9 Education 10 Media 11 Infrastructure

11.1 Health systems 11.2 Transportation 11.3 Utilities

12 Notable people 13 Sister cities 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Footnotes 15.2 Citations

16 Bibliography 17 Further reading 18 External links

History Main articles: History of Seattle
History of Seattle
and Timeline of Seattle Founding Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle
Seattle
area for at least 4,000 years.[11] By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people (subsequently called the Duwamish tribe) occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.[14][15][16] The first European to visit the Seattle
Seattle
area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest.[17] In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River; they formally claimed it on September 14, 1851.[18] Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party.[19] Members of the Denny Party
Denny Party
claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851.[20] The rest of the Denny Party
Denny Party
set sail from Portland, Oregon, and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851.[20] Duwamps 1852–1853

The Battle of Seattle
Seattle
(1856)

After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party
Denny Party
relocated across Elliott Bay
Elliott Bay
and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square,[20] naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning, roughly, "by and by" or "someday".[21] For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.[22] David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Sealth ("Seattle") of the Duwamish and Suquamish
Suquamish
tribes.[23][24][25] Incorporations The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory
Washington Territory
papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle
Seattle
with a board of trustees managing the city. The Town of Seattle
Seattle
was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, and remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government.[20][26] The corporate seal of the City of Seattle
Seattle
carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile.[27] Timber town

Seattle's first streetcar, at the corner of Occidental and Yesler, 1884. All of the buildings visible in this picture were destroyed by fire five years later.

Seattle
Seattle
has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle
Seattle
has risen several times economically, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure.[28] The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, rode on the lumber industry. (During this period the road now known as Yesler Way won the nickname "Skid Road", supposedly after the timber skidding down the hill to Henry Yesler's sawmill. The later dereliction of the area may be a possible origin for the term which later entered the wider American lexicon as Skid Row.)[29] Like much of the American West, Seattle
Seattle
saw numerous conflicts between labor and management, as well as ethnic tensions that culminated in the anti-Chinese riots of 1885–1886.[30] This violence originated with unemployed whites who were determined to drive the Chinese from Seattle
Seattle
(anti-Chinese riots also occurred in Tacoma). In 1900, Asians were 4.2% of the population.[31] Authorities declared martial law and federal troops arrived to put down the disorder. Seattle
Seattle
achieved sufficient economic success that when the Great Seattle
Seattle
Fire of 1889 destroyed the central business district, a far grander city-center rapidly emerged in its place.[32] Finance company Washington Mutual, for example, was founded in the immediate wake of the fire.[33] However, the Panic of 1893
Panic of 1893
hit Seattle
Seattle
hard.[34] Gold Rush, World War I, and the Great Depression

The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition
Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition
had just over 3.7 million visitors during its 138-day run[35]

The second and most dramatic boom resulted from the Klondike Gold Rush, which ended the depression that had begun with the Panic of 1893. In a short time, Seattle
Seattle
became a major transportation center. On July 14, 1897, the S.S. Portland docked with its famed "ton of gold", and Seattle
Seattle
became the main transport and supply point for the miners in Alaska
Alaska
and the Yukon. Few of those working men found lasting wealth. However, it was Seattle's business of clothing the miners and feeding them salmon that panned out in the long run. Along with Seattle, other cities like Everett, Tacoma, Port
Port
Townsend, Bremerton, and Olympia, all in the Puget Sound
Puget Sound
region, became competitors for exchange, rather than mother lodes for extraction, of precious metals.[36] The boom lasted well into the early part of the 20th century, and funded many new Seattle
Seattle
companies and products. In 1907, 19-year-old James E. Casey borrowed $100 from a friend and founded the American Messenger Company
American Messenger Company
(later UPS). Other Seattle
Seattle
companies founded during this period include Nordstrom
Nordstrom
and Eddie Bauer.[33] Seattle
Seattle
brought in the Olmsted Brothers
Olmsted Brothers
landscape architecture firm to design a system of parks and boulevards.[37]

Pioneer Square in 1917 featuring the Smith Tower, the Seattle
Seattle
Hotel and to the left the Pioneer Building

The Gold Rush era culminated in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition
Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition
of 1909, which is largely responsible for the layout of today's University of Washington
University of Washington
campus.[38] A shipbuilding boom in the early part of the 20th century became massive during World War I, making Seattle
Seattle
somewhat of a company town. The subsequent retrenchment led to the Seattle General Strike
Seattle General Strike
of 1919, the first general strike in the country.[39] A 1912 city development plan by Virgil Bogue
Virgil Bogue
went largely unused. Seattle
Seattle
was mildly prosperous in the 1920s but was particularly hard hit in the Great Depression, experiencing some of the country's harshest labor strife in that era. Violence during the Maritime Strike of 1934
Maritime Strike of 1934
cost Seattle much of its maritime traffic, which was rerouted to the Port
Port
of Los Angeles.[40] The Great Depression
Great Depression
in Seattle
Seattle
affected many minority groups, one being the Asian Pacific Americans; they were subject to racism, loss of property, and failed claims of unemployment due to citizenship status.[41] Seattle
Seattle
was one of the major cities that benefited from programs such as the WPA, CCC, UCL, and PWA.[42][43] The workers, mostly men, built roads, parks, dams, schools, railroads, bridges, docks, and even historical and archival record sites and buildings. However, Seattle faced massive unemployment, loss of lumber and construction industries as Los Angeles
Los Angeles
prevailed as the bigger West Coast city. Seattle
Seattle
had building contracts that rivaled New York City
New York City
and Chicago, but lost to LA as well. Seattle’s eastern farm land faded due to Oregon’s and the Midwest’s, forcing people into town.[44][45] The famous Hooverville
Hooverville
arose during the Depression, leading to Seattle’s growing homeless population. Stationed outside Seattle, the Hooverville
Hooverville
housed thousands of men but very very few children and no women. With work projects close to the city, Hooverville
Hooverville
grew and the WPA settled into the city.[46] A movement by women arose from Seattle
Seattle
during the Depression. Fueled by Eleanor Roosevelt’s book It’s Up to the Women, women pushed for recognition, not just as housewives, but as the backbone to family. Using newspapers and journals Working Woman and The Woman Today, women pushed to be seen as equal and receive some recognition.[47] Seattle’s University of Washington
University of Washington
was greatly affected during the Depression era. As schools across Washington lost funding and attendance, the UW actually prospered during the time period. While Seattle
Seattle
public schools were influenced by Washington’s superintendent Worth McClure,[48] they still struggled to pay teachers and maintain attendance. The UW, despite academic challenges that plagued the college due to differing views on teaching and learning, focused on growth in student enrollment rather than improving the existing school.[49] Seattle
Seattle
was also the home base of impresario Alexander Pantages
Alexander Pantages
who, starting in 1902, opened a number of theaters in the city exhibiting vaudeville acts and silent movies. His activities soon expanded, and the thrifty Greek went on and became one of America's greatest theater and movie tycoons. Between Pantages and his rival John Considine, Seattle
Seattle
was for a while the western United States' vaudeville mecca. B. Marcus Priteca, the Scottish-born and Seattle-based architect, built several theaters for Pantages, including some in Seattle. The theaters he built for Pantages in Seattle
Seattle
have been either demolished or converted to other uses, but many other theaters survive in other cities of the U.S., often retaining the Pantages name; Seattle's surviving Paramount Theatre, on which he collaborated, was not a Pantages theater. Post-war years: aircraft and software

Building the Seattle Center
Seattle Center
Monorail, 1961. Looking north up Fifth Avenue from Virginia Street.

War work again brought local prosperity during World War II, this time centered on Boeing
Boeing
aircraft. The war dispersed the city's numerous Japanese-American businessmen due to the Japanese American
Japanese American
internment. After the war, the local economy dipped. It rose again with Boeing's growing dominance in the commercial airliner market.[50] Seattle celebrated its restored prosperity and made a bid for world recognition with the Century 21 Exposition, the 1962 World's Fair.[51] Another major local economic downturn was in the late 1960s and early 1970s, at a time when Boeing
Boeing
was heavily affected by the oil crises, loss of Government contracts, and costs and delays associated with the Boeing
Boeing
747. Many people left the area to look for work elsewhere, and two local real estate agents put up a billboard reading "Will the last person leaving Seattle
Seattle
– Turn out the lights."[52] Seattle
Seattle
remained the corporate headquarters of Boeing
Boeing
until 2001, when the company separated its headquarters from its major production facilities; the headquarters were moved to Chicago.[53] The Seattle area is still home to Boeing's Renton narrow-body plant (where the 707, 720, 727, and 757 were assembled, and the 737 is assembled today) and Everett wide-body plant (assembly plant for the 747, 767, 777, and 787). The company's credit union for employees, BECU, remains based in the Seattle
Seattle
area, though it is now open to all residents of Washington. As prosperity began to return in the 1980s, the city was stunned by the Wah Mee massacre
Wah Mee massacre
in 1983, when 13 people were killed in an illegal gambling club in the Seattle
Seattle
Chinatown-International District.[54] Beginning with Microsoft's 1979 move from Albuquerque, New Mexico, to nearby Bellevue, Washington,[55] Seattle
Seattle
and its suburbs became home to a number of technology companies including Amazon.com, F5 Networks, RealNetworks, Nintendo
Nintendo
of America, McCaw Cellular (now part of AT&T Mobility), VoiceStream (now T-Mobile), and biomedical corporations such as HeartStream (later purchased by Philips), Heart Technologies (later purchased by Boston Scientific), Physio-Control (later purchased by Medtronic), ZymoGenetics, ICOS (later purchased by Eli Lilly and Company) and Immunex (later purchased by Amgen). This success brought an influx of new residents with a population increase within city limits of almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000,[56] and saw Seattle's real estate become some of the most expensive in the country.[57] In 1993, the movie Sleepless in Seattle brought the city further national attention.[58] Many of the Seattle
Seattle
area's tech companies remained relatively strong, but the frenzied dot-com boom years ended in early 2001.[59][60] Seattle
Seattle
in this period attracted widespread attention as home to these many companies, but also by hosting the 1990 Goodwill Games[61] and the APEC
APEC
leaders conference in 1993, as well as through the worldwide popularity of grunge, a sound that had developed in Seattle's independent music scene.[62] Another bid for worldwide attention—hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999—garnered visibility, but not in the way its sponsors desired, as related protest activity and police reactions to those protests overshadowed the conference itself.[63] The city was further shaken by the Mardi Gras Riots in 2001, and then literally shaken the following day by the Nisqually earthquake.[64] Another boom began as the city emerged from the Great Recession
Great Recession
which commenced when Amazon.com
Amazon.com
moved its headquarters from North Beacon Hill to South Lake Union. This initiated a historic construction boom which resulted in the completion of almost 10,000 apartments in Seattle
Seattle
in 2017, which is more than any previous year and nearly twice as many as were built in 2016.[65][66] Beginning in 2010, and for the next five years, Seattle
Seattle
gained an average of 14,511 residents per year, with the growth strongly skewed toward the center of the city,[67] as unemployment dropped from roughly 9 percent to 3.6 percent.[68] The city has found itself "bursting at the seams", with over 45,000 households spending more than half their income on housing and at least 2,800 people homeless, and with the country's sixth-worst rush hour traffic.[68]

Geography With a land area of 83.9 square miles (217.3 km²),[69] Seattle is the northernmost city with at least 500,000 people in the United States, farther north than Canadian cities such as Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal, at about the same latitude as Salzburg, Austria. The topography of Seattle
Seattle
is hilly. The city lies on several hills, including Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Magnolia, Denny Hill, and Queen Anne. The Kitsap and the Olympic peninsulas along with the Olympic mountains lie to the west of Puget Sound, while the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
and Lake Sammamish
Lake Sammamish
lie to the east of Lake Washington. The city has over 5,540 acres (2,242 ha) of parkland. Cityscape Further information: List of tallest buildings in Seattle
List of tallest buildings in Seattle
and Architecture of Seattle

Seattle
Seattle
Skyline view from Queen Anne Hill. The Space Needle
Space Needle
is visible on the left, the mountain in the background is Mount Rainier, on the right is Elliott Bay
Elliott Bay
and the Port
Port
of Seattle
Seattle
on Puget Sound.

Seattle
Seattle
from the Columbia Center, the highest building in the city[70]

Panorama of Seattle
Seattle
as seen from the Space Needle: a nearly 360-degree view that includes (from left) Puget Sound, Magnolia, Queen Anne Hill, Lake Union, Capitol Hill, downtown Seattle, Elliott Bay, and West Seattle.

Topography See also: Bodies of water of Seattle, List of parks in Seattle, List of earthquakes in Washington (state), and Regrading in Seattle

Treemap comparing the volume of earth moved by the megaprojects that transformed the landscape in and around Seattle. The Denny and other regrades moved a combined total of more than 35 million cubic yards of earth. Creating Harbor Island involved 7 million cubic yards, while the Ballard Locks
Ballard Locks
project moved 1.6 million, twice that of the Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel. Straightening the Duwamish River
Duwamish River
and filling its tideflats was the largest single project, at nearly 22 million cubic yards.

Seattle
Seattle
is located between the saltwater Puget Sound
Puget Sound
(an arm of the Pacific Ocean) to the west and Lake Washington
Lake Washington
to the east. The city's chief harbor, Elliott Bay, is part of Puget Sound, which makes the city an oceanic port. To the west, beyond Puget Sound, are the Kitsap Peninsula and Olympic Mountains
Olympic Mountains
on the Olympic Peninsula; to the east, beyond Lake Washington
Lake Washington
and the Eastside suburbs, are Lake Sammamish and the Cascade Range. Lake Washington's waters flow to Puget Sound through the Lake Washington
Lake Washington
Ship Canal (consisting of two man-made canals, Lake Union, and the Hiram M. Chittenden Locks
Hiram M. Chittenden Locks
at Salmon Bay, ending in Shilshole Bay
Shilshole Bay
on Puget Sound).

Downtown Seattle
Downtown Seattle
is bounded by Elliott Bay
Elliott Bay
(lower left), Broadway (from upper left to lower right), South Dearborn Street (lower right), and Denny Way (upper left, obscured by clouds).

The sea, rivers, forests, lakes, and fields surrounding Seattle
Seattle
were once rich enough to support one of the world's few sedentary hunter-gatherer societies. The surrounding area lends itself well to sailing, skiing, bicycling, camping, and hiking year-round.[71][72] The city itself is hilly, though not uniformly so.[73] Like Rome, the city is said to lie on seven hills;[74] the lists vary but typically include Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Queen Anne, Magnolia, and the former Denny Hill. The Wallingford, Delridge, Mount Baker, Seward Park, Washington Park, Broadmoor, Madrona, Phinney Ridge, Sunset Hill, Blue Ridge, Broadview, Laurelhurst, Hawthorne Hills, Maple Leaf, and Crown Hill neighborhoods are all located on hills as well. Many of the hilliest areas are near the city center, with Capitol Hill, First Hill, and Beacon Hill collectively constituting something of a ridge along an isthmus between Elliott Bay and Lake Washington.[75] The break in the ridge between First Hill and Beacon Hill is man-made, the result of two of the many regrading projects that reshaped the topography of the city center.[76] The topography of the city center was also changed by the construction of a seawall and the artificial Harbor Island (completed 1909) at the mouth of the city's industrial Duwamish Waterway, the terminus of the Green River. The highest point within city limits is at High Point in West Seattle, which is roughly located near 35th Ave SW and SW Myrtle St. Other notable hills include Crown Hill, View Ridge/Wedgwood/Bryant, Maple Leaf, Phinney Ridge, Mt. Baker Ridge, and Highlands/Carkeek/Bitterlake.

Boats gather on Lake Union
Lake Union
in preparation for the July 4 fireworks show

North of the city center, Lake Washington
Lake Washington
Ship Canal connects Puget Sound to Lake Washington. It incorporates four natural bodies of water: Lake Union, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, and Union Bay. Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Seattle
Seattle
is in a major earthquake zone. On February 28, 2001, the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquake did significant architectural damage, especially in the Pioneer Square area (built on reclaimed land, as are the Industrial District and part of the city center), but caused only one fatality.[77] Other strong quakes occurred on January 26, 1700 (estimated at 9 magnitude), December 14, 1872 (7.3 or 7.4),[78] April 13, 1949 (7.1),[79] and April 29, 1965 (6.5).[80] The 1965 quake caused three deaths in Seattle
Seattle
directly and one more by heart failure.[80] Although the Seattle Fault
Seattle Fault
passes just south of the city center, neither it[81] nor the Cascadia subduction zone
Cascadia subduction zone
has caused an earthquake since the city's founding. The Cascadia subduction zone poses the threat of an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater, capable of seriously damaging the city and collapsing many buildings, especially in zones built on fill.[82] According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.5 square miles (369 km2),[83] 83.9 square miles (217 km2) of which is land and 58.7 square miles (152 km2), water (41.16% of the total area). Climate

Downtown Seattle
Downtown Seattle
averages 71 completely sunny days a year, with most of those days occurring between May and September[70]

Seattle's climate is classified as oceanic or temperate marine, with cool, wet winters and mild, relatively dry summers.[84][85] The city and environs are part of USDA hardiness zone 8b, with isolated coastal pockets falling under 9a.[86] Temperature extremes are moderated by the adjacent Puget Sound, greater Pacific Ocean, and Lake Washington. Thus extreme heat waves are rare in the Seattle
Seattle
area, as are very cold temperatures (below about 15 °F (−9 °C)). The Seattle
Seattle
area is the most cloudy region of the United States, due in part to frequent storms and lows moving in from the adjacent Pacific Ocean. Despite having a reputation for frequent rain, Seattle
Seattle
receives less precipitation than many other U.S. cities like Chicago
Chicago
or New York City. However, unlike many other U.S. cities, Seattle
Seattle
has many more "rain days", when a very light drizzle falls from the sky for many days.[87] In an average year, at least 0.01 inches (0.25 mm) of precipitation falls on 150 days, more than nearly all U.S. cities east of the Rocky Mountains.[88] It is cloudy 201 days out of the year and partly cloudy 93 days.[70] Official weather and climatic data is collected at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, located about 19 km (12 mi) south of downtown in the city of SeaTac, which is at a higher elevation, and records more cloudy days and fewer partly cloudy days per year.[70] Hot temperature extremes are enhanced by dry, compressed wind from the west slopes of the Cascades,[89] while cold temperatures are generated mainly from the Fraser Valley
Fraser Valley
in British Columbia.[90] From 1981 to 2010, the average annual precipitation measured at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport
Seattle–Tacoma International Airport
was 37.49 inches (952 mm). Annual precipitation has ranged from 23.78 in (604 mm) in 1952 to 55.14 in (1,401 mm) in 1950; for water year (October 1 – September 30) precipitation, the range is 23.16 in (588 mm) in 1976–77 to 51.82 in (1,316 mm) in 1996–97.[91] Due to local variations in microclimate, Seattle
Seattle
also receives significantly lower precipitation than some other locations west of the Cascades. Around 80 mi (129 km) to the west, the Hoh Rain Forest
Hoh Rain Forest
in Olympic National Park
Olympic National Park
on the western flank of the Olympic Mountains
Olympic Mountains
receives an annual average precipitation of 142 in (3.61 m). Sixty miles (95 km) to the south of Seattle, the state capital Olympia, which is out of the Olympic Mountains' rain shadow, receives an annual average precipitation of 50 in (1,270 mm).[91] The city of Bremerton, about 15 mi (24 km) west of downtown Seattle
Seattle
on the other side of the Puget Sound, receives 56.4 in (1,430 mm) of precipitation annually.[91] Conversely, the northeastern portion of the Olympic Peninsula, which lies east of the Olympic Mountains
Olympic Mountains
is located within the Olympic rain shadow and receives significantly less precipitation than its surrounding areas. Prevailing airflow from the west is forced to cool and compress when colliding with the mountain range, resulting in high levels of precipitation within the mountains and its western slopes. Once the airflow reaches the leeward side of the mountains it then lowers and expands resulting in warmer, and significantly dryer air. Sequim, Washington, nicknamed "Sunny Sequim", is located approximately 40 mi (64 km) northwest of downtown Seattle
Seattle
and receives just 16.51 inches (419 mm) of annual precipitation, more comparable to that of Los Angeles. Oftentimes an area devoid of cloud cover can be seen extending out over the Puget Sound
Puget Sound
to the north and east of Sequim. On average Sequim observes 127 sunny days per year in addition to 127 days with partial cloud cover. Other areas influenced by the Olympic rain shadow include Port
Port
Angeles, Port
Port
Townsend, extending as far north as Victoria, British Columbia.[92] In November, Seattle
Seattle
averages more rainfall than any other U.S. city of more than 250,000 people; it also ranks highly in winter precipitation. Conversely, the city receives some of the lowest precipitation amounts of any large city from June to September. Seattle
Seattle
is one of the five rainiest major U.S. cities as measured by the number of days with precipitation, and it receives some of the lowest amounts of annual sunshine among major cities in the lower 48 states, along with some cities in the Northeast, Ohio and Michigan. Thunderstorms are rare,[93] as the city reports thunder on just seven days per year.[94] By comparison, Fort Myers, Florida, reports thunder on 93 days per year, Kansas City on 52, and New York City
New York City
on 25. Seattle
Seattle
experiences its heaviest rainfall during the months of November, December and January, receiving roughly half of its annual rainfall (by volume) during this period. In late fall and early winter, atmospheric rivers (also known as "Pineapple Express" systems), strong frontal systems, and Pacific low pressure systems are common. Light rain & drizzle are the predominant forms of precipitation during the remainder of the year; for instance, on average, less than 1.6 in (41 mm) of rain falls in July and August combined when rain is rare. On occasion, Seattle
Seattle
experiences somewhat more significant weather events. One such event occurred on December 2–4, 2007, when sustained hurricane-force winds and widespread heavy rainfall associated with a strong Pineapple Express event occurred in the greater Puget Sound
Puget Sound
area and the western parts of Washington and Oregon. Precipitation
Precipitation
totals exceeded 13.8 in (350 mm) in some areas with winds topping out at 209 km/h (130 mph) along coastal Oregon.[95] It became the second wettest event in Seattle
Seattle
history when a little over 130 mm (5.1 in) of rain fell on Seattle
Seattle
in a 24-hour period. Lack of adaptation to the heavy rain contributed to five deaths and widespread flooding and damage.[96] Autumn, winter, and early spring are frequently characterized by rain. Winters are cool and wet with December, the coolest month, averaging 40.6 °F (4.8 °C), with 28 annual days with lows that reach the freezing mark, and 2.0 days where the temperature stays at or below freezing all day;[91] the temperature rarely lowers to 20 °F (−7 °C).[91] Summers are sunny, dry and warm, with August, the warmest month, with high temperatures averaging 76.1 °F (24.5 °C), and reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on 3.1 days per year. In 2015 the city recorded 13 days over 90 °F.[91] The hottest officially recorded temperature was 103 °F (39 °C) on July 29, 2009;[97] the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °F (−18 °C) on January 31, 1950;[98] the record cold daily maximum is 16 °F (−9 °C) on January 14, 1950, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 71 °F (22 °C) the day the official record high was set.[91] The average window for freezing temperatures is November 16 through March 10, allowing a growing season of 250 days.[91] Seattle
Seattle
typically receives some snowfall on an annual basis but heavy snow is rare. Average annual snowfall, as measured at Sea-Tac Airport, is 6.8 inches (17.3 cm). Single calendar-day snowfall of six inches (15 cm) or greater has occurred on only 15 days since 1948, and only once since February 17, 1990, when 6.8 in (17.3 cm) of snow officially fell at Sea-Tac airport on January 18, 2012. This moderate snow event was officially the 12th snowiest calendar day at the airport since 1948 and snowiest since November 1985.[91] Much of the city of Seattle
Seattle
proper received somewhat lesser snowfall accumulations. Locations to the south of Seattle
Seattle
received more, with Olympia and Chehalis receiving 14 to 18 in (36 to 46 cm).[99] Another moderate snow event occurred from December 12–25, 2008, when over one foot (30 cm) of snow fell and stuck on much of the roads over those two weeks, when temperatures remained below 32 °F (0 °C), causing widespread difficulties in a city not equipped for clearing snow. The largest documented snowstorm occurred from January 5–9, 1880, with snow drifting to 6 feet (1.8 m) in places at the end of the snow event. From January 31 to February 2, 1916, another heavy snow event occurred with 29 in (74 cm) of snow on the ground by the time the event was over.[100] With official records dating to 1948, the largest single-day snowfall is 20.0 in (51 cm) on January 13, 1950.[101] Seasonal snowfall has ranged from zero in 1991–92 to 67.5 in (171 cm) in 1968–69, with trace amounts having occurred as recently as 2009–10.[91] The month of January 1950 was particularly severe, bringing 57.2 in (145 cm) of snow, the most of any month along with the aforementioned record cold.[91] The Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Convergence Zone is an important feature of Seattle's weather. In the convergence zone, air arriving from the north meets air flowing in from the south. Both streams of air originate over the Pacific Ocean; airflow is split by the Olympic Mountains
Olympic Mountains
to Seattle's west, then reunited to the east. When the air currents meet, they are forced upward, resulting in convection.[102] Thunderstorms caused by this activity are usually weak and can occur north and south of town, but Seattle
Seattle
itself rarely receives more than occasional thunder and small hail showers. The Hanukkah Eve Wind Storm in December 2006 is an exception that brought heavy rain and winds gusting up to 69 mph (111 km/h), an event that was not caused by the Puget Sound Convergence Zone and was widespread across the Pacific Northwest. One of many exceptions to Seattle's reputation as a damp location occurs in El Niño
El Niño
years, when marine weather systems track as far south as California and little precipitation falls in the Puget Sound area.[103] Since the region's water comes from mountain snow packs during the dry summer months, El Niño
El Niño
winters can not only produce substandard skiing but can result in water rationing and a shortage of hydroelectric power the following summer.[104]

Climate data for Seattle
Seattle
(SeaTac Airport), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1894–present[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 67 (19) 70 (21) 78 (26) 89 (32) 93 (34) 98 (37) 103 (39) 99 (37) 98 (37) 89 (32) 74 (23) 66 (19) 103 (39)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.4 (13.6) 60.3 (15.7) 66.0 (18.9) 74.7 (23.7) 81.5 (27.5) 85.5 (29.7) 90.6 (32.6) 88.8 (31.6) 84.6 (29.2) 72.2 (22.3) 60.7 (15.9) 55.9 (13.3) 93.8 (34.3)

Average high °F (°C) 47.2 (8.4) 49.9 (9.9) 53.7 (12.1) 58.5 (14.7) 64.7 (18.2) 69.9 (21.1) 75.8 (24.3) 76.3 (24.6) 70.5 (21.4) 59.7 (15.4) 50.9 (10.5) 45.7 (7.6) 60.3 (15.7)

Daily mean °F (°C) 42.0 (5.6) 43.4 (6.3) 46.5 (8.1) 50.3 (10.2) 56.0 (13.3) 60.9 (16.1) 65.7 (18.7) 66.1 (18.9) 61.3 (16.3) 52.8 (11.6) 45.4 (7.4) 40.6 (4.8) 52.6 (11.4)

Average low °F (°C) 36.9 (2.7) 36.9 (2.7) 39.3 (4.1) 42.2 (5.7) 47.3 (8.5) 51.9 (11.1) 55.6 (13.1) 55.9 (13.3) 52.1 (11.2) 45.8 (7.7) 40.0 (4.4) 35.6 (2) 45.0 (7.2)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 25.4 (−3.7) 25.9 (−3.4) 31.3 (−0.4) 35.0 (1.7) 39.7 (4.3) 46.2 (7.9) 50.6 (10.3) 50.7 (10.4) 44.6 (7) 35.7 (2.1) 28.7 (−1.8) 24.0 (−4.4) 19.5 (−6.9)

Record low °F (°C) 0 (−18) 1 (−17) 11 (−12) 29 (−2) 28 (−2) 38 (3) 43 (6) 44 (7) 35 (2) 28 (−2) 6 (−14) 6 (−14) 0 (−18)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 5.57 (141.5) 3.50 (88.9) 3.72 (94.5) 2.71 (68.8) 1.94 (49.3) 1.57 (39.9) 0.70 (17.8) 0.88 (22.4) 1.50 (38.1) 3.48 (88.4) 6.57 (166.9) 5.35 (135.9) 37.49 (952.2)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 1.4 (3.6) 1.7 (4.3) 0.8 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.2 (3) 1.7 (4.3) 6.8 (17.3)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 18.2 14.7 16.9 14.3 12.0 9.1 5.0 4.8 7.9 13.1 18.4 17.6 152.0

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.3 0.9 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 1.6 4.6

Average relative humidity (%) 78.0 75.2 73.6 71.4 68.9 67.1 65.4 68.2 73.2 78.6 79.8 80.1 73.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 69.8 108.8 178.4 207.3 253.7 268.4 312.0 281.4 221.7 142.6 72.7 52.9 2,169.7

Percent possible sunshine 25 38 48 51 54 56 65 64 59 42 26 20 49

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[91][106][107]

Demographics Main article: Demographics of Seattle

Historical population

Census Pop.

1860 188

1870 1,107

488.8%

1880 3,533

219.2%

1890 42,837

1,112.5%

1900 80,671

88.3%

1910 237,194

194.0%

1920 315,312

32.9%

1930 365,583

15.9%

1940 368,302

0.7%

1950 467,591

27.0%

1960 557,087

19.1%

1970 530,831

−4.7%

1980 493,846

−7.0%

1990 516,259

4.5%

2000 563,374

9.1%

2010 608,660

8.0%

Est. 2016 704,352 [108] 15.7%

[109]

Racial composition 2010[69] 1990[31] 1970[31] 1940[31]

White 69.5% 75.3% 87.4% 96.1%

—Non-Hispanic 66.3% 73.7% 85.3%[110] n/a

Black or African American 7.9% 10.1% 7.1% 1.0%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 6.6% 3.6% 2.0%[110] n/a

Asian 13.8% 11.8% 4.2% 2.8%

Other race 2.4% n/a n/a n/a

Two or more races 5.1% n/a n/a n/a

Map of racial distribution in Seattle, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, Seattle
Seattle
had a population of 608,660 with a racial and ethnic composition as follows:[111]

White: 69.5% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 66.3%) Asian: 13.8% (4.1% Chinese, 2.6% Filipino, 2.2% Vietnamese, 1.3% Japanese, 1.1% Korean, 0.8% Indian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.3% Laotian, 0.2% Pakistanis, 0.2% Indonesian, 0.2% Thai) Black or African American: 7.9% Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 6.6% (4.1% Mexican, 0.3% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Guatemalan, 0.2% Salvadoran, 0.2% Cuban) American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native: 0.8% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.4% Other race: 2.4% Two or more races: 5.1%

Seattle's population historically has been predominantly white.[31] The 2010 census showed that Seattle
Seattle
was one of the whitest big cities in the country, although its proportion of white residents has been gradually declining.[112] In 1960, whites comprised 91.6% of the city's population,[31] while in 2010 they comprised 69.5%.[111][113] According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, approximately 78.9% of residents over the age of five spoke only English at home. Those who spoke Asian languages other than Indo-European languages made up 10.2% of the population, Spanish was spoken by 4.5% of the population, speakers of other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
made up 3.9%, and speakers of other languages made up 2.5%. Seattle's foreign-born population grew 40% between the 1990 and 2000 censuses.[114] The Chinese population in the Seattle
Seattle
area has origins in mainland China, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan. The earliest Chinese-Americans that came in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were almost entirely from Guangdong Province. The Seattle
Seattle
area is also home to a large Vietnamese population of more than 55,000 residents,[115] as well as over 30,000 Somali immigrants.[116] The Seattle-Tacoma area is also home to one of the largest Cambodian communities in the United States, numbering about 19,000 Cambodian Americans,[117] and one of the largest Samoan communities in the mainland U.S., with over 15,000 people having Samoan ancestry.[111][118] Additionally, the Seattle
Seattle
area had the highest percentage of self-identified mixed-race people of any large metropolitan area in the United States, according to the 2000 United States Census Bureau.[119] According to a 2012 HistoryLink study, Seattle's 98118 ZIP code (in the Columbia City neighborhood) was one of the most diverse ZIP Code
ZIP Code
Tabulation Areas in the United States.[120] According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, the largest religious groupings are Christians (52%), followed by those of no religion (37%), Hindus (2%), Buddhists (2%), Jews (1%), Muslims (1%) and a variety of other religions have smaller followings. According to the same study by the Pew Research Center, about 34% of Seattleites are Protestant, and 15% professing Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
beliefs. Meanwhile, 6% of the residents in Seattle
Seattle
call themselves agnostics, while 10% call themselves atheists.[121][122] In 1999, the median income of a city household was $45,736, and the median income for a family was $62,195. Males had a median income of $40,929 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,306.[123] 11.8% of the population and 6.9% of families are below the poverty line. Of people living in poverty, 13.8% are under the age of 18 and 10.2% are 65 or older.[123] It is estimated that King County has 8,000 homeless people on any given night, and many of those live in Seattle.[124] In September 2005, King County adopted a "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness", one of the near-term results of which is a shift of funding from homeless shelter beds to permanent housing.[125] In recent years, the city has experienced steady population growth, and has been faced with the issue of accommodating more residents. In 2006, after growing by 4,000 citizens per year for the previous 16 years, regional planners expected the population of Seattle
Seattle
to grow by 200,000 people by 2040.[126] However, former mayor Greg Nickels supported plans that would increase the population by 60%, or 350,000 people, by 2040 and worked on ways to accommodate this growth while keeping Seattle's single-family housing zoning laws.[126] The Seattle City Council
Seattle City Council
later voted to relax height limits on buildings in the greater part of Downtown, partly with the aim to increase residential density in the city center.[127] As a sign of increasing inner-city growth, the downtown population crested to over 60,000 in 2009, up 77% since 1990.[128] Seattle
Seattle
also has large lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. According to a 2006 study by UCLA, 12.9% of city residents polled identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This was the second-highest proportion of any major U.S. city, behind San Francisco.[129] Greater Seattle
Seattle
also ranked second among major U.S. metropolitan areas, with 6.5% of the population identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[129] According to 2012 estimates from the United States Census Bureau, Seattle
Seattle
has the highest percentage of same-sex households in the United States, at 2.6 per cent, surpassing San Francisco.[130] In addition, Seattle
Seattle
has a relatively high number of people living alone. According to the 2000 U.S. Census interim measurements of 2004, Seattle
Seattle
has the fifth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, at 40.8%.[131] Economy See also: List of companies based in Seattle

Washington Mutual's last headquarters, the WaMu Center, (now the Russell Investments Center) (center left) and its headquarters prior, Washington Mutual
Washington Mutual
Tower (now the 1201 Third Avenue
1201 Third Avenue
Tower) (center right).

Seattle's economy is driven by a mix of older industrial companies, and "new economy" Internet and technology companies, service, design and clean technology companies. The city's gross metropolitan product was $231 billion in 2010, making it the 11th largest metropolitan economy in the United States.[132][133] The Port
Port
of Seattle, which also operates Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, is a major gateway for trade with Asia and cruises to Alaska, and is the 8th largest port in the United States
United States
in terms of container capacity; its maritime cargo operations merged with the Port
Port
of Tacoma in 2015 to form the Northwest Seaport
Northwest Seaport
Alliance.[134][135] Though it was affected by the Great Recession, Seattle
Seattle
has retained a comparatively strong economy, and remains a hotbed for start-up businesses, especially in green building and clean technologies: it was ranked as America's No. 1 "smarter city" based on its government policies and green economy.[136] In February 2010, the city government committed Seattle to becoming North America's first "climate neutral" city, with a goal of reaching zero net per capita greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.[137]

Amazon.com
Amazon.com
headquarters building in the Denny Triangle

Still, very large companies dominate the business landscape. Five companies on the 2017 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
list of the United States' largest companies, based on total revenue, are headquartered in Seattle: Internet retailer Amazon.com
Amazon.com
(#12), coffee chain Starbucks
Starbucks
(#131), department store Nordstrom
Nordstrom
(#188), freight forwarder Expeditors International of Washington (#429) and Weyerhaeuser, the forest products company (#341).[138] Other Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies popularly associated with Seattle
Seattle
are based in nearby Puget Sound
Puget Sound
cities. Warehouse club chain Costco
Costco
(#16), the largest retail company in Washington, is based in Issaquah. Microsoft
Microsoft
(#28) is located in Redmond. Finally, Bellevue is home to truck manufacturer Paccar (#164).[138] Other major companies in the area include Nintendo
Nintendo
of America in Redmond, T-Mobile US
T-Mobile US
in Bellevue, Expedia Inc.
Expedia Inc.
in Bellevue and Providence Health & Services — the state's largest health care system and fifth largest employer — in Renton. The city has a reputation for heavy coffee consumption;[139] coffee companies founded or based in Seattle
Seattle
include Starbucks,[140] Seattle's Best Coffee,[141] and Tully's.[142] There are also many successful independent artisanal espresso roasters and cafés.[139] Prior to moving its headquarters to Chicago, aerospace manufacturer Boeing
Boeing
(#24) was the largest company based in Seattle. Its largest division, Boeing
Boeing
Commercial Airplanes, is still headquartered in nearby Renton, and the company has large aircraft manufacturing plants in Everett and Renton, so it remains the largest private employer in the Seattle
Seattle
metropolitan area.[143] Former Seattle
Seattle
Mayor Greg Nickels announced a desire to spark a new economic boom driven by the biotechnology industry in 2006. Major redevelopment of the South Lake Union neighborhood is underway, in an effort to attract new and established biotech companies to the city, joining biotech companies Corixa (acquired by GlaxoSmithKline), Immunex (now part of Amgen), Trubion, and ZymoGenetics. Vulcan Inc., the holding company of billionaire Paul Allen, is behind most of the development projects in the region. While some see the new development as an economic boon, others have criticized Nickels and the Seattle City Council
Seattle City Council
for pandering to Allen's interests at taxpayers' expense.[144] Also in 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Seattle
Seattle
among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[145] In 2005, Forbes
Forbes
ranked Seattle
Seattle
as the most expensive American city for buying a house based on the local income levels.[146] In 2013, however, the magazine ranked Seattle
Seattle
No. 9 on its list of the Best Places for Business and Careers.[147] Alaska
Alaska
Airlines, operating a hub at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, maintains its headquarters in the city of SeaTac, next to the airport.[148] Seattle
Seattle
is a hub for global health with the headquarters of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, PATH, Infectious Disease Research Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. In 2015, the Washington Global Health Alliance counted 168 global health organizations in Washington state, many are headquartered in Seattle.[149] Culture

Seattle
Seattle
Central Library

Twenty of Seattle's neighborhoods host one or more street fairs or parades. Nicknames From 1869 until 1982, Seattle
Seattle
was known as the "Queen City".[150] Seattle's official nickname is the "Emerald City", the result of a contest held in 1981;[151][152] the reference is to the lush evergreen forests of the area. Seattle
Seattle
is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska" for being the nearest major city in the contiguous U.S. to Alaska, "Rain City" for its frequent cloudy and rainy weather, and "Jet City"[152] from the local influence of Boeing. The city has two official slogans or mottos: "The City of Flowers", meant to encourage the planting of flowers to beautify the city, and "The City of Goodwill", adopted prior to the 1990 Goodwill Games.[153] Seattle residents are known as Seattleites. Performing arts Main article: Arts in Seattle

The façade of Marion Oliver McCaw Hall
Marion Oliver McCaw Hall
at Seattle
Seattle
Center, seen from Kreielsheimer Promenade, with the Space Needle
Space Needle
tower in the background

Seattle
Seattle
has been a regional center for the performing arts for many years. The century-old Seattle Symphony Orchestra
Seattle Symphony Orchestra
is among the world's most recorded and performs primarily at Benaroya Hall.[154] The Seattle Opera
Seattle Opera
and Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
Ballet, which perform at McCaw Hall (opened 2003 on the site of the former Seattle Opera
Seattle Opera
House at Seattle
Seattle
Center), are comparably distinguished,[155][156] with the Opera being particularly known for its performances of the works of Richard Wagner[157][158] and the PNB School (founded in 1974) ranking as one of the top three ballet training institutions in the United States.[155] The Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras
Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras
(SYSO) is the largest symphonic youth organization in the United States.[159] The city also boasts lauded summer and winter chamber music festivals organized by the Seattle
Seattle
Chamber Music Society.[160] The 5th Avenue Theatre, built in 1926, stages Broadway-style musical shows[161] featuring both local talent and international stars.[162] Seattle
Seattle
has "around 100" theatrical production companies[163] and over two dozen live theatre venues, many of them associated with fringe theatre;[164][165] Seattle
Seattle
is probably second only to New York for number of equity theaters[166] (28 Seattle
Seattle
theater companies have some sort of Actors' Equity
Actors' Equity
contract).[163] In addition, the 900-seat Romanesque Revival Town Hall on First Hill hosts numerous cultural events, especially lectures and recitals.[167]

Seattle Symphony Orchestra
Seattle Symphony Orchestra
on stage in Benaroya Hall
Benaroya Hall
in Downtown Seattle. Benaroya has been the symphony's home since 1998.

Between 1918 and 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, running from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Bumps Blackwell, Ernestine Anderson, and others.[168] Early popular musical acts from the Seattle/ Puget Sound
Puget Sound
area include the collegiate folk group The Brothers Four, vocal group The Fleetwoods, 1960s garage rockers The Wailers and The Sonics, and instrumental surf group The Ventures, some of whom are still active.[168] Seattle
Seattle
is considered the home of grunge music,[13] having produced artists such as Nirvana, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, and Mudhoney, all of whom reached international audiences in the early 1990s.[168] The city is also home to such varied artists as avant-garde jazz musicians Bill Frisell
Bill Frisell
and Wayne Horvitz, hot jazz musician Glenn Crytzer, hip hop artists Sir Mix-a-Lot, Macklemore, Blue Scholars, and Shabazz Palaces, smooth jazz saxophonist Kenny G, classic rock staples Heart and Queensrÿche, and alternative rock bands such as Foo Fighters, Harvey Danger, The Presidents of the United States
United States
of America, The Posies, Modest Mouse, Band of Horses, Death Cab for Cutie, and Fleet Foxes. Rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix, Duff McKagan, and Nikki Sixx
Nikki Sixx
spent their formative years in Seattle. The Seattle-based Sub Pop
Sub Pop
record company continues to be one of the world's best-known independent/alternative music labels.[168] Over the years, a number of songs have been written about Seattle. Seattle
Seattle
annually sends a team of spoken word slammers to the National Poetry Slam and considers itself home to such performance poets as Buddy Wakefield, two-time Individual World Poetry Slam Champ;[169] Anis Mojgani, two-time National Poetry Slam Champ;[170] and Danny Sherrard, 2007 National Poetry Slam Champ and 2008 Individual World Poetry Slam Champ.[171] Seattle
Seattle
also hosted the 2001 national Poetry Slam Tournament. The Seattle
Seattle
Poetry Festival is a biennial poetry festival that (launched first as the Poetry Circus in 1997) has featured local, regional, national, and international names in poetry.[172] The city also has movie houses showing both Hollywood productions and works by independent filmmakers.[173] Among these, the Seattle Cinerama
Cinerama
stands out as one of only three movie theaters in the world still capable of showing three-panel Cinerama
Cinerama
films.[174] Tourism See also: Museums and galleries of Seattle

210 cruise ship visits brought 886,039 passengers to Seattle
Seattle
in 2008.[175]

Among Seattle's prominent annual fairs and festivals are the 24-day Seattle
Seattle
International Film Festival,[176] Northwest Folklife over the Memorial Day
Memorial Day
weekend, numerous Seafair
Seafair
events throughout July and August (ranging from a Bon Odori
Bon Odori
celebration to the Seafair
Seafair
Cup hydroplane races), the Bite of Seattle, one of the largest Gay Pride festivals in the United States, and the art and music festival Bumbershoot, which programs music as well as other art and entertainment over the Labor Day weekend. All are typically attended by 100,000 people annually, as are the Seattle Hempfest
Seattle Hempfest
and two separate Independence Day celebrations.[177][178][179][180] Other significant events include numerous Native American pow-wows, a Greek Festival hosted by St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church in Montlake, and numerous ethnic festivals (many associated with Festál at Seattle
Seattle
Center).[181] There are other annual events, ranging from the Seattle
Seattle
Antiquarian Book Fair & Book Arts Show;[182] an anime convention, Sakura-Con;[183] Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention;[184] a two-day, 9,000-rider Seattle
Seattle
to Portland Bicycle Classic;[185] and specialized film festivals, such as the Maelstrom International Fantastic Film Festival, the Seattle
Seattle
Asian American
Asian American
Film Festival (formerly known as the Northwest Asian American
Asian American
Film Festival), Children's Film Festival Seattle, Translation: the Seattle
Seattle
Transgender Film Festival, the Seattle
Seattle
Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, Seattle Latino Film Festival, and the Seattle
Seattle
Polish Film Festival.[186][187]

A look of Seattle
Seattle
Downtown and Great Wheel from the Argosy Water Cruise

The Henry Art Gallery
Henry Art Gallery
opened in 1927, the first public art museum in Washington.[188] The Seattle Art Museum
Seattle Art Museum
(SAM) opened in 1933; SAM opened a museum downtown in 1991 (expanded and reopened 2007); since 1991, the 1933 building has been SAM's Seattle
Seattle
Asian Art Museum (SAAM).[189] SAM also operates the Olympic Sculpture Park
Olympic Sculpture Park
(opened 2007) on the waterfront north of the downtown piers. The Frye Art Museum is a free museum on First Hill. Regional history collections are at the Log House Museum in Alki, Klondike Gold Rush
Klondike Gold Rush
National Historical Park, the Museum of History and Industry, and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. Industry collections are at the Center for Wooden Boats
Center for Wooden Boats
and the adjacent Northwest Seaport, the Seattle
Seattle
Metropolitan Police Museum, and the Museum of Flight. Regional ethnic collections include the Nordic Heritage Museum, the Wing Luke Asian Museum, and the Northwest African American
African American
Museum. Seattle
Seattle
has artist-run galleries,[190] including ten-year veteran Soil Art Gallery,[191] and the newer Crawl Space Gallery.[192]

Seattle
Seattle
Great Wheel

The Seattle
Seattle
Great Wheel, one of the largest Ferris wheels in the US, opened in June 2012 as a new, permanent attraction on the city's waterfront, at Pier 57, next to Downtown Seattle.[193] The city also has many community centers for recreation, including Rainier Beach, Van Asselt, Rainier, and Jefferson south of the Ship Canal and Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Loyal Heights north of the Canal, and Meadowbrook.[194] Woodland Park Zoo
Woodland Park Zoo
opened as a private menagerie in 1889 but was sold to the city in 1899.[195] The Seattle Aquarium
Seattle Aquarium
has been open on the downtown waterfront since 1977 (undergoing a renovation 2006).[196] The Seattle Underground
Seattle Underground
Tour is an exhibit of places that existed before the Great Fire.[197] Since the middle 1990s, Seattle
Seattle
has experienced significant growth in the cruise industry, especially as a departure point for Alaska cruises. In 2008, a record total of 886,039 cruise passengers passed through the city, surpassing the number for Vancouver, BC, the other major departure point for Alaska
Alaska
cruises.[198] Professional sports Main article: Sports in Seattle

Club Sport League Venue (capacity) Founded Titles Record Attendance

Seattle
Seattle
Seahawks American football NFL CenturyLink Field
CenturyLink Field
(69,000) 1976 1 69,005

Seattle
Seattle
Mariners Baseball MLB Safeco Field
Safeco Field
(47,574) 1977 0 46,596

Seattle
Seattle
Sounders FC Soccer MLS CenturyLink Field
CenturyLink Field
(69,000) 2007 1 67,385

Seattle
Seattle
Storm Women's basketball WNBA KeyArena
KeyArena
(17,072) 2000 2 7,486

Seattle Reign
Seattle Reign
FC Soccer NWSL Memorial Stadium (12,000) 2012 0 6,303[199]

Seattle
Seattle
Seawolves[200][201] Rugby MLR Starfire Sports
Starfire Sports
(4,500)[202] 2017 0 4,500

CenturyLink
CenturyLink
Field, home of the Seattle Seahawks
Seattle Seahawks
and Seattle
Seattle
Sounders FC

Safeco Field, home of the Seattle
Seattle
Mariners.

Seattle
Seattle
has three major men's professional sports teams: the National Football League (NFL)'s Seattle
Seattle
Seahawks, Major League Baseball (MLB)'s Seattle
Seattle
Mariners, and Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
(MLS)'s Seattle Sounders FC. Other professional sports teams include the Women's National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(WNBA)'s Seattle
Seattle
Storm, who won the WNBA championship in 2004 and 2010,[203] and the Seattle Reign
Seattle Reign
of the National Women's Soccer League. The Seahawks' CenturyLink Field
CenturyLink Field
has hosted NFL playoff games in 2006, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2015, and 2017. The Seahawks have advanced to the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
three times: 2005, 2013 and 2014. They defeated the Denver Broncos 43–8 to win their first Super Bowl
Super Bowl
championship in Super Bowl XLVIII, but lost 24–28 against the New England Patriots
New England Patriots
in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIX. The Seahawks also held the NFL playoffs at the Kingdome
Kingdome
in 1983, 1984 and 2000. The 2000 playoff game was the last game of football of any type and of any sport at The Kingdome. Seattle Sounders FC has played in Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
since 2009, sharing CenturyLink Field
CenturyLink Field
with the Seahawks, as a continuation of earlier teams in the lower divisions of American soccer.[204] The Sounders have won the MLS Supporters' Shield
MLS Supporters' Shield
in 2014[205] and the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup
Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup
on four occasions: 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2014.[206] The Sounders won their first MLS Cup
MLS Cup
after defeating Toronto FC, 5-4 in penalty kicks, in MLS Cup
MLS Cup
2016. With the Sounders' first MLS Cup
MLS Cup
championship in franchise history, the Mariners are the only men's professional sports team in the city without a championship, let alone a championship series appearance. Seattle's professional sports history began at the start of the 20th century with the PCHA's Seattle
Seattle
Metropolitans, which in 1917 became the first American hockey team to win the Stanley Cup.[207] Seattle was also home to a previous Major League Baseball
Baseball
franchise in 1969: the Seattle
Seattle
Pilots. The Pilots relocated to Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and became the Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Brewers for the 1970 season.

CenturyLink
CenturyLink
Field

From 1967 to 2008 Seattle
Seattle
was also home to an National Basketball Association (NBA) franchise: the Seattle
Seattle
SuperSonics, who were the 1978–79 NBA champions. The SuperSonics relocated to Oklahoma City and became the Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Thunder for the 2008–09 season.[208][209] The Major League Baseball
Baseball
All-Star Game was held in Seattle
Seattle
twice, first at the Kingdome
Kingdome
in 1979 and again at Safeco Field
Safeco Field
in 2001.[210] That same year, the Seattle Mariners
Seattle Mariners
tied the all-time single regular season wins record with 116 wins.[211] The NBA All-Star Game was also held in Seattle
Seattle
twice: the first in 1974 at the Seattle
Seattle
Center Coliseum and the second in 1987 at the Kingdome.[212] The Seattle Thunderbirds
Seattle Thunderbirds
hockey team plays in the Canadian major-junior Western Hockey League
Western Hockey League
and are based in the Seattle
Seattle
suburb of Kent.[213] Seattle
Seattle
also boasts a strong history in collegiate sports. The University of Washington
University of Washington
and Seattle University
Seattle University
are NCAA Division I schools. The University of Washington's athletic program, nicknamed the Huskies, competes in the Pac-12 Conference, and Seattle University's athletic program, nicknamed the Redhawks, competes in the Western Athletic Conference. Seattle
Seattle
applied for a new expansion team with the National Hockey League to start by 2020 or later.[214][215] Seattle
Seattle
plans to renovate KeyArena
KeyArena
to use for the possible NHL team.[216] On March 1, 2018, a ticket drive began to gauge interests in season ticket deposits. Oak View reported that their initial goal of 10,000 deposits was surpassed in 12 minutes,[217] and that they received 25,000 deposits in 75 minutes.[218] Parks and recreation Main article: Seattle
Seattle
Parks and Recreation

Lake Union
Lake Union
Park, South Lake Union
Lake Union
and downtown Seattle

An attraction of Green Lake Park is a 2.8-mile (4.5 km) trail around the lake.

Seattle's mild, temperate, marine climate allows year-round outdoor recreation, including walking, cycling, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, kayaking, rock climbing, motor boating, sailing, team sports, and swimming.[219] In town, many people walk around Green Lake, through the forests and along the bluffs and beaches of 535-acre (2.2 km2) Discovery Park (the largest park in the city) in Magnolia, along the shores of Myrtle Edwards Park on the Downtown waterfront, along the shoreline of Lake Washington at Seward Park, along Alki Beach in West Seattle, or along the Burke-Gilman Trail.

Downtown Seattle
Downtown Seattle
from Gas Works Park

Gas Works Park
Gas Works Park
features the preserved superstructure of a coal gasification plant closed in 1956. Located across Lake Union
Lake Union
from downtown, the park provides panoramic views of the Seattle
Seattle
skyline. Also popular are hikes and skiing in the nearby Cascade or Olympic Mountains and kayaking and sailing in the waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia. In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Seattle
Seattle
the fittest city in the United States.[220] In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, the Trust for Public Land reported that Seattle
Seattle
had the tenth best park system among the 50 most populous US cities.[221] ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes acreage, access, and service and investment. Government and politics Main articles: Government and politics of Seattle
Government and politics of Seattle
and Mayor of Seattle

The city council consists of two at-large positions and seven district seats representing the areas shown.

Seattle
Seattle
is a charter city, with a mayor–council form of government. From 1911 to 2013, Seattle's nine city councillors were elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions.[222] For the 2015 election, this changed to a hybrid system of seven district members and two at-large members as a result of a ballot measure passed on November 5, 2013. The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. All city offices are officially non-partisan.[223] Like some other parts of the United States, government and laws are also run by a series of ballot initiatives (allowing citizens to pass or reject laws), referenda (allowing citizens to approve or reject legislation already passed), and propositions (allowing specific government agencies to propose new laws or tax increases directly to the people). Jenny Durkan
Jenny Durkan
was elected as mayor in the 2017 mayoral election and took office on November 28, 2017.[224] The mayor's office also includes two deputy mayors, appointed to advise the mayor on policies; As of 2017[update], the city's deputy mayors are Michael Fong and Shefali Ranganathan.[225] Seattle's political culture is very liberal and progressive for the United States, with over 80% of the population voting for the Democratic Party. All precincts in Seattle
Seattle
voted for Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in the 2012 presidential election.[226] In partisan elections for the Washington State Legislature
Washington State Legislature
and United States Congress, nearly all elections are won by Democrats. Although local elections are nonpartisan, most of the city's elected officials are known to be Democrats. In 1926, Seattle
Seattle
became the first major American city to elect a female mayor, Bertha Knight Landes.[227] It has also elected an openly gay mayor, Ed Murray,[228] and a socialist councilor, Kshama Sawant.[229] For the first time in United States
United States
history, an openly gay black woman was elected to public office when Sherry Harris was elected as a Seattle
Seattle
city councillor in 1991.[230][231] The majority of the city council is female.[232] Federally, Seattle
Seattle
is split between two congressional districts. Most of the city is in the Washington's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Pramila Jayapal, the first Indian American woman elected to Congress.[233] She succeeded 28-year incumbent and fellow Democrat Jim McDermott. Part of southwestern Seattle
Seattle
is in the 9th District, represented by Democrat Adam Smith. Seattle
Seattle
is widely considered one of the most socially liberal cities in the United States, even surpassing Portland.[234] In the 2012 U.S. general election, a majority of Seattleites voted to approve Referendum 74 and legalize gay marriage in Washington state.[235] In the same election, an overwhelming majority of Seattleites also voted to approve the legalization of the recreational use of cannabis in the state.[236] Like much of the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
(which has the lowest rate of church attendance in the United States
United States
and consistently reports the highest percentage of atheism[237][238]), church attendance, religious belief, and political influence of religious leaders are much lower than in other parts of America.[239] Seattle
Seattle
also has a thriving alternative press, with the Web-based daily Seattle
Seattle
Post-Intelligencer, several other online dailies (including Publicola and Crosscut), The Stranger (an alternative, left-leaning weekly), Seattle
Seattle
Weekly, and a number of issue-focused publications, including the nation's two largest online environmental magazines, Worldchanging
Worldchanging
and Grist.org. In July 2012, Seattle
Seattle
banned plastic shopping bags.[240] In June 2014 the city passed a local ordinance to increase the minimum wage to $15 an hour on a staged basis from 2015 to 2021. When fully implemented the $15 hourly rate will be the highest minimum wage in the nation.[241] On October 6, 2014, Seattle
Seattle
officially replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples' Day, honoring Seattle's Native American community and controversies surrounding the legacy of Christopher Columbus.[242][243] On May 9, 2017, Mayor Murray announced he would not seek re-election[244] following a lawsuit alleging sexual abuse of several teenaged boys in the 1980s.[245] Murray resigned as mayor on September 12, 2017, effective at 5 p.m. on September 13, 2017,[246] hours after the Seattle Times
Seattle Times
reported a fifth allegation of child sexual abuse.[247] In July 2017, the Seattle City Council
Seattle City Council
unanimously approved an income tax on Seattle
Seattle
residents, making the city the only one in the state with an income tax.[248] The new income tax was ruled unconstitutional in a ruling by King County Superior Court and thus was not allowed to proceed. The city is expected to appeal this ruling. [249] Education Main article: Education in Seattle Of the city's population over the age of 25, 53.8% (vs. a national average of 27.4%) hold a bachelor's degree or higher, and 91.9% (vs. 84.5% nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent. A 2008 United States
United States
Census Bureau survey showed that Seattle
Seattle
had the highest percentage of college and university graduates of any major U.S. city.[250] The city was listed as the most literate of the country's 69 largest cities in 2005 and 2006, the second most literate in 2007 and the most literate in 2008 in studies conducted by Central Connecticut State University.[251]

University of Washington
University of Washington
Quad in spring

Seattle Public Schools
Seattle Public Schools
desegregated without a court order[252] but continue to struggle to achieve racial balance in a somewhat ethnically divided city (the south part of town having more ethnic minorities than the north).[253] In 2007, Seattle's racial tie-breaking system was struck down by the United States
United States
Supreme Court, but the ruling left the door open for desegregation formulae based on other indicators (e.g., income or socioeconomic class).[254] The public school system is supplemented by a moderate number of private schools: five of the private high schools are Catholic, one is Lutheran, and six are secular.[255] Seattle
Seattle
is home to the University of Washington, as well as the institution's professional and continuing education unit, the University of Washington
University of Washington
Educational Outreach. The 2017 U.S. News & World Report ranked the University of Washington
University of Washington
at #11 in the world, tied with Johns Hopkins University.[256] The UW receives more federal research and development funding than any public institution. Over the last 10 years, it has also produced more Peace Corps volunteers than any other U.S. university.[257] Seattle
Seattle
also has a number of smaller private universities including Seattle
Seattle
University and Seattle
Seattle
Pacific University, the former a Jesuit Catholic institution, the latter Free Methodist; universities aimed at the working adult, like City University and Antioch University; colleges within the Seattle Colleges District system, comprising North, Central, and South; seminaries, including Western Seminary and a number of arts colleges, such as Cornish College of the Arts, Pratt Fine Arts Center, and The Art Institute of Seattle. In 2001, Time magazine selected Seattle
Seattle
Central Community College as community college of the year, stating the school "pushes diverse students to work together in small teams".[258] Media Main article: Media in Seattle As of 2010[update], Seattle
Seattle
has one major daily newspaper, The Seattle Times. The Seattle
Seattle
Post-Intelligencer, known as the P-I, published a daily newspaper from 1863 to March 17, 2009, before switching to a strictly on-line publication. There is also the Seattle
Seattle
Daily Journal of Commerce,[259] and the University of Washington
University of Washington
publishes The Daily, a student-run publication, when school is in session. The most prominent weeklies are the Seattle Weekly
Seattle Weekly
and The Stranger; both consider themselves "alternative" papers.[260] The weekly LGBT newspaper is the Seattle
Seattle
Gay News. Real Change
Real Change
is a weekly street newspaper that is sold mainly by homeless persons as an alternative to panhandling. There are also several ethnic newspapers, including The Facts, Northwest Asian Weekly
Northwest Asian Weekly
and the International Examiner, and numerous neighborhood newspapers. Seattle
Seattle
is also well served by television and radio, with all major U.S. networks represented, along with at least five other English-language stations and two Spanish-language stations.[261] Seattle
Seattle
cable viewers also receive CBUT
CBUT
2 (CBC) from Vancouver, British Columbia. Non-commercial radio stations include NPR
NPR
affiliates KUOW-FM
KUOW-FM
94.9 and KNKX
KNKX
88.5 (Tacoma), as well as classical music station KING-FM 98.1. Other non-commercial stations include KEXP-FM
KEXP-FM
90.3 (affiliated with the UW), community radio KBCS-FM 91.3 (affiliated with Bellevue College), and high school radio KNHC-FM
KNHC-FM
89.5, which broadcasts an electronic dance music radio format and is owned by the public school system and operated by students of Nathan Hale High School. Many Seattle
Seattle
radio stations are also available through Internet radio, with KEXP in particular being a pioneer of Internet radio.[262] Seattle also has numerous commercial radio stations. In a March 2012 report by the consumer research firm Arbitron, the top FM stations were KRWM (adult contemporary format), KIRO-FM
KIRO-FM
(news/talk), and KISW
KISW
(active rock) while the top AM stations were KOMO (AM)
KOMO (AM)
(all news), KJR (AM) (all sports), KIRO (AM)
KIRO (AM)
(all sports).[263] Seattle-based online magazines Worldchanging
Worldchanging
and Grist.org
Grist.org
were two of the "Top Green Websites" in 2007 according to TIME.[264] Seattle
Seattle
also has many online news media websites. The two largest are The Seattle Times
Seattle Times
and the Seattle
Seattle
Post-Intelligencer. Infrastructure Health systems Main article: Medical facilities of Seattle The University of Washington
University of Washington
is consistently ranked among the country's top leading institutions in medical research, earning special merits for programs in neurology and neurosurgery. Seattle
Seattle
has seen local developments of modern paramedic services with the establishment of Medic One
Medic One
in 1970.[265] In 1974, a 60 Minutes
60 Minutes
story on the success of the then four-year-old Medic One
Medic One
paramedic system called Seattle
Seattle
"the best place in the world to have a heart attack".[266] Three of Seattle's largest medical centers are located on First Hill. Harborview Medical Center, the public county hospital, is the only Level I trauma hospital in a region that includes Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.[267] Virginia Mason Medical Center
Virginia Mason Medical Center
and Swedish Medical Center's two largest campuses are also located in this part of Seattle, including the Virginia Mason Hospital. This concentration of hospitals resulted in the neighborhood's nickname "Pill Hill".[268] Located in the Laurelhurst neighborhood, Seattle
Seattle
Children's, formerly Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, is the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has a campus in the Eastlake neighborhood. The University District is home to the University of Washington Medical Center which, along with Harborview, is operated by the University of Washington. Seattle
Seattle
is also served by a Veterans Affairs hospital on Beacon Hill, a third campus of Swedish in Ballard, and Northwest Hospital and Medical Center
Northwest Hospital and Medical Center
near Northgate Mall. Transportation Main article: Transportation in Seattle Further information: Street layout of Seattle

Interstate 5 in Washington
Interstate 5 in Washington
as it passes through downtown Seattle

The first streetcars appeared in 1889 and were instrumental in the creation of a relatively well-defined downtown and strong neighborhoods at the end of their lines. The advent of the automobile sounded the death knell for rail in Seattle. Tacoma– Seattle
Seattle
railway service ended in 1929 and the Everett– Seattle
Seattle
service came to an end in 1939, replaced by inexpensive automobiles running on the recently developed highway system. Rails on city streets were paved over or removed, and the opening of the Seattle
Seattle
trolleybus system brought the end of streetcars in Seattle
Seattle
in 1941. This left an extensive network of privately owned buses (later public) as the only mass transit within the city and throughout the region.[269]

King County Water Taxi
King County Water Taxi
and downtown Seattle

King County Metro
King County Metro
provides frequent stop bus service within the city and surrounding county, as well as the South Lake Union
Lake Union
Streetcar line and the First Hill Streetcar
First Hill Streetcar
line.[270] Seattle
Seattle
is one of the few cities in North America
North America
whose bus fleet includes electric trolleybuses. Sound Transit
Sound Transit
provides an express bus service within the metropolitan area, two Sounder commuter rail
Sounder commuter rail
lines between the suburbs and downtown, and its Central Link
Central Link
light rail line between the University of Washington
University of Washington
and Angle Lake. Washington State Ferries, which manages the largest network of ferries in the United States
United States
and third largest in the world, connects Seattle
Seattle
to Bainbridge and Vashon Islands in Puget Sound
Puget Sound
and to Bremerton and Southworth on the Kitsap Peninsula.[271]

Central Link
Central Link
light rail trains in the Downtown Seattle
Downtown Seattle
Transit Tunnel at the University Street Station

According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 18.6% of Seattle residents used one of the three public transit systems that serve the city, giving it the highest transit ridership of all major cities without heavy or light rail prior to the completion of Sound Transit's Central Link
Central Link
line.[272] The city has also been described by Bert Sperling as the fourth most walkable U.S. city and by Walk Score
Walk Score
as the sixth most walkable of the fifty largest U.S. cities.[273][274] Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, locally known as Sea-Tac Airport and located just south in the neighboring city of SeaTac, is operated by the Port
Port
of Seattle
Seattle
and provides commercial air service to destinations throughout the world. Closer to downtown, Boeing
Boeing
Field is used for general aviation, cargo flights, and testing/delivery of Boeing
Boeing
airliners.

Alaskan Way Viaduct, port of Seattle
Seattle
on the right, stadium in the background

The main mode of transportation, however, relies on Seattle's streets, which are laid out in a cardinal directions grid pattern, except in the central business district where early city leaders Arthur Denny and Carson Boren
Carson Boren
insisted on orienting their plats relative to the shoreline rather than to true North.[275] Only two roads, Interstate 5 and State Route 99 (both limited-access highways), run uninterrupted through the city from north to south. State Route 99 runs through downtown Seattle
Seattle
on the Alaskan Way Viaduct, which was built in 1953. However, due to damage sustained during the 2001 Nisqually earthquake the viaduct will be replaced by a tunnel. The 2-mile (3.2 km) Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel
Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel
was originally scheduled to be completed in December 2015 at a cost of US$4.25 billion. Unfortunately, due to issues with the worlds largest tunnel boring machine (TBM), which is nicknamed "Bertha" and is 57 feet (17 m) in diameter, the projected date of completion has been pushed back to 2017. Seattle
Seattle
has the 8th worst traffic congestion of all American cities, and is 10th among all North American cities.[276] The city has started moving away from the automobile and towards mass transit. From 2004 to 2009, the annual number of unlinked public transportation trips increased by approximately 21%.[277] In 2006, voters in King County passed proposition 2 (Transit Now) which increased bus service hours on high ridership routes and paid for five bus rapid transit lines called RapidRide.[278] After rejecting a roads and transit measure in 2007, Seattle-area voters passed a transit only measure in 2008 to increase ST Express bus service, extend the Link light rail system, and expand and improve Sounder commuter rail service.[279] A light rail line from downtown heading south to Sea-Tac Airport began service on December 19, 2009, giving the city its first rapid transit line with intermediate stations within the city limits. An extension north to the University of Washington
University of Washington
opened on March 19, 2016;[280] and further extensions are planned to reach Lynnwood to the north, Des Moines to the south, and Bellevue and Redmond to the east by 2023.[281][282] Voters in the Puget Sound
Puget Sound
region approved an additional tax increase in November 2016 to expand light rail to West Seattle
Seattle
and Ballard as well as Tacoma, Everett, and Issaquah.[283] Utilities Main article: Utilities of Seattle Water and electric power are municipal services, provided by Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light
Seattle City Light
respectively. Other utility companies serving Seattle
Seattle
include Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Energy (natural gas, electricity); Seattle Steam Company
Seattle Steam Company
(steam); Waste Management, Inc
Waste Management, Inc
and CleanScapes, Inc. (curbside recycling and solid waste removal); CenturyLink, Frontier Communications, Wave Broadband, and Comcast (telecommunications and television). About 90% of Seattle's electricity is produced using hydropower. Less than 2% of electricity is produced using fossil fuels.[284]

Notable people Main article: List of people from Seattle Sister cities See also: List of Seattle
Seattle
sister cities Seattle
Seattle
is partnered with:[285]

Kobe, Japan
Japan
(since 1957)[286] Bergen, Norway
Norway
(since 1967)[287] Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(since 1973)[287][288] Beersheba, Israel
Israel
(since 1977)[287] Mazatlán, Mexico
Mexico
(since 1979)[287] Nantes, France
France
(since 1980)[287] Mombasa, Kenya
Kenya
(since 1981)[287] Christchurch, New Zealand
New Zealand
(since 1981)[287] Chongqing, China
China
(since 1983)[287] Limbe, Cameroon
Cameroon
(since 1984)[287] Reykjavík, Iceland
Iceland
(since 1986)[287] Galway, Ireland (since 1986)[287] Daejeon, South Korea
South Korea
(since 1989)[287] Cebu City, Philippines
Philippines
(since 1991)[287] Pécs, Hungary
Hungary
(since 1991)[287] Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Taiwan
(since 1991)[287] Surabaya, Indonesia
Indonesia
(since 1992)[287] Gdynia, Poland
Poland
(since 1993)[287][289] Perugia, Italy
Italy
(since 1993)[287] Haiphong, Vietnam
Vietnam
(since 1996)[287] Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Cambodia
(since 1999)[287]

See also

Seattle
Seattle
portal Washington portal United States
United States
portal

National Register of Historic Places listings in Seattle, Washington Seattle
Seattle
Freeze Seattle
Seattle
process Seattle
Seattle
tugboats Tillicum Village

References Footnotes

^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records are restricted to SeaTac Airport
SeaTac Airport
from January 1945 onward.[105]

Citations

^ Dawn Bates; Thom Hess; Vi Hilbert (1994). dᶻidᶻəlal̓ič. Lushootseed Dictionary. University of Washington
University of Washington
Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-295-97323-4.  ^ "American FactFinder". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved December 19, 2012.  ^ a b "April 1, 2017 Washington State OFM Population Change and Rank". www.ofm.wa.gov. Retrieved Jan 19, 2018.  ^ "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015.  ^ "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015.  ^ "Seattle". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.  ^ Balk, Gene (May 22, 2014). "Census: Seattle
Seattle
is the fastest-growing big city in the U.S." Seattle
Seattle
Times. FYI Guy.  ^ Balk, Gene (May 21, 2015). " Seattle
Seattle
no longer America's fastest-growing big city". Seattle
Seattle
Times. FYI Guy. Retrieved November 20, 2015.  ^ Balk, Gene (May 25, 2017). " Seattle
Seattle
once again nation's fastest-growing big city; population exceeds 700,000". The Seattle Times. Retrieved May 30, 2017.  ^ "Seaport Statistics". Port
Port
of Seattle. Retrieved January 28, 2016.  ^ a b Doree Armstrong (October 4, 2007). "Feel the beat of history in the park and concert hall at two family-friendly events". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved November 1, 2007.  ^ Andrew Craig Magnuson (July 20, 2014). "In Search of the Schooner Exact". Andrew Craig Magnuson. Retrieved September 27, 2014.  ^ a b Heylin, Clinton (2007). Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge. Conongate. p. 606. ISBN 978-1-84195-879-8.  ^ Greg Lange (October 15, 2000). " Seattle
Seattle
and King County's First European Settlers". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ "The people and their land". Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Native Art and Culture. Seattle
Seattle
Art Museum. July 4, 2003. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2006.  (Publication date per "Native Art of the Northwest Coast: Collection Insight") ^ Walt Crowley
Walt Crowley
(March 13, 2003). "Native American tribes sign Point Elliott Treaty at Mukilteo on January 22, 1855". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ George Vancouver; John Vancouver
Vancouver
(1801). A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific ocean, and round the world. London: J. Stockdale. ISBN 978-0-665-18642-4.  ^ Greg Lange (March 8, 2003). "Luther Collins Party, first King County settlers, arrive at mouth of Duwamish River
Duwamish River
on September 14, 1851". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ Greg Lange (December 16, 2000). "Collins party encounters Denny party scouts at Duwamish Head near future site of Seattle
Seattle
on September 27, 1851". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ a b c d Walt Crowley
Walt Crowley
(August 31, 1998). " Seattle
Seattle
– a Snapshot History of Its Founding". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ James R. Warren (October 23, 2001). " Seattle
Seattle
at 150: Charles Terry's unlimited energy influenced a city". Seattle
Seattle
Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ Greg Lange (March 28, 2001). "Charles Terry homesteads site of Alki business district on May 1, 1852". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ Thomas R. Speer, ed. (July 22, 2004). "Chief Si'ahl and His Family". Duwamish Tribe. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  Includes bibliography. ^ Kenneth G. Watson (January 18, 2003). "Seattle, Chief Noah". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ Murray Morgan (1982) [First published 1951, 1982 revised and updated, first illustrated edition]. Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle. Seattle
Seattle
and London: University of Washington
University of Washington
Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-295-95846-0.  ^ Greg Lange; Cassandra Tate (November 4, 1998). "Legislature incorporates the Town of Seattle
Seattle
for the first time on January 14, 1865". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ " Seattle
Seattle
City Symbols". City of Seattle. Retrieved February 28, 2014.  ^ Emmett Shear (Spring 2002). "Seattle: Booms and Busts". Yale University.  Author has granted blanket permission for material from that paper to be reused in. Now at s:Seattle: Booms and Busts. ^ Junius Rochester (October 7, 1998). "Yesler, Henry L". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ George Kinnear (January 1, 1911). "Anti-Chinese Riots At Seattle, Wn.. February 8, 1876". Seattle
Seattle
Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 4, 2007.  Kinnear's article, originally appearing in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, was later privately published in a small volume. ^ a b c d e f "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places in the United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2011.  ^ Walt Crowley
Walt Crowley
(January 25, 2003). " Seattle
Seattle
burns down in the Great Fire on June 6, 1889". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ a b "Hard Drive to the Klondike: Promoting Seattle
Seattle
During the Gold Rush". National Park Service. February 18, 2003. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ J. Kingston Pierce (November 24, 1999). "Panic of 1893: Seattle's First Great Depression". HistoryLink. Retrieved December 18, 2008.  ^ Greg Lange (January 14, 1999). "Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition's final day is on October 16, 1909". HistoryLink. Retrieved November 6, 2007.  ^ Greg Lange (January 14, 1999). "Klondike Gold Rush". HistoryLink.org. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ "Park History – Olmsted Parks". Seattle
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Parks and Recreation. Retrieved November 30, 2015.  ^ Greg Lange (May 5, 2003). "Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition opens for a 138-day run on June 1, 1909". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ Patrick McRoberts (February 4, 1999). " Seattle
Seattle
General Strike, 1919, Part I". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ BOLA Architecture + Planning & Northwest Archaeological Associates, Inc., " Port
Port
of Seattle
Seattle
North Bay Project DEIS: Historic and Cultural Resources" (PDF). Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , Port
Port
of Seattle, April 5, 2005, pp. 12–13 (which is pp. 14–15 of the PDF). Retrieved July 25, 2008. ^ Nash, Phil (2009). "Asian Pacific Americans During the Great Depression". AsianWeek. 5: 4.  ^ Dorpat, Paul; McCoy, Genevieve (1998). Building Washington. Seattle: Tartu Publications.  ^ Berner, Richard (1992). Seattle
Seattle
1921-1940: From Boom to Bust. Seattle: Charles Press.  ^ Mullins, William (1991). The Depression and the Urban West Coast, 1929-1933. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.  ^ Mullins, William (1975). San Francisco
San Francisco
and Seattle
Seattle
During the Hoover Years of the Depression: 1929-1933. Seattle: University of Washington.  ^ Roy, Donald (1935). Hooverville: A Study of a Community of Homeless Men in Seattle. Seattle: University of Washington.  ^ Orleck, Annelise (1993). "We Are the Mythical Thing Called the Public". Feminist Studies. 19: 147–172.  ^ Moreo, Dominic (1996). Schools in the Great Depression. New York: Garland Publishing.  ^ Gates, Charles (1961). The First Century at the University of Washington. Seattle: University of Washington
University of Washington
Press.  ^ "History of Seattle: The "Jet City" Takes Off". Seattle's Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015.  ^ Alan J. Stein (April 18, 2000). "Century 21 – The 1962 Seattle World's Fair, Part I". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ Greg Lange (June 8, 1999). "Billboard appears on April 16, 1971, near Sea–Tac, reading: Will the Last Person Leaving Seattle—Turn Out the Lights". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  The real estate agents were Bob McDonald and Jim Youngren, as cited at Don Duncan, Washington: the First One Hundred Years, 1889–1989 (Seattle: The Seattle
Seattle
Times, 1989), 108, 109–110; The Seattle
Seattle
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Mayor Ed Murray resigns after fifth child sex-abuse allegation". The Seattle
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Times. September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 12, 2017.  ^ "Mayor Ed Murray's cousin: He sexually abused me, too". The Seattle Times. September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 12, 2017.  ^ TEGNA. " Seattle City Council
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approves income tax for high-earning residents". KING. Retrieved July 13, 2017.  ^ "Superior Court Judge Rules Against Seattle
Seattle
Income Tax, Appeal On the Way". The Stranger. Retrieved 2018-03-08.  ^ "ACS: Ranking Table – Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 13, 2004. Retrieved August 27, 2008.  ^ Sandi Doughton (December 28, 2007). "Minneapolis ousts Seattle
Seattle
as most literate city". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved December 28, 2007.  ^ "Parents involved in Community Schools v. Seattle
Seattle
School District No. 1 Et Al" (PDF). Supreme Court of the United States. June 28, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.  ^ Cassandra Tate (September 7, 2002). "Busing in Seattle: A Well-Intentioned Failure". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 3, 2007.  ^ "High court rejects school integration plans". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. June 28, 2007. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.  ^ "School Guide". The Seattle
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Times. Retrieved October 3, 2007.  ^ "Best Global University Rankings". US News & World Report. Sep 8, 2017.  ^ http://opb.washington.edu/sites/default/files/opb/Data/2017_Fast_Facts.pdf ^ Andrew Goldstein (September 10, 2001). " Seattle
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Bibliography

Jones, Nard (1972). Seattle. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-01875-3.  Morgan, Murray (1982) [1951]. Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle
Seattle
(revised and updated, first illustrated ed.). Seattle
Seattle
and London: University of Washington
University of Washington
Press. ISBN 978-0-295-95846-0.  Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, ed. (1998) [1994]. Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects. Seattle
Seattle
and London: University of Washington
University of Washington
Press. ISBN 978-0-295-97366-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Sale, Roger (1976). Seattle: Past to Present. Seattle
Seattle
and London: University of Washington
University of Washington
Press. ISBN 978-0-295-95615-2.  Speidel, William C. (1978). Doc Maynard: The Man Who Invented Seattle. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 978-0-914890-02-7.  Speidel, William C. (1967). Sons of the profits; or, There's no business like grow business: the Seattle
Seattle
story, 1851–1901. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-00-X. 

Further reading

Klingle, Matthew (2007). Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11641-0.  MacGibbon, Elma (1904). "Seattle, the city of destiny". Leaves of knowledge (DJVU). Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection. Shaw & Borden. OCLC 61326250.  Pierce, J. Kingston (2003). Eccentric Seattle: Pillars and Pariahs Who Made the City Not Such a Boring Place After All. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87422-269-2.  Sanders, Jeffrey Craig. Seattle
Seattle
and the Roots of Urban Sustainability: Inventing Ecotopia (University of Pittsburgh Press; 2010) 288 pages; the rise of environmental activism

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128747843 LCCN: n79041965 GND: 4054058-3 BNF: cb12050268n (d

.