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Sarpedon
Sarpedon
(/sɑːrˈpiːdən, -ˈpiːdɒn/; Ancient Greek: Σαρπηδών, Sarpēdṓn) was a common name in ancient Greece and in the Roman Empire.

Contents

1 Mythical Sarpedons

1.1 Son of Zeus
Zeus
and Europa

1.1.1 Argive Genealogy

1.2 Son of Zeus
Zeus
and Laodamia 1.3 Son of Poseidon

2 Other Sarpedons 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

Mythical Sarpedons[edit] In Greek mythology, the name Sarpedon
Sarpedon
referred to at least three different people. Son of Zeus
Zeus
and Europa[edit] The first Sarpedon
Sarpedon
was a son of Zeus
Zeus
and Europa, and brother to Minos and Rhadamanthys. He was raised by the king Asterion and then, banished by Minos, his rival in love for the young Miletus or Atymnius,[1] he sought refuge with his uncle, Cilix.[2] Sarpedon conquered the Milyans, and ruled over them;[3] his kingdom was named Lycia, after his successor, Lycus, son of Pandion II.[4] Zeus
Zeus
granted him the privilege of living three generations. Argive Genealogy[edit]

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

v t e

Inachus

Melia

Zeus

Io

Phoroneus

Epaphus

Memphis

Libya

Poseidon

Belus

Achiroë

Agenor

Telephassa

Danaus

Pieria

Aegyptus

Cadmus

Cilix

Europa

Phoenix

Mantineus

Hypermnestra

Lynceus

Harmonia

Zeus

Polydorus

Sparta

Lacedaemon

Ocalea

Abas

Agave

Sarpedon

Rhadamanthus

Autonoë

Eurydice

Acrisius

Ino

Minos

Zeus

Danaë

Semele

Zeus

Perseus

Dionysus

Colour key:      Male      Female      Deity

Son of Zeus
Zeus
and Laodamia[edit]

The death of Sarpedon, depicted in Lycian attire, at the hands of Patroclus. Red-figure hydria from Heraclea, c.400 BCE.

The second Sarpedon, king of Lycia, a descendant of the preceding, was a son of Zeus
Zeus
and Laodamia, daughter of Bellerophon.[5] Sarpedon became king when his uncles withdrew their claim to Lycia.[6] He fought on the side of the Trojans, with his cousin Glaucus, during the Trojan War,[7] becoming one of Troy's greatest allies and heroes. He scolded Hector
Hector
in the Iliad
Iliad
(Book 5, lines 471–492) claiming that he left all the hard fighting to the allies of Troy
Troy
and not to the Trojans themselves, and made a point of saying that the Lycians had no reason to fight the Greeks, or no real reason to hate them, but because he was a faithful ally to Troy
Troy
he would do so and fight his best anyway.[8] When the Trojans attacked the wall newly built by the Greeks, Sarpedon
Sarpedon
led his men (who also included Glaucus and Asteropaios) to the forefront of the battle and caused Ajax and Teucer to shift their attention from Hector's attack to that of Sarpedon's forces. He personally held up the battlements and was the first to enter the Greek encampment. This attack allowed Hector
Hector
to break through the Greek wall. It was during this action that Sarpedon delivered a noblesse oblige speech to Glaucus,[9] stating that they had been the most honoured kings, therefore they must now fight the most to repay that honour and prove themselves and repay their loyal subjects. While he was preparing to plunge into battle, he told Glaucus that together they would go on to glory: if they were successful, the glory would be their own; if not, the glory of whoever stopped them would be the greater.

The death of Sarpedon, depicted on the obverse of Euphronios krater, c.515 BCE.

When Patroclus
Patroclus
entered the battle in the armour of Achilles, Sarpedon met him in combat. Zeus
Zeus
debated with himself whether to spare his son's life even though he was fated to die by the hand of Patroclus. He would have done so had Hera
Hera
not reminded him that other gods' sons were fighting and dying and other gods' sons were fated to die as well. If Zeus
Zeus
should spare his son from his fate, another god might do the same; therefore Zeus
Zeus
let Sarpedon
Sarpedon
die while fighting Patroclus, but not before killing the only mortal horse of Achilles. During their fight, Zeus
Zeus
sent a shower of bloody raindrops over the Trojans' heads expressing the grief for the impending death of his son.[10]

Sarpedon
Sarpedon
carried away by Sleep and Death, by Henry Fuseli, 1803.

When Sarpedon
Sarpedon
fell, mortally wounded, he called on Glaucus to rescue his body and arms. Patroclus
Patroclus
withdrew the spear he had embedded in Sarpedon, and as it left Sarpedon's body his spirit went with it.[11] A violent struggle ensued over the body of the fallen king. The Greeks succeeded in gaining his armour (which was later given as a prize in the funeral games for Patroclus), but Zeus
Zeus
had Phoebus Apollo rescue the corpse. Apollo took the corpse and cleaned it, then delivered it to Sleep (Hypnos) and Death (Thanatos), who took it back to Lycia
Lycia
for funeral honours.[12] One account[13] holds that the first and second Sarpedon
Sarpedon
are both the same man, and that Zeus
Zeus
granted Sarpedon
Sarpedon
an extraordinarily long life that had to end at the Trojan War. However, the favoured account is that Sarpedon, brother of Minos, and Sarpedon, who fought at Troy, were different men who lived generations apart. A genealogical link is provided between the two Sarpedons, through Laodamia. Laodamia (called Deidamia in that particular account) is said to have married Evander, son of the first Sarpedon, and to have presented Evander with a son named Sarpedon
Sarpedon
(in reality her son by Zeus).[14] See: Iliad
Iliad
books: II, IV, XII, XVI. An asteroid is named after the Trojan hero, 2223 Sarpedon. Son of Poseidon[edit] A third Sarpedon
Sarpedon
was a Thracian son of Poseidon, eponym of Cape Sarpedon
Sarpedon
near the outlet of the River Hebrus, and brother to Poltys, King of Aenus.[15] Unlike the other two Sarpedons, this Thracian Sarpedon
Sarpedon
was not a hero, but an insolent individual who was shot to death by Heracles
Heracles
as the latter was sailing away from Aenus.[16] Other Sarpedons[edit] Sarpedon
Sarpedon
was also the name of Cato the Younger's childhood teacher. Sarpedon—"a well-bred man, more ready to instruct, than to beat his scholars"—was implicitly credited with overcoming Cato's obstinate disposition and slowness of apprehension.[17] References[edit]

^ Bernard Sergent[citation needed] ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 1. 1 – 2 ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7. 3. 7; Strabo, Geography, 12.8.5; Herodotus, Histories,jihkjgiy6t90 î â 1. 173; Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 5. 79. 3 ^ Herodotus, Histories, 7. 92 ^ Homer, Iliad, 6. 199 ^ Eustathius on Homer, 894 ^ Homer, Iliad, 2. 876 ^ 5. 479-492 ^ 12.310-28 ^ 16. 419-461 ^ 16. 477-505 ^ 16. 667-684; see also Virgil, Aeneid, 1. 100 ^ Rhesus, 29, see also Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3. 1. 1 ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 5. 79. 3 ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1. 216 ^ Bibliotheca 2. 5. 9 ^ Plutarch, Lives, Cato the Younger.

Further reading[edit]

Marie Delcourt, "The legend of Sarpedon
Sarpedon
and the Saga of the Archer". History of Religion. 2 (1962:33-51)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sarpedon.

Myth Index - Sarpedon  "Sarpedōn". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 221. 

v t e

Characters in the Iliad

Achaeans

Acamas Achilles Agamemnon Agapenor Ajax the Greater Ajax the Lesser Alcimus Anticlus Antilochus Arcesilaus Ascalaphus Automedon Balius and Xanthus Bias Calchas Diomedes Elephenor Epeius Eudoros Euryalus Eurybates Eurydamas Eurypylus Guneus Helen Ialmenus Idomeneus Leitus Leonteus Lycomedes Machaon Medon Meges Menelaus Menestheus Meriones Neoptolemus Nestor Nireus Odysseus Palamedes Patroclus Peneleos Philoctetes Phoenix Podalirius Podarces Polites Polypoetes Promachus Protesilaus Prothoenor Schedius Stentor Sthenelus Talthybius Teucer Thersites Thoas Thrasymedes Tlepolemus

Trojans

Aeneas Aesepus Agenor Alcathous Amphimachus Anchises Andromache Antenor Antiphates Antiphus Archelochus Asius Asteropaios Astyanax Atymnius Axylus Briseis Calesius Caletor Cassandra Chryseis Chryses Clytius Coön Dares Phrygius Deiphobus Dolon Epistrophus Euphemus Euphorbus Glaucus Gorgythion Hector Hecuba Helenus Hyperenor Hypsenor Ilioneus Imbrius Iphidamas Kebriones Laocoön Lycaon Melanippus Mentes Mydon Mygdon of Phrygia Othryoneus Pandarus Panthous Paris Pedasus Peirous Phorcys Polites Polydamas Polybus Polydorus Priam Pylaemenes Pylaeus Pyraechmes Rhesus of Thrace Sarped

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