Scotland 4,446,000 (2011)
(Scottish descent only)
5,393,554 Scotch-Irish[unreliable source?]
CanadaC[further explanation needed]
Northern Ireland E
Isle of Man
English (Scottish English)
Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism, Episcopalianism; other minority
A These figures are estimates based on census data of populations and
official surveys of identity.[unreliable source?][not in
Scottish American and Scotch-Irish Americans
C Scottish Canadians
D Scottish-born people in
G Number of people born in Scotland.
Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich),
or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland.
Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking
Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of
Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking
Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking
Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were
incorporated into the Scottish nation.
In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to
anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins
are from Scotland. The
Latin word Scoti originally referred to the
Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland.
Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been
used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth
Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents
the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in
Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as
'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life
in the community in the early decades of the 20th century.
People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland.
Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland
Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly
industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people
being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them
Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish
people settled the new-world lands of North and South America,
Australia and New Zealand.
Canada has the highest level of Scottish
descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population
of Scottish descendants, after the United States.
Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at
different periods in its history. The Gaels, the
Picts and the Britons
have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European
peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning
in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of
Scotland from the
8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David
I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France,
England and the
Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names,
including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray
and Stewart came to
Scotland at this time. Today
Scotland is one of
the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living
there are British citizens.
1 Ethnic groups of Scotland
2 Scottish diaspora
2.1 United States
2.4 New Zealand
2.5 United Kingdom
2.6 Rest of Europe
3 Scots in mainland Europe
4.1.1 Scottish English
4.1.3 Scottish Gaelic
4.5 Science and engineering
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Ethnic groups of Scotland
Further information: Genetic history of the British Isles, Prehistoric
Scotland, and Scandinavian Scotland
In the Early Middle Ages,
Scotland saw several ethnic or cultural
groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels,
the Britons, and the Angles, with the latter settling in the southeast
of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to
language. Most of
Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic
languages and these included, at least initially, the Britons, as well
Gaels and the Picts.
Germanic peoples included the Angles
of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern
Scotland in the region
Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth to the north and the
River Tweed to the
south. They also occupied the south-west of
Scotland up to and
including the Plain of Kyle and their language, Old English, was the
earliest form of the language which eventually became known as Scots.
Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of
Scotland by the 9th century, reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th
centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the
King Edgar divided the Kingdom of
Scotland and England; at least, most medieval historians now accept
the 'gift' by Edgar, in any case, after the later
Battle of Carham the
Scottish kingdom encompassed many English people, with even more quite
possibly arriving after the Norman invasion of
England in 1066.
South-east of the Firth of Forth, then in
Lothian and the Borders (OE:
Loðene), a northern variety of Old English, also known as Early
Scots, was spoken.
St. Kildans sitting on the village street, 1886
As a result of David I,
King of Scots' return from exile in
1113, ultimately to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of Norman
military force, David invited Norman families from
France and England
to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to
him. This Davidian Revolution, as many historians call it, brought
a European style of feudalism to
Scotland along with an influx of
people of Norman descent - by invitation, unlike
England where it was
by conquest. To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland
can trace ancestry to
Normans from this period, such as the Stewarts,
the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns
and many others.
Northern Isles and some parts of
Caithness were Norn-speaking (the
Caithness was Gaelic-speaking into the 20th Century, as were
some small communities in parts of the Central Highlands). From 1200
to 1500 the Early
Scots language spread across the lowland parts of
Galloway and the Highland line, being used by Barbour
in his historical epic
The Brus in the late 14th century in Aberdeen.
From 1500 on,
Scotland was commonly divided by language into two
groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" (the language formerly
called Scottis by English speakers and known by many Lowlanders in the
18th century as "Irish") and the Inglis-speaking "Lowlanders" (a
language later to be called Scots). Today, immigrants have brought
other languages, but almost every adult throughout
Scotland is fluent
in the English language.
Main articles: Scottish diaspora,
Ulster Scots people, Highland
Clearances, and Lowland Clearances
Number of the Scottish diaspora
% of the local population
United States ACS
2010 U.S (Scotch-Irish)
Scotland has a population of just over five million people,
the majority of whom consider themselves Scottish. In
addition, there are many more people with Scots ancestry living abroad
than the total population of Scotland.
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Main article: Scottish Americans
Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew
In the 2013
American Community Survey
American Community Survey 5,310,285 identified as Scottish
and 2,976,878 as of Scots-Irish descent.
Americans of Scottish
descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or
88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001
The number of
Americans of Scottish descent today is estimated to be
20 to 25 million (up to 8.3% of the total US
population), and Scotch-Irish, 27 to 30 million (up to 10% of
the total US population), the subgroups overlapping
and not always distinguishable because of their shared ancestral
surnames.[clarification needed] The majority of Scotch-Irish
originally came from Lowland
Scotland and Northern England[citation
needed] before migrating to the province of Ulster in
Ireland (see Plantation of Ulster) and thence, beginning about five
generations later, to
North America in large numbers during the
eighteenth century.
Main article: Scottish Canadians
As the third-largest ethnic group in
Canada and amongst the first
Europeans to settle in the country,
Scottish people have made a large
impact on Canadian culture since colonial times. According to the 2011
Census of Canada, the number of Canadians claiming full or partial
Scottish descent is 4,714,970, or 15.10% of the nation's total
Many respondents may have misunderstood the question and the numerous
responses for "Canadian" does not give an accurate figure for numerous
groups, particularly those of
British Isles origins.
Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada.
Scottish culture has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of
Nova Scotia (
Latin for "New Scotland"). There, in Cape Breton, where
both lowland and highland Scots settled in large numbers, Canadian
Gaelic is still spoken by a small number of residents. Cape Breton is
the home of the Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts. Glengarry
County in present-day
Eastern Ontario is a historic county that was
set up as a settlement for Highland Scots, where many from the
Highlands settled to preserve their culture in result of the Highland
Clearances. Gaelic was the native language of the community since its
settlement in the 18th century although the number of speakers
decreased since as a result of English migration[clarification
needed]. As of the modern 21st century, there are still a few Gaelic
speakers in the community.
Main article: Scottish Australians
The Australian city of
Brisbane is named after Scotsman Thomas
By 1830, 15.11% of the colonies' total population were Scots, which
increased by the middle of the century to 25,000, or 20-25% of the
total population. The
Australian Gold Rush
Australian Gold Rush of the 1850s provided a
further impetus for Scottish migration: in the 1850s 90,000 Scots
immigrated to Australia, far more than other British or Irish
populations at the time. Literacy rates of the Scottish immigrants
ran at 90-95%. By 1860, Scots made up 50% of the ethnic composition of
Western Victoria, Adelaide, Penola and Naracoorte. Other settlements
New South Wales
New South Wales included New England, the Hunter Valley and the
Much settlement followed the Highland Potato Famine, Highland
Clearances and the
Lowland Clearances of the mid-19th century. In the
1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12% of the Australian
population. Out of the 1.3 million migrants from Britain to Australia
in the period from 1861–1914, 13.5% were Scots. Just 5.3% of the
convicts transported to Eastern
Australia between 1789 and 1852 were
A steady rate of Scottish immigration continued into the 20th century
and substantial numbers of Scots continued to arrive after 1945.
From 1900 until the 1950s, Scots favoured New South Wales, as well as
Australia and Southern Australia. A strong
cultural Scottish presence is evident in the Highland Games, dance,
Tartan Day celebrations, clan and Gaelic-speaking societies found
throughout modern Australia.
According to the 2011 Australian census, 130,204 Australian residents
were born in Scotland, while 1,792,600 claimed Scottish ancestry,
either alone or in combination with another ancestry. This is the
fourth most commonly nominated ancestry and represents over 8.9% of
the total population of Australia.
Main article: Scottish New Zealanders
Scottish Highland family migrating to
New Zealand in 1844
Significant numbers of
Scottish people also settled in New Zealand.
Approximately 20 percent of the original European settler population
New Zealand came from Scotland, and Scottish influence is still
visible around the country. The
South Island city of Dunedin, in
particular, is known for its Scottish heritage and was named as a
Edinburgh by the city's Scottish founders.
Scottish migration to
New Zealand dates back to the earliest period of
European colonisation, with a large proportion of
Zealanders being of Scottish descent. However, identification as
"British" or "European" New Zealanders can sometimes obscure their
Scottish New Zealanders
Scottish New Zealanders also have Māori or other
The majority of Scottish immigrants settled in the South Island. All
over New Zealand, the Scots developed different means to bridge the
old homeland and the new. Many Caledonian societies were formed, well
over 100 by the early twentieth century, who helped maintain Scottish
culture and traditions. From the 1860s, these societies organised
annual Caledonian Games throughout New Zealand. The Games were sports
meets that brought together Scottish settlers and the wider New
Zealand public. In so doing, the Games gave Scots a path to cultural
integration as Scottish New Zealanders. In the 1961 census there
were 47,078 people living in
New Zealand who were born in Scotland; in
the 2013 census there were 25,953 in this category.
Many people of Scottish descent live in other parts of the United
Ulster particularly the colonial policies of James VI,
known as the plantation of Ulster, resulted in a
Scottish society, which formed the
Ulster-Scots community. The
Protestant Ascendancy did not however benefit them much, as the
English espoused the Anglican Church. The number of people of Scottish
Wales is difficult to quantify due to the many
complex migrations on the island, and ancient
migration patterns due to wars, famine and conquest.
The 2011 Census recorded 708,872 people born in
Scotland resident in
England, 24,346 resident in Wales and 15,455 resident in Northern
Ireland.[not in citation given]
Rest of Europe
Other European countries have had their share of Scots immigrants. The
Scots have emigrated to mainland Europe for centuries as merchants and
soldiers. Many emigrated to France, Poland, Italy, Germany,
Scandinavia, and the Netherlands. Recently some scholars
suggested that up to 250,000 Russian nationals may have Scottish
Guy Scott, the 12th vice-president and acting president of
Oct 2014 – Jan 2015, is of Scottish descent.
A number of
Scottish people settled in
South Africa in the 1800s and
were known for their road-building expertise, their farming
experience, and architectural skills.
The largest population of Scots in
Latin America is found in
Argentina,[not in citation given] followed by Chile,[not in
Brazil and Mexico.
Scots in mainland Europe
It is said[by whom?] that the first people from the
Low Countries to
Scotland came in the wake of Maud's marriage to the Scottish
king, David I, during the Middle Ages.[when?] Craftsmen and tradesmen
followed courtiers and in later centuries a brisk trade grew up
between the two nations: Scotland's primary goods (wool, hides, salmon
and then coal) in exchange for the luxuries obtainable in the
Netherlands, one of the major hubs of European trade.
By 1600, trading colonies had grown up on either side of the
well-travelled shipping routes: the Dutch settled along the eastern
seaboard of Scotland; the Scots congregating first in Campvere—where
they were allowed to land their goods duty-free and run their own
affairs—and then in Rotterdam, where Scottish and Dutch Calvinism
coexisted comfortably. Besides the thousands (or, according to one
estimate, over 1 million) of local descendants with
Scots ancestry, both ports still show signs of these early alliances.
Now a museum, 'The Scots House' in the town of
Veere was the only
Scots Law was practised. In Rotterdam,
meanwhile, the doors of the
Scots International Church have remained
open since 1643.
Main article: Scottish Russians
Patrick Gordon was a Russian General originally from
Scotland and a
friend of Peter the Great.
The first Scots to be mentioned in Russia's history were the Scottish
Muscovy referred to as early as in the 14th century.
Among the 'soldiers of fortune' was the ancestor to famous Russian
poet Mikhail Lermontov, called George Learmonth. A number of Scots
gained wealth and fame in the times of
Peter the Great
Peter the Great and Catherine
the Great. These include Patrick Gordon, Paul Menzies, Samuel
Greig, Charles Baird, Charles Cameron,
Adam Menelaws and William
Hastie. Several doctors to the Russian court were from Scotland,
the best known being James Wylie.
The next wave of migration established commercial links with
The 19th century witnessed the immense literary cross-references
Scotland and Russia.[clarification needed]
A Russian scholar, Maria Koroleva, distinguishes between 'the Russian
Scots' (properly assimilated) and 'Scots in Russia', who remained
There are several societies in contemporary Russia to
unite[clarification needed] the Scots. The Russian census lists does
not distinguish Scots from other British people, so it is hard to
establish reliable figures for the number of Scots living and working
in modern Russia.
From as far back as the mid-16th century there were Scots trading and
settling in Poland. A "Scotch Pedlar's Pack in Poland" became a
proverbial expression. It usually consisted of cloths, woollen goods
and linen kerchiefs (head coverings). Itinerants also sold tin
utensils and ironware such as scissors and knives. Along with the
protection offered by
King Stephen in the Royal Grant of 1576, a
Kraków was assigned to Scottish immigrants.
Records from 1592 mention Scots settlers granted citizenship of
Kraków, and give their employment as trader or merchant. Fees for
citizenship ranged from 12 Polish florins to a musket and gunpowder,
or an undertaking to marry within a year and a day of acquiring a
By the 17th century, an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Scots lived in the
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Many came from
Aberdeen. Scots could be found in Polish towns on the
banks of the
Vistula as far south as Kraków. Settlers from
Aberdeenshire were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were
also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders, there
were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656, a number of
Scottish highlanders who were disenchanted with Oliver Cromwell's rule
Poland to join the service of the
King of Sweden in his war
against it.
The Scots integrated well and many acquired great wealth. They
contributed to many charitable institutions in the host country, but
did not forget their homeland; for example, in 1701 when collections
were made for the restoration fund of the Marischal College, Aberdeen,
Scottish settlers in
Poland gave generously.
Many royal grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants
until the 18th century, at which time the settlers began to merge more
and more into the native population. "Bonnie Prince Charlie" was half
Polish, since he was the son of James Stuart, the "Old Pretender", and
Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of Jan Sobieski,
Poland.[page needed][not in citation given] In 1691,
the City of
Warsaw elected the Scottish immigrant Aleksander Czamer
(Alexander Chalmers) as its mayor.
See also: Italian Scots
By 1592, the Scottish community in
Rome was big enough to merit the
Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi
Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi (English: St Andrew of the
Scots). It was constructed for the Scottish expatriate community in
Rome, especially for those intended for priesthood. The adjoining
hospice was a shelter for Catholic Scots who fled their country
because of religious persecution. In 1615,
Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V gave the
hospice and the nearby Scottish Seminar to the Jesuits. It was rebuilt
in 1645. The church and facilities became more important when James
Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, set up residence in
1717, but were abandoned during the French occupation of
Rome in the
late 18th century. In 1820, although religious activity was resumed,
it was no longer led by the Jesuits.
Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi
Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi was
reconstructed in 1869 by Luigi Poletti. The church was deconsecrated
in 1962 and incorporated into a bank (Cassa di Risparmio delle
Province Lombarde). The Scottish Seminar also moved away. The Feast of
St Andrew is still celebrated there on 30 November.
Gurro in Italy is said to be populated by the descendants of Scottish
soldiers. According to local legend, Scottish soldiers fleeing the
Battle of Pavia
Battle of Pavia who arrived in the area were stopped by severe
blizzards that forced many, if not all, to give up their travels and
settle in the town. To this day, the town of
Gurro is still proud of
its Scottish links. Many of the residents claim that their surnames
are Italian translations of Scottish surnames. The town also has a
Scottish museum.[not in citation given]
See also: Culture of Scotland
Scottish English and
Scottish Gaelic are used on bilingual road signs
throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland, such as this one,
seen in village of Mallaig.
Geographic distribution of speakers of the two native Scottish
languages, namely Scots and Scottish Gaelic.
Robert Burns, considered by many to be the Scottish national poet
Walter Scott, whose
Waverley Novels helped define Scottish identity in
the 19th century
Jackie Kay, Scotland's makar, or national poet
Carol Ann Duffy, the first woman and the first Scottish person to be
appointed the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom
See also: Language in Scotland
Scottish people have spoken many different languages and
Pictish language, Norse, Norman-French and Brythonic
languages have been spoken by forebears of Scottish people. However,
none of these are in use today. The remaining three major languages of
Scottish people are English, Scots (various dialects) and
Gaelic. Of these three, English is the most common
form as a first language. There are some other minority languages of
the Scottish people, such as Spanish, used by the population of Scots
Norn language was spoken in the
Northern Isles into the early
modern period – the current dialects of
Shetlandic and Orcadian are
heavily influenced by it, to this day.
There is still debate whether Scots is a dialect or a language in its
own right, as there is no clear line to define the two. Scots is
usually regarded as a midway between the two, as it is highly mutually
intelligible with English, particularly the dialects spoken in the
England as well as those spoken in Scotland, but is treated
as a language in some laws.
Main article: Scottish English
Union of Crowns
Union of Crowns in 1603, the Scottish Court moved with James
VI & I to London and English vocabulary began to be used by the
Scottish upper classes. With the introduction of the printing
press, spellings became standardised. Scottish English, a Scottish
variation of southern English English, began to replace the Scots
Scottish English soon became the dominant language. By the
end of the 17th century, Scots had practically ceased to exist, at
least in literary form. While Scots remained a common spoken
language, the southern
Scottish English dialect was the preferred
language for publications from the 18th century to the present day.
Scottish people speak Scottish English, which has some
distinctive vocabulary and may be influenced to varying degrees by
Main article: Scots language
Ulster Scots dialects
Lowland Scots, also known as
Lallans or Doric, is a language of
Germanic origin. It has its roots in Northern Middle English. After
the wars of independence, the English used by Lowland Scots speakers
evolved in a different direction from that of Modern English. Since
1424, this language, known to its speakers as Inglis, was used by the
Scottish Parliament in its statutes. By the middle of the 15th
century, the language's name had changed from Inglis to Scottis. The
reformation, from 1560 onwards, saw the beginning of a decline in the
use of Scots forms. With the establishment of the Protestant
Presbyterian religion, and lacking a Scots translation of the Bible,
they used the Geneva Edition. From that point on, God spoke
English, not Scots. Scots continued to be used in official legal
and court documents throughout the 18th century. However, due to the
adoption of the southern standard by officialdom and the Education
system the use of written Scots declined. Lowland Scots is still a
popular spoken language with over 1.5 million Scots speakers in
Scotland. Scots is used by about 30,000
Ulster Scots and is
known in official circles as Ullans. In 1993,
Ulster Scots was
recognised, along with Scots, as a variety of the
Scots language by
the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages.
Main article: Scottish Gaelic
See also: Canadian Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language with similarities to Irish.
Scottish Gaelic comes from Old Irish. It was originally spoken by the
Dál Riata and the Rhinns of Galloway, later being adopted by
Pictish people of central and eastern Scotland. Gaelic (lingua
Scottica, Scottis) became the de facto language of the whole Kingdom
of Alba, giving its name to the country (Scotia, "Scotland").
Meanwhile, Gaelic independently spread from
Dumfriesshire. It is unclear if the Gaelic of 12th-century Clydesdale
Selkirkshire came from
Galloway or Scotland-proper. The
predominance of Gaelic began to decline in the 13th century, and by
the end of the Middle Ages,
Scotland was divided into two linguistic
zones, the English/Scots-speaking Lowlands and the Gaelic-speaking
Highlands and Galloway. Gaelic continued to be spoken widely
throughout the Highlands until the 19th century. The Highland
clearances actively discouraged the use of Gaelic, caused the numbers
of Gaelic speakers to fall. Many Gaelic speakers emigrated to
countries such as
Canada or moved to the industrial cities of lowland
Scotland. Communities where the language is still spoken natively are
restricted to the west coast of Scotland; and especially the Hebrides.
However, large proportions of Gaelic speakers also live in the cities
Edinburgh in Scotland. A report in 2005 by the
Registrar General for
Scotland based on the 2001
UK Census showed
about 92,400 people or 1.9% of the population can speak Gaelic while
the number of people able to read and write rose by 7.5% and 10%
respectively. Outwith Scotland, there are communities of Scottish
Gaelic speakers such as the
Canadian Gaelic community; though their
numbers have also been declining rapidly. Gaelic language is
recognised as a minority Language by the European Union. The Scottish
parliament is also seeking to increase the use of Gaelic in Scotland
through the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Gaelic is now used as
a first language in some schools and is prominently seen in use on
dual language road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of
Scotland. It is recognised as an official language of
"equal respect" to English.
See also: Religion in Scotland
The modern people of
Scotland remain a mix of different religions and
Christianity is the largest faith in Scotland. In the
2011 census, 53.8% of the Scottish population identified as
Protestant and Catholic divisions still remain in
the society. In
Scotland the main
Protestant body is the Church of
Scotland which is Presbyterian. The high kirk for Presbyterians is St
Giles' Cathedral. In the United States, people of Scottish and
Scots-Irish descent are chiefly Protestant, with many
belonging to the
Methodist churches, or various
According to the Social Scottish Attitudes research, 52% of Scottish
people identified as having no religion in 2016. As a result,
Scotland has thus become a secular and majority non-religious country,
unique to the other UK countries.
See also: Scottish literature
Main article: Scottish folklore
Science and engineering
Main article: List of Scottish scientists
Alexander Fleming. His discovery of penicillin had changed the world
of modern medicine by introducing the age of antibiotics.
Main article: Music of Scotland
See also: Sport in Scotland
Massed pipebands at the Glengarry Highland Games, Ontario, Canada
The modern games of curling and golf originated in Scotland. Both
sports are governed by bodies headquartered in Scotland, the World
Curling Federation and the Royal and Ancient
Golf Club of St Andrews
respectively. Scots helped to popularise and spread the sport of
association football; the first official international match was
England in 1872.
See also: Scottish cuisine
Main article: Scottish clan
Tartan and Kilt
Map of Scottish highland clans and lowland families.
Campbell of Argyle. A romanticised
Victorian-era illustration of a
R. R. McIan
R. R. McIan from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands
published in 1845.
Main article: Anglicisation
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Scottish surnames have become anglicised over the centuries. This
reflected the gradual spread of English, also known as Early
Scots, from around the 13th century onwards, through
Scotland beyond its traditional area in the Lothians. It also
reflected some deliberate political attempts to
English language in the outlying regions of Scotland,
including following the Union of the Crowns under
King James VI of
Scotland and I of
England in 1603, and then the Acts of Union of 1707
and the subsequent defeat of rebellions.[who?]
Scottish surnames have remained predominantly Gaelic
albeit written according to English orthographic practice (as with
Irish surnames). Thus MacAoidh in Gaelic is Mackay in English, and
MacGill-Eain in Gaelic is MacLean and so on. Mac (sometimes Mc) is
common as, effectively, it means "son of". MacDonald, MacAulay,
Gilmore, Gilmour, MacKinley, Macintosh, MacKenzie, MacNeill,
MacPherson, MacLear, MacAra, Craig, Lauder, Menzies,
Duncan are just a few of many examples of traditional Scottish
surnames. There are, of course, also the many surnames, like Wallace
and Morton, stemming from parts of
Scotland which were settled by
peoples other than the (Gaelic) Scots. The most common surnames in
Scotland are Smith and Brown, which come from several origins each
– e.g. Smith can be a translation of Mac a' Ghobhainn (thence also
e.g. MacGowan), and Brown can refer to the colour, or be akin to
Anglicisation is not restricted to language. In his Socialism:
critical and constructive, published in 1921, future British Prime
Ramsay MacDonald wrote: "The Anglification of
been proceeding apace to the damage of its education, its music, its
literature, its genius, and the generation that is growing up under
this influence is uprooted from its past, and, being deprived of the
inspiration of its nationality, is also deprived of its communal
See also: Scotia
Scotia was used by the Romans, as early as the 1st century
CE, as the name of one of the tribes in what is now Scotland.[citation
needed] The Romans also used
Scotia to refer to the
Gaels living in
Ireland.[not in citation given] The Venerable
Bede (c. 672 or 673
– 27 May, 735) uses the word Scottorum for the nation from Ireland
who settled part of the
Pictish lands: "Scottorum nationem in Pictorum
parte recipit." This we can infer to mean the arrival of the people,
also known as the Gaels, in the Kingdom of Dál Riata, in the western
edge of Scotland. It is of note that
Bede used the word natio (nation)
for the Scots, where he often refers to other peoples, such as the
Picts, with the word gens (race). In the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle, the word Scot is mentioned as a reference to the "Land of
the Gaels". The word Scottorum was again used by an Irish king in
1005: Imperator Scottorum was the title given to Brian Bóruma by his
notary, Mael Suthain, in the Book of Armagh. This style was
subsequently copied by the Scottish kings.
Basileus Scottorum appears
on the great seal of
King Edgar (1074–1107). Alexander I (c.
1078–1124) used the words Rex Scottorum on his great seal, as did
many of his successors up to and including James VI.
In modern times the words Scot and Scottish are applied mainly to
inhabitants of Scotland. The possible ancient Irish connotations are
largely forgotten. The language known as
Ulster Scots, spoken in parts
of northeastern Ireland, is the result of 17th and 18th century
Ireland from Scotland.
In the English language, the word Scotch is a term to describe a thing
from Scotland, such as Scotch whisky. However, when referring to
people, the preferred term is Scots. Many
Scottish people find the
term Scotch to be offensive when applied to people. The Oxford
Dictionary describes Scotch as an old-fashioned term for
Black Scottish people
List of Scots
Scottish national identity
Prehistoric settlement of
Great Britain and Ireland
Scottish New Zealanders
^ "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons
from Ireland". Scottish Government. May 2009. Retrieved 17 March
^ "Statistical Bulletin: Ethnicity" (PDF). scotlandscensus.gov.uk.
2014. pp. 16−17. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
American Community Survey
American Community Survey 2008 by the US Census Bureau estimates
5,827,046 people claiming Scottish ancestry and 3,538,444 people
claiming Scotch-Irish ancestry". factfinder.census.gov.
^ Webb, James (3 October 2004). "Why You Need To Know The
Scots-Irish". Parade Magazine. Archived from the original on 2
February 2006. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ The 2006 Canadian Census gives a total of 4,719,850 respondents
stating their ethnic origin as Scottish. Many respondents may have
misunderstood the question and the numerous responses for "Canadian"
does not give an accurate figure for numerous groups, particularly
British Isles origins.
^ a b "ABS Ancestry". 2016. [further explanation needed]
^ a b Carr, Julie (2009). Scotland's diaspora and overseas-born
population (PDF). Edinburgh:
Scottish Government Social Research.
p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7559-7657-7. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Scottish". stats.govt.nz.
Retrieved 10 December 2016.
Ethnic group (total responses) by age group and sex, for the census
usually resident population count, 2001, 2006, and 2013 Censuses (RC,
TA) Information on table". stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 10 December
Isle of Man
Isle of Man Census Report 2006" (PDF). Economic Affairs Division,
Isle of Man
Isle of Man Government Treasury. 2006. p. 20. Retrieved 10
Scotland analysis: borders and citizenship (PDF). GOV.UK Home
Office. London. 2014. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-10-187262-1.
Retrieved 11 July 2016.
^ [dead link]
^ email@example.com, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House,
Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (5 October 2009).
"Scotland's Diaspora and Overseas-Born Population". Gov.scot.
Retrieved 20 August 2017.
Scotland Now - friendsofscotland.gov.uk (1). March
2006. Archived from the original on 15 May 2006. CS1 maint: Unfit
^ The Ancestral
Scotland website states the following: "
Scotland is a
land of 5.1 million people. A proud people, passionate about their
country and her rich, noble heritage. For every single Scot in their
native land, there are thought to be at least five more overseas who
can claim Scottish ancestry; that's many millions spread throughout
^ Macniven, Duncan (March 2004). "Find your ancestors in the click of
a mouse". scotland.org. Archived from the original on 2 May
2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ "Media Office News: It's in the genes". visitscotland.org. 26
October 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. CS1
maint: Unfit url (link)
Bede used a
Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the
Dál Riata.Roger Collins, Judith McClure; Beda el Venerable, Bede
(1999). The Ecclesiastical History of the English People: The Greater
Chronicle; Bede's Letter to Egbert. Oxford University Press.
p. 386. ISBN.
^ Anthony Richard (TRN) Birley, Cornelius Tacitus; Cayo Cornelio
Tácito. Agricola and Germany. Oxford University Press. ISBN.
^ "Scotch". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
^ "Scotch: Definition, Synonyms from". Answers.com. Retrieved 3
^ Landsman, Ned C. (1 October 2001).
Nation and Province in the First
Scotland and the Americas,. Bucknell University Press.
^ Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, Language
^ a b Clancy, Thomas Owen (13 July 2006). "Gaelic Scotland: a brief
history". bord-na-gaidhlig.org.uk. Archived from the original on 11
September 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
^ Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 13.
^ "2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries reported in
Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved
12 July 2016.
^ The people of Australia: statistics from the 2011 census (PDF).
Canberra: Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 2014.
p. 55. ISBN 978-1-920996-23-9. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
^ 2011 Census: KS202EW National identity, local authorities in England
and Wales, Accessed 22 December 2012
^ a b c "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more
ancestry categories reported 2010
American Community Survey
American Community Survey 1-Year
United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November
^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics Canada.
Retrieved 12 July 2016.
^ Office of the Chief Statistician. "Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001
Census – Summary Report".
^ David McCrone, Professor of Sociology, University of Edinburgh.
"Scottish Affairs, No. 24, Summer 1998; Opinion Polls in Scotland:
July 1997 – June 1998". CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
(link) During 1997–1998 two polls were undertaken. During the first
when asked about their national identity 59 percent of the people
polled stated they were Scottish or more Scottish than British, 28
percent stated they were equally Scottish and British, while 10
percent stated they were British or more British than Scottish. In the
second poll 59 percent of the people polled stated they were Scottish
or more Scottish than British, 26 percent stated they were equally
Scottish and British, while 12 percent stated they were British or
more British than Scottish.
^ The Scottish Government. "One
Scotland Many Cultures 2005/06 –
Waves 6 and 7 Campaign Evaluation". When asked what ethnic group
they belonged over five surveys, in the 2005/2006 period, people
reporting that they were Scottish rose from 75 percent to 84 percent,
while those reporting that they were British dropped from 39 percent
to 22 percent. "a number of respondents selected more than one option,
usually both Scottish and British, hence percentages adding to more
than 100% ... This indicates a continued erosion of perceived
Britishness among respondents..."
^ "QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 10
^ "Table 1.1: Scottish population by ethnic group - All People".
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^ James McCarthy and Euan Hague, 'Race, Nation, and Nature: The
Cultural Politics of "Celtic" Identification in the American West',
Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 94 Issue 2
(5 Nov 2004), p. 392, citing J. Hewitson, Tam Blake and Co.: The Story
of the Scots in America (Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 1993).
Tartan Day 2007, scotlandnow, Issue 7 (March 2007). Accessed 7
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^ "Scottish Parliament: Official Report, 11 September 2002, Col.
13525". Scottish.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on
2005-04-21. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
^ "Scottish Parliament: European and External Relations Committee
Agenda, 20th Meeting 2004 (Session 2), 30 November 2004,
EU/S2/04/20/1" (PDF). Scottish.parliament.uk. 2011-08-14. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2005-05-18. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
^ Webb, James H. (2004). Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped
America. Broadway Books. pp. Front flap.
ISBN 978-0-7679-1688-2. Retrieved 15 July 2016. More than 27
Americans today can trace their lineage to the Scots...
^ Webb, James (19 October 2004). "Secret GOP Weapon: The Scots Irish
Vote". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories
- 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 12
^ The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and
Their Origins. (2001) James Jupp p650 Cambridge University Press.
^ Innes, Angus (2001). "Scots" (PDF). Multicultural Queensland 2001;
Queensland Migration Heritage Hub. Archived from the original on 4 May
2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ The Scots in
Australia (2008) M. Prentis UNSW Press.
^ "20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by
Sex — Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
^ Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to
New Zealand English
Phonology Trudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31:
^ "New Zealand". Naturemagics.com. Archived from the original on
^ Tanja Bueltmann, "'No Colonists are more Imbued with their National
Sympathies than Scotchmen,'"
New Zealand Journal of History (2009)
43#2 pp 169–181 online
^ "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity: Birthplace and
people born overseas". Stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 10 December
^ J. Brewer; G. Higgins (1998). Anti-Catholicism in Northern Ireland:
The Mote and the Beam. Springer. p. 20.
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Wales". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 7
^ "Country of Birth – Full Detail: QS206NI". Northern Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
^ See David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora", particularly pp.
272–278, in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History. Oxford UP,
Oxford, 2005. ISBN
^ "Scotland.org The Official Gateway to Scotland".
Friendsofscotland.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February
2006. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
^ a b Eric Richards (2004). "Britannia's children: emigration from
Wales and Ireland". Continuum International
Publishing Group. p.53. ISBN 1-85285-441-3
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^ Watson, Jeremy; Kernohan, Marcus (30 September 2007). "Scot to bring
DNA from Russia with Lermontov".
Scotland on Sunday. Retrieved 10
^ "Scottish history in South Africa". South African Tourism. Retrieved
25 October 2015.
^ "Scots in
Argentina and Patagonia Austral". Electricscotland.com.
Retrieved 3 October 2012.
^ "Archibald Cochrane". Electricscotland.com. Retrieved 3 October
Scotland and The Netherlands, Trade, Business & Economy –
Official Online Gateway to Scotland". Scotland.org. Retrieved 19 March
^ Paul Dukes, Scottish soldiers in Moscovy in The Caledonian Phalanx,
^ A.G. Cross, Scoto-Russian contacts in the reign of Catherine the
great (1762–1796), in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987
^ John H. Appleby, Through the looking-glass: Scottish doctors in
Russia (1704–1854), in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987
^ John R. Bowles, From the banks of the Neva to the shores of Lake
Baikal: some enterprising Scots in Russia, in The Caledonian Phalanx,
^ M.V. Koroleva, A.L. Sinitsa. Gelskoe naselenie Shotlandii, ot
istokov k sovremennosti, in Demographic studies, Moscow, 2010, pp.
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March 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
^ Polish Roots – Rosemary A. Chorzempa – Google Books.
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^ "Legacies – Immigration and Emigration –
Scotland – North-East
Scotland – Aberdeen's Baltic Adventure – Article Page 1". BBC. 5
October 2003. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
Warsaw Warsaw's Scottish Mayor Remembered". Warsaw-life.com.
Retrieved 19 March 2009.
^ "Saint Andrew, Apostle and Patron of Scotland". Vatican Radio. 29
November 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
^ Matharu, Hardeep (3 March 2016). "Scottish village in Italian Alps
where residents wear kilts and play bagpipes". The Independent.
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Celts in Italy – Bonnie Prince Charlie in Bologna".
Delicious Italy. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
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Jackie Kay named as new Scottish
makar". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
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Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999
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Scotland 'Not Religious'".
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3 October 2012.
Part of a series of articles on
Celts and Modern Celts
Isle of Man
Isle of Man (Mannin)
Texts and chronicles
Annals of the Four Masters
Lebor Gabála Érenn
Book of Kells
Early Irish literature
Scottish Gaelic literature
Gaelic clothing and fashion
Ritchie, A. & Breeze, D.J. Invaders of
Scotland HMSO. (?1991)
David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora" in Jenny Wormald (ed.),
Scotland: A History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005.
Spence, Rhoda, ed. The Scottish Companion: a Bedside Book of Delights.
Edinburgh: R. Paterson, 1955. vi, 138 p. N.B.: Primarily concerns
Scottish customs, character, and folkways.
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