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 Scotland   4,446,000 (2011) (Scottish descent only)[2]

 United StatesB 6,006,955 Scottish 5,393,554 Scotch-Irish[3][4][unreliable source?]

 CanadaC[further explanation needed] 4,719,850[5]

 Australia 2,023,474[6]

 EnglandD 795,000[7]:8

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
E 760,620[citation needed]

 Argentina 100,000[citation needed]

 Chile 80,000[citation needed]

 Brazil 45,000[citation needed]

 France 45,000[citation needed]

 Poland 15,000[citation needed]

 New Zealand 14,412[8][9]

 South Africa

11,160 (estimate)[7]:10

 Isle of Man 2,403[10]

 Hong KongG 1,459[11][12][13]

Languages

English (Scottish English) Scottish Gaelic Scots

Religion

Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism, Episcopalianism; other minority groups

A These figures are estimates based on census data of populations and official surveys of identity.[14][15][unreliable source?][16][not in citation given][17]

B Scottish American
Scottish American
and Scotch-Irish Americans C Scottish Canadians D Scottish-born people in England
England
only E Ulster-Scots G Number of people born in Scotland.

The Scottish people
Scottish people
(Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts
Picts
and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
(or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin
Latin
word Scoti[18] originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland.[19] Considered archaic or pejorative,[20] the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland.[21] John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario
Southwestern Ontario
and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages
Scottish languages
and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. Canada
Canada
has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States.[22] Scotland
Scotland
has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts
Picts
and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland
Scotland
from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England
England
and the Low Countries
Low Countries
to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland
Scotland
at this time. Today Scotland
Scotland
is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

Contents

1 Ethnic groups of Scotland 2 Scottish diaspora

2.1 United States 2.2 Canada 2.3 Australia 2.4 New Zealand 2.5 United Kingdom 2.6 Rest of Europe 2.7 Africa 2.8 Latin
Latin
America

3 Scots in mainland Europe

3.1 Netherlands 3.2 Russia 3.3 Poland 3.4 Italy

4 Culture

4.1 Language

4.1.1 Scottish English 4.1.2 Scots 4.1.3 Scottish Gaelic

4.2 Religion 4.3 Literature 4.4 Folklore 4.5 Science and engineering 4.6 Music 4.7 Sport 4.8 Cuisine 4.9 Clans

5 Anglicisation 6 Etymology 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Ethnic groups of Scotland[edit] Further information: Genetic history of the British Isles, Prehistoric Scotland, and Scandinavian Scotland In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland
Scotland
saw several ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, and the Angles, with the latter settling in the southeast of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland
Scotland
until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least initially, the Britons, as well as the Gaels
Gaels
and the Picts.[23] Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the region between the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
to the north and the River Tweed
River Tweed
to the south. They also occupied the south-west of Scotland
Scotland
up to and including the Plain of Kyle and their language, Old English, was the earliest form of the language which eventually became known as Scots. Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland
Scotland
by the 9th century,[24] reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the country.[24] King
King
Edgar divided the Kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
between Scotland
Scotland
and England; at least, most medieval historians now accept the 'gift' by Edgar, in any case, after the later Battle of Carham the Scottish kingdom encompassed many English people, with even more quite possibly arriving after the Norman invasion of England
England
in 1066. South-east of the Firth of Forth, then in Lothian
Lothian
and the Borders (OE: Loðene), a northern variety of Old English, also known as Early Scots, was spoken.

St. Kildans sitting on the village street, 1886

As a result of David I, King
King
of Scots' return from exile in England
England
in 1113, ultimately to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of Norman military force, David invited Norman families from France
France
and England to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to him.[25] This Davidian Revolution, as many historians call it, brought a European style of feudalism to Scotland
Scotland
along with an influx of people of Norman descent - by invitation, unlike England
England
where it was by conquest. To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland can trace ancestry to Normans
Normans
from this period, such as the Stewarts, the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns and many others.[citation needed] The Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and some parts of Caithness
Caithness
were Norn-speaking (the west of Caithness
Caithness
was Gaelic-speaking into the 20th Century, as were some small communities in parts of the Central Highlands). From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language
Scots language
spread across the lowland parts of Scotland
Scotland
between Galloway
Galloway
and the Highland line, being used by Barbour in his historical epic The Brus
The Brus
in the late 14th century in Aberdeen. From 1500 on, Scotland
Scotland
was commonly divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" (the language formerly called Scottis by English speakers and known by many Lowlanders in the 18th century as "Irish") and the Inglis-speaking "Lowlanders" (a language later to be called Scots). Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but almost every adult throughout Scotland
Scotland
is fluent in the English language. Scottish diaspora[edit] Main articles: Scottish diaspora, Ulster
Ulster
Scots people, Highland Clearances, and Lowland Clearances

Number of the Scottish diaspora

Census Year Population % of the local population

2011 Australia[26][27] 1,792,622 8.3 8.3  

2011 England[28] 708,872 1.34 1.34  

2010 United States
United States
ACS[29] 5,460,679 1.5 1.5  

2010 U.S (Scotch-Irish)[29] 3,257,161 1.1 1.1  

2011 Canada[30] 4,714,965 14.35 14.35  

Today, Scotland
Scotland
has a population of just over five million people,[31] the majority of whom consider themselves Scottish.[32][33] In addition, there are many more people with Scots ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland.[citation needed] United States[edit]

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Main article: Scottish Americans

Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie

In the 2013 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
5,310,285 identified as Scottish and 2,976,878 as of Scots-Irish descent.[29] Americans
Americans
of Scottish descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or 88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001 Census.[34][35] The number of Americans
Americans
of Scottish descent today is estimated to be 20 to 25 million[36][37][38][39] (up to 8.3% of the total US population), and Scotch-Irish, 27 to 30 million[40][41] (up to 10% of the total US population),[citation needed] the subgroups overlapping and not always distinguishable because of their shared ancestral surnames.[clarification needed] The majority of Scotch-Irish originally came from Lowland Scotland
Scotland
and Northern England[citation needed] before migrating to the province of Ulster[citation needed] in Ireland
Ireland
(see Plantation of Ulster) and thence, beginning about five generations later, to North America
North America
in large numbers during the eighteenth century.[citation needed] Canada[edit] Main article: Scottish Canadians As the third-largest ethnic group in Canada
Canada
and amongst the first Europeans to settle in the country, Scottish people
Scottish people
have made a large impact on Canadian culture since colonial times. According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the number of Canadians claiming full or partial Scottish descent is 4,714,970,[42] or 15.10% of the nation's total population. Many respondents may have misunderstood the question and the numerous responses for "Canadian" does not give an accurate figure for numerous groups, particularly those of British Isles
British Isles
origins. Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada. Scottish culture
Scottish culture
has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
( Latin
Latin
for "New Scotland"). There, in Cape Breton, where both lowland and highland Scots settled in large numbers, Canadian Gaelic is still spoken by a small number of residents. Cape Breton is the home of the Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts. Glengarry County in present-day Eastern Ontario
Eastern Ontario
is a historic county that was set up as a settlement for Highland Scots, where many from the Highlands settled to preserve their culture in result of the Highland Clearances. Gaelic was the native language of the community since its settlement in the 18th century although the number of speakers decreased since as a result of English migration[clarification needed]. As of the modern 21st century, there are still a few Gaelic speakers in the community. Australia[edit] Main article: Scottish Australians

The Australian city of Brisbane
Brisbane
is named after Scotsman Thomas Brisbane.

By 1830, 15.11% of the colonies' total population were Scots, which increased by the middle of the century to 25,000, or 20-25% of the total population. The Australian Gold Rush
Australian Gold Rush
of the 1850s provided a further impetus for Scottish migration: in the 1850s 90,000 Scots immigrated to Australia, far more than other British or Irish populations at the time.[43] Literacy rates of the Scottish immigrants ran at 90-95%. By 1860, Scots made up 50% of the ethnic composition of Western Victoria, Adelaide, Penola and Naracoorte. Other settlements in New South Wales
New South Wales
included New England, the Hunter Valley and the Illawarra. Much settlement followed the Highland Potato Famine, Highland Clearances and the Lowland Clearances
Lowland Clearances
of the mid-19th century. In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12% of the Australian population. Out of the 1.3 million migrants from Britain to Australia in the period from 1861–1914, 13.5% were Scots. Just 5.3% of the convicts transported to Eastern Australia
Australia
between 1789 and 1852 were Scots.[44] A steady rate of Scottish immigration continued into the 20th century and substantial numbers of Scots continued to arrive after 1945.[45] From 1900 until the 1950s, Scots favoured New South Wales, as well as Western Australia
Australia
and Southern Australia.[citation needed] A strong cultural Scottish presence is evident in the Highland Games, dance, Tartan Day
Tartan Day
celebrations, clan and Gaelic-speaking societies found throughout modern Australia. According to the 2011 Australian census, 130,204 Australian residents were born in Scotland,[46] while 1,792,600 claimed Scottish ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry.[6] This is the fourth most commonly nominated ancestry and represents over 8.9% of the total population of Australia. New Zealand[edit] Main article: Scottish New Zealanders

Scottish Highland family migrating to New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1844

Significant numbers of Scottish people
Scottish people
also settled in New Zealand. Approximately 20 percent of the original European settler population of New Zealand
New Zealand
came from Scotland, and Scottish influence is still visible around the country.[47] The South Island
South Island
city of Dunedin, in particular, is known for its Scottish heritage and was named as a tribute to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
by the city's Scottish founders. Scottish migration to New Zealand
New Zealand
dates back to the earliest period of European colonisation, with a large proportion of Pākehā New Zealanders being of Scottish descent.[48] However, identification as "British" or "European" New Zealanders can sometimes obscure their origin. Many Scottish New Zealanders
Scottish New Zealanders
also have Māori or other non-European ancestry. The majority of Scottish immigrants settled in the South Island. All over New Zealand, the Scots developed different means to bridge the old homeland and the new. Many Caledonian societies were formed, well over 100 by the early twentieth century, who helped maintain Scottish culture and traditions. From the 1860s, these societies organised annual Caledonian Games throughout New Zealand. The Games were sports meets that brought together Scottish settlers and the wider New Zealand public. In so doing, the Games gave Scots a path to cultural integration as Scottish New Zealanders.[49] In the 1961 census there were 47,078 people living in New Zealand
New Zealand
who were born in Scotland; in the 2013 census there were 25,953 in this category.[50] United Kingdom[edit] Many people of Scottish descent live in other parts of the United Kingdom. In Ulster
Ulster
particularly the colonial policies of James VI, known as the plantation of Ulster, resulted in a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Scottish society, which formed the Ulster-Scots community.[51] The Protestant Ascendancy
Protestant Ascendancy
did not however benefit them much, as the English espoused the Anglican Church. The number of people of Scottish descent in England
England
and Wales
Wales
is difficult to quantify due to the many complex migrations on the island,[citation needed] and ancient migration patterns due to wars, famine and conquest.[citation needed] The 2011 Census recorded 708,872 people born in Scotland
Scotland
resident in England, 24,346 resident in Wales[52] and 15,455 resident in Northern Ireland.[53][not in citation given] Rest of Europe[edit] Other European countries have had their share of Scots immigrants. The Scots have emigrated to mainland Europe for centuries as merchants and soldiers.[54] Many emigrated to France, Poland,[55] Italy, Germany, Scandinavia,[56] and the Netherlands.[57] Recently some scholars suggested that up to 250,000 Russian nationals may have Scottish ancestry.[58] Africa[edit]

Guy Scott, the 12th vice-president and acting president of Zambia
Zambia
from Oct 2014 – Jan 2015, is of Scottish descent.

A number of Scottish people
Scottish people
settled in South Africa
South Africa
in the 1800s and were known for their road-building expertise, their farming experience, and architectural skills.[59] Latin
Latin
America[edit] The largest population of Scots in Latin
Latin
America is found in Argentina,[60][not in citation given] followed by Chile,[61][not in citation given] Brazil
Brazil
and Mexico. Scots in mainland Europe[edit] Netherlands[edit] It is said[by whom?] that the first people from the Low Countries
Low Countries
to settle in Scotland
Scotland
came in the wake of Maud's marriage to the Scottish king, David I, during the Middle Ages.[when?] Craftsmen and tradesmen followed courtiers and in later centuries a brisk trade grew up between the two nations: Scotland's primary goods (wool, hides, salmon and then coal) in exchange for the luxuries obtainable in the Netherlands, one of the major hubs of European trade. By 1600, trading colonies had grown up on either side of the well-travelled shipping routes: the Dutch settled along the eastern seaboard of Scotland; the Scots congregating first in Campvere—where they were allowed to land their goods duty-free and run their own affairs—and then in Rotterdam, where Scottish and Dutch Calvinism coexisted comfortably. Besides the thousands (or, according to one estimate, over 1 million)[citation needed] of local descendants with Scots ancestry, both ports still show signs of these early alliances. Now a museum, 'The Scots House' in the town of Veere
Veere
was the only place outwith Scotland
Scotland
where Scots Law
Scots Law
was practised. In Rotterdam, meanwhile, the doors of the Scots International Church have remained open since 1643.[62] Russia[edit] Main article: Scottish Russians

Patrick Gordon
Patrick Gordon
was a Russian General originally from Scotland
Scotland
and a friend of Peter the Great.

The first Scots to be mentioned in Russia's history were the Scottish soldiers in Muscovy
Muscovy
referred to as early as in the 14th century.[63] Among the 'soldiers of fortune' was the ancestor to famous Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov, called George Learmonth. A number of Scots gained wealth and fame in the times of Peter the Great
Peter the Great
and Catherine the Great.[64] These include Patrick Gordon, Paul Menzies, Samuel Greig, Charles Baird, Charles Cameron, Adam Menelaws
Adam Menelaws
and William Hastie. Several doctors to the Russian court were from Scotland,[65] the best known being James Wylie. The next wave of migration established commercial links with Russia.[66] The 19th century witnessed the immense literary cross-references between Scotland
Scotland
and Russia.[clarification needed] A Russian scholar, Maria Koroleva, distinguishes between 'the Russian Scots' (properly assimilated) and 'Scots in Russia', who remained thoroughly Scottish.[67] There are several societies in contemporary Russia to unite[clarification needed] the Scots. The Russian census lists does not distinguish Scots from other British people, so it is hard to establish reliable figures for the number of Scots living and working in modern Russia. Poland[edit] From as far back as the mid-16th century there were Scots trading and settling in Poland.[68] A "Scotch Pedlar's Pack in Poland" became a proverbial expression. It usually consisted of cloths, woollen goods and linen kerchiefs (head coverings). Itinerants also sold tin utensils and ironware such as scissors and knives. Along with the protection offered by King
King
Stephen in the Royal Grant of 1576, a district in Kraków
Kraków
was assigned to Scottish immigrants. Records from 1592 mention Scots settlers granted citizenship of Kraków, and give their employment as trader or merchant. Fees for citizenship ranged from 12 Polish florins to a musket and gunpowder, or an undertaking to marry within a year and a day of acquiring a holding. By the 17th century, an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Scots lived in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[56] Many came from Dundee
Dundee
and Aberdeen.[citation needed] Scots could be found in Polish towns on the banks of the Vistula
Vistula
as far south as Kraków. Settlers from Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders, there were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656, a number of Scottish highlanders who were disenchanted with Oliver Cromwell's rule went to Poland
Poland
to join the service of the King
King
of Sweden in his war against it.[citation needed] The Scots integrated well and many acquired great wealth. They contributed to many charitable institutions in the host country, but did not forget their homeland; for example, in 1701 when collections were made for the restoration fund of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, Scottish settlers in Poland
Poland
gave generously.[citation needed] Many royal grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants until the 18th century, at which time the settlers began to merge more and more into the native population. "Bonnie Prince Charlie" was half Polish, since he was the son of James Stuart, the "Old Pretender", and Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of Jan Sobieski, King
King
of Poland.[69][page needed][70][not in citation given][71] In 1691, the City of Warsaw
Warsaw
elected the Scottish immigrant Aleksander Czamer (Alexander Chalmers) as its mayor.[72] Italy[edit] See also: Italian Scots By 1592, the Scottish community in Rome
Rome
was big enough to merit the building of Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi
Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi
(English: St Andrew of the Scots). It was constructed for the Scottish expatriate community in Rome, especially for those intended for priesthood. The adjoining hospice was a shelter for Catholic Scots who fled their country because of religious persecution. In 1615, Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V
gave the hospice and the nearby Scottish Seminar to the Jesuits. It was rebuilt in 1645. The church and facilities became more important when James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, set up residence in Rome
Rome
in 1717, but were abandoned during the French occupation of Rome
Rome
in the late 18th century. In 1820, although religious activity was resumed, it was no longer led by the Jesuits. Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi
Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi
was reconstructed in 1869 by Luigi Poletti. The church was deconsecrated in 1962 and incorporated into a bank (Cassa di Risparmio delle Province Lombarde). The Scottish Seminar also moved away. The Feast of St Andrew is still celebrated there on 30 November.[73] Gurro
Gurro
in Italy is said to be populated by the descendants of Scottish soldiers. According to local legend, Scottish soldiers fleeing the Battle of Pavia
Battle of Pavia
who arrived in the area were stopped by severe blizzards that forced many, if not all, to give up their travels and settle in the town. To this day, the town of Gurro
Gurro
is still proud of its Scottish links. Many of the residents claim that their surnames are Italian translations of Scottish surnames.[74] The town also has a Scottish museum.[75][76][not in citation given] Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Scotland

Scottish English
Scottish English
and Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
are used on bilingual road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland, such as this one, seen in village of Mallaig.

Geographic distribution of speakers of the two native Scottish languages, namely Scots and Scottish Gaelic.

Robert Burns, considered by many to be the Scottish national poet

Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels
Waverley Novels
helped define Scottish identity in the 19th century

Jackie Kay, Scotland's makar, or national poet[77]

Carol Ann Duffy, the first woman and the first Scottish person to be appointed the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom[78]

Language[edit] See also: Language in Scotland Historically, Scottish people
Scottish people
have spoken many different languages and dialects. The Pictish
Pictish
language, Norse, Norman-French and Brythonic languages have been spoken by forebears of Scottish people. However, none of these are in use today. The remaining three major languages of the Scottish people
Scottish people
are English, Scots (various dialects) and Gaelic[citation needed]. Of these three, English is the most common form as a first language. There are some other minority languages of the Scottish people, such as Spanish, used by the population of Scots in Argentina. The Norn language
Norn language
was spoken in the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
into the early modern period – the current dialects of Shetlandic and Orcadian are heavily influenced by it, to this day. There is still debate whether Scots is a dialect or a language in its own right, as there is no clear line to define the two. Scots is usually regarded as a midway between the two, as it is highly mutually intelligible with English, particularly the dialects spoken in the North of England
England
as well as those spoken in Scotland, but is treated as a language in some laws. Scottish English[edit] Main article: Scottish English After the Union of Crowns
Union of Crowns
in 1603, the Scottish Court moved with James VI & I to London and English vocabulary began to be used by the Scottish upper classes.[79] With the introduction of the printing press, spellings became standardised. Scottish English, a Scottish variation of southern English English, began to replace the Scots language. Scottish English
Scottish English
soon became the dominant language. By the end of the 17th century, Scots had practically ceased to exist, at least in literary form.[80] While Scots remained a common spoken language, the southern Scottish English
Scottish English
dialect was the preferred language for publications from the 18th century to the present day. Today most Scottish people
Scottish people
speak Scottish English, which has some distinctive vocabulary and may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots. Scots[edit] Main article: Scots language See also: Ulster
Ulster
Scots dialects Lowland Scots, also known as Lallans or Doric, is a language of Germanic origin. It has its roots in Northern Middle English. After the wars of independence, the English used by Lowland Scots speakers evolved in a different direction from that of Modern English. Since 1424, this language, known to its speakers as Inglis, was used by the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
in its statutes.[79] By the middle of the 15th century, the language's name had changed from Inglis to Scottis. The reformation, from 1560 onwards, saw the beginning of a decline in the use of Scots forms. With the establishment of the Protestant Presbyterian
Presbyterian
religion, and lacking a Scots translation of the Bible, they used the Geneva Edition.[81] From that point on, God spoke English, not Scots.[82] Scots continued to be used in official legal and court documents throughout the 18th century. However, due to the adoption of the southern standard by officialdom and the Education system the use of written Scots declined. Lowland Scots is still a popular spoken language with over 1.5 million Scots speakers in Scotland.[83] Scots is used by about 30,000 Ulster
Ulster
Scots[84] and is known in official circles as Ullans. In 1993, Ulster
Ulster
Scots was recognised, along with Scots, as a variety of the Scots language
Scots language
by the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages.[85] Scottish Gaelic[edit] Main article: Scottish Gaelic See also: Canadian Gaelic Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
is a Celtic language with similarities to Irish. Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
comes from Old Irish. It was originally spoken by the Gaels
Gaels
of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
and the Rhinns of Galloway, later being adopted by the Pictish
Pictish
people of central and eastern Scotland. Gaelic (lingua Scottica, Scottis) became the de facto language of the whole Kingdom of Alba, giving its name to the country (Scotia, "Scotland"). Meanwhile, Gaelic independently spread from Galloway
Galloway
into Dumfriesshire. It is unclear if the Gaelic of 12th-century Clydesdale and Selkirkshire
Selkirkshire
came from Galloway
Galloway
or Scotland-proper. The predominance of Gaelic began to decline in the 13th century, and by the end of the Middle Ages, Scotland
Scotland
was divided into two linguistic zones, the English/Scots-speaking Lowlands and the Gaelic-speaking Highlands and Galloway. Gaelic continued to be spoken widely throughout the Highlands until the 19th century. The Highland clearances actively discouraged the use of Gaelic, caused the numbers of Gaelic speakers to fall.[86] Many Gaelic speakers emigrated to countries such as Canada
Canada
or moved to the industrial cities of lowland Scotland. Communities where the language is still spoken natively are restricted to the west coast of Scotland; and especially the Hebrides. However, large proportions of Gaelic speakers also live in the cities of Glasgow
Glasgow
and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
in Scotland. A report in 2005 by the Registrar General for Scotland
Scotland
based on the 2001 UK Census
UK Census
showed about 92,400 people or 1.9% of the population can speak Gaelic while the number of people able to read and write rose by 7.5% and 10% respectively.[87] Outwith Scotland, there are communities of Scottish Gaelic speakers such as the Canadian Gaelic
Canadian Gaelic
community; though their numbers have also been declining rapidly. Gaelic language is recognised as a minority Language by the European Union. The Scottish parliament is also seeking to increase the use of Gaelic in Scotland through the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Gaelic is now used as a first language in some schools and is prominently seen in use on dual language road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland. It is recognised as an official language of Scotland
Scotland
with "equal respect" to English.[citation needed] Religion[edit] See also: Religion in Scotland The modern people of Scotland
Scotland
remain a mix of different religions and no religion. Christianity
Christianity
is the largest faith in Scotland. In the 2011 census, 53.8% of the Scottish population identified as Christian.[88] The Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic divisions still remain in the society. In Scotland
Scotland
the main Protestant
Protestant
body is the Church of Scotland
Scotland
which is Presbyterian. The high kirk for Presbyterians is St Giles' Cathedral. In the United States, people of Scottish and Scots-Irish descent are chiefly Protestant[citation needed], with many belonging to the Baptist
Baptist
or Methodist
Methodist
churches, or various Presbyterian
Presbyterian
denominations. According to the Social Scottish Attitudes research, 52% of Scottish people identified as having no religion in 2016.[89] As a result, Scotland
Scotland
has thus become a secular and majority non-religious country, unique to the other UK countries. Literature[edit] See also: Scottish literature Folklore[edit] Main article: Scottish folklore Science and engineering[edit] Main article: List of Scottish scientists

Alexander Fleming. His discovery of penicillin had changed the world of modern medicine by introducing the age of antibiotics.

Music[edit] Main article: Music of Scotland Sport[edit] See also: Sport in Scotland

Massed pipebands at the Glengarry Highland Games, Ontario, Canada

The modern games of curling and golf originated in Scotland. Both sports are governed by bodies headquartered in Scotland, the World Curling
Curling
Federation and the Royal and Ancient Golf
Golf
Club of St Andrews respectively. Scots helped to popularise and spread the sport of association football; the first official international match was played in Glasgow
Glasgow
between Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
in 1872. Cuisine[edit] See also: Scottish cuisine Clans[edit] Main article: Scottish clan See also: Tartan
Tartan
and Kilt

Map of Scottish highland clans and lowland families.

Campbell of Argyle. A romanticised Victorian-era
Victorian-era
illustration of a Clansman by R. R. McIan
R. R. McIan
from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands published in 1845.

Anglicisation[edit] Main article: Anglicisation

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Many Scottish surnames have become anglicised over the centuries. This reflected the gradual spread of English, also known as Early Scots,[citation needed] from around the 13th century onwards, through Scotland
Scotland
beyond its traditional area in the Lothians. It also reflected some deliberate political attempts[citation needed] to promote the English language
English language
in the outlying regions of Scotland, including following the Union of the Crowns under King
King
James VI of Scotland
Scotland
and I of England
England
in 1603, and then the Acts of Union of 1707 and the subsequent defeat of rebellions.[who?] However, many Scottish surnames have remained predominantly Gaelic albeit written according to English orthographic practice (as with Irish surnames). Thus MacAoidh in Gaelic is Mackay in English, and MacGill-Eain in Gaelic is MacLean and so on. Mac (sometimes Mc) is common as, effectively, it means "son of". MacDonald, MacAulay, Gilmore, Gilmour, MacKinley, Macintosh, MacKenzie, MacNeill, MacPherson, MacLear, MacAra, Craig, Lauder, Menzies, Galloway
Galloway
and Duncan are just a few of many examples of traditional Scottish surnames. There are, of course, also the many surnames, like Wallace and Morton, stemming from parts of Scotland
Scotland
which were settled by peoples other than the (Gaelic) Scots. The most common surnames in Scotland
Scotland
are Smith and Brown,[90] which come from several origins each – e.g. Smith can be a translation of Mac a' Ghobhainn (thence also e.g. MacGowan), and Brown can refer to the colour, or be akin to MacBrayne.[citation needed] Anglicisation is not restricted to language. In his Socialism: critical and constructive, published in 1921, future British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
wrote: "The Anglification of Scotland
Scotland
has been proceeding apace to the damage of its education, its music, its literature, its genius, and the generation that is growing up under this influence is uprooted from its past, and, being deprived of the inspiration of its nationality, is also deprived of its communal sense."[91] Etymology[edit] See also: Scotia The word Scotia
Scotia
was used by the Romans, as early as the 1st century CE, as the name of one of the tribes in what is now Scotland.[citation needed] The Romans also used Scotia
Scotia
to refer to the Gaels
Gaels
living in Ireland.[92][not in citation given] The Venerable Bede
Bede
(c. 672 or 673 – 27 May, 735) uses the word Scottorum for the nation from Ireland who settled part of the Pictish
Pictish
lands: "Scottorum nationem in Pictorum parte recipit." This we can infer to mean the arrival of the people, also known as the Gaels, in the Kingdom of Dál Riata, in the western edge of Scotland. It is of note that Bede
Bede
used the word natio (nation) for the Scots, where he often refers to other peoples, such as the Picts, with the word gens (race).[93] In the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the word Scot is mentioned as a reference to the "Land of the Gaels". The word Scottorum was again used by an Irish king in 1005: Imperator Scottorum was the title given to Brian Bóruma by his notary, Mael Suthain, in the Book of Armagh.[94] This style was subsequently copied by the Scottish kings. Basileus
Basileus
Scottorum appears on the great seal of King
King
Edgar (1074–1107).[95] Alexander I (c. 1078–1124) used the words Rex Scottorum on his great seal, as did many of his successors up to and including James VI.[96] In modern times the words Scot and Scottish are applied mainly to inhabitants of Scotland. The possible ancient Irish connotations are largely forgotten. The language known as Ulster
Ulster
Scots, spoken in parts of northeastern Ireland, is the result of 17th and 18th century immigration to Ireland
Ireland
from Scotland. In the English language, the word Scotch is a term to describe a thing from Scotland, such as Scotch whisky. However, when referring to people, the preferred term is Scots. Many Scottish people
Scottish people
find the term Scotch to be offensive when applied to people.[97] The Oxford Dictionary describes Scotch as an old-fashioned term for "Scottish".[98] See also[edit]

Anglo-Metis people Asian-Scots Black Scottish people British people Celtic peoples Gaels Germanic peoples Irish-Scots Italian Scots List of Scots Scottish names Scottish national identity Alba Caledonia Prehistoric settlement of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland Redlegs Scotch-Irish Americans Scotch-Irish Russians Scots-Quebecer Scottish Americans Scottish Argentine Scottish Australians Scottish Brazilians Scottish Canadians Scottish Chilean Scottish Jamaicans Scottish New Zealanders Ulster
Ulster
Scots British Chinese

References[edit]

^ "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland". Scottish Government. May 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ "Statistical Bulletin: Ethnicity" (PDF). scotlandscensus.gov.uk. 2014. pp. 16−17. Retrieved 13 December 2016.  ^ " American Community Survey
American Community Survey
2008 by the US Census Bureau estimates 5,827,046 people claiming Scottish ancestry and 3,538,444 people claiming Scotch-Irish ancestry". factfinder.census.gov.  ^ Webb, James (3 October 2004). "Why You Need To Know The Scots-Irish". Parade Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 February 2006. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ The 2006 Canadian Census gives a total of 4,719,850 respondents stating their ethnic origin as Scottish. Many respondents may have misunderstood the question and the numerous responses for "Canadian" does not give an accurate figure for numerous groups, particularly those of British Isles
British Isles
origins. ^ a b "ABS Ancestry". 2016. [further explanation needed] ^ a b Carr, Julie (2009). Scotland's diaspora and overseas-born population (PDF). Edinburgh: Scottish Government
Scottish Government
Social Research. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7559-7657-7. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  ^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Scottish". stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ " Ethnic group
Ethnic group
(total responses) by age group and sex, for the census usually resident population count, 2001, 2006, and 2013 Censuses (RC, TA) Information on table". stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ " Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Census Report 2006" (PDF). Economic Affairs Division, Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government Treasury. 2006. p. 20. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ Scotland
Scotland
analysis: borders and citizenship (PDF). GOV.UK Home Office. London. 2014. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-10-187262-1. Retrieved 11 July 2016.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ ceu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (5 October 2009). "Scotland's Diaspora and Overseas-Born Population". Gov.scot. Retrieved 20 August 2017.  ^ "Genealogy". Scotland
Scotland
Now - friendsofscotland.gov.uk (1). March 2006. Archived from the original on 15 May 2006. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ The Ancestral Scotland
Scotland
website states the following: " Scotland
Scotland
is a land of 5.1 million people. A proud people, passionate about their country and her rich, noble heritage. For every single Scot in their native land, there are thought to be at least five more overseas who can claim Scottish ancestry; that's many millions spread throughout the globe." ^ Macniven, Duncan (March 2004). "Find your ancestors in the click of a mouse". scotland.org. Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Media Office News: It's in the genes". visitscotland.org. 26 October 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Bede
Bede
used a Latin
Latin
form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels
Gaels
of Dál Riata.Roger Collins, Judith McClure; Beda el Venerable, Bede (1999). The Ecclesiastical History of the English People: The Greater Chronicle; Bede's Letter to Egbert. Oxford University Press. p. 386. ISBN.  ^ Anthony Richard (TRN) Birley, Cornelius Tacitus; Cayo Cornelio Tácito. Agricola and Germany. Oxford University Press. ISBN.  ^ "Scotch". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ "Scotch: Definition, Synonyms from". Answers.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ Landsman, Ned C. (1 October 2001). Nation and Province in the First British Empire: Scotland
Scotland
and the Americas,. Bucknell University Press. ISBN.  ^ Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, Language in Pictland. ^ a b Clancy, Thomas Owen (13 July 2006). "Gaelic Scotland: a brief history". bord-na-gaidhlig.org.uk. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 13. ^ "2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries reported in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ The people of Australia: statistics from the 2011 census (PDF). Canberra: Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 2014. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-920996-23-9. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ 2011 Census: KS202EW National identity, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 22 December 2012 ^ a b c "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
1-Year Estimates". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.  ^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ Office of the Chief Statistician. "Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census – Summary Report".  ^ David McCrone, Professor of Sociology, University of Edinburgh. "Scottish Affairs, No. 24, Summer 1998; Opinion Polls in Scotland: July 1997 – June 1998". CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) During 1997–1998 two polls were undertaken. During the first when asked about their national identity 59 percent of the people polled stated they were Scottish or more Scottish than British, 28 percent stated they were equally Scottish and British, while 10 percent stated they were British or more British than Scottish. In the second poll 59 percent of the people polled stated they were Scottish or more Scottish than British, 26 percent stated they were equally Scottish and British, while 12 percent stated they were British or more British than Scottish. ^ The Scottish Government. "One Scotland
Scotland
Many Cultures 2005/06 – Waves 6 and 7 Campaign Evaluation". When asked what ethnic group they belonged over five surveys, in the 2005/2006 period, people reporting that they were Scottish rose from 75 percent to 84 percent, while those reporting that they were British dropped from 39 percent to 22 percent. "a number of respondents selected more than one option, usually both Scottish and British, hence percentages adding to more than 100% ... This indicates a continued erosion of perceived Britishness among respondents..." ^ "QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ "Table 1.1: Scottish population by ethnic group - All People". Scottish Government. 4 April 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ James McCarthy and Euan Hague, 'Race, Nation, and Nature: The Cultural Politics of "Celtic" Identification in the American West', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 94 Issue 2 (5 Nov 2004), p. 392, citing J. Hewitson, Tam Blake and Co.: The Story of the Scots in America (Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 1993). ^ Tartan Day
Tartan Day
2007, scotlandnow, Issue 7 (March 2007). Accessed 7 September 2008.[dead link] ^ "Scottish Parliament: Official Report, 11 September 2002, Col. 13525". Scottish.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 2005-04-21. Retrieved 2012-08-25.  ^ "Scottish Parliament: European and External Relations Committee Agenda, 20th Meeting 2004 (Session 2), 30 November 2004, EU/S2/04/20/1" (PDF). Scottish.parliament.uk. 2011-08-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-05-18. Retrieved 2012-08-25.  ^ Webb, James H. (2004). Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America. Broadway Books. pp. Front flap. ISBN 978-0-7679-1688-2. Retrieved 15 July 2016. More than 27 million Americans
Americans
today can trace their lineage to the Scots...  ^ Webb, James (19 October 2004). "Secret GOP Weapon: The Scots Irish Vote". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. (2001) James Jupp p650 Cambridge University Press. ^ Innes, Angus (2001). "Scots" (PDF). Multicultural Queensland 2001; Queensland Migration Heritage Hub. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ The Scots in Australia
Australia
(2008) M. Prentis UNSW Press. ^ "20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex — Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-11-02.  ^ Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to New Zealand
New Zealand
English Phonology Trudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31: 103–124 ^ "New Zealand". Naturemagics.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-29.  ^ Tanja Bueltmann, "'No Colonists are more Imbued with their National Sympathies than Scotchmen,'" New Zealand
New Zealand
Journal of History (2009) 43#2 pp 169–181 online ^ "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity: Birthplace and people born overseas". Stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ J. Brewer; G. Higgins (1998). Anti-Catholicism in Northern Ireland: The Mote and the Beam. Springer. p. 20. ISBN 0333995023.  ^ "2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England
England
and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2016.  ^ "Country of Birth – Full Detail: QS206NI". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 7 December 2016.  ^ See David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora", particularly pp. 272–278, in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005. ISBN ^ "Scotland.org The Official Gateway to Scotland". Friendsofscotland.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2006. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ a b Eric Richards (2004). "Britannia's children: emigration from England, Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Ireland". Continuum International Publishing Group. p.53. ISBN 1-85285-441-3 ^ "History – Scottish History". BBC. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ Watson, Jeremy; Kernohan, Marcus (30 September 2007). "Scot to bring DNA from Russia with Lermontov". Scotland
Scotland
on Sunday. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ "Scottish history in South Africa". South African Tourism. Retrieved 25 October 2015.  ^ "Scots in Argentina
Argentina
and Patagonia Austral". Electricscotland.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ "Archibald Cochrane". Electricscotland.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
and The Netherlands, Trade, Business & Economy – Official Online Gateway to Scotland". Scotland.org. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ Paul Dukes, Scottish soldiers in Moscovy in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987 ^ A.G. Cross, Scoto-Russian contacts in the reign of Catherine the great (1762–1796), in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987 ^ John H. Appleby, Through the looking-glass: Scottish doctors in Russia (1704–1854), in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987 ^ John R. Bowles, From the banks of the Neva to the shores of Lake Baikal: some enterprising Scots in Russia, in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987 ^ M.V. Koroleva, A.L. Sinitsa. Gelskoe naselenie Shotlandii, ot istokov k sovremennosti, in Demographic studies, Moscow, 2010, pp. 163–191. ^ " Scotland
Scotland
and Poland
Poland
- a 500 year relationship". The Scotsman. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ Polish Roots – Rosemary A. Chorzempa – Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
and Poland". Scotland.org. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ "Legacies – Immigration and Emigration – Scotland
Scotland
– North-East Scotland
Scotland
– Aberdeen's Baltic Adventure – Article Page 1". BBC. 5 October 2003. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ " Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw's Scottish Mayor Remembered". Warsaw-life.com. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ "Saint Andrew, Apostle and Patron of Scotland". Vatican Radio. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ Matharu, Hardeep (3 March 2016). "Scottish village in Italian Alps where residents wear kilts and play bagpipes". The Independent. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ "strathspey Archive". Strathspey.org. Archived from the original on 29 November 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ "Scottish Celts
Celts
in Italy – Bonnie Prince Charlie in Bologna". Delicious Italy. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ Brooks, Libby (15 March 2016). " Jackie Kay
Jackie Kay
named as new Scottish makar". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2016.  ^ "Duffy reacts to new Laureate post". BBC News. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2016.  ^ a b Crystal, David (25 August 2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN.  ^ Barber, Charles Laurence (1 August 2000). The English Language: A Historical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 147. ISBN.  ^ MacMahon, April M. S.; McMahon (13 April 2000). Lexical Phonology and the History of English. Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN.  ^ Murphy, Michael (EDT); Harry White (1 October 2001). Musical Constructions of Nationalism. Cork University Press. p. 216. ISBN.  ^ The General Register Office for Scotland
Scotland
(1996) ^ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Life and Times Survey, 1999 ^ O'Reilly, Camille (2004). "The Politics of Culture in Northern Ireland". In Neuheiser, Jörg; Wolff, Stefan. Peace at Last?: The Impact of the Good Friday Agreement on Northern Ireland. Berghahn Books. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-57181-658-0. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ Pagoeta, Mikel Morris (2001). Europe Phrasebook. Lonely Planet. p. 416. ISBN 978-1741799736.  ^ "UK Mixed report on Gaelic language". BBC News. 10 October 2005. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ "BBC Report - Most People in Scotland
Scotland
'Not Religious'". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2016. . ^ "Most People in Scotland
Scotland
'Not Religious'". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ "100 Most Common Surnames". National Records of Scotland. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2016.  ^ MacDonald, James Ramsay (1921). "CHAPTER VI Political Construction: The Democratic State". Socialism: Critical and Constructive (PDF). Cassell and Company Ltd. p. 249. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ Lehane, Brendan (1994). The Quest of Three Abbots: The Golden Age of Celtic Christianity. SteinerBooks. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-940262-65-2.  ^ Harris, Stephen J. (1 October 2003). Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature. Routledge (UK). p. 72. ISBN.  ^ Moody, Theodore William; Martin, Francis X.; Byrne, F. J. (2005). "XXV Ireland
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Part of a series of articles on

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Celts
and Modern Celts

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Nations

Celtic nations

Ireland
Ireland
(Éire) Scotland
Scotland
(Alba) Wales
Wales
(Cymru) Brittany
Brittany
(Breizh) Cornwall
Cornwall
(Kernow) Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Mannin)

Religion

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Texts and chronicles

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Music

Celtic music

Bagpipes Jig Celtic fusion Celtic rock Celtic punk Welsh bagpipes

v t e

Sources[edit]

Ritchie, A. & Breeze, D.J. Invaders of Scotland
Scotland
HMSO. (?1991) David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora" in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005.

Further reading[edit]

Spence, Rhoda, ed. The Scottish Companion: a Bedside Book of Delights. Edinburgh: R. Paterson, 1955. vi, 138 p. N.B.: Primarily concerns Scottish customs, character, and folkways.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to People of Scotland.

The Scots In New Zealand
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under the skin" by Ian Johnston for The Scotsman Online Top 100 Scottish People Biographies of Famous Scots at Scottish-people.info, part of the Gazetteer for Scotland
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