HOME
The Info List - Scotland


--- Advertisement ---



Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland
Scotland
subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England
England
on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[20][21] The union also created a new Parliament
Parliament
of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament
Parliament
of Scotland
Scotland
and the Parliament
Parliament
of England. In 1801, Great Britain
Great Britain
itself entered into a political union with the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland.[22] Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has continued to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland. The legal system within Scotland
Scotland
has also remained separate from those of England
England
and Wales and Northern Ireland; Scotland
Scotland
constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.[23] The continued existence of legal, educational, religious and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England.[24] In 1997, a Scottish Parliament
Parliament
was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy.[25] Scotland
Scotland
is represented in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament
Parliament
by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament
Parliament
by 6 MEPs.[26] Scotland
Scotland
is also a member of the British–Irish Council,[27] and sends five members of the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly.[28]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Early history 1.3 Roman influence 1.4 Middle Ages 1.5 Early modern period 1.6 18th century 1.7 19th century 1.8 Early 20th century 1.9 Modern day

2 Geography and natural history

2.1 Geology and geomorphology 2.2 Climate 2.3 Flora and fauna

3 Demographics 4 Religion 5 Politics and government

5.1 Devolved government relations 5.2 International diplomacy 5.3 Constitutional changes 5.4 Administrative subdivisions

6 Law and criminal justice 7 Health care 8 Economy

8.1 Currency

9 Military 10 Education 11 Culture

11.1 Scottish music 11.2 Literature 11.3 Celtic connections 11.4 National identity 11.5 Cuisine

12 Media 13 Sport

13.1 Football 13.2 Golf 13.3 Commonwealth Games

14 Infrastructure

14.1 Transport 14.2 Road 14.3 Air 14.4 Rail 14.5 Water 14.6 Renewable energy

15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Further reading

18.1 Specialized monographs

19 External links

History Main article: History of Scotland Etymology Main article: Etymology of Scotland "Scotland" comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels. The Late Latin word Scotia
Scotia
("land of the Gaels") was initially used to refer to Ireland.[29] By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia
Scotia
was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland
Scotland
north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, both derived from the Gaelic Alba.[30] The use of the words Scots and Scotland
Scotland
to encompass all of what is now Scotland
Scotland
became common in the Late Middle Ages.[20] Early history Main article: Prehistoric Scotland See also: Timeline of prehistoric Scotland Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland
Scotland
around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.[31][32]

Scara Brae. A Neolithic
Neolithic
settlement, located on the west coast of Mainland, Orkney.

The groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae
Skara Brae
on the mainland of Orkney
Orkney
dates from this period. Neolithic
Neolithic
habitation, burial, and ritual sites are particularly common and well preserved in the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone.[33] The 2009 discovery in Scotland
Scotland
of a 4000-year-old tomb with burial treasures at Forteviot, near Perth, the capital of a Pictish Kingdom in the 8th and 9th centuries AD, is unrivalled anywhere in Britain. It contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves.[34][35] Scotland
Scotland
may have been part of a Late Bronze Age maritime trading culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, which included other Celtic nations, and the areas that became England, France, Spain, and Portugal.[36][37][38][39] In the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths.[40] In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, known as "Skerrabra". When the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs.[40][41] William Watt of Skaill, the local laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses, the work was abandoned in 1868.[41] The site remained undisturbed until 1913, when during a single weekend the site was plundered by a party with shovels who took away an unknown quantity of artefacts.[40] In 1924, another storm swept away part of one of the houses and it was determined the site should be made secure and more seriously investigated.[40] The job was given to University of Edinburgh's Professor Vere Gordon Childe
Vere Gordon Childe
who travelled to Skara Brae
Skara Brae
for the first time in mid-1927.[40] Roman influence Main article: Scotland
Scotland
during the Roman Empire

One part of a distance slab found at Bo'ness
Bo'ness
dated ca. AD 142 depicting Roman cavalryman trampling Caledonians. Original at the NMS (with a full replica at Bo'ness[42])

The written protohistory of Scotland
Scotland
began with the arrival of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in southern and central Great Britain, when the Romans occupied what is now England
England
and Wales, administering it as a province called Britannia. Roman invasions and occupations of southern Scotland were a series of brief interludes. According to the Roman historian Tacitus, the Caledonians
Caledonians
"turned to armed resistance on a large scale", attacking Roman forts and skirmishing with their legions. In a surprise night-attack, the Caledonians
Caledonians
very nearly wiped out the whole 9th Legion
9th Legion
until it was saved by Agricola's cavalry.[43] In AD 83–84, the General Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
defeated the Caledonians
Caledonians
at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote that, before the battle, the Caledonian leader, Calgacus, gave a rousing speech in which he called his people the "last of the free" and accused the Romans of "making the world a desert and calling it peace" (freely translated).[43] After the Roman victory, Roman forts were briefly set along the Gask Ridge
Gask Ridge
close to the Highland line (only Cawdor near Inverness
Inverness
is known to have been constructed beyond that line). Three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands.[44] The Romans erected Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
to control tribes on both sides of the wall[45] so the Limes Britannicus
Limes Britannicus
became the northern border of the Roman Empire; although the army held the Antonine Wall
Antonine Wall
in the Central Lowlands
Central Lowlands
for two short periods – the last during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
from 208 until 210.[46] The Roman military occupation of a significant part of what is now northern Scotland
Scotland
lasted only about 40 years; although their influence on the southern section of the country, occupied by Brythonic tribes such as the Votadini
Votadini
and Damnonii, would still have been considerable between the first and fifth centuries. The Welsh term Hen Ogledd
Hen Ogledd
("Old North") is used by scholars to describe what is now the North of England
England
and the South of Scotland
Scotland
during its habitation by Brittonic-speaking people around AD 500 to 800.[45] According to writings from the 9th and 10th centuries, the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded in the 6th century in western Scotland.[47][48] The 'traditional' view is that settlers from Ireland
Ireland
founded the kingdom, bringing Gaelic language and culture with them. However, some archaeologists have argued against this view, saying there is no archaeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites.[49] Middle Ages Main articles: Scotland
Scotland
in the Early Middle Ages, Scotland
Scotland
in the High Middle Ages, and Scotland
Scotland
in the Late Middle Ages

The class I Pictish stone
Pictish stone
at Aberlemno known as Aberlemno 1 or the Serpent Stone

The Kingdom of the Picts
Picts
(based in Fortriu
Fortriu
by the 6th century) was the state that eventually became known as "Alba" or "Scotland". The development of "Pictland", according to the historical model developed by Peter Heather, was a natural response to Roman imperialism.[50] Another view places emphasis on the Battle of Dun Nechtain, and the reign of Bridei m. Beli (671–693), with another period of consolidation in the reign of Óengus mac Fergusa (732–761).[51] The Kingdom of the Picts
Picts
as it was in the early 8th century, when Bede was writing, was largely the same as the kingdom of the Scots in the reign of Alexander I (1107–1124). However, by the tenth century, the Pictish kingdom was dominated by what we can recognise as Gaelic culture, and had developed a traditional story of an Irish conquest around the ancestor of the contemporary royal dynasty, Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin).[52][53][54] From a base of territory in eastern Scotland
Scotland
north of the River Forth and south of the River Oykel, the kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the north and south. By the 12th century, the kings of Alba
Alba
had added to their territories the English-speaking land in the south-east and attained overlordship of Gaelic-speaking Galloway
Galloway
and Norse-speaking Caithness; by the end of the 13th century, the kingdom had assumed approximately its modern borders. However, processes of cultural and economic change beginning in the 12th century ensured Scotland
Scotland
looked very different in the later Middle Ages. The push for this change was the reign of David I and the Davidian Revolution. Feudalism, government reorganisation and the first legally recognised towns (called burghs) began in this period. These institutions and the immigration of French and Anglo-French knights and churchmen facilitated cultural osmosis, whereby the culture and language of the low-lying and coastal parts of the kingdom's original territory in the east became, like the newly acquired south-east, English-speaking, while the rest of the country retained the Gaelic language, apart from the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
of Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, which remained under Norse rule until 1468.[55][56][57] The Scottish state entered a largely successful and stable period between the 12th and 14th centuries, there was relative peace with England, trade and educational links were well developed with the Continent and at the height of this cultural flowering John Duns Scotus
John Duns Scotus
was one of Europe's most important and influential philosophers.

The Wallace Monument
Wallace Monument
commemorates William Wallace, the 13th-century Scottish hero.

The death of Alexander III in March 1286, followed by that of his granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, broke the centuries-old succession line of Scotland's kings and shattered the 200-year golden age that began with David I. Edward I of England
England
was asked to arbitrate between claimants for the Scottish crown, and he organised a process known as the Great Cause to identify the most legitimate claimant. John Balliol
John Balliol
was pronounced king in the Great Hall of Berwick Castle
Berwick Castle
on 17 November 1292 and inaugurated at Scone on 30 November, St. Andrew's Day. Edward I, who had coerced recognition as Lord Paramount of Scotland, the feudal superior of the realm, steadily undermined John's authority.[58] In 1294, Balliol and other Scottish lords refused Edward's demands to serve in his army against the French. Instead, the Scottish parliament sent envoys to France to negotiate an alliance. Scotland
Scotland
and France sealed a treaty on 23 October 1295, known as the Auld Alliance
Auld Alliance
(1295–1560). War ensued and King John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland. Andrew Moray
Andrew Moray
and William Wallace
William Wallace
initially emerged as the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in what became known as the Wars of Scottish Independence
Wars of Scottish Independence
(1296–1328).[59] The nature of the struggle changed significantly when Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick, killed his rival John Comyn on 10 February 1306 at Greyfriars Kirk
Greyfriars Kirk
in Dumfries.[60] He was crowned king (as Robert I) less than seven weeks later. Robert I battled to restore Scottish Independence as King for over 20 years, beginning by winning Scotland
Scotland
back from the Norman English invaders piece by piece. Victory at the Battle of Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn
in 1314 proved the Scots had regained control of their kingdom. In 1315, Edward Bruce, brother of the King, was briefly appointed High King of Ireland
High King of Ireland
during an ultimately unsuccessful Scottish invasion of Ireland
Ireland
aimed at strengthening Scotland's position in its wars against England. In 1320 the world's first documented declaration of independence, the Declaration of Arbroath, won the support of Pope John XXII, leading to the legal recognition of Scottish sovereignty by the English Crown. However, war with England
England
continued for several decades after the death of Bruce. A civil war between the Bruce dynasty and their long-term Comyn-Balliol rivals lasted until the middle of the 14th century. Although the Bruce dynasty was successful, David II's lack of an heir allowed his half-nephew Robert II to come to the throne and establish the Stewart Dynasty.[56][61] The Stewarts ruled Scotland
Scotland
for the remainder of the Middle Ages. The country they ruled experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Scottish Renaissance
Scottish Renaissance
to the Reformation. This was despite continual warfare with England, the increasing division between Highlands and Lowlands, and a large number of royal minorities.[61][62] This period was the height of the Franco-Scottish alliance. The Scots Guard – la Garde Écossaise
Garde Écossaise
– was founded in 1418 by Charles VII of France. The Scots soldiers of the Garde Écossaise
Garde Écossaise
fought alongside Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
against England
England
during the Hundred Years' War.[63] In March 1421, a Franco-Scots force under John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan, and Gilbert de Lafayette, defeated a larger English army at the Battle of Baugé. Three years later, at the Battle of Verneuil, the French and Scots lost around 7000 men.[64] The Scottish intervention contributed to France's victory in the war. Early modern period Main article: Scotland
Scotland
in the early modern period

James VI succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.

In 1502, James IV of Scotland
James IV of Scotland
signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII of England. He also married Henry's daughter, Margaret Tudor, setting the stage for the Union of the Crowns. For Henry, the marriage into one of Europe's most established monarchies gave legitimacy to the new Tudor royal line.[65] A decade later, James made the fateful decision to invade England
England
in support of France under the terms of the Auld Alliance. He was the last British monarch to die in battle, at the Battle of Flodden.[66] Within a generation the Auld Alliance was ended by the Treaty of Edinburgh. France agreed to withdraw all land and naval forces. In the same year, 1560, John Knox realised his goal of seeing Scotland
Scotland
become a Protestant
Protestant
nation and the Scottish parliament revoke papal authority in Scotland.[67] Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic and former queen of France, was forced to abdicate in 1567.[68] In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom of England
England
and the Kingdom of Ireland, and became King James I of England
England
and Ireland, and left Edinburgh
Edinburgh
for London.[69] With the exception of a short period under the Protectorate, Scotland
Scotland
remained a separate state, but there was considerable conflict between the crown and the Covenanters
Covenanters
over the form of church government. The Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688–89 saw the overthrow of King James VII of Scotland
Scotland
and II of England
England
by the English Parliament
Parliament
in favour of William III and Mary II. In common with countries such as France, Norway, Sweden and Finland, Scotland
Scotland
experienced famines during the 1690s. Mortality, reduced childbirths and increased emigration reduced the population of parts of the country by between 10 and 15 percent.[70] In 1698, the Company of Scotland
Company of Scotland
attempted a project to secure a trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama. Almost every Scottish landowner who had money to spare is said to have invested in the Darien scheme. Its failure bankrupted these landowners, but not the burghs. Nevertheless, the nobles' bankruptcy, along with the threat of an English invasion, played a leading role in convincing the Scots elite to back a union with England.[71][72] On 22 July 1706, the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament
Parliament
and the Parliament
Parliament
of England and the following year twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
with effect from 1 May 1707;[21] there was popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere.[73][74] 18th century

David Morier's depiction of the Battle of Culloden

With trade tariffs with England
England
now abolished, trade blossomed, especially with Colonial America. The clippers belonging to the Glasgow
Glasgow
Tobacco Lords
Tobacco Lords
were the fastest ships on the route to Virginia. Until the American War of Independence
American War of Independence
in 1776, Glasgow
Glasgow
was the world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade.[75] The disparity between the wealth of the merchant classes of the Scottish Lowlands and the ancient clans of the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
grew, amplifying centuries of division. The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular in the Highlands and north-east, particularly amongst non-Presbyterians, including Roman Catholics and Episcopalian Protestants. However, two major Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the House of Hanover
House of Hanover
from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite movement to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and its monarchs effectively ended at the Battle of Culloden, Great Britain's last pitched battle. This defeat paved the way for large-scale removals of the indigenous populations of the Highlands and Islands, known as the Highland Clearances. The Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
and the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
made Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse[76]–so much so Voltaire
Voltaire
said "We look to Scotland
Scotland
for all our ideas of civilisation."[77] With the demise of Jacobitism
Jacobitism
and the advent of the Union, thousands of Scots, mainly Lowlanders, took up numerous positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the nascent British Empire. Historian Neil Davidson notes "after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland." Davidson also states "far from being 'peripheral' to the British economy, Scotland
Scotland
– or more precisely, the Lowlands – lay at its core."[78] 19th century Main article: Scotland
Scotland
in the modern era

Shipping on the Clyde, by John Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881

The Scottish Reform Act 1832 increased the number of Scottish MPs and widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes.[79] From the mid-century, there were increasing calls for Home Rule for Scotland
Scotland
and the post of Secretary of State for Scotland
Secretary of State for Scotland
was revived.[80] Towards the end of the century Prime Ministers of Scottish descent included William Gladstone,[81] and the Earl of Rosebery.[82] In the later 19th century the growing importance of the working classes was marked by Keir Hardie's success in the Mid Lanarkshire by-election, 1888, leading to the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party, which was absorbed into the Independent Labour Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first leader.[83] Glasgow
Glasgow
became one of the largest cities in the world and known as "the Second City of the Empire" after London.[84] After 1860 the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron (after 1870, made of steel), which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world. It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre.[85] The industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so rapid that housing, town-planning, and provision for public health did not keep pace with them, and for a time living conditions in some of the towns and cities were notoriously bad, with overcrowding, high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis.[86]

Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels
Waverley Novels
helped define Scottish identity in the 19th century.

While the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,[87] disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
and Lord Kelvin, and the engineers and inventors James Watt
James Watt
and William Murdoch, whose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
throughout Britain.[88] In literature, the most successful figure of the mid-19th century was Walter Scott. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is often called the first historical novel.[89] It launched a highly successful career that probably more than any other helped define and popularise Scottish cultural identity.[90] In the late 19th century, a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations, such as Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie
J. M. Barrie
and George MacDonald.[91] Scotland
Scotland
also played a major part in the development of art and architecture. The Glasgow
Glasgow
School, which developed in the late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th century, produced a distinctive blend of influences including the Celtic Revival
Celtic Revival
the Arts and Crafts movement, and Japonism, which found favour throughout the modern art world of continental Europe
Europe
and helped define the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style. Proponents included architect and artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh.[92] This period saw a process of rehabilitation for Highland culture. In the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe,[93][94] prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossian
Ossian
cycle[95][96] and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels.[97] However, the Highlands remained very poor and traditional.[98] The desire to improve agriculture and profits led to the Highland Clearances, in which much of the population of the Highlands suffered forced displacement as lands were enclosed, principally so that they could be used for sheep farming. The clearances followed patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain, but were particularly notorious as a result of the late timing, the lack of legal protection for year-by-year tenants under Scots law, the abruptness of the change from the traditional clan system, and the brutality of many evictions.[99] One result was a continuous exodus from the land—to the cities, or further afield to England, Canada, America or Australia.[100] The population of Scotland
Scotland
grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901.[101] Even with the development of industry, there were not enough good jobs. As a result, during the period 1841–1931, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and another 750,000 Scots relocated to England.[102]

The Disruption Assembly; painted by David Octavius Hill.

After prolonged years of struggle in the Kirk, in 1834 the Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive" presentations to livings by patrons. The following "Ten Years' Conflict" of legal and political wrangling ended in defeat for the non-intrusionists in the civil courts. The result was a schism from the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers, known as the Great Disruption of 1843. Roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland.[103] In the late 19th century growing divisions between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals resulted in a further split in the Free Church as the rigid Calvinists broke away to form the Free Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in 1893.[104] Catholic emancipation in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the fortunes of Catholicism. In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland.[104] Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843
Disruption of 1843
all undermined the tradition of parish schools. From 1830 the state began to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding schools by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland
Scotland
moved to a system like that in England
England
of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards.[105] The historic University of Glasgow
Glasgow
became a leader in British higher education by providing the educational needs of youth from the urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the upper class.[106] The University of St Andrews
The University of St Andrews
pioneered the admission of women to Scottish universities. From 1892 Scottish universities
Scottish universities
could admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish universities steadily increased until the early 20th century.[107] Early 20th century

Royal Scots
Royal Scots
with a captured Japanese Hinomaru Yosegaki flag, Burma, 1945.

Scotland
Scotland
played a major role in the British effort in the First World War. It especially provided manpower, ships, machinery, fish and money.[108] With a population of 4.8 million in 1911, Scotland
Scotland
sent over half a million men to the war, of whom over a quarter died in combat or from disease, and 150,000 were seriously wounded.[109] Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig
Douglas Haig
was Britain's commander on the Western Front. The war saw the emergence of a radical movement called "Red Clydeside" led by militant trades unionists. Formerly a Liberal stronghold, the industrial districts switched to Labour by 1922, with a base among the Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
working-class districts. Women were especially active in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues. However, the "Reds" operated within the Labour Party and had little influence in Parliament
Parliament
and the mood changed to passive despair by the late 1920s.[110] The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed prosperity, but instead, a serious depression hit the economy by 1922 and it did not fully recover until 1939. The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment.[111] Indeed, the war brought with it deep social, cultural, economic, and political dislocations. Thoughtful Scots pondered their declension, as the main social indicators such as poor health, bad housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and economic stagnation at best, or even a downward spiral. Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its allure to ambitious young people, who left Scotland
Scotland
permanently. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable solutions. The despair reflected what Finlay (1994) describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War.[112] During the Second World War, Scotland
Scotland
was targeted by Nazi Germany largely due to its factories, shipyards, and coal mines.[113] Cities such as Glasgow
Glasgow
and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
were targeted by German bombers, as were smaller towns mostly located in the central belt of the country.[113] Perhaps the most significant air-raid in Scotland
Scotland
was the Clydebank Blitz of March 1941, which intended to destroy naval shipbuilding in the area.[114] 528 people were killed and 4,000 homes totally destroyed.[114]

Rudolf Hess, Deputy Führer of Nazi Germany, crashed his plane at Bonnyton Moor in the Scottish central belt in an attempt to make peace

Perhaps Scotland's most unusual wartime episode occurred in 1941 when Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
flew to Renfrewshire, possibly intending to broker a peace deal through the Duke of Hamilton.[115] Before his departure from Germany, Hess had given his adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch, a letter addressed to Hitler that detailed his intentions to open peace negotiations with the British. Pintsch delivered the letter to Hitler at the Berghof around noon on 11 May.[116] Albert Speer
Albert Speer
later said Hitler described Hess's departure as one of the worst personal blows of his life, as he considered it a personal betrayal.[117] Hitler worried that his allies, Italy and Japan, would perceive Hess's act as an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the British. As in World War I, Scapa Flow
Scapa Flow
in Orkney
Orkney
served as an important Royal Navy base. Attacks on Scapa Flow
Scapa Flow
and Rosyth
Rosyth
gave RAF fighters their first successes downing bombers in the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
and East Lothian.[118] The shipyards and heavy engineering factories in Glasgow and Clydeside played a key part in the war effort, and suffered attacks from the Luftwaffe, enduring great destruction and loss of life.[119] As transatlantic voyages involved negotiating north-west Britain, Scotland
Scotland
played a key part in the battle of the North Atlantic.[120] Shetland's relative proximity to occupied Norway resulted in the Shetland
Shetland
bus by which fishing boats helped Norwegians flee the Nazis, and expeditions across the North Sea
North Sea
to assist resistance.[121] Scottish industry came out of the depression slump by a dramatic expansion of its industrial activity, absorbing unemployed men and many women as well. The shipyards were the centre of more activity, but many smaller industries produced the machinery needed by the British bombers, tanks and warships.[119] Agriculture prospered, as did all sectors except for coal mining, which was operating mines near exhaustion. Real wages, adjusted for inflation, rose 25 percent, and unemployment temporarily vanished. Increased income, and the more equal distribution of food, obtained through a tight rationing system, dramatically improved the health and nutrition; the average height of 13-year-olds in Glasgow
Glasgow
increased by 2 inches.[122] Modern day

The official reconvening of the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
in July 1999 with Donald Dewar, then First Minister of Scotland
First Minister of Scotland
(left) with Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(centre) and Presiding Officer Sir David Steel
Sir David Steel
(right)

After 1945, Scotland's economic situation worsened due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes.[123] Only in recent decades has the country enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance. Economic factors contributing to this recovery included a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturing, (see Silicon Glen),[124] and the North Sea
North Sea
oil and gas industry.[125] The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's government of the Community Charge (widely known as the Poll Tax) one year before the rest of Great Britain,[126] contributed to a growing movement for Scottish control over domestic affairs.[127] Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland
Scotland
Act 1998[128] was passed by the UK Parliament, which established a devolved Scottish Parliament
Parliament
and Scottish Government
Scottish Government
with responsibility for most laws specific to Scotland.[129] The Scottish Parliament
Parliament
was reconvened in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
on 4 July 1999.[130] The first First Minister of Scotland was Donald Dewar, who served until his sudden death in 2000.[131] The Scottish Parliament
Parliament
Building at Holyrood itself did not open until October 2004, after lengthy construction delays and running over budget.[132] The Scottish Parliament
Parliament
has a form of proportional representation (the additional member system), which normally results in no one party having an overall majority. The pro-independence Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
led by Alex Salmond
Alex Salmond
achieved this in the 2011 election, winning 69 of the 129 seats available.[133] The success of the SNP in achieving a majority in the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
paved the way for the September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence. The majority voted against the proposition, with 55% voting no to independence.[134] More powers, particularly in relation to taxation, were devolved to the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
after the referendum, following cross-party talks in the Smith Commission. Geography and natural history Main article: Geography of Scotland

The island of Little Cumbrae
Little Cumbrae
with Isle of Arran
Isle of Arran
in the background (left). Traigh Seilebost Beach on the Isle of Harris
Isle of Harris
(right)

The mainland of Scotland
Scotland
comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe. The total area is 78,772 km2 (30,414 sq mi),[135] comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed
River Tweed
on the east coast and the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea
North Sea
is to the east. The island of Ireland
Ireland
lies only 21 kilometres (13 mi) from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre;[136] Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north. The territorial extent of Scotland
Scotland
is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York
Treaty of York
between Scotland
Scotland
and the Kingdom of England[137] and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland
Scotland
and Norway.[21] Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England
England
in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472;[135] and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England
England
in 1482. The geographical centre of Scotland
Scotland
lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore
Newtonmore
in Badenoch.[138] Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).[139][140] Geology and geomorphology Main article: Geology of Scotland

The Scottish Highlands, geographically located in the north west of Scotland, is considered to have some of the world's best views

Scotland
Scotland
as seen from satellite

The whole of Scotland
Scotland
was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions. The Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. This part of Scotland
Scotland
largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Precambrian, which were uplifted during the later Caledonian orogeny. It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, remnants of which formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms
Cairngorms
and Skye
Skye
Cuillins. A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth
Moray Firth
coast. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles
British Isles
are found here. Scotland
Scotland
has over 790 islands divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides
Hebrides
and Outer Hebrides. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. Some parts of the coastline consist of machair, a low-lying dune pasture land. The Central Lowlands
Central Lowlands
is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are found. This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur's Seat
Arthur's Seat
in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells
Campsie Fells
are rarely far from view. The Southern Uplands
Southern Uplands
are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. They lie south of a second fault line (the Southern Uplands
Southern Uplands
fault) that runs from Girvan to Dunbar.[141][142][143] The geological foundations largely comprise Silurian
Silurian
deposits laid down some 4–500 million years ago. The high point of the Southern Uplands
Southern Uplands
is Merrick with an elevation of 843 m (2,766 ft).[20][144][145][146] The Southern Uplands
Southern Uplands
is home to the UK's highest village, Wanlockhead
Wanlockhead
(430 m or 1,411 ft above sea level).[143] Climate

Tiree, one of the sunniest locations in Scotland

Main article: Climate of Scotland The climate of Scotland
Scotland
is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable. As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
from the Atlantic, it has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador, southern Scandinavia, the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
on the opposite side of Eurasia. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar
Braemar
in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895.[147] Winter maxima average 6 °C (43 °F) in the Lowlands, with summer maxima averaging 18 °C (64 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) at Greycrook, Scottish Borders
Scottish Borders
on 9 August 2003.[148] The west of Scotland
Scotland
is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975.[148] Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland
Scotland
are the wettest, with annual rainfall in a few places exceeding 3,000 mm (120 in).[149] In comparison, much of lowland Scotland
Scotland
receives less than 800 mm (31 in) annually.[150] Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar
Braemar
has an average of 59 snow days per year,[151] while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.[150] Flora and fauna

A mountain hare (Lepus timidus) in Findhorn Valley, May 2004

Main articles: Fauna of Scotland
Fauna of Scotland
and Flora of Scotland Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north-west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets.[152] The golden eagle is something of a national icon.[153] On the high mountain tops, species including ptarmigan, mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months.[154] Remnants of the native Scots pine
Scots pine
forest exist[155] and within these areas the Scottish crossbill, the UK's only endemic bird species and vertebrate, can be found alongside capercaillie, Scottish wildcat, red squirrel and pine marten.[156][157][158] Various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s,[159][160] and there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar. Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest
Caledonian Forest
lies within the Cairngorms
Cairngorms
National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland. On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll, these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.[161][162] The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.[163] The UK's tallest tree is a grand fir planted beside Loch Fyne, Argyll in the 1870s, and the Fortingall Yew
Fortingall Yew
may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe.[dubious – discuss][164][165][166] Although the number of native vascular plants is low by world standards, Scotland's substantial bryophyte flora is of global importance.[167][168] Demographics

Scottish population by ethnic group (2011)[169]

v t e

% of total Population Population

White Scottish 84.0 4,445,678

White Other British 7.9 417,109

White Irish 1.0 54,090

White Gypsy/Traveller 0.1 4,212

White Polish 1.2 61,201

Other White ethnic group 1.9 102,117

White Total 96.0 5,084,407

Pakistani 0.9 49,381

Indian 0.6 32,706

Bangladeshi 0.1 3,788

Chinese 0.6 33,706

Other 0.4 21,097

Asian 2.7 140,678

Caribbean 0.1 3,430

Black <0.1 2,380

Caribbean or Black Other <0.1 730

Caribbean or Black 0.1 6,540

African 0.6 29,186

African Other <0.1 452

African 0.6 29,638

Mixed or multiple ethnic groups 0.4 19,815

Arab 0.2 9,366

Other 0.1 4,959

Other ethnic group 0.3 14,325

All population 100.00 5,295,403

Main article: Demography
Demography
of Scotland See also: Languages of Scotland, Religion in Scotland, and Scottish people The population of Scotland
Scotland
at the 2001 Census was 5,062,011. This rose to 5,295,400, the highest ever, at the 2011 Census.[170] In the 2011 Census, 62% of Scotland's population stated their national identity as 'Scottish only', 18% as 'Scottish and British', 8% as 'British only', and 4% chose 'other identity only'.[171] Although Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is Glasgow, which has just over 584,000 inhabitants. The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population.[172] The Central Belt
Central Belt
is where most of the main towns and cities are located, including Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth. Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt
Central Belt
is Aberdeen. In general, only the more accessible and larger islands remain inhabited. Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry.[173][174] Because of housing problems in Glasgow
Glasgow
and Edinburgh, five new towns were designated between 1947 and 1966. They are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Cumbernauld, Livingston, and Irvine.[175] Immigration since World War II has given Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee
Dundee
small South Asian communities.[176] In 2011, there were an estimated 49,000 ethnically Pakistani people living in Scotland, making them the largest non-White ethnic group.[6] Since the Enlargement of the European Union
Enlargement of the European Union
more people from Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
have moved to Scotland, and the 2011 census indicated that 61,000 Poles
Poles
live there.[6][177]

Scotland
Scotland
population cartogram. The size of councils is in proportion to their population.

Scotland
Scotland
has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots, and Scottish Gaelic.[178][179] Scottish Standard English, a variety of English as spoken in Scotland, is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with broad Scots at the other.[180] Scottish Standard English may have been influenced to varying degrees by Scots.[181][182] The 2011 census indicated that 63% of the population had "no skills in Scots".[183] Others speak Highland English. Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Western Isles, where a large proportion of people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just 1% of the population.[184] The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 in 1881 to 60,000 in 2008.[185] There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent.[186] Ulster's Protestant
Protestant
population is mainly of lowland Scottish descent,[187] and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now living in the US.[188][189] In Canada, the Scottish-Canadian
Scottish-Canadian
community accounts for 4.7 million people.[190] About 20% of the original European settler population of New Zealand
New Zealand
came from Scotland.[191] In August 2012, the Scottish population reached an all-time high of 5.25 million people.[192] The reasons given were that, in Scotland, births were outnumbering the number of deaths, and immigrants were moving to Scotland
Scotland
from overseas. In 2011, 43,700 people moved from Wales, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
or England
England
to live in Scotland.[192] The total fertility rate (TFR) in Scotland
Scotland
is below the replacement rate of 2.1 (the TFR was 1.73 in 2011[193]). The majority of births are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in 2012[194]).

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Scotland Scotland's Census 2011 [195]

Rank Name Council area Pop. Rank Name Council area Pop.

Glasgow

Edinburgh 1 Glasgow Glasgow
Glasgow
City 590,507 11 Dunfermline Fife 49,706

Aberdeen

Dundee

2 Edinburgh City of Edinburgh 459,366 12 Inverness Highland 48,201

3 Aberdeen Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City 195,021 13 Perth Perth and Kinross 46,970

4 Dundee Dundee
Dundee
City 147,285 14 Ayr South Ayrshire 46,849

5 Paisley Renfrewshire 76,834 15 Kilmarnock East Ayrshire 46,159

6 East Kilbride South Lanarkshire 74,395 16 Greenock Inverclyde 44,248

7 Livingston West Lothian 56,269 17 Coatbridge North Lanarkshire 43,841

8 Hamilton South Lanarkshire 53,188 18 Glenrothes Fife 39,277

9 Cumbernauld North Lanarkshire 52,270 19 Airdrie North Lanarkshire 37,132

10 Kirkcaldy Fife 49,709 20 Stirling Stirling 36,142

Life expectancy for those born in Scotland
Scotland
between 2012 and 2014 is 77.1 years for males and 81.1 years for females.[196] This is the lowest of any of the four countries of the UK.[196] Religion Main article: Religion in Scotland

Iona Abbey, an early centre of Christianity in Scotland

Just over half (54%) of the Scottish population reported being a Christian while nearly 37% reported not having a religion in a 2011 census.[197] Since the Scottish Reformation
Scottish Reformation
of 1560, the national church (the Church of Scotland, also known as The Kirk) has been Protestant
Protestant
in classification and Reformed in theology. Since 1689 it has had a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
system of church government and enjoys independence from the state.[20] Its membership is 398,389,[198] about 7.5% of the total population, though according to the 2014 Scottish Annual Household Survey, 27.8%, or 1.5 million adherents, identified Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
as their religion.[199] The Church operates a territorial parish structure, with every community in Scotland
Scotland
having a local congregation. Scotland
Scotland
also has a significant Roman Catholic population, 19% professing that faith, particularly in Greater Glasgow
Glasgow
and the north-west.[200] After the Reformation, Roman Catholicism in Scotland continued in the Highlands and some western islands like Uist
Uist
and Barra, and it was strengthened during the 19th century by immigration from Ireland. Other Christian denominations in Scotland
Scotland
include the Free Church of Scotland, and various other Presbyterian
Presbyterian
offshoots. "Scotland's third largest church" is the Scottish Episcopal Church.[201] Islam is the largest non-Christian religion (estimated at around 75,000, which is about 1.4% of the population),[197][202] and there are also significant Jewish, Hindu and Sikh
Sikh
communities, especially in Glasgow.[202] The Samyé Ling
Samyé Ling
monastery near Eskdalemuir, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, is the first Buddhist monastery in western Europe.[203] Politics and government Main articles: Politics of Scotland, Scottish Parliament, and Scottish Government

Queen Elizabeth II Monarch Nicola Sturgeon First Minister

The head of state of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(since 1952). The regnal numbering ("Elizabeth II") caused controversy around the time of her coronation because there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. The British government stated in April 1953 that future British monarchs would be numbered according to either their English or their Scottish predecessors, whichever number would be higher.[204] For instance, any future King James would be styled James VIII—since the last Scottish King James was James VII (also James II of England, etc.)—while the next King Henry would be King Henry IX throughout the UK even though there have been no Scottish kings of that name. A legal action, MacCormick v Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was brought in Scotland
Scotland
to contest the right of the Queen to entitle herself "Elizabeth II" within Scotland, but the Crown won the case. The monarchy of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
continues to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to pre-union Scotland, including: the Royal Standard of Scotland, the Royal coat of arms used in Scotland
Scotland
together with its associated Royal Standard, royal titles including that of Duke of Rothesay, certain Great Officers of State, the chivalric Order of the Thistle
Order of the Thistle
and, since 1999, reinstating a ceremonial role for the Crown of Scotland
Crown of Scotland
after a 292-year hiatus.[205] Scotland
Scotland
has limited self-government within the United Kingdom, as well as representation in the UK Parliament. Executive and legislative powers respectively have been devolved to the Scottish Government
Scottish Government
and the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
at Holyrood in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
since 1999. The UK Parliament
Parliament
retains control over reserved matters specified in the Scotland
Scotland
Act 1998, including UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.[206] The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland. It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax,[207] but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland
Scotland
Acts of 2012 and 2016.[208] The Scottish Parliament
Parliament
can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to the UK Parliament
Parliament
by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the UK. For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Scotland
Scotland
was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places.[209]

Bute House
Bute House
is the official residence and workplace of the First Minister

Holyrood is the seat of the national parliament of Scotland

The Scottish Parliament
Parliament
is a unicameral legislature with 129 members (MSPs): 73 of them represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first-past-the-post system; the other 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system. MSPs serve for a four-year period (exceptionally five years from 2011–16). The Parliament
Parliament
nominates one of its Members, who is then appointed by the Monarch to serve as First Minister. Other ministers are appointed by the First Minister and serve at his/her discretion. Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government.[210] The Scottish Government
Scottish Government
is headed by the First Minister, who is accountable to the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
and is the minister of charge of the Scottish Government. The First Minister is also the political leader of Scotland. The Scottish Government
Scottish Government
also comprises the Deputy First Minister, currently John Swinney
John Swinney
MSP, who deputises for the First Minister during a period of absence of overseas visits. Alongside the Deputy First Minister's requirements as Deputy, the minister also has a cabinet ministerial responsibility. Swinney is also currently Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills.[211] The Scottish Government's cabinet comprises nine cabinet secretaries, who form the Cabinet of Scotland. There are also twelve other ministers, who work alongside the cabinet secretaries in their appointed areas.[212] As a result, junior ministers do not attend cabinet meetings. In the 2016 election, the Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
(SNP) won 63 of the 129 seats available. Nicola Sturgeon, the leader of the SNP, has been the First Minister since November 2014. The Conservative Party became the largest opposition party in the 2016 elections, with the Labour Party, Liberal Democrats and the Green Party also represented in the Parliament. The next Scottish Parliament
Parliament
election is due to be held on 6 May 2021. Scotland
Scotland
is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. In the 2017 general election, the SNP won 35 of the 59 seats.[213] This represented a significant decline from the 2015 general election, when the SNP won 56 seats.[213][214] Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrat parties also represent Scottish constituencies in the House of Commons. The next United Kingdom
United Kingdom
general election is scheduled for 5 May 2022. The Scotland Office
Scotland Office
represents the UK government in Scotland
Scotland
on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government.[215] The Scotland Office
Scotland Office
is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom; the incumbent is Conservative MP David Mundell. Devolved government relations

Scottish First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, meeting with British Prime Minister, Theresa May, at Bute House
Bute House
in 2016.

The relationships between the central UK Government and devolved governments of Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
are based on the extra-statutory principles and agreements with the main elements are set out in a Memorandum of Understanding between the UK government and the devolved governments of Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland. The MOU lays emphasis on the principles of good communication, consultation and co-operation.[216] Since devolution in 1999, Scotland
Scotland
has devolved stronger working relations across the two other devolved governments, the Welsh Government and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive. Whilst there are no formal concordats between the Scottish Government, Welsh Government
Welsh Government
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive, ministers from each devolved government meet at various points throughout the year at various events such as the British-Irish Council and also meet to discuss matters and issues that is devolved to each government.[217] Scotland, along with the Welsh Government, British Government as well as the Northern Ireland executive, participate in the Joint Ministerial Committee (JMC) which allows each government to discuss policy issues together and work together across each government to find solutions. The Scottish Government considers the successful re-establishment of the Plenary, and establishment of the Domestic fora to be important facets of the relationship with the UK Government and the other devolved administrations.[217] In the aftermath of the United Kingdom's decision to withdraw from the European Union in 2016, the Scottish Government
Scottish Government
has called for there to be a joint approach from each of the devolved governments. In early 2017, the devolved governments met to discuss Brexit and agree on Brexit strategies from each devolved government[218] which lead for Theresa May
Theresa May
to issue a statement that claims that the devolved governments will not have a central role or decision making process in the Brexit process, but that the UK Government plans to "fully engage" Scotland
Scotland
in talks alongside the governments of Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland.[219] International diplomacy

Former First Minister Jack McConnell
Jack McConnell
welcomes then-President of the United States
United States
George W. Bush
George W. Bush
to Glasgow
Glasgow
Prestwick Airport at the start of the G8 Summit, July 2005

Whilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter,[220] the Scottish Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and central governments to invest in Scotland.[221] Whilst the First Minister usually undertakes a number of foreign and international visits to promote Scotland, international relations, European and Commonwealth relations are also included within the portfolios of both the Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Tourism
Tourism
and External Affairs (responsible for international development)[222] and the Minister for International Development and Europe
Europe
(responsible for European Union relations and international relations).[223] During the G8 Summit
G8 Summit
in 2005, then First Minister Jack McConnell welcomed each head of government of the G8 nations to the countries Glasgow
Glasgow
Prestwick Airport[224] on behalf of then UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. At the same time, McConnell and the then Scottish Executive pioneered the way forward to launch what would become the Scotland Malawi Partnership
Scotland Malawi Partnership
which co-ordinates Scottish activities to strengthen existing links with Malawi.[225] During McConnell's time as First Minister, several relations with Scotland, including Scottish and Russian relations strengthened following a visit by President of Russia Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
to Edinburgh. McConnell, speaking at the end, highlighted that the visit by Putin was a "post-devolution" step towards " Scotland
Scotland
regaining it's international identity".[226] Under the Salmond administration, Scotland's trade and investment deals with countries such as China[227][228] and Canada, where Salmond established the Canada
Canada
Plan 2010–2015 which aimed to strengthen "the important historical, cultural and economic links" between both Canada and Scotland.[229] To promote Scotland's interests and Scottish businesses in North America, there is a Scottish Affairs Office located in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
with the aim to promoting Scotland
Scotland
in both the United States
United States
and Canada.[230] During a 2017 visit to the United States, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon met with Jerry Brown, Governor of California, where both signed an agreement committing both the Government of California and the Scottish Government
Scottish Government
to work together to tackle climate change,[231] as well as Sturgeon signing a £6.3 million deal for Scottish investment from American businesses and firms promoting trade, tourism and innovation.[232] During an official visit to the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
in 2016, Sturgeon claimed that is it "important for Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
and the whole of the British Isles
British Isles
that Ireland
Ireland
has a strong ally in Scotland".[233] During the same engagement, Sturgeon became the first head of government to address the Seanad Éireann, the Upper House of the Irish Parliament.[233] Constitutional changes

The debating chamber within the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
Building

A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history. A previous Labour leader. John Smith, described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people".[234] The devolved Scottish Parliament
Parliament
was created after a referendum in 1997 found majority support for both creating the Parliament
Parliament
and granting it limited powers to vary income tax. The constitutional status of Scotland
Scotland
is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate. The Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
(SNP), which supports Scottish independence, was first elected to form the Scottish Government
Scottish Government
in 2007. The new government established a "National Conversation" on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a referendum on Scottish independence
Scottish independence
from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
created a commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.[235] The Scotland
Scotland
Act 2012, based on proposals by the commission, was subsequently enacted devolving additional powers to the Scottish Parliament.[236] In August 2009 the SNP proposed a bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010. Opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat.[237][238][239] After the 2011 elections gave the SNP an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament, a referendum on independence for Scotland
Scotland
was held on 18 September 2014.[240] The referendum resulted in a rejection of independence, by 55.3% to 44.7%.[241][242] During the campaign, the three main parties in the UK Parliament
Parliament
pledged to extend the powers of the Scottish Parliament.[243][244] An all-party commission chaired by Lord Smith of Kelvin was formed,[244] which led to a further devolution of powers through the Scotland
Scotland
Act 2016. Following a referendum on the UK's membership of the European Union on 23 June 2016, where a UK-wide majority voted to withdraw from the EU whilst a majority within Scotland
Scotland
voted to remain, Scotland's First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announced that as a result a new independence referendum was "highly likely".[245][246] Administrative subdivisions Main article: Subdivisions of Scotland

Glasgow
Glasgow
City Chambers, seat of Glasgow
Glasgow
City Council

Historical subdivisions of Scotland
Scotland
included the mormaerdom, stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts. Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. Modern Scotland
Scotland
is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose. In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since 1996,[247] whose councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services. Community councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions of a council area. In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament
Parliament
of the United Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies. Until 2013, the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in 1975. For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland
Scotland
for the purposes of administration. City status in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is conferred by letters patent.[248] There are seven cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Stirling
Stirling
and Perth.[249] Law and criminal justice Main article: Scots law

High Court of Justiciary, Edinburgh

Scots law
Scots law
has a basis derived from Roman law,[250] combining features of both uncodified civil law, dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis, and common law with medieval sources. The terms of the Treaty of Union with England
England
in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland
Scotland
from that of England
England
and Wales.[251] Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, based on old Norse law. Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s.[252] Scots law
Scots law
provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil, criminal and heraldic. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(or before 1 October 2009, the House of Lords). The High Court of Justiciary
High Court of Justiciary
is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The Court of Session
Court of Session
is housed at Parliament
Parliament
House, in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament
Parliament
of Scotland
Scotland
with the High Court of Justiciary
High Court of Justiciary
and the Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at the Lawnmarket. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country.[253] District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small claims. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from 2008 to 2010. The Court of the Lord Lyon
Court of the Lord Lyon
regulates heraldry. For many decades the Scots legal system was unique for being the only legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament, which legislates for Scotland. Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven".[254] Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal, typically with no possibility of retrial in accordance with the rule of double jeopardy. There is, however, the possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice – see the provisions of the Double Jeopardy (Scotland) Act 2011. Many laws differ between Scotland
Scotland
and the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for certain legal concepts. Manslaughter, in England
England
and Wales, is broadly similar to culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful fire raising. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England
England
and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland. Procedure also differs. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.[255] The Scottish Prison Service
Scottish Prison Service
(SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland, which collectively house over 8,500 prisoners.[256] The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government. Health care Main article: Healthcare in Scotland

NHS Scotland's Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow

Health care in Scotland
Scotland
is mainly provided by NHS Scotland, Scotland's public health care system. This was founded by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947 (later repealed by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1978) that took effect on 5 July 1948 to coincide with the launch of the NHS in England
England
and Wales. However, even prior to 1948, half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state-funded health care, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service.[257] Healthcare policy and funding is the responsibility of the Scottish Government's Health Directorates. The current Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport
Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport
is Shona Robison[258] and the Director-General (DG) Health and chief executive, NHS Scotland is Paul Gray.[259] In 2008, the NHS in Scotland
Scotland
had around 158,000 staff including more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3,800 consultants. There are also more than 12,000 doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances. These fees and allowances were removed in May 2010, and prescriptions are entirely free, although dentists and opticians may charge if the patient's household earns over a certain amount, about £30,000 per annum.[260] Economy Main article: Economy of Scotland

A drilling rig located in the North Sea

The Bank of Scotland, located in Edinburgh, is one of the oldest banks in the world

The Economy of Scotland
Economy of Scotland
had an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of up to £152 billion in 2015. In 2014, Scotland's per capita GDP was one of the highest in the EU.[261] Scotland
Scotland
has a Western-style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of the UK and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea
North Sea
oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north-east of Scotland. In February 2012, the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that " Scotland
Scotland
receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as greater per capita tax generation in Scotland
Scotland
balanced out greater per capita public spending.[262] More recent data, from 2012–13, show that Scotland
Scotland
generated 9.1% (£53.1bn; this included a geographical share of North Sea
North Sea
oil revenue – without it, the figures were 8.2% and £47.6bn) of the UK's tax revenues and received 9.3% (£65.2bn) of spending.[263] Scotland's public spending deficit in 2012–13 was £12bn, a £3.5bn increase on the previous year; over the same period, the UK's deficit decreased by £2.6bn.[264] Over the past thirty years, Scotland
Scotland
contributed a relative budget surplus[clarification needed] of almost £20billion to the UK economy.[265] In the final quarter of 2016, the Scottish economy contracted by 0.2%;[266] the UK as a whole grew by 0.7% in the same period.[267] As of September 2015, the Scottish unemployment rate of 5.9% was above the UK rate of 5.5%, while the Scottish employment rate of 74.0% was higher than the UK figure of 73.5%.[268] De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service-oriented economy.

Scotland's shipbuilding industry produces world-class ships, including Queen Elizabeth 2
Queen Elizabeth 2
(pictured).

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group (owners of HBOS); the Government-owned Royal Bank of Scotland
Bank of Scotland
and Standard Life. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in 2007, but fell to 37th in 2012, following damage to its reputation,[269] and in 2016 was ranked 56th out of 86.[270] In 2014, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were estimated to be £27.5 billion.[271] Scotland's primary exports include whisky, electronics and financial services.[272] The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Norway constitute the country's major export markets.[272] Scotland's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £150 billion for the calendar year 2012.[12] If Scotland became independent, it would hold 95% of the UK's current oil and gas reserves if they were split geographically using a median line from the English-Scottish border.[citation needed] If the reserves were split by population, that figure would be reduced to 9%.[273] Whisky
Whisky
is one of Scotland's more known goods of economic activity. Exports increased by 87% in the decade to 2012[274] and were valued at £4.3 billion in 2013, which was 85% of Scotland's food and drink exports.[275] It supports around 10,000 jobs directly and 25,000 indirectly.[276] It may contribute £400–682 million to Scotland, rather than several billion pounds, as more than 80% of whisky produced is owned by non-Scottish companies.[277] A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
Information Centre (SPICe) for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment.[278] Currency

A £100 Sterling RBS note

Main article: Banknotes of Scotland Although the Bank of England
England
is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks issue Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland; the Royal Bank of Scotland; and the Clydesdale Bank. The value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation in 2013 was £3.8 billion; underwritten by the Bank of England
England
using funds deposited by each clearing bank, under the Banking Act, (2009), in order to cover the total value of such notes in circulation.[279] Military Main article: Military of Scotland

A Challenger 2
Challenger 2
main battle tank of the Royal Scots
Royal Scots
Dragoon Guards

Of the money spent on UK defence, about £3.3 billion can be attributed to Scotland
Scotland
as of 2013. Although Scotland
Scotland
has a long military tradition predating the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
with England, its armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces, with the exception of the Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army. In 2006, the infantry regiments of the Scottish Division
Scottish Division
were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. Other distinctively Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Scots Guards, the Royal Scots
Royal Scots
Dragoon Guards and the 154 (Scottish) Regiment RLC, an Army Reserve Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps. Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland
Scotland
have housed many sensitive defence establishments.[280][281][282] Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the US fleet of Polaris ballistic missile submarines.[283] Today, Her Majesty's Naval Base Clyde, 25 miles (40 kilometres) north-west of Glasgow, is the base for the four Trident-armed Vanguard class ballistic missile submarines that comprise the UK's nuclear deterrent. Scapa Flow
Scapa Flow
was the major Fleet base for the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
until 1956. A single front-line Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
base is located in Scotland. RAF Lossiemouth, located in Moray, is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon. Education Main article: Education in Scotland

Although operating as University of the West of Scotland
University of the West of Scotland
since 2007, UWS can trace its history back to 1897 as the University of Paisley

University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
is the oldest University in Scotland
Scotland
and third oldest in the world

The Scottish education system has always been distinct from the rest of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.[284] In the 15th century, the Humanist emphasis on education cumulated with the passing of the Education Act 1496, which decreed that all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should attend grammar schools to learn "perfyct Latyne", resulting in an increase in literacy among a male and wealthy elite.[285] In the Reformation, the 1560 First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible.[286] In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school.[287] By the late seventeenth century there was a largely complete network of parish schools in the lowlands, but in the Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas.[288] Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act (1872).[289] The Curriculum for Excellence, Scotland's national school curriculum, presently provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to 18.[290] All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland
Scotland
are entitled to a free nursery place. Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); children in Scotland
Scotland
study Standard Grades, or Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and 16. These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications. A small number of students at certain private, independent schools may follow the English system and study towards GCSEs and A and AS-Levels instead.[291] There are fifteen Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the oldest in the world.[292][293] These include the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and the University of Edinburgh—many of which are ranked amongst the best in the UK.[294][295] Proportionally, Scotland
Scotland
had more universities in QS' World University Rankings' top 100 in 2012 than any other nation.[296] The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector exports.[297][298] Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland
Scotland
authorised to award degrees. Tuition is handled by the Student Awards Agency Scotland
Scotland
(SAAS), which does not charge fees to what it defines as "Young Students". Young Students are defined as those under 25, without children, marriage, civil partnership or cohabiting partner, who have not been outside of full-time education for more than three years. Fees exist for those outside the young student definition, typically from £1,200 to £1,800 for undergraduate courses, dependent on year of application and type of qualification. Postgraduate fees can be up to £3,400.[299] The system has been in place since 2007 when graduate endowments were abolished.[300] Labour's education spokesperson Rhona Brankin criticised the Scottish system for failing to address student poverty.[301] Scotland
Scotland
has fewer disadvantaged students than England, Wales
Wales
or Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and disadvantaged students receive around £560 a year less in financial support than their counterparts in England
England
do.[302] Scotland's universities are complemented in the provision of Further and Higher Education by 43 colleges. Colleges offer National Certificates, Higher National Certificates, and Higher National Diplomas. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland's population has the appropriate skills and knowledge to meet workplace needs. In 2014, research reported by the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
found that Scotland
Scotland
was the most highly educated country in Europe
Europe
and among the most well-educated in the world in terms of tertiary education attainment, with roughly 40% of people in Scotland
Scotland
aged 16–64 educated to NVQ level 4 and above.[303] Based on the original data for EU statistical regions, all four Scottish regions ranked significantly above the European average for completion of tertiary-level education by 25- to 64-year-olds.[304] Culture Main articles: Culture of Scotland
Culture of Scotland
and National symbols of Scotland See also: Scottish people, Music of Scotland, Scottish literature, Scottish art, Media of Scotland, and Scottish cuisine

Robert Burns, regarded as the national poet of Scotland
Scotland
is a well known and respected poet worldwide (left). The bagpipes are a well known symbol of Scotland
Scotland
and an early example of popular Scottish music (right)

Scottish music Main article: Scottish music Scottish music
Scottish music
is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Bagpipe bands, featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world. The clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. There are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists in varying styles including Annie Lennox, Amy Macdonald, Runrig, Boards of Canada, Cocteau Twins, Deacon Blue, Franz Ferdinand, Susan Boyle, Emeli Sandé, Texas, The View, The Fratellis, Twin Atlantic
Twin Atlantic
and Biffy Clyro. Other Scottish musicians include Shirley Manson, Paolo Nutini, Andy Stewart and Calvin Harris.[305] Literature Scotland
Scotland
has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland
Scotland
was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh literature.[306] Later medieval literature included works in Latin,[307] Gaelic,[308] Old English[309] and French.[310] The first surviving major text in Early Scots
Early Scots
is the 14th-century poet John Barbour's epic Brus, focusing on the life of Robert I,[311] and was soon followed by a series of vernacular romances and prose works.[312] In the 16th century, the crown's patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry,[313] but the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language.[314] Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James Macpherson, whose Ossian
Ossian
Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the European Enlightenment.[315] It was also a major influence on Robert Burns, whom many consider the national poet,[316] and Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels
Waverley Novels
did much to define Scottish identity in the 19th century.[317] Towards the end of the Victorian era a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations as writers in English, including Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald.[318] In the 20th century the Scottish Renaissance saw a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim the Scots language
Scots language
as a medium for serious literature.[319] Members of the movement were followed by a new generation of post-war poets including Edwin Morgan, who would be appointed the first Scots Makar by the inaugural Scottish government in 2004.[320] From the 1980s Scottish literature
Scottish literature
enjoyed another major revival, particularly associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh.[319] Scottish poets who emerged in the same period included Carol Ann Duffy, who, in May 2009, was the first Scot named UK Poet Laureate.[321] Celtic connections

Saint Andrew
Saint Andrew
depicted on a 16th-century coat of arms of the burgh of St. Andrews

Play media

Scottish country dancing

As one of the Celtic nations, Scotland
Scotland
and Scottish culture is represented at interceltic events at home and over the world. Scotland hosts several music festivals including Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient
Festival Interceltique de Lorient
(Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival
Pan Celtic Festival
(Ireland), and the National Celtic Festival (Portarlington, Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such as language, music and dance.[322][323][324][325][326][327][328] The image of St. Andrew, martyred while bound to an X-shaped cross, first appeared in the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
during the reign of William I.[329] Following the death of King Alexander III in 1286 an image of Andrew was used on the seal of the Guardians of Scotland
Guardians of Scotland
who assumed control of the kingdom during the subsequent interregnum.[330] Use of a simplified symbol associated with Saint Andrew, the saltire, has its origins in the late 14th century; the Parliament
Parliament
of Scotland
Scotland
decreeing in 1385 that Scottish soldiers should wear a white Saint Andrew's Cross on the front and back of their tunics.[331] Use of a blue background for the Saint Andrew's Cross is said to date from at least the 15th century.[332] Since 1606 the saltire has also formed part of the design of the Union Flag. There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle, the nation's floral emblem (celebrated in the song, The Thistle
Thistle
o' Scotland), the Declaration of Arbroath, incorporating a statement of political independence made on 6 April 1320, the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan
Scottish clan
and the royal Lion Rampant flag.[333][334][335] Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans.[336] National identity Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland,[337] Flower of Scotland
Scotland
is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland
Scotland
national teams and since 2010 is also played at the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes.[338] Other currently less popular candidates for the National Anthem of Scotland
Scotland
include Scotland
Scotland
the Brave, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae and A Man's A Man for A' That. St Andrew's Day, 30 November, is the national day, although Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed, particularly outside Scotland. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
passed the St Andrew's Day
St Andrew's Day
Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day an official bank holiday.[339] Tartan
Tartan
Day is a recent innovation from Canada. The national animal of Scotland
Scotland
is the unicorn, which has been a Scottish heraldic symbol since the 12th century.[340] Cuisine Main article: Scottish cuisine Scottish cuisine
Scottish cuisine
has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but shares much with wider British and European cuisine
European cuisine
as a result of local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern. Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration. Scotland's natural larder of game, dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from abroad, as these were historically rare and expensive. Irn-Bru
Irn-Bru
is the most common Scottish carbonated soft drink, often described as "Scotland's other national drink" (after whisky). During the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early modern era, French cuisine
French cuisine
played a role in Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the "Auld Alliance",[341] especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland, brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology.

Cock-a-leekie soup

Cullen skink

Scotch broth

Haggis, neeps and tatties

Media Main article: Media of Scotland

Scottish inventor John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird
demonstrated the first working television system on 26 January 1926.[342]

National newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, The Scotsman and The National are all produced in Scotland.[343] Important regional dailies include the Evening News in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
The Courier in Dundee
Dundee
in the east, and The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and the north.[343] Scotland
Scotland
is represented at the Celtic Media Festival, which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980.[344] Television in Scotland
Scotland
is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however, the national broadcaster is BBC
BBC
Scotland, a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs three national television stations, and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland
BBC Radio Scotland
and BBC Radio nan Gàidheal, amongst others. Scotland
Scotland
also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC
BBC
Alba
Alba
is the national Gaelic-language channel. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV. Sport Main article: Sport in Scotland

The Old Course at St Andrews
Old Course at St Andrews
where golf originates from

Scotland national football team
Scotland national football team
in competition against Brazil, 2011

Scotland
Scotland
hosts its own national sporting competitions and has independent representation at several international sporting events, including the FIFA
FIFA
World Cup, the Rugby Union World Cup, the Rugby League World Cup, the Cricket World Cup, the Netball World Cup
Netball World Cup
and the Commonwealth Games. Scotland
Scotland
has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national football association in the world)[345] and the Scottish Rugby Union. Variations of football have been played in Scotland
Scotland
for centuries, with the earliest reference dating back to 1424.[346] Football Association football
Association football
is the most popular sport and the Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
is the world's oldest national trophy.[347] Scotland
Scotland
contested the first ever international football game in 1872 against England.[348] The match took place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, home of the West of Scotland
Scotland
Cricket Club. Scottish clubs have been successful in European competitions with Celtic winning the European Cup in 1967, Rangers and Aberdeen
Aberdeen
winning the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
in 1972 and 1983 respectively, and Aberdeen
Aberdeen
also winning the UEFA Super Cup
UEFA Super Cup
in 1983. Golf With the modern game of golf originating in 15th century Scotland, the country is promoted as the home of golf.[349][350][351] To many golfers the Old Course in the Fife
Fife
town of St Andrews, an ancient links course dating to before 1552[352], is considered a site of pilgrimage.[353] In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews
St Andrews
when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes.[354] The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf
Golf
Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors.[355] There are many other famous golf courses in Scotland, including Carnoustie, Gleneagles, Muirfield, and Royal Troon. Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games, curling and shinty. In boxing, Scotland
Scotland
has had 13 world champions, including Ken Buchanan, Benny Lynch and Jim Watt. Commonwealth Games Scotland
Scotland
has competed at every Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
since 1930 and has won 356 medals in total—91 Gold, 104 Silver and 161 Bronze.[356] Edinburgh
Edinburgh
played host to the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in 1970 and 1986, and most recently Glasgow
Glasgow
in 2014.[357] Infrastructure Transport Main article: Transport
Transport
in Scotland

Bilingual (Gaelic/English) roadsigns are found throughout the Highlands and the Hebrides.

Road The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland. The remainder of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas. Air

Air Scotland, founded in 2002, largely served as Scotland's flag carrier until it ceased operations in 2005

Scotland
Scotland
has five main international airports (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow
Glasgow
Prestwick and Inverness), which together serve 150 international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and chartered flights.[358] GIP operates Edinburgh
Edinburgh
airport and AGS operates Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Glasgow
Glasgow
International, while Highlands and Islands Airports operates 11 regional airports, including Inverness, which serve the more remote locations.[359] The Scottish Government owns Glasgow
Glasgow
Prestwick, having purchased the airport from Infratil
Infratil
for a nominal sum.[360] Over the period of history, Scotland
Scotland
has had several national airlines that has acted as the countries flag carrier, however, most of which are now defunct. Airline companies such as Air Scotland, Caledonian Airways, Scottish Airlines
Scottish Airlines
and Highland Airways (founded as Air Alba), all at one stage was seen to be Scotland's national airline and flag carrier. Loganair, still in operation and mostly operations in the Scottish highlands and serving the outer islands of Scotland, is largely considered to be the modern day flag carrier of Scotland
Scotland
and in 2017 to honour this title, Loganair
Loganair
revamped and introduced new and current airlines with their updated Tartan
Tartan
Aircraft livery
Aircraft livery
to help bring "a new Scottish identify to the skies".[361] Rail

Domestic rail services are operated by Abellio ScotRail.

Network Rail
Network Rail
Infrastructure Limited owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government
Scottish Government
retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.[362] Scotland's rail network has around 350 railway stations and 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) of track. Over 89.3 million passenger journeys are made each year.[363] The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland
Scotland
with each other and with the rail network in England. Virgin Trains provides inter-city rail journeys between Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Inverness
Inverness
to London. Domestic rail services within Scotland
Scotland
are operated by ScotRail. During the time of British Rail, the West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
from London Euston
London Euston
to Glasgow Central was electrified in the early 1970s, followed by the East Coast Main Line in the late 1980s. British Rail
British Rail
created the ScotRail brand. When British Rail
British Rail
existed, many railway lines in Strathclyde were electrified. Strathclyde Passenger Transport
Transport
Executive was at the forefront with the acclaimed "largest electrified rail network outside London". Some parts of the network are electrified, but there are no electrified lines in the Highlands, Angus, Aberdeenshire, the cities of Dundee
Dundee
or Aberdeen, or Perth & Kinross, and none of the islands has a rail link (although the railheads at Kyle of Lochalsh
Kyle of Lochalsh
and Mallaig
Mallaig
principally serve the islands). The East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
crosses the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
by the Forth Bridge. Completed in 1890, this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark".[364] Scotland's rail network is managed by Transport
Transport
Scotland.[363] Water

A Calmac ferry at Greenock

Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne. Services to the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
are operated by Serco. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland
Scotland
to Northern Ireland. DFDS Seaways
DFDS Seaways
operate a freight-only service from Rosyth, near Edinburgh, to Zeebrugge, Belgium. Additional routes are operated by local authorities. Renewable energy Main article: Renewable energy in Scotland Increasing amounts of Scotland's electricity are generated through solar power and wind power, a sizable proportion of Scotland's electricity is generated that way.[365]

See also

Scotland
Scotland
portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal Celtic Studies portal

Celtic languages Celts Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Europe Outline of Scotland

Notes

References

^ "St Andrew—Quick Facts". Scotland. org—The Official Online Gateway. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ "St Andrew". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.  ^ "St Margaret of Scotland". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.  ^ "Patron saints". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.  ^ "St Columba". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.  ^ a b c "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011" (PDF). The Scottish Government. 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.  ^ "Scotland's Census 2011 – Table KS209SCb" (PDF). scotlandscensus.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2017.  ^ Region and Country
Country
Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015. ^ "Scottish population rises to new record". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.  ^ "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012". National Records of Scotland. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ a b Office for National Statistics. "Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2015, December 2015". Retrieved 24 April 2017.  ^ a b c Scottish Government. "Key Economy Statistics". Retrieved 22 August 2014.  ^ "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Scottish Government. Retrieved 23 October 2011. [dead link] ^ Macleod, Angus "Gaelic given official status" (22 April 2005) The Times. London. Retrieved 2 August 2007. ^ " Scotland
Scotland
becomes first part of UK to recognise signing for deaf as official language". Herald Scotland. 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2016.  ^ "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 24 June 2012.  ^ "Countries within a country". 10 Downing Street. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2008. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland  ^ " ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)" (PDF). International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country
Country
subdivision codes. Retrieved 31 May 2008. SCT Scotland country  ^ "Scottish Executive Resources" (PDF). Scotland
Scotland
in Short. Scottish Executive. 17 February 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2006.  ^ a b c d Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. ^ a b c Mackie, J.D. (1969) A History of Scotland. London. Penguin. ^ " Parliament
Parliament
and Ireland". London: The Houses of Parliament. Retrieved 26 December 2016.  ^ Collier, J. G. (2001) Conflict of Laws (Third edition)(pdf) Cambridge University Press. "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England
England
and Wales
Wales
is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia ... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom – Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland – are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey." ^ Devine, T. M. (1999), The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, P.288–289, ISBN 0-14-023004-1 "created a new and powerful local state run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland" ^ " Devolution
Devolution
Settlement, Scotland". gov.uk. Retrieved 7 May 2017.  ^ "Scottish MEPs". Europarl.org.uk. Archived from the original on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
/ Alba". British-Irish Council. Retrieved 4 May 2013.  ^ http://www.britishirish.org/members-2/ ^ The History Of Ireland. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Ayto, John; Ian Crofton. Brewer's Britain & Ireland: The History, Culture, Folklore and Etymology of 7500 Places in These Islands. WN. ISBN 0-304-35385-X.  ^ The earliest known evidence is a flint arrowhead from Islay. See Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland
Scotland
Before History. London. Thames & Hudson. Page 42. ^ Sites at Cramond
Cramond
dated to 8500 BC and near Kinloch, Rùm
Rùm
from 7700 BC provide the earliest known evidence of human occupation in Scotland. See "The Megalithic Portal
Portal
and Megalith Map: Rubbish dump reveals time-capsule of Scotland's earliest settlements" megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 10 February 2008 and Edwards, Kevin J. and Whittington, Graeme "Vegetation Change" in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003) Scotland
Scotland
After the Ice Age: Environment, Archaeology and History, 8000 BC–AD 1000. Edinburgh. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. Page 70. ^ Pryor, Francis (2003). Britain BC. London: HarperPerennial. pp. 98–104 & 246–250. ISBN 978-0-00-712693-4.  ^ Keys, David (14 August 2009). "Ancient royal tomb found in Scotland". The Independent. London. Retrieved 16 August 2009.  ^ Brophy, Kenneth; Noble, Gordon; Driscoll, Stephen (2010). "The Forteviot
Forteviot
dagger burial". History Scotland. 10 (1): 12–13. ISSN 1475-5270.  ^ Koch, John. "O'Donnell Lecture 2008 Appendix" (PDF). University of Wales. Retrieved 27 May 2010.  ^ Koch, John (2009). Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9 (2009) (PDF). Palaeohispanica. pp. 339–351. ISSN 1578-5386. Retrieved 17 May 2010.  ^ Koch, John. "New research suggests Welsh Celtic roots lie in Spain and Portugal". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 10 May 2010.  ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2008). A Race Apart: Insularity and Connectivity in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 75, 2009, pp. 55–64. The Prehistoric Society. p. 61.  ^ a b c d e Bryson 2010 ^ a b "Skara Brae: The Discovery of the Village". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Roman film now online". Kinneil Estate, Bo'ness. Retrieved 22 October 2017.  ^ a b "The Romans in Scotland". BBC.  ^ Hanson, William S. The Roman Presence: Brief Interludes, in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003). Scotland
Scotland
After the Ice Age: Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC—AD 1000. Edinburgh. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ^ a b Snyder, Christopher A. (2003). The Britons. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22260-X.  ^ Robertson, Anne S. (1960). The Antonine Wall. Glasgow
Glasgow
Archaeological Society. ^ "Dalriada: The Land of the First Scots". BBC
BBC
– Legacies. Retrieved 4 January 2014. ^ "Scot (ancient people)". Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Campbell, Ewan. (2001). "Were the Scots Irish?" in Antiquity No. 75. ^ Peter Heather, "State Formation in Europe
Europe
in the First Millennium A.D.", in Barbara Crawford (ed.), Scotland
Scotland
in Dark Ages Europe, (Aberdeen, 1994), pp. 47–63 ^ For instance, Alex Woolf, "The Verturian Hegemony: a mirror in the North", in M. P. Brown & C. A. Farr, (eds.), Mercia: an Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe, (Leicester, 2001), pp. 106–11. ^ Brown, Dauvit (2001). "Kenneth mac Alpin". In M. Lynch. The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-19-211696-3.  ^ Brown, Dauvit (1997). "Dunkeld and the origin of Scottish identity". Innes Review. Glasgow: Scottish Catholic Historical Association (48): 112–124.  reprinted in Dauvit Broun and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), (1999)Spes Scotorum: Hope of Scots, Edinburgh: T.& T.Clark, pp. 95–111. ISBN 978-0-567-08682-2 ^ Foster, Sally (1996). Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots (Historic Scotland). London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-7485-5.  ^ Withers, Charles, W.J. (1984). Gaelic in Scotland, 1698–1981. Edinburgh: John Donald. pp. 16–41;. ISBN 978-0-85976-097-3.  ^ a b Barrow, Geoffrey, W. S. (2005) [1965]. Robert Bruce & the Community of the Realm of Scotland
Scotland
(4th ed.). Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ISBN 0-7486-2022-2.  ^ Thomas Owen Clancy. "Gaelic Scotland: a brief history". Bòrd na Gàidhlig. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
Conquered, 1174–1296". National Archives.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
Regained, 1297–1328". National Archives of the United Kingdom.  ^ Murison, A. F. (1899). King Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
(reprint 2005 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4179-1494-4.  ^ a b Grant, Alexander (6 June 1991) [1984]. Independence and Nationhood: Scotland, 1306–1469 (New ed.). Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. pp. 3–57. ISBN 978-0-7486-0273-5.  ^ Wormald, Jenny (6 June 1991) [1981]. Court, Kirk
Kirk
and Community: Scotland
Scotland
(New ed.). Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-0276-6.  ^ "Medieval life Garde Ecossaise". Learning Scotland. Archived from the original on 2 January 2012.  ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Warfare. DK Publishing. 2012. p. 391.  ^ "James IV, King of Scots 1488–1513". BBC.  ^ "Battle of Flodden, (Sept. 9, 1513),". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "The Scottish Reformation,". BBC
BBC
Scotland.  ^ "Religion, Marriage and Power in Scotland, 1503–1603". The National Archives of the United Kingdom.  ^ Ross, David (2002). Chronology of Scottish History. Geddes & Grosset. p. 56. ISBN 1-85534-380-0. 1603: James VI becomes James I of England
England
in the Union of the Crowns, and leaves Edinburgh for London  ^ Cullen, Karen J. (15 February 2010). Famine in Scotland: The 'ill Years' of The 1690s. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. pp. 152–3. ISBN 0748638873.  ^ "Why did the Scottish parliament accept the Treaty of Union?" (PDF). Scottish Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2013.  ^ "Popular Opposition to the Ratification of the Treaty of Anglo-Scottish Union in 1706–7". scottishhistorysociety.com. Scottish Historical Society. Retrieved 23 March 2017.  ^ Devine, T. M. (1999). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000. Penguin Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-14-023004-1. From that point on anti-union demonstrations were common in the capital. In November rioting spread to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism and covenanting tradition. The Glasgow
Glasgow
mob rose against union sympathisers in disturbances that lasted intermittently for over a month  ^ "Act of Union 1707 Mob unrest and disorder". London: The House of Lords. 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2007.  ^ "The Tobacco Lords: A study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow
Glasgow
and their Activities". Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society. JSTOR 4248011.  ^ "Some Dates in Scottish History from 1745 to 1914 Archived 31 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.", The University of Iowa. ^ "Enlightenment Scotland". Learning and Teaching Scotland.  ^ Neil Davidson(2000). The Origins of Scottish Nationhood. London: Pluto Press. pp. 94–95.  ^ T. M. Devine and R. J. Finlay, Scotland
Scotland
in the Twentieth Century (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 1996), pp. 64–5. ^ F. Requejo and K-J Nagel, Federalism Beyond Federations: Asymmetry and Processes of Re-symmetrization in Europe
Europe
(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011), p. 39. ^ R. Quinault, "Scots on Top? Tartan
Tartan
Power at Westminster 1707–2007", History Today, 2007 57(7): 30–36. ISSN 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco. ^ K. Kumar, The Making of English National Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 183. ^ D. Howell, British Workers and the Independent Labour Party, 1888–1906 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), p. 144. ^ J. F. MacKenzie, "The second city of the Empire: Glasgow
Glasgow
– imperial municipality", in F. Driver and D. Gilbert, eds, Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity (2003), pp. 215–23. ^ J. Shields, Clyde Built: a History of Ship-Building on the River Clyde (1949). ^ C. H. Lee, Scotland
Scotland
and the United Kingdom: the Economy and the Union in the Twentieth Century (1995), p. 43. ^ M. Magnusson (10 November 2003), "Review of James Buchan, Capital of the Mind: how Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Changed the World", New Statesman, archived from the original on 29 May 2011  ^ E. Wills, Scottish Firsts: a Celebration of Innovation and Achievement (Edinbugh: Mainstream, 2002). ^ K. S. Whetter (2008), Understanding Genre and Medieval Romance, Ashgate, p. 28  ^ N. Davidson (2000), The Origins of Scottish Nationhood, Pluto Press, p. 136  ^ "Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments", Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile, archived from the original on 5 November 2011  ^ Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, The Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Style: a Comprehensive Guide (Courier Dover, 2002), pp. 283–4. ^ J. L. Roberts, The Jacobite Wars, pp. 193–5. ^ M. Sievers, The Highland Myth as an Invented Tradition of 18th and 19th century and Its Significance for the Image of Scotland
Scotland
(GRIN Verlag, 2007), pp. 22–5. ^ P. Morère, Scotland
Scotland
and France in the Enlightenment (Bucknell University Press, 2004), pp. 75–6. ^ William Ferguson, The identity of the Scottish Nation: an Historic Quest (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 1998), p. 227. ^ Divine, Scottish Nation pp. 292–95. ^ M. Gray, The Highland Economy, 1750–1850 (Greenwood, 1976). ^ E. Richards, The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil (2008). ^ J. Wormald, Scotland: a History (2005), p. 229. ^ A. K. Cairncross, The Scottish Economy: A Statistical Account of Scottish Life by Members of the Staff of Glasgow
Glasgow
University (Glasgow: Glasgow
Glasgow
University Press, 1953), p. 10. ^ R. A. Houston and W. W. Knox, eds, The New Penguin History of Scotland
Scotland
(Penguin, 2001), p. xxxii. ^ G. Robb, "Popular Religion and the Christianization of the Scottish Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries", Journal of Religious History, 1990, 16(1): 18–34. ^ a b J. T. Koch, Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia, Volumes 1–5 (ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 416–7. ^ T. M. Devine, The Scottish Nation, pp. 91–100. ^ Paul L. Robertson, "The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow, 1860–1914", History of Education Quarterly, Winter 1990, vol. 30 (1), pp. 47–78. ^ M. F. Rayner-Canham and G. Rayner-Canham, Chemistry was Their Life: Pioneering British Women Chemists, 1880–1949, (Imperial College Press, 2008), p. 264. ^ Richard J. Finlay, Modern Scotland
Scotland
1914–2000 (2006), pp 1–33 ^ R. A. Houston and W. W. J. Knox, eds. The New Penguin History of Scotland
Scotland
(2001) p 426.[1] Niall Ferguson
Niall Ferguson
points out in "The Pity of War" that the proportion of enlisted Scots who died was third highest in the war behind Serbia and Turkey and a much higher proportion than in other parts of the UK.[2] [3] ^ Iain McLean, The Legend of Red Clydeside
Red Clydeside
(1983) ^ Finlay, Modern Scotland
Scotland
1914–2000 (2006), pp 34–72 ^ Richard J. Finlay, " National identity
National identity
in Crisis: Politicians, Intellectuals and the 'End of Scotland', 1920–1939", History, June 1994, Vol. 79 Issue 256, pp 242–59 ^ a b http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/world_war2/scotlands_blitz/ ^ a b http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/landscapes/clydebank_blitz/ ^ J. Leasor Rudolf Hess: The Uninvited Envoy (Kelly Bray: House of Stratus, 2001), ISBN 0-7551-0041-7, p. 15. ^ Evans 2008, p. 168. ^ Sereny 1996, p. 240. ^ P. Wykeham, Fighter Command (Manchester: Ayer, rpt., 1979), ISBN 0-405-12209-8, p. 87. ^ a b J. Buchanan, Scotland
Scotland
(Langenscheidt, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 981-234-950-2, p. 51. ^ J. Creswell, Sea Warfare 1939–1945 (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2nd edn., 1967), p. 52. ^ D. Howarth, The Shetland
Shetland
Bus: A WWII Epic of Escape, Survival, and Adventure (Guilford, Delaware: Lyons Press, 2008), ISBN 1-59921-321-4. ^ T. M. Devine, The Scottish Nation, 1700–2000 (London: Penguin Books, 2001), ISBN 0-14-100234-4, pp. 549–50. ^ Harvie, Christopher No Gods and Precious Few Heroes (Edward Arnold, 1989) pp 54–63. ^ Stewart, Heather (6 May 2007). "Celtic Tiger Burns Brighter at Holyrood". The Guardian.  ^ "National Planning Framework for Scotland". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Torrance, David (30 March 2009). "Modern myth of a poll tax test-bed lives on". The Scotsman. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "The poll tax in Scotland
Scotland
20 years on". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "The Scotland
Scotland
Act 1998" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 April 2008. ^ " Devolution
Devolution
> Scottish responsibilities" Scottish Government publication, (web-page last updated November 2010) ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/06/99/scottish_parliament_opening/382490.stm ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/donald-dewar-dies-after-fall-634695.html ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/3719396.stm ^ https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2011/may/06/scottish-elections-salmond-historic-victory-snp ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/events/scotland-decides/results ^ a b Whitaker's Almanack (1991) London. J. Whitaker and Sons. ^ North Channel, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 May 2016. ^ "Uniting the Kingdoms?". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ See "Centre of Scotland" Newtonmore.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012. ^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Pages 734 and 930. ^ "Tay". Encarta. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2008.  ^ "Southern Uplands". Tiscali.co.uk. 16 November 1990. Archived from the original on 28 November 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2009.  ^ "Education Scotland
Scotland
Standard Grade Bitesize Revision – Ask a Teacher – Geography – Physical – Question From PN". BBC. Retrieved 11 June 2009.  ^ a b " Scotland
Scotland
Today " ITKT". Intheknowtraveler.com. 28 December 2006. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2009.  ^ Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre Methuen ISBN 978-0-413-30380-6 ^ Murray, W.H. (1968) The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland. London. Collins. ISBN 0-00-211135-7 ^ Johnstone, Scott et al. (1990) The Corbetts and Other Scottish Hills. Edinburgh. Scottish Mountaineering Trust. Page 9. ^ " BBC
BBC
Weather: UK Records". BBC.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  The same temperature was also recorded in Braemar
Braemar
on 10 January 1982 and at Altnaharra, Highland, on 30 December 1995. ^ a b "Weather extremes". Met Office. Retrieved 23 March 2017.  ^ "Western Scotland: climate". Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ a b "Eastern Scotland: climate". Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Scottish Weather Part One". BBC. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ Fraser Darling, F. & Boyd, J. M. (1969) Natural History in the Highlands and Islands. London. Bloomsbury. ^ Benvie, Neil (2004) Scotland's Wildlife. London. Aurum Press. ISBN 1-85410-978-2 p. 12. ^ "State of the Park Report. Chapter 2: Natural Resources"(pdf) (2006) Cairngorms
Cairngorms
National Park Authority. Retrieved 14 October 2007. ^ Preston, C. D., Pearman, D. A., & Dines, T. D. (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press. ^ Gooders, J. (1994) Field Guide to the Birds of Britain and Ireland. London. Kingfisher. ^ Matthews, L. H. (1968) British Mammals. London. Bloomsbury. ^ WM Adams (2003). Future nature:a vision for conservation. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85383-998-6. Retrieved 10 January 2011.  ^ "East Scotland
Scotland
Sea Eagles" RSPB. Retrieved 3 January 2014. ^ Ross, John (29 December 2006). "Mass slaughter of the red kites". The Scotsman. Edinburgh.  ^ Ross, David (26 November 2009) "Wild Boar: our new eco warriors" The Herald. Glasgow. ^ "Beavers return after 400-year gap". BBC
BBC
News. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009.  ^ Integrated Upland Management for Wildlife, Field Sports, Agriculture & Public Enjoyment (pdf) (September 1999) Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 14 October 2007. ^ "The Fortingall Yew". Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
remains home to Britain's tallest tree as Dughall Mor reaches new heights". Forestry Commission. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ Copping, Jasper (4 June 2011) "Britain's record-breaking trees identified" London. The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 July 2011. ^ "Why Scotland
Scotland
has so many mosses and liverworts". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Bryology (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland
Scotland
Table KS201SC - Ethnic group - Release 3A". National Records for Scotland. 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-27. [dead link] ^ "Scotland's Population at its Highest Ever". National Records of Scotland. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.  ^ Census 2011: Detailed characteristics on Ethnicity, Identity, Language and Religion in Scotland
Religion in Scotland
– Release 3A. Scotland
Scotland
Census 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2014. ^ "Did You Know?—Scotland's Cities". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Clapperton, C.M. (ed) (1983) Scotland: A New Study. London. David & Charles. ^ Miller, J. (2004) Inverness. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-296-2 ^ "New Towns". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
speaks Urdu". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ The Pole Position (6 August 2005). Glasgow. Sunday Herald newspaper. ^ Gaelic Language Plan, www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2 October 2014. ^ Scots Language Policy, www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2 October 2014. ^ Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.47 ^ Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.48 ^ Macafee C. Scots in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 11, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005. p.33 ^ "Scotland's Census 2011". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 27 May 2014.  ^ Kenneth MacKinnon. "A Century on the Census—Gaelic in Twentieth Century Focus". University of Glasgow. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.  ^ "Can TV's evolution ignite a Gaelic revolution?". The Scotsman. 16 September 2008. ^ The US Census 2000. The [4] American Community Survey 2004 by the US Census Bureau estimates 5,752,571 people claiming Scottish ancestry and 5,323,888 people claiming Scotch-Irish ancestry. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "The Scotch-Irish". American Heritage Magazine. 22 (1). December 1970. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010.  ^ "Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America". Powells.com. 12 August 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ "Scots-Irish By Alister McReynolds, writer and lecturer in Ulster-Scots studies". Nitakeacloserlook.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ "2006 Canadian Census". 2 April 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to New Zealand
New Zealand
English Phonology Trudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31: 103–124 ^ a b "Scotland's population reaches record of high of 5.25 million". The Courier. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2014.  ^ "Scotland's Population 2011: The Registrar General's Annual Review of Demographic Trends 157th Edition". Gro-gov.scot. Retrieved 1 May 2013.  ^ "Table Q1: Births, stillbirths, deaths, marriages and civil partnerships, numbers and rates, Scotland, quarterly, 2002 to 2012" (PDF). General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 1 May 2013.  ^ http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/ods-analyser/jsf/tableView/crosstabTableView.xhtml 2011 Census population data for localities in Scotland. Retrieved 10 July 2014. ^ a b Life Expectancy for Areas within Scotland
Scotland
2012–2014 (PDF) (Report). National Records of Scotland. 13 October 2015. p. 5. Retrieved 22 March 2017.  ^ a b "Scotland's Census 2011" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 11 August 2016.  ^ " Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
'struggling to stay alive'". scotsman.com.  ^ "Survey indicates 1.5 million Scots identify with Church". www.churchofscotland.org.uk. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ Andrew Collier, "Scotland's Confident Catholics", The Tablet 10 January 2009, 16. ^ " Scottish Episcopal Church
Scottish Episcopal Church
could be first in UK to conduct same-sex weddings". Scottish Legal News. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016.  ^ a b "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census". General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 26 September 2007.  ^ "In the Scottish Lowlands, Europe's first Buddhist monastery turns 40". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ [http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1953/apr/15/royal-style-and-title HC Deb vol 514 cc 199–201, 15 April 1953, Prime Minister Winston Churchill ^ "Opening of Parliament: Procession of the Crown of Scotland". Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2016.  ^ "Government of Scotland
Scotland
Facts". Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Brown opens door to Holyrood tax powers". Sunday Herald. 16 February 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ Fraser, Douglas (2 February 2016). "Scotland's tax powers: What it has and what's coming?". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. Retrieved 27 April 2017.  ^ BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland
News Online " Scotland
Scotland
begins pub smoking ban", BBC Scotland
Scotland
News, 26 March 2006. Retrieved 17 July 2006. ^ "People: Who runs the Scottish Government". Scottish Government. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.  ^ "Deputy First Minister". Gov.scot. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.  ^ "The Scottish Government". Beta.gov.scot. Retrieved 11 August 2016.  ^ a b "General election 2017: SNP lose a third of seats amid Tory surge". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ "Election 2015: SNP wins 56 of 59 seats in Scots landslide". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 17 May 2015.  ^ " Scotland Office
Scotland Office
Charter". Scotland Office
Scotland Office
website. 9 August 2004. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007.  ^ https://www.gov.uk/guidance/devolution-of-powers-to-scotland-wales-and-northern-ireland ^ a b http://www.gov.scot/topics/archive/About-Archive/11556 ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-38670128 ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-latest-devolved-government-scotland-northern-ireland-wales-eu-negotiation-talks-article-50-a7552421.html ^ http://www.parliament.scot/visitandlearn/Education/18642.aspx ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International ^ https://beta.gov.scot/about/who-runs-government/cabinet-and-ministers/cabinet-secretary-culture-tourism-external-affairs/ ^ https://beta.gov.scot/about/who-runs-government/cabinet-and-ministers/minister-international-development-europe/ ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4646129.stm ^ https://www.scotland-malawipartnership.org/who-we-are/about-us/ ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3018692.stm ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-24787204 ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International/Asia/china-1-1/visitchina2011 ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International/Americas/north-america/canadaplan ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International/Americas/north-america/sao ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-39485807 ^ http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish-news/nicola-sturgeon-nets-63million-deal-10146762 ^ a b https://firstminister.gov.scot/first-minister-in-dublin-day-2/ ^ Cavanagh, Michael (2001) The Campaigns for a Scottish Parliament. University of Strathclyde. Retrieved 12 April 2008. ^ "Party people confront new realities". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. Retrieved 18 January 2008.  ^ "Commons clears transfer of power". The Herald. Glasgow. January 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.  ^ "Referendum Bill". Official website, About > Programme for Government > 2009–10 > Summaries of Bills > Referendum Bill. Scottish Government. 2 September 2009. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.  ^ MacLeod, Angus (3 September 2009). "Salmond to push ahead with referendum Bill". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.  ^ " Scottish independence
Scottish independence
plan 'an election issue'". BBC
BBC
News. 6 September 2010.  ^ Black, Andrew (21 March 2013). "Scottish independence: Referendum to be held on 18 September, 2014". BBC
BBC
News. London. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
votes no: the union has survived, but the questions for the left are profound". The Guardian. 19 September 2014.  ^ Indyref. " Scotland
Scotland
decides". BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2014.  ^ Scottish Independence Referendum: statement by the Prime Minister, UK Government ^ a b Scottish referendum: Who is Lord Smith of Kelvin?, BBC
BBC
News ^ "Scottish Leader Nicola Sturgeon
Nicola Sturgeon
Announces Plans for Second Independence Referendum". Time. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.  ^ "Brexit: Nicola Sturgeon
Nicola Sturgeon
says second Scottish independence
Scottish independence
vote 'highly likely'". BBC
BBC
News. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.  ^ "Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994" Archived 1 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 26 September 2007. ^ "City status". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "UK Cities". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "History of the Faculty of Law". The University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
School of Law. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  ^ The Articles: legal and miscellaneous, UK Parliament
Parliament
House of Lords (2007). "Article 19: The Scottish legal system and its courts was to remain unchanged":"Act of Union 1707". House of Lords. Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  ^ "Law and institutions, Gaelic" & "Law and lawyers" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 381–382 & 382–386. Udal Law remains relevant to land law in Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland: "A General History of Scots Law (20th century)" (PDF). Law Society of Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.  ^ "Court Information" www.scotcourts.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 September 207. Archived 20 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The case for keeping 'not proven' verdict". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Scotland's unique 15-strong juries will not be abolished". The Scotsman. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Prisoner Population". Sps.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 July 2009.  ^ Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
Medical Service (HIMS) www.60yearsofnhsscotland.co.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2008. ^ "Cabinet and ministers – gov.scot". beta.gov.scot. Retrieved 11 August 2017.  ^ "Strategic Board of the Scottish Government". Scottish Government. Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ "About the NHS in Scotland". Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/11084406/The-Scottish-economy-in-ten-essential-charts.html ^ Centre for Economics & Business Research. "How money in some regions subsidises others". Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ "Government Expenditure & Revenue Scotland
Scotland
2012–13". p. 4. Retrieved 12 March 2014. ^ Johnson, Simon (12 March 2014) "Scots Each Receive £1,300 More Spending Despite Oil Tax Drop". The Daily Telegraph. ^ Scottish Government. "Scotland's Balance Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ "Scotland's GDP 2016 Q4" (5 April 2017). Scottish Government. ^ BBC. "Scottish economic output falls by 0.2%". Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ Scottish Office. "Scottish Labour Market Statistics September 2015". Retrieved 15 January 2016.  ^ Askeland, Erikka (20 March 2012) "Scots Cities Slide down Chart of the World's Top Financial Centres". The Scotsman. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March 2016.  ^ Scottish Government. "Export Statistics Scotland
Scotland
– Publication". Retrieved 14 December 2014.  ^ a b "Economy Statistics". The Scottish Government. Retrieved 26 May 2014.  ^ Macalister, Terry (2 March 2012). "Who would get the oil revenues if Scotland
Scotland
became independent?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2012.  ^ "Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Exports Hit Record Level". Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Association. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ "Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Exports Remain Flat". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Briefing 2014". Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Association. Retrieved 30 May 2014.  ^ Carrell, Severin; Griffiths, Ian; Terry Macalister, Terry (29 May 2014). "New Doubt Cast over Alex Salmond's Claims of Scottish Wealth". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 May 2014.  ^ "The Economics of Tourism" (PDF). SPICe. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  ^ "Scottish Banknotes: The Treasury's Symbolic Hostage in the Independence Debate". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 May 2014.  ^ The large number of military bases in Scotland
Scotland
led some to use the euphemism "Fortress Scotland". See Spaven, Malcolm (1983) Fortress Scotland. London. Pluto Press in association with Scottish CND. ^ "Pensioner, 94, in nuclear protest". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Reprieve for RAF Lossiemouth
RAF Lossiemouth
base". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Dunoon and the US Navy". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "A Guide to Education and Training in Scotland
Scotland
– "the broad education long regarded as characteristic of Scotland"". Scottish Government. Retrieved 18 October 2007.  ^ P. J. Bawcutt and J. H. Williams, A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2006), ISBN 1-84384-096-0, pp. 29–30. ^ R. A. Houston, Scottish Literacy and the Scottish Identity: Illiteracy and Society in Scotland
Scotland
and Northern England, 1600–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), ISBN 0-521-89088-8, p. 5. ^ "School education prior to 1873", Scottish Archive Network, 2010, archived from the original on 2 July 2011  ^ R. Anderson, "The history of Scottish Education pre-1980", in T. G. K. Bryce and W. M. Humes, eds, Scottish Education: Post-Devolution (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 2nd edn., 2003), ISBN 0-7486-1625-X, pp. 219–28. ^ "Schools and schooling" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 561–563. ^ " Curriculum for Excellence – Aims, Purposes and Principles". Scottish Government. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010.  ^ "The Scottish Exam System". Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Welcome to the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland". Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007.  ^ "Understanding Scottish Qualifications". Scottish Agricultural College. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2007.  ^ "RAE 2008: results for UK universities". The Guardian. London. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009.  ^ Foster, Patrick. " The Times
The Times
Good University Guide 2009 – league table". The Times. London. Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
tops global university rankings". Newsnet Scotland. 11 September 2012. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013.  ^ "A Framework for Higher Education in Scotland: Higher Education Review Phase 2". Scottish Government. Retrieved 18 October 2007.  ^ "What is higher education?" (PDF). Universities Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2004. Retrieved 18 October 2007.  ^ http://www.saas.gov.uk/_forms/fees_student.pdf ^ " Scottish Government
Scottish Government
– Graduate endowment scrapped". Retrieved 29 October 2014.  ^ "MSPs vote to scrap endowment fee". BBC
BBC
News. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2011-02-12.  ^ Cite error: The named reference NS122015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ ITV (5 June 2014). " Scotland
Scotland
'most highly educated country in Europe'". Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ "Tertiary educational attainment, age group 25–64 by sex and NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ "Best Scottish Band of All Time". The List. Retrieved 2 August 2006.  ^ R. T. Lambdin and L. C. Lambdin, Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature (London: Greenwood, 2000), ISBN 0-313-30054-2, p. 508. ^ I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-1615-2, p. 94. ^ J. T. Koch, Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2006), ISBN 1-85109-440-7, p. 999. ^ E. M. Treharne, Old and Middle English c.890-c.1400: an Anthology (Wiley-Blackwell, 2004), ISBN 1-4051-1313-8, p. 108. ^ M. Fry, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(London: Pan Macmillan, 2011), ISBN 0-330-53997-3. ^ N. Jayapalan, History of English Literature (Atlantic, 2001), ISBN 81-269-0041-5, p. 23. ^ J. Wormald, Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470–1625 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-7486-0276-3, pp. 60–7. ^ I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-1615-2, pp. 256–7. ^ R. D. S. Jack, "Poetry under King James VI", in C. Cairns, ed., The History of Scottish Literature ( Aberdeen
Aberdeen
University Press, 1988), vol. 1, ISBN 0-08-037728-9, pp. 137–8. ^ J. Buchan (2003). Crowded with Genius. Harper Collins. p. 163. ISBN 0-06-055888-1.  ^ L. McIlvanney (Spring 2005). "Hugh Blair, Robert Burns, and the Invention of Scottish Literature". Eighteenth-Century Life. 29 (2): 25–46. doi:10.1215/00982601-29-2-25.  ^ N. Davidson (2000). The Origins of Scottish Nationhood. Pluto Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-7453-1608-5.  ^ "Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments". Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011.  ^ a b "The Scottish 'Renaissance' and beyond". Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011.  ^ "The Scots Makar". The Scottish Government. 16 February 2004. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2007.  ^ "Duffy reacts to new Laureate post". BBC
BBC
News. 1 May 2009. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011.  ^ Harvey, David; Jones, Rhys; McInroy, Neil; et al., eds. (2002). Celtic geographies: old culture, new times. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Routledge. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-415-22396-6.  ^ Pittock, Murray (1999). Celtic identity and the British image. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 0-7190-5826-0.  ^ "Celtic connections:Scotland's premier winter music festival". Celtic connections website. Celtic Connections. 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010.  ^ "' Hebridean Celtic Festival 2010 – the biggest homecoming party of the year". Hebridean Celtic Festival website. Hebridean Celtic Festival. 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2010.  ^ "Site Officiel du Festival Interceltique de Lorient". Festival Interceltique de Lorient website. Festival Interceltique de Lorient. 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010.  ^ "Welcome to the Pan Celtic 2010 Home Page". Pan Celtic Festival
Pan Celtic Festival
2010 website. Fáilte Ireland. 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ "About the Festival". National Celtic Festival website. National Celtic Festival. 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2010.  ^ "Feature: Saint Andrew
Saint Andrew
seals Scotland's independence" Archived 16 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine., The National Archives of Scotland, 28 November 2007, retrieved 12 September 2009. ^ "Feature: Saint Andrew
Saint Andrew
seals Scotland's independence". The National Archives of Scotland. 28 November 2007. Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2009.  ^ Dickinson, Donaldson, Milne (eds.), A Source Book Of Scottish History, Nelson and Sons Ltd, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
1952, p.205 ^ G. Bartram, www.flaginstitute.org British Flags & Emblems Archived 9 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (Edinburgh: Tuckwell Press, 2004), ISBN 1-86232-297-X, p. 10. ^ "National identity" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 437–444. ^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Page 936. ^ "Symbols of Scotland—Index". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Bain, Robert (1959). Margaret O. MacDougall (ed.), ed. Clans & Tartans of Scotland
Scotland
(revised). P.E. Stewart-Blacker (heralidic advisor), forward by The R. Hon. C/refountess of Erroll. William Collins Sons & Co., Ltd. p. 108. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ "Action call over national anthem". BBC
BBC
News. 21 March 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ "Games team picks new Scots anthem". BBC. 9 January 2010.  ^ "Explanatory Notes to St. Andrew's Day
St. Andrew's Day
Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 September 2007. ^ "Scottish fact of the week: Scotland's official animal, the Unicorn". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Gail Kilgore. "The Auld Alliance
Auld Alliance
and its Influence on Scottish Cuisine". Retrieved 29 July 2006.  ^ "Who invented the television? How people reacted to John Logie Baird's creation 90 years ago". The Telegraph. 26 January 2016.  ^ a b "Newspapers and National Identity in Scotland" (PDF). IFLA University of Stirling. Retrieved 12 December 2006.  ^ "About Us::Celtic Media Festival". Celtic Media Festival
Celtic Media Festival
website. Celtic Media Festival. 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2014.  ^ Soccer in South Asia: Empire, Nation, Diaspora by James Mills, Paul Dimeo: Page 18 – Oldest Football Association is England's FA, then Scotland
Scotland
and third oldest is the Indian FA. ^ Gerhardt, W. "The colourful history of a fascinating game. More than 2000 Years of Football". FIFA. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2006.  ^ "Official site of the Tennents Scottish Cup". The Tennents Scottish Cup. Retrieved 10 December 2006.  ^ Paul Mitchell. "The first international football match". BBC. Retrieved 21 September 2014.  ^ " Scotland
Scotland
is the home of golf". PGA Tour
PGA Tour
official website. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. Scotland
Scotland
is the home of golf...  ^ "The Home of Golf". Scottish Government. Retrieved 4 December 2008. The Royal & Ancient and three public sector agencies are to continue using the Open Championship to promote Scotland
Scotland
as the worldwide home of golf.  ^ Keay (1994) op cit page 839. "In 1834 the Royal and Ancient Golf Club declared St. Andrews
St. Andrews
'the Alma Mater of golf'". ^ http://www.scottishgolfhistory.org/oldest-golf-sites/1574-st-andrews/ ^ Cochrane, Alistair (ed) Science and Golf
Golf
IV: proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Page 849. Routledge. ^ Forrest L. Richardson (2002). "Routing the Golf
Golf
Course: The Art & Science That Forms the Golf
Golf
Journey". p. 46. John Wiley & Sons ^ The Open Championship
The Open Championship
– More Scottish than British Archived 2 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. PGA Tour. Retrieved 23 September 2011 ^ "Medal Tally". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Overview and History". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "The Scotsman" 27 March 2007. " Special
Special
Report—Business Class" ^ " Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
Airports Airport Information". Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Prestwick Airport to be nationalised in bid to safeguard jobs". The Herald. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.  ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/united-kingdom/scotland/articles/scotland-to-get-its-own-national-airline/ ^ "Disaggregating Network Rail's expenditure and revenue allowance and future price control framework: a consultation (June 2005)" Office of Rail Regulation. Retrieved 2 November 2007. ^ a b "Rail". www.transport.gov.scot. Transport
Transport
Scotland. Retrieved 15 December 2016.  ^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins.ISBN 0-00-255082-2 ^ 'Extraordinary' month for Scottish renewable energy BBC

Further reading

Devine, T. M. [1999] (2000). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000 (New Ed. edition). London:Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023004-1 Donnachie, Ian and George Hewitt. Dictionary of Scottish History. (2001). 384 pp. Keay, John, and Julia Keay. Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland
Scotland
(2nd ed. 2001), 1101pp; 4000 articles; emphasis on history Koch, J. T. Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2006), ISBN 1-85109-440-7, 999pp Tabraham, Chris, and Colin Baxter. The Illustrated History of Scotland (2004) excerpt and text search Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History, Yale, 2008, ISBN 0-300-13686-2 Watson, Fiona, Scotland; From Prehistory to the Present. Tempus, 2003. 286 pp. Wilson, Neil. Lonely Planet Scotland
Scotland
(2013) excerpt and text search[dead link] Wormald, Jenny, The New History of Scotland
History of Scotland
(2005) excerpt and text search

Specialized monographs

Brown, Dauvit, (1999) Anglo-French acculturation and the Irish element in Scottish Identity in Smith, Brendan (ed.), Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–53 Brown, Michael (2004) The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371, Edinburgh University Press., pp. 157–254 Dumville, David N. (2001). "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of Exoticism". Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-1-85182-486-1.  Flom, George Tobias. Scandinavian influence on Southern Lowland Scotch. A Contribution to the Study of the Linguistic Relations of English and Scandinavian (Columbia University Press, New York. 1900) Herbert, Maire (2000). "Rí Érenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity in the ninth and tenth centuries". In Simon Taylor (ed.). Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 63–72. ISBN 1-85182-516-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) MacLeod, Wilson (2004) Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland: c.1200–1650. Oxford University Press. Pope, Robert (ed.), Religion and National Identity: Wales
Wales
and Scotland, c.1700–2000 (University of Wales
Wales
Press, 2001) Sharp, L. W. The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland, (Cambridge University PhD thesis, 1927), pp. 102–325;

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scotland.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Scotland.

Find more aboutScotlandat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata

Visit Scotland, official site of Scotland's national tourist board. Maps and digital collections at the National Library of Scotland. National Archives of Scotland, official site of the National Archives of Scotland. Scotland
Scotland
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Scottish Census Results On Line, official government site for Scotland's census results. Scottish economic statistics from the Scottish Government. Scottish Government, official site of the Scottish Government. Scotland.org, the official online gateway to Scotland
Scotland
managed by the Scottish Government. Scottish Parliament, official site of the Scottish Parliament. ScotlandsPeople, official government resource for Scottish genealogy. statistics.gov.scot, open access to a range of official statistics about Scotland
Scotland
including small area statistics. Gazetteer for Scotland, an extensive guide to the places and people of Scotland
Scotland
by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society
Royal Scottish Geographical Society
and University of Edinburgh. Streets of Scotland, photos from Scotland's streets. Geographic data related to Scotland
Scotland
at OpenStreetMap

Links to related articles

v t e

Scotland articles

List of topics

History

Timeline Prehistoric Roman times Middle Ages Early Middle Ages Kingdom High Middle Ages Davidian Revolution Wars of Independence Late Middle Ages Renaissance Early modern Reformation Colonisation of the Americas Glorious Revolution 1707 Acts of Union Jacobitism Enlightenment Lowland Clearances Highland Clearances Industrial Revolution Romanticism Modern

Geography

Anglo-Scottish border Central Belt Climate Fauna Flora Geology Highlands Islands Lochs Lowlands Mountains and hills Protected areas Waterfalls

Politics

Government

Politics

Devolution Elections First Minister Government Human rights

LGBT rights

Independence Local government Military Monarchs Parliament Political parties Republicanism Scotland
Scotland
Office Secretary of State Nationalism Unionism

Law

Advocate General Courts Crown Office Lord Advocate Lord President Procurator fiscal Solicitor General Sheriff principal College of Justice Udal law

Economy

Agriculture Bank of Scotland Charities Companies Fishing Harris Tweed Housing Media North Sea
North Sea
oil Power stations Renewable energy Royal Bank of Scotland Tourism Transport Whisky Silicon Glen Unemployment

Society

Culture

Architecture Art Clans Cuisine Education Hogmanay Identity Inventions and discoveries Literature Museums Music Oldest buildings Performing arts Prostitution Royal National Mòd Sport Surnames Symbols

anthem coat of arms flags Tartan unicorn

World Heritage Sites

Demographics

Languages

Highland English Scottish English Scottish Gaelic Scots British Sign Language

People (list)

Actors Artists Inventors Musicians Scientists Writers

Religion

Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Christianity

Christmas Church of Scotland

General Assembly Moderators

Roman Catholicism Scottish Episcopal Church Baptist Union

Hinduism Islam Judaism Sikhism

Outline

Category Portal

v t e

Years in Scotland
Scotland
(843–present)

13th Century

1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300

14th Century

1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400

15th Century

1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500

16th Century

1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600

17th Century

1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700

18th Century

1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800

19th Century

1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900

20th Century

1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

21st Century

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

v t e

British Isles

Terminology

Alba Albion Prydain Britain Éire Hibernia

Naming dispute

Politics

Sovereign states

Ireland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales)

Crown dependencies

Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Sark

Political cooperation

Ireland– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations British–Irish Council British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly Common Travel Area

Geography

Island groups

Channel Islands Islands of the Clyde Great Britain Hebrides

Inner Outer

Ireland Isle of Man Northern Isles

Orkney Shetland

Isles of Scilly

Lists of islands of

Bailiwick of Guernsey Ireland Bailiwick of Jersey Isle of Man United Kingdom

England Scotland Wales

History

Island groups

Ireland

Current states

Ireland United Kingdom

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man

Former states

Irish Free State Kingdom of England

Principality of Wales

Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of Scotland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland

Society

Modern languages

Germanic

English Scots

Celtic

Cornish Scottish Gaelic Irish Manx Welsh

Romance

Auregnais French Guernésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais

Other

British Sign Language Irish Sign Language Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Sign Language Shelta

People

British Cornish English English Gypsies Irish Irish Travellers Kale Manx Northern Irish Scottish Ulster-Scots Welsh

v t e

British people

Anglosphere English language English-speaking world British diaspora

Anglo-Irish Anguillans Ascension Islanders Bermudians British Virgin Islanders Caymanians Chagossians
Chagossians
(Îlois) Channel Islanders Cornish English Falkland Islanders Gibraltarians Hongkongers (British Nationals (Overseas)) Manx Montserratians Northern Irish Orcadians Pitcairn Islanders Saint Helenians Scots Shetlanders Tristan Islanders Turks and Caicos Islanders Ulster
Ulster
Protestants Ulster
Ulster
Scots Welsh

v t e

Pan-Celticism

Nations

Celtic League
Celtic League
definition

Brittany Cornwall Ireland Isle of Man Scotland Wales

Other claimants

Asturias Auvergne Cantabria Cumbria Galicia Norte Y Wladfa

Nationalisms

Breton nationalism
Breton nationalism
(history) Cornish nationalism Welsh nationalism Scottish nationalism Irish nationalism
Irish nationalism
(incl. Republicanism) Manx nationalism

Pan-Celtic groups

Celtic Congress Celtic League Columba Project

Languages

Brythonic (Breton, Cornish & Welsh) Goidelic (Irish, Manx & Scottish Gaelic) Mixed ( Shelta & Bungee)

Peoples

Britons (Bretons, Cornish & Welsh) Gaels
Gaels
(Irish incl. Irish Travellers, Manx & Highland Scots incl. Scottish Travellers)

Culture

Brittany Cornwall Ireland Isle of Man Scotland Wales Celtic art

Music

Brittany Cornwall Ireland Isle of Man Scotland Wales

Festivals

Festival Interceltique de Lorient Pan Celtic Festival Hebridean Celtic Festival Celtic Connections Celtic Media Festival

Sport

Bando Bataireacht Camogie Cammag Cnapan Cornish hurling Cornish wrestling Curling Gaelic football
Gaelic football
(Ladies') Gaelic handball Gouren Rounders Highland games Hurling Road bowls Shinty

Celts
Celts
portal Media Category Templates WikiProject

v t e

British–Irish Council

Good Friday Agreement

Member jurisdictions

 United Kingdom  Ireland  Guernsey  Isle of Man  Jersey Northern Ireland  Scotland  Wales

Member bodies

Government of the United Kingdom Government of Ireland Policy Council of Guernsey Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government Council of Ministers of Jersey Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive Scottish Government Welsh Government

Work areas

Demography eHealth Environment Indigenous, minority and lesser-used languages Knowledge economy Misuse of drugs Social inclusion Tourism Transport

Representatives of states

May Varadkar St Pier Quayle Gorst Vacant Sturgeon Jones

v t e

Council areas of Scotland

Aberdeen Aberdeenshire Angus Argyll
Argyll
and Bute Clackmannanshire Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway Dundee East Ayrshire East Dunbartonshire East Lothian East Renfrewshire Edinburgh Falkirk Fife Glasgow Highland Inverclyde Midlothian Moray Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) North Ayrshire North Lanarkshire Orkney Perth and Kinross Renfrewshire Scottish Borders Shetland South Ayrshire South Lanarkshire Stirling West Dunbartonshire West Lothian

List by area, population, density

v t e

English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134799371 LCCN: n79123936 GND: 40532

.