HOME
ListMoto - Sanskrit


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011 Nepal
Nepal
census reported Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as their mother tongue.[3]

Language family

Indo-European

Indo-Iranian

Indo-Aryan

Sanskrit

Early form

Vedic Sanskrit

Writing system

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts.[4]

Language codes

ISO 639-1 sa

ISO 639-2 san

ISO 639-3 san

Glottolog sans1269[5]

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(IAST: Saṃskṛtam; IPA: [sə̃skr̩t̪əm][a]) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism; and a literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval South Asia.[6] As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia, it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early-medieval era.[7][8] When Sanskrit
Sanskrit
had stopped being used as a main language and lingua franca it was only spoken and used by people of the higher class. It was also used as a court language in some kingdoms of South Asia
South Asia
after Sanskrit became a language for the upper class.[9] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is a standardized dialect of Old Indo-Aryan, having originated in the second millennium BCE as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European.[10] As the oldest Indo-European language for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.[11] The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and religious texts. The compositions of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
were orally transmitted for much of its early history by methods of memorization of exceptional complexity, rigor, and fidelity.[12][13] Thereafter, variants and derivatives of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
came to be used. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is normally written in the Devanagari
Devanagari
script but other scripts continue to be used.[4] It is today one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which mandates the Indian government to develop the language. It continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns and chants.

Contents

1 Name 2 Variants

2.1 Vedic Sanskrit 2.2 Classical Sanskrit

3 Contemporary usage

3.1 As a spoken language 3.2 In official use 3.3 Contemporary literature and patronage 3.4 In music 3.5 In mass media 3.6 In liturgy 3.7 Symbolic usage

4 Historical usage

4.1 Origin and development 4.2 Standardisation by Panini 4.3 Coexistence with vernacular languages 4.4 Decline

5 Public education and popularisation

5.1 Adult and continuing education 5.2 School curricula

5.2.1 In the West

5.3 Universities 5.4 European scholarship

5.4.1 British attitudes

6 Phonology 7 Writing system

7.1 Romanisation

8 Grammar 9 Influence on other languages

9.1 Indic languages 9.2 Interaction with other languages 9.3 In popular culture

10 See also 11 Further reading 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Name[edit]

Ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
on Hemp based Paper. Hemp Fiber was commonly used in the production of paper from 200 BCE to the Late 1800's.

The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- may be translated as "refined, elaborated".[14] As a term for refined or elaborated speech, the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in the Manusmṛti
Manusmṛti
and the Mahabharata.[citation needed] The language referred to as saṃskṛta was the cultured language used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, in contrast to the language spoken by the people, prākṛta- (prakrit) "original, natural, normal, artless".[14] Variants[edit] The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda
Rigveda
being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, dating back to the early second millennium BCE.[15][16] Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the fourth century BCE.[17] Its position in the cultures of Greater India
India
is akin to that of Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Nepal.[18][not in citation given] Vedic Sanskrit[edit]

Rigveda
Rigveda
(padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century

Main article: Vedic Sanskrit Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, evolved out of the earlier Vedic form. The present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium BCE (for Rig-vedic).[15] Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Pāṇinian" Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as separate dialects. Although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas) and theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda
Rigveda
Samhita
Samhita
to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period
Vedic period
is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the traditional Vedic corpus; however, the early Sutras are Vedic, too, both in language and content.[19] Classical Sanskrit[edit] For nearly 2,000 years, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was the language of a cultural order that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent East Asia.[20] A significant form of post- Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
of Indian epic poetry—the Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or innovations, and not because they are pre-Paninian.[21] Traditional Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholars call such deviations ārṣa (आर्ष), meaning 'of the ṛṣis', the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more "prakritisms" (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
proper. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by the Middle Indo-Aryan languages, based on early Buddhist Prakrit
Prakrit
texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
standard in varying degrees.[22] There were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit: paścimottarī (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western), madhyadeśī (lit., middle country), pūrvi (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three dialects are attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest (Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, 7.6).[23] Contemporary usage[edit] As a spoken language[edit] See also: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival In the 2001 Census of India, 14,135 Indians reported Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their first language.[2] Indian newspapers have published reports about several villages, where, as a result of recent revival attempts, large parts of the population, including children, are learning Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and are even using it to some extent in everyday communication:

Mattur, Shimoga district, Karnataka[24] Jhiri, Rajgarh district, Madhya Pradesh[25] Ganoda, Banswara district, Rajasthan[26] Shyamsundarpur, Kendujhar district, Odisha[27]

According to the 2011 national census of Nepal, 1,669 people use Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as their first language.[28] In official use[edit] In India, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is among the 22 languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. The state of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
in India
India
has ruled Sanskrit as its second official language. In October 2012 social activist Hemant Goswami
Hemant Goswami
filed a writ petition in the Punjab and Haryana
Haryana
High Court for declaring Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as a 'minority' language.[29][30][31] Contemporary literature and patronage[edit] See also: List of Sahitya Akademi
Sahitya Akademi
Award winners for Sanskrit More than 3,000 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
works have been composed since India's independence in 1947.[32] Much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature
Sanskrit literature
and modern literature in other Indian languages.[33][34] The Sahitya Akademi
Sahitya Akademi
has given an award for the best creative work in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
every year since 1967. In 2009, Satya Vrat Shastri
Satya Vrat Shastri
became the first Sanskrit
Sanskrit
author to win the Jnanpith Award, India's highest literary award.[35] In music[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is used extensively in the Carnatic and Hindustani branches of classical music. Kirtanas, bhajans, stotras, and shlokas of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
are popular throughout India. The samaveda uses musical notations in several of its recessions.[36] In Mainland China, musicians such as Sa Dingding
Sa Dingding
have written pop songs in Sanskrit.[37] In mass media[edit] Over 90 weeklies, fortnightlies and quarterlies are published in Sanskrit. Sudharma, a daily newspaper in Sanskrit, has been published out of Mysore, India, since 1970, while Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Vartman Patram and Vishwasya Vrittantam started in Gujarat during the last five years.[38] Since 1974, there has been a short daily news broadcast on state-run All India
India
Radio.[38] These broadcasts are also made available on the internet on AIR's website.[39][40] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
news is broadcast on TV and on the internet through the DD National channel at 6:55 AM IST.[41] In liturgy[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is the sacred language of various Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. It is used during worship in Hindu temples throughout the world. In Newar Buddhism, it is used in all monasteries, while Mahayana
Mahayana
and Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
religious texts and sutras are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as well as vernacular languages. Jain texts are written in Sanskrit,[42][43] including the Tattvartha sutra, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, the Bhaktamara Stotra
Stotra
and the Agamas.

Devi Mahatmya
Devi Mahatmya
palm-leaf manuscript in an early Bhujimol
Bhujimol
script in Nepal, 11th century

It is also popular amongst the many practitioners of yoga in the West, who find the language helpful for understanding texts such as the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.[citation needed] Symbolic usage[edit] See also: List of educational institutions which have Sanskrit
Sanskrit
phrases as their mottos and List of institutions which have Sanskrit
Sanskrit
phrases as their mottoes In Nepal, India
India
and Indonesia, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
phrases are widely used as mottoes for various national, educational and social organisations:

India: Satyameva Jayate
Satyameva Jayate
(सत्यमेव जयते) meaning: Truth alone triumphs.[44] Nepal: Janani Janmabhoomischa Swargadapi Gariyasi
Janani Janmabhoomischa Swargadapi Gariyasi
meaning: Mother and motherland are superior to heaven.[citation needed] Indonesia:[citation needed] In Indonesia, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
are usually widely used as terms and mottoes of the armed forces and other national organizations (See: Indonesian Armed Forces mottoes). Rastra Sewakottama (राष्ट्र सेवकोत्तम; People's Main Servants) is the official motto of the Indonesian National Police, Tri Dharma
Dharma
Eka Karma(त्रीधर्म एक कर्म) is the official motto of the Indonesian Military, Kartika Eka Paksi (कार्तिक एक पक्षी; Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals) is the official motto of the Indonesian Army, Adhitakarya Mahatvavirya Nagarabhakti (अधीतकार्य महत्ववीर्य नगरभक्ती; Hard-working Knights Serving Bravery as Nations Hero") is the official motto of the Indonesian Military Academy, Upakriya Labdha Prayojana Balottama (उपकृया लब्ध प्रयोजन बालोत्तम; "Purpose of The Unit is to Give The Best Service to The Nation by Finding The Perfect Soldier") is the official motto of the Army Psychological Corps, Karmanye Vadikaraste Mafalesu Kadachana (कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन; "Working Without Counting The Profit and Loss") is the official motto of the Air-Force Special
Special
Forces (Paskhas), Jalesu Bhumyamcha Jayamahe (जलेशु भूम्यं च जयमहे; "On The Sea and Land We Are Glorious") is the official motto of the Indonesian Marine Corps, and there are more units and organizations in Indonesia
Indonesia
either Armed Forces or civil which use the Sanskrit language
Sanskrit language
respectively as their mottoes and other purposes. Although Indonesia
Indonesia
is a Muslim-majority country, it still has major Hindu and Indian influence since pre-historic times until now culturally and traditionally especially in the islands of Java
Java
and Bali.

Many of India's and Nepal's scientific and administrative terms are named in Sanskrit. The Indian guided missile program that was commenced in 1983 by the Defence Research and Development Organisation has named the five missiles (ballistic and others) that it developed Prithvi, Agni, Akash, Nag and the Trishul missile system. India's first modern fighter aircraft is named HAL Tejas.[citation needed] Several nations in indosphere of greater India
India
have numerous loan Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words, such as in Filipino,[45] Cebuano,[46] Lao, Khmer[47] Thai and its alphabets, Malay, Indonesian (old Javanese-English dictionary by P.J. Zoetmulder
P.J. Zoetmulder
contains over 25,500 entries), and even in English. Historical usage[edit] Origin and development[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is a member of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. Its closest ancient relatives are the Iranian languages
Iranian languages
Avestan
Avestan
and Old Persian.[48][49] In order to explain the common features shared by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and other Indo-European languages, the Indo-Aryan migration theory
Indo-Aryan migration theory
states that the original speakers of what became Sanskrit
Sanskrit
arrived in the Indian subcontinent from the north-west some time during the early second millennium BCE. Evidence for such a theory includes the close relationship between the Indo-Iranian tongues and the Baltic and Slavic languages, vocabulary exchange with the non-Indo-European Uralic languages, and the nature of the attested Indo-European words for flora and fauna.[50] The earliest attested Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts are religious texts of the Rigveda, from the mid-to-late second millennium BCE. No written records from such an early period survive, if they ever existed. However, scholars are confident that the oral transmission of the texts is reliable: they were ceremonial literature whose correct pronunciation was considered crucial to its religious efficacy.[51] From the Rigveda
Rigveda
until the time of Pāṇini
Pāṇini
(fourth century BCE) the development of the early Vedic language can be observed in other Vedic texts: the Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, Brahmanas, and Upanishads. During this time, the prestige of the language, its use for sacred purposes, and the importance attached to its correct enunciation all served as powerful conservative forces resisting the normal processes of linguistic change.[52] However, there is a clear, five-level linguistic development of Vedic from the Rigveda
Rigveda
to the language of the Upanishads
Upanishads
and the earliest sutras such as the Baudhayana sutras.[19] Standardisation by Panini[edit] The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī ("Eight-Chapter Grammar"), written around the 6th-4th centuries BCE. It is essentially a prescriptive grammar, i.e., an authority that defines Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some Vedic forms that had become rare in Pāṇini's time. Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
became fixed with the grammar of Pāṇini
Pāṇini
(roughly 500 BCE), and remains in use as a learned language through the present day.[53][54] Coexistence with vernacular languages[edit] According to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
linguist Madhav Deshpande, when the term "Sanskrit" arose it was not considered a separate language, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking. Knowledge of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was a marker of social class and educational attainment in ancient India, and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes through the close analysis of Vyākaraṇins such as Pāṇini
Pāṇini
and Patanjali, who exhorted proper Sanskrit
Sanskrit
at all times, especially during ritual.[55] Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the vernacular Prakrits, which were Middle Indo-Aryan languages. However, linguistic change led to an eventual loss of mutual intelligibility. A rock inscription at Junagadh
Junagadh
added around 150 CE by Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I, the Saka
Saka
(Scythian) ruler of Malwa, has been described as "the earliest known Sanscrit inscription of any extent",[56] as the Ashokan and other early inscriptions were in Prakrit
Prakrit
of various forms. This "unexpected resurgence as a language of contemporary record" is a sign of a "brahminical renaissance", which continued through the Gupta period, expanding the usage of Sanscrit.[57] Many Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dramas indicate that the language coexisted with the vernacular Prakrits. In the medieval era, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
speakers were almost always multilingual and well-educated. They were often learned Brahmins using the language for scholarly communication, a thin layer of Indian society that covered a wide geographical area. Centres like Varanasi, Paithan, Pune
Pune
and Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
had a strong presence as teaching and debating institutions, and high classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was maintained until British times.[55] Decline[edit] There are a number of sociolinguistic studies of spoken Sanskrit
Sanskrit
which strongly suggest that oral use of modern Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is limited, having ceased development sometime in the past.[58] Sheldon Pollock argues that "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is dead".[20]:393 Pollock has further argued that, while Sanskrit
Sanskrit
continued to be used in literary cultures in India, it was never adapted to express the changing forms of subjectivity and sociality as embodied and conceptualised in the modern age.[20]:416 Instead, it was reduced to "reinscription and restatements" of ideas already explored, and any creativity was restricted to hymns and verses.[20]:398 A notable exception are the military references of Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara's 17th-century commentary on the Mahābhārata.[59] Hatcher argues that modern works continue to be produced in Sanskrit,[60] while according to Hanneder,

On a more public level the statement that Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is a dead language is misleading, for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is quite obviously not as dead as other dead languages and the fact that it is spoken, written and read will probably convince most people that it cannot be a dead language in the most common usage of the term. Pollock's notion of the "death of Sanskrit" remains in this unclear realm between academia and public opinion when he says that "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is dead." — Hanneder[61]

Hanneder has also argued that modern works in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
are either ignored or their "modernity" contested.[62] When the British imposed a Western-style education system in India
India
in the 19th century, knowledge of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and ancient literature continued to flourish as the study of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
changed from a more traditional style into a form of analytical and comparative scholarship mirroring that of Europe.[63] Public education and popularisation[edit] See also: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival Adult and continuing education[edit] Attempts at reviving the Sanskrit language
Sanskrit language
have been undertaken in the Republic of India
India
since its foundation in 1947 (it was included in the 14 original languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution).[citation needed] Samskrita Bharati
Samskrita Bharati
is an organisation working for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival. The "All- India
India
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Festival" (since 2002) holds composition contests. The 1991 Indian census reported 49,736 fluent speakers of Sanskrit. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
learning programmes also feature on the lists of most AIR broadcasting centres. The Mattur
Mattur
village in central Karnataka
Karnataka
claims to have native speakers of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
among its population.[64] Inhabitants of all castes learn Sanskrit
Sanskrit
starting in childhood and converse in the language.[65] Even the local Muslims converse in Sanskrit. Historically, the village was given by king Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
to Vedic scholars and their families, while people in his kingdom spoke Kannada
Kannada
and Telugu. Another effort concentrates on preserving and passing along the oral tradition of the Vedas, www.shrivedabharathi.in is one such organisation based out of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
that has been digitising the Vedas
Vedas
by recording recitations of Vedic Pandits.[66] Haryana
Haryana
state has over 24 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
colleges offering education equivalent to bachelors degree, additionally masters and doctoral level degrees are also offered by the Kurukshetra University
Kurukshetra University
and Maharshi Dayanand University.[67] School curricula[edit]

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India.

The Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education
of India
India
(CBSE), along with several other state education boards, has made Sanskrit
Sanskrit
an alternative option to the state's own official language as a second or third language choice in the schools it governs. In such schools, learning Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is an option for grades 5 to 8 (Classes V to VIII). This is true of most schools affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) board, especially in states where the official language is Hindi. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is also taught in traditional gurukulas throughout India.[68] In the West[edit] St James Junior School in London, England, offers Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as part of the curriculum.[69][70] In the United States, since September 2009, high school students have been able to receive credits as Independent Study or toward Foreign Language requirements by studying Sanskrit, as part of the "SAFL: Samskritam as a Foreign Language" program coordinated by Samskrita Bharati.[71] In Australia, the Sydney
Sydney
private boys' high school Sydney
Sydney
Grammar
Grammar
School offers Sanskrit
Sanskrit
from years 7 through to 12, including for the Higher School Certificate.[72] Universities[edit] A list of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
universities is given below in chronological order of establishment:

Year Est. Name Location

1791 Government Sanskrit
Sanskrit
College, Benares Varanasi

1821 Poona Sanskrit
Sanskrit
College Pune

1824 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
College, Calcutta Kolkata

1876 Sadvidya Pathashala Mysore

1915 Baroda Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Mahavidyalaya Vadodara

1961 Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga
Darbhanga
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University Darbhanga

1962 Rashtriya Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Vidyapeetha Tirupati

1962 Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Vidyapeetha New Delhi

1970 Rashtriya Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sansthan New Delhi

1981 Shri Jagannath Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University Puri

1986 Nepal
Nepal
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University Nepal

1993 Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit Kalady, Kerala

1997 Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University Ramtek

2001 Jagadguru Ramanandacharya Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University Jaipur

2005 Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University Haridwar

2005 Shree Somnath Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University Somnath-Veraval

2008 Maharshi Panini Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Evam Vedic Vishwavidyalaya Ujjain

2011 Karnataka
Karnataka
Samskrit University Bangalore

Many universities throughout the world train and employ Sanskrit scholars, either within a separate Sanskrit
Sanskrit
department or as part of a broader focus area, such as South Asian studies or Linguistics. For example, Delhi university has about 400 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
students, about half of which are in post-graduate programmes.[38] European scholarship[edit] See also: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
studies

A poem by the ancient Indian poet Vallana (ca. 900 – 1100 CE) on the side wall of a building at Haagweg 14 in Leiden, Netherlands

European scholarship in Sanskrit, begun by Heinrich Roth (1620–1668) and Johann Ernst Hanxleden
Johann Ernst Hanxleden
(1681–1731), is considered responsible for the discovery of an Indo-European language family by Sir William Jones (1746–1794). This research played an important role in the development of Western philology, or historical linguistics.[73] Sir William Jones was one of the most influential philologists of his time. He told The Asiatic Society
The Asiatic Society
in Calcutta on 2 February 1786:

The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.[74]

British attitudes[edit] Orientalist scholars of the 18th century like Sir William Jones marked a wave of enthusiasm for Indian culture and for Sanskrit. According to Thomas Trautmann, after this period of "Indomania", a certain hostility to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and to Indian culture in general began to assert itself in early 19th century Britain, manifested by a neglect of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in British academia. This was the beginning of a general push in favour of the idea that India
India
should be culturally, religiously and linguistically assimilated to Britain as far as possible. Trautmann considers two separate and logically opposite sources for the growing hostility: one was "British Indophobia", which he calls essentially a developmentalist, progressivist, liberal, and non-racial-essentialist critique of Hindu civilisation as an aid for the improvement of India along European lines; the other was scientific racism, a theory of the English "common-sense view" that Indians constituted a "separate, inferior and unimprovable race".[75] Phonology[edit]

This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2016)

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

(Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Further information: Shiksha
Shiksha
and Help:IPA/Sanskrit See also: Sanskrit grammar § Phonology, and Vedic Sanskrit grammar § Phonology Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
distinguishes about 36 phonemes; the presence of allophony leads the writing systems to generally distinguish 48 phones, or sounds. The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels (Ac), diphthongs (Hal), anusvara and visarga, plosives (Sparśa), nasals, and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration
International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration
(IAST) as follows: Vowels:

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ; e ai o au; ṃ ḥ

Consonants:

k kh g gh ṅ c ch j jh ñ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ t th d dh n p ph b bh m y r l v ś ṣ s h

vedic sanskrit consonants

Labial Dental/ Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ

Plosive/ Affricate voiceless p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

voiceless aspirated pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

voiced b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

voiced aspirated bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

Fricative voiceless

s (ʂ) ʃ (x) h

voiced

ɦ

Flap plain

ɾ (ɽ)

voiced aspirated

(ɽʱ)

Approximant ʋ l

j

Writing system[edit]

Kashmir Shaiva manuscript in the Śāradā script
Śāradā script
(c. 17th century)

This article is about how Sanskrit
Sanskrit
came to be written using various systems. For details of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as written, using specifically Devanāgarī script, see Devanagari. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
originated in an oral society, and the oral tradition was maintained through the development of early classical Sanskrit literature.[76] Some scholars such as Jack Goody suggest that the Vedic Sanskrit texts are not the product of an oral society, basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek, Serbian and other cultures, then noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down.[77] These scholars add that the Vedic texts likely involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it "parallel products of a literate society".[77][78] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has no native script of its own, and historical evidence suggests that it has been written in various scripts on a variety of media such as palm leaves, cloth, paper, rock and metal sheets, at least by the time of arrival of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in northwestern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in 1st millennium BCE.[79]

Illustration of Devanagari
Devanagari
as used for writing Sanskrit

The earliest known rock inscriptions in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
date to the first century BCE,[80] and the Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription of Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(c. 150 AD) "represents a turning point" as it is a more "extensive record in the poetic style" of "high Classical Sanskrit".[81] They are in the Brāhmī script, which was originally used for Prakrit, not Sanskrit. It has been described as a paradox that the first evidence of written Sanskrit
Sanskrit
occurs centuries later than that of the Prakrit
Prakrit
languages which are its linguistic descendants.[76] In northern India, there are Brāhmī inscriptions dating from the third century BCE onwards, the oldest appearing on the famous Prakrit
Prakrit
pillar inscriptions of king Ashoka. The earliest South Indian inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi, written in early Tamil, belong to the same period. When Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was written down, it was first used for texts of an administrative, literary or scientific nature. The sacred hymns and verse were preserved orally, and were set down in writing "reluctantly" (according to one commentator), and at a comparatively late date.[82][83]

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)

Brahmi evolved into a multiplicity of Brahmic scripts, many of which were used to write Sanskrit. Roughly contemporary with the Brahmi, Kharosthi
Kharosthi
was used in the northwest of the subcontinent. Sometime between the fourth and eighth centuries, the Gupta script, derived from Brahmi, became prevalent. Around the eighth century, the Śāradā script
Śāradā script
evolved out of the Gupta script. The latter was displaced in its turn by Devanagari
Devanagari
in the 11th or 12th century, with intermediary stages such as the Siddhaṃ script. In East India, the Bengali alphabet, and, later, the Odia alphabet, were used. In the south, where Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
predominate, scripts used for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
include the Kannada, Telugu, the Malayalam
Malayalam
and Grantha alphabets.[84][85] Romanisation[edit] Main articles: Devanagari
Devanagari
transliteration and International Alphabet of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has been transliterated using the Latin
Latin
alphabet. The system most commonly used today is the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration), which has been the academic standard since 1888. ASCII-based transliteration schemes have also evolved because of difficulties representing Sanskrit characters in computer systems. These include Harvard-Kyoto and ITRANS, a transliteration scheme that is used widely on the Internet, especially in Usenet and in email, for considerations of speed of entry as well as rendering issues. With the wide availability of Unicode-aware web browsers, IAST
IAST
has become common online. It is also possible to type using an alphanumeric keyboard and transliterate to Devanagari
Devanagari
using software like Mac OS X's international support. European scholars in the 19th century generally preferred Devanagari for the transcription and reproduction of whole texts and lengthy excerpts. However, references to individual words and names in texts composed in European Languages were usually represented with Roman transliteration. From the 20th century onwards, because of production costs, textual editions edited by Western scholars have mostly been in Romanised
Romanised
transliteration.[86] Grammar[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2016)

Main article: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar See also: Vedic Sanskrit grammar The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammatical tradition, Vyākaraṇa, one of the six Vedangas, began in the late Vedic period
Vedic period
and culminated in the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, which consists of 3990 sutras (ca. fifth century BCE). About a century after Pāṇini
Pāṇini
(around 400 BCE), Kātyāyana composed Vārtikas on the Pāṇini
Pāṇini
sũtras. Patanjali, who lived three centuries after Pāṇini, wrote the Mahābhāṣya, the "Great Commentary" on the Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vārtikas. Because of these three ancient Vyākaraṇins (grammarians), this grammar is called Trimuni Vyākarana. To understand the meaning of the sutras, Jayaditya and Vāmana wrote a commentary, the Kāsikā, in 600 CE. Pāṇinian grammar is based on 14 Shiva
Shiva
sutras (aphorisms), where the whole mātrika (alphabet) is abbreviated. This abbreviation is called the Pratyāhara.[87] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
verbs are categorized into ten classes, which can be conjugated to form the present, imperfect, imperative, optative, perfect, aorist, future, and conditional moods and tenses. Before Classical Sanskrit, older forms also included a subjunctive mood. Each conjugational ending conveys person, number, and voice.[citation needed] Nouns are highly inflected, including three grammatical genders, three numbers, and eight cases. Nominal compounds are common, and can include over 10 word stems.[citation needed] Word order is free, though there is a strong tendency toward subject–object–verb, the original system of Vedic prose.[citation needed] Influence on other languages[edit] Indic languages[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has greatly influenced the languages of India
India
that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base; for instance, Hindi
Hindi
is a "Sanskritised register" of the Khariboli dialect. All modern Indo-Aryan languages, as well as Munda and Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
except (Tamil language), have borrowed many words either directly from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(tatsama words), or indirectly via middle Indo-Aryan languages (tadbhava words). Words originating in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
are estimated at roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo-Aryan languages, as well as the literary forms of Malayalam
Malayalam
and Kannada.[18] Literary texts in Telugu are lexically Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Sanskritised to an enormous extent, perhaps seventy percent or more.[88] Marathi is another prominent language in Western India, that derives most of its words and Marathi grammar from Sanskrit.[89] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words are often preferred in the literary texts in Marathi over corresponding colloquial Marathi word.[90] Interaction with other languages[edit]

A text in Tibetan script
Tibetan script
suspected to be Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in content. From the personal artifact collection of Donald Weir.

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has also influenced Sino-Tibetan languages, mostly through translations of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. Many terms were transliterated directly and added to the Chinese vocabulary. Chinese words like 剎那 chànà (Devanagari: क्षण kṣaṇa 'instantaneous period') were borrowed from Sanskrit. Many Sanskrit texts survive only in Tibetan collections of commentaries to the Buddhist teachings, the Tengyur.[91] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was a language for religious purposes and for the political elite in parts of medieval era Southeast Asia, Central Asia
Central Asia
and East Asia.[7] In Southeast Asia, languages such as Thai and Lao contain many loanwords from Sanskrit, as do Khmer. For example, in Thai, Ravana, the emperor of Lanka, is called Thosakanth, a derivation of his Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name Dāśakaṇṭha "having ten necks".[citation needed] Many Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords are also found in Austronesian languages, such as Javanese, particularly the older form in which nearly half the vocabulary is borrowed.[92] Other Austronesian languages, such as traditional Malay and modern Indonesian, also derive much of their vocabulary from Sanskrit. Similarly, Philippine languages
Philippine languages
such as Tagalog have some Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords, although more are derived from Spanish. A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword encountered in many Southeast Asian languages is the word bhāṣā, or spoken language, which is used to refer to the names of many languages.[93] English also has words of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
origin. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has also influenced the religious register of Japanese mostly through transliterations.These were borrowed from Chinese transliterations.[94] In popular culture[edit] Satyagraha, an opera by Philip Glass, uses texts from the Bhagavad Gita, sung in Sanskrit.[95][96] The closing credits of The Matrix Revolutions has a prayer from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The song "Cyber-raga" from Madonna's album Music includes Sanskrit
Sanskrit
chants,[97] and Shanti/Ashtangi from her 1998 album Ray of Light, which won a Grammy, is the ashtanga vinyasa yoga chant.[98] The lyrics include the mantra Om shanti.[99] Composer John Williams
John Williams
featured choirs singing in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
and in Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace.[100][101][better source needed] The theme song of Battlestar Galactica 2004 is the Gayatri Mantra, taken from the Rigveda.[102] The lyrics of "The Child In Us" by Enigma also contains Sanskrit
Sanskrit
verses.[103][better source needed] See also[edit]

Devanagari Bengali alphabet Sanskrit
Sanskrit
numerals Mattur
Mattur
India′s Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Village

Further reading[edit]

Maurer, Walter (2001). The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language: an introductory grammar and reader. Surrey, England: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1382-4.  Malhotra, Rajiv (2016). The Battle for Sanskrit: Is Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Political or Sacred, Oppressive or Liberating, Dead or Alive?. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-9351775386. 

Notes[edit]

^ The exact pronunciation in Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is unknown. For alternative pronunciations of ṃ, see Anusvara § Sanskrit

References[edit]

^ Uta Reinöhl (2016). Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan. Oxford University Press. pp. xiv, 1–16. ISBN 978-0-19-873666-0.  ^ a b "Comparative speaker's strength of scheduled languages − 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Census of India, 2001. Office of the Registrar and Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009.  ^ http://cbs.gov.np/image/data/Population/Population%20Monograph%20of%20Nepal%202014/Population%20Monograph%20V02.pdf ^ a b "http://aboutworldlanguages.com/sanskrit" ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sanskrit". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Damien Keown; Charles S. Prebish (2013). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Taylor & Francis. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-136-98595-9. ; Quote: " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
served as the lingua franca of ancient India, just as Latin
Latin
did in medieval Europe" ^ a b Michael C. Howard (2012). Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel. McFarland. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7864-9033-2. , Quote: " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was another important lingua franca in the ancient world that was widely used in South Asia
South Asia
and in the context of Hindu and Buddhist religions in neighboring areas as well. (...) The spread of South Asian cultural influence to Southeast Asia, Central Asia
Central Asia
and East Asia
East Asia
meant that Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was also used in these areas, especially in a religious context and political elites." ^ Pollock, Sheldon (2006), The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India, University of California Press, p. 14, ISBN 978-0-520-24500-6 , Quote: "Once Sanskrit
Sanskrit
emerged from the sacerdotal environment ... it became the sole medium by which ruling elites expressed their power ... Sanskrit
Sanskrit
probably never functioned as an everyday medium of communication anywhere in the cosmopolis—not in South Asia
South Asia
itself, let alone Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
... The work Sanskrit
Sanskrit
did do ... was directed above all toward articulating a form of ... politics ... as celebration of aesthetic power." ^ https://www.myindiamyglory.com/2017/03/17/vedic-hindu-roots-burma-sanskrit-pali-court-languages/ ^ Burrow, T. (2001). The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Language. Faber: Chicago p. v & ch. 1 ^ Benware, Wilbur (1974). The Study of Indo-European Vocalism in the 19th Century: From the Beginnings to Whitney and Scherer: A Critical-Historical Account. Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-90-272-0894-1.  ^ Staal, Frits (1986), The Fidelity of Oral Tradition and the Origins of Science, Mededelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie von Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterkunde, NS 49, 8. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company, 40 pages . ^ Filliozat, Pierre-Sylvain (2004), "Ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Mathematics: An Oral Tradition and a Written Literature", in Chemla, Karine; Cohen, Robert S.; Renn, Jürgen; et al., History of Science, History of Text (Boston Series in the Philosophy of Science), Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 254 pages, pp. 137–157, pp. 360–375, ISBN 978-1-4020-2320-0  ^ a b Southworth, Franklin (2004), Linguistic Archaeology of South Asia, Routledge, p. 45, ISBN 978-1-134-31777-6  ^ a b Nedi︠a︡lkov, V. P. (2007). Reciprocal constructions. Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 710. ISBN 978-90-272-2983-0.  ^ MacDonell, Arthur (2004). A History Of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Literature (in Norwegian). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-0619-2.  ^ Houben, Jan (1996). Ideology and status of Sanskrit: contributions to the history of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Leiden New York: E.J. Brill. p. 11. ISBN 90-04-10613-8.  ^ a b Staal, J. F. (1963). " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Sanskritization". The Journal of Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 22 (3): 261. doi:10.2307/2050186. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ a b Witzel, M (1997). Inside the texts, beyond the texts: New approaches to the study of the Vedas
Vedas
(PDF). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Retrieved 28 October 2014.  ^ a b c d Pollock, Sheldon (2001). "The Death of Sanskrit". Comparative Studies in Society and History. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 43 (2): 392–426. doi:10.1017/s001041750100353x. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ Oberlies, Thomas (2003). A Grammar
Grammar
of Epic Sanskrit. Berlin New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. xxvii–xxix. ISBN 3-11-014448-4.  ^ Edgerton, Franklin (2004). Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-215-1110-0.  ^ Tiwari, Bholanath (1955), भाषा विज्ञान (Bhasha Vijnan) [full citation needed] ^ "This village speaks gods language – India
India
– The Times of India". The Times of India. 13 August 2005. Retrieved 2012-04-05.  ^ Ghosh, Aditya (20 September 2008). " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
boulevard". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2012-04-05.  ^ Bhaskar, B.V.S. (31 July 2009). "Mark of Sanskrit". The Hindu.  ^ "Orissa's Sasana village – home to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pundits! !". The India
India
Post. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-05.  ^ National Population and Housing Census 2011 (PDF) (Report). 1. Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal. November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2013.  ^ " Writ Petition on Sanskrit". JD Supra. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-10.  ^ "PIL seeks minority status for Sanskrit". The Financial World. 15 October 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ "Mother language 'Sanskrit' needs urgent protection". GoI Monitor. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-10.  ^ Prajapati, Manibhai (2005). Post-independence Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature: a critical survey (1 ed.). New Delhi: Standard publishers India.  ^ Ranganath, S (2009). Modern Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Writings in Karnataka
Karnataka
(PDF) (1st ed.). New Delhi: Rashtriya Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sansthan. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-86111-21-5. Retrieved 28 October 2014. :

Contrary to popular belief, there is an astonishing quality of creative upsurge of writing in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
today. Modern Sanskrit
Sanskrit
writing is qualitatively of such high order that it can easily be treated on par with the best of Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature, It can also easily compete with the writings in other Indian languages.

^ "Adhunika Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sahitya Pustakalaya". Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. Retrieved 28 October 2014. :

The latter half of the nineteenth century marks the beginning of a new era in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature. Many of the modern Sanskrit
Sanskrit
writings are qualitatively of such high order that they can easily be treated at par with the best of classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
works, and they can also be judged in contrast to the contemporary literature in other languages.

^ "Sanskrit's first Jnanpith winner is a 'poet by instinct'". The Indian Express. 14 Jan 2009.  ^ "Samveda". Retrieved May 5, 2015.  ^ "Awards for World Music 2008". BBC.  ^ a b c Mayank Austen Soofi (23 November 2012). "Delhi's Belly Sanskrit-vanskrit". Livemint. Retrieved 2012-12-06.  ^ "News on Air". News On Air. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-06.  ^ "News archive search". Newsonair. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-06.  ^ "Doordarshan News Live webcast". Webcast.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-12-06.  ^ "Is Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(In)dispensable for Hindu Liturgy?". The Huffington Post.  ^ Vaishna Roy. " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
deserves more than slogans". The Hindu.  ^ Upadhyay, Pankaj; Jaiswal, Umesh Chandra; Ashish, Kumar (2014). "TranSish: Translator from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to English-A Rule based Machine Translation". International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology E-ISSN: 2277–4106.  ^ Haspelmath, Martin. Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 3110218437.  ^ Jose G. Kuizon (1964). "The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Loan-words in the Cebuano-Bisayan Language". Asian Folklore Studies. 23 (1): 111–158. doi:10.2307/1177640. JSTOR 1177640.  ^ Sak-Humphry, Channy. The Syntax of Nouns and Noun Phrases in Dated Pre-Angkorian Inscriptions. Mon Khmer Studies 22: 1–26. ^ Levin, Saul. Semitic and Indo-European, Volume 2. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 431.  ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton. The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Psychology Press. p. 208.  ^ Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
(PDF). Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 36–38. ISBN 0-521-23420-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2014.  ^ Michael Meier-Brügger (2003). Indo-European Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-11-017433-5.  ^ A. Berriedale Keith (1993). A history of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-208-1100-3.  ^ Anupama Raju. "A man of languages". The Hindu.  ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 2, page 263 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
-- Digital South Asia
South Asia
Library". uchicago.edu.  ^ a b Deshpande, Madhav (2011), "Efforts to Vernacularize Sanskrit: Degree of Success and Failure", in Joshua Fishman, Ofelia Garcia, Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, 2, Oxford University Press, p. 218, ISBN 978-0-19-983799-1 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Meaning, that is not very short. Quoted from D.D. Kosambi in Keay, John, India, a History, p. 132, 2000, HarperCollins, ISBN 0002557177 ^ Keay, John, India, a History, p. 132, 2000, HarperCollins, ISBN 0002557177 ^ Hock, Hans Henrich (1983). Kachru, Braj B, ed. "Language-death phenomena in Sanskrit: grammatical evidence for attrition in contemporary spoken Sanskrit". Studies in the linguistic Sciences. Illinois Working Papers. 13:2.  ^ Minkowski, Christopher (2004). "Nilakantha's instruments of war:Modern, vernacular, barbarous". The Indian Economic and Social History Review. SAGE. 41 (4): 365–385. doi:10.1177/001946460404100402. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ Hatcher, B. A. (2007). " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and the morning after: The metaphorics and theory of intellectual change". Indian Economic. SAGE. 44 (3): 333–361. doi:10.1177/001946460704400303. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ Hanneder, J. (2002). "On "The Death of Sanskrit"". Indo-Iranian Journal. Brill Academic Publishers. 45 (4): 293–310. doi:10.1023/a:1021366131934. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ Hanneder, J. (2009), "Modernes Sanskrit: eine vergessene Literatur", in Straube, Martin; Steiner, Roland; Soni, Jayandra; Hahn, Michael; Demoto, Mitsuyo, Pāsādikadānaṃ: Festschrift für Bhikkhu Pāsādika, Indica et Tibetica Verlag, pp. 205–228  ^ Seth, Sanjay (2007). Subject lessons: the Western education of colonial India. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-0-8223-4105-5.  ^ "Karnataka's Mattur: A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
speaking village with almost one IT professional per family".  ^ Viswanathan, Trichur. S. (4 April 2013). "Tale of two villages". The Hindu.  ^ Pragna, Volume 8. Pragna Bharati.  ^ Prof. B. B. Chaubey. " Haryana
Haryana
in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Studies in India" (PDF). www.sanskrit.nic.in. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ "In 2013, UPA to CBSE: Make Sanskrit
Sanskrit
a must". The Indian Express. 4 December 2014.  ^ " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
thriving in UK schools". NDTV.com. 28 June 2010.  ^ " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
@ St James". Sanskrit
Sanskrit
@ St James. Retrieved 8 October 2017.  ^ Varija Yelagalawadi. "Why SAFL?". Samskrita Bharati
Samskrita Bharati
USA. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015.  ^ Sydney
Sydney
Grammar
Grammar
School. "Headmaster's Introduction". Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.  ^ Friedrich Max Müller (1859). A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature So Far as it Illustrates the Primitive Religion of the Brahmans. Williams and Norgate. p. 1.  ^ Vasunia, Phiroze (2013). The Classics and Colonial India. Oxford University Press. p. 17.  ^ Thomas R. Trautmann (2004). Aryans and British India. Yoda Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-81-902272-1-6. Retrieved 4 March 2012.  ^ a b Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian Epigraphy a Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 7, 86. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.  ^ a b Jack Goody (1987). The Interface Between the Written and the Oral. Cambridge University Press. pp. 110–121. ISBN 978-0-521-33794-6.  ^ Donald S. Lopez Jr. (1995). "Authority and Orality in the Mahāyāna". Numen. Brill Academic. 42 (1): 21–47. JSTOR 3270278.  ^ Banerji, Sures (1989). A companion to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature: spanning a period of over three thousand years, containing brief accounts of authors, works, characters, technical terms, geographical names, myths, legends, and several appendices. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 672 with footnotes. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2.  ^ The Ayodhyā and Hāthībādā-Ghosuṇḍī (near Chittorgarh) stone inscriptions: Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.  ^ Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.  ^ Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.  ^ Mahadevan, Iravatham (2003). Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D. Chennai, India
India
Cambridge, MA Cambridge, Mass. London, England: Cre-A Dept. of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Indian Studies, Harvard University Distributed by Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01227-1.  ^ "Tamil Brahmi script
Brahmi script
in Egypt". The Hindu. 21 November 2007.  ^ "Harappan people used an older form of Brahmi script: Expert". The Times of India.  ^ "Modern Transcription of Sanskrit". autodidactus.org.  ^ Abhyankar, Kashinath (1986). A Dictionary of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Grammar
Grammar
(PDF). Baroda: Maharaja Sayajirao University.  ^ Rao, Velcheru (2002). Classical Telugu poetry an anthology. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-520-22598-5.  ^ Sugam Marathi Vyakaran & Lekhana. 2007. Nitin publications. Author: M.R.Walimbe ^ Carey, William (1805). A Grammar
Grammar
of the Marathi Language. Serampur [sic]: Serampore Mission Press. ISBN 9781108056311. ^ Gulik, R. H. (2001). Siddham: an essay on the history of Sanskrit studies in China and Japan. New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan. pp. 5–133. ISBN 978-81-7742-038-8.  ^ Zoetmulder, P. J. (1982). Old Javanese-English Dictionary.  ^ Joshi, Manoj. Passport India
India
3rd Ed., eBook. World Trade Press. p. 15.  ^ " Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Personal Names and their Japanese Equivalents" Archived 30 March 2015 at WebCite ^ Vibhuti Patel (18 December 2011). "Gandhi as operatic hero". The Hindu.  ^ Rahim, Sameer (4 December 2013). "The opera novice: Satyagraha by Philip Glass". Telegraph. london.  ^ Morgan, Les (2011). Croaking frogs: a guide to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
metrics and figures of speech. Los Angeles: Mahodara Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4637-2562-4.  ^ Doval, Nikita (24 June 2013). "Classic conversations". The Week. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014.  ^ " Yoga
Yoga
and Music". Yoga
Yoga
Journal.  ^ " Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
(John Williams)". Filmtracks. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 2012-04-05.  ^ "Episode I FAQ". Star Wars
Star Wars
Faq. Archived from the original on 11 October 2003.  ^ "Battlestar Galactica (TV Series 2004–2009)". IMDb.  ^ "The Child In Us Lyrics – Enigma". Lyricsfreak.com. Retrieved 2013-01-27. 

External links[edit]

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
edition of, the free encyclopedia

For a list of words relating to Sanskrit, see the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Find more aboutSanskritat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Lessons (free online from the Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin) Samskrita Bharati, organisation supporting the usage of Sanskrit Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Documents—Documents in ITX format of Upanishads, Stotras etc. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts at Sacred Text Archive Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Manuscripts in Cambridge Digital Library

v t e

Sanskrit

Grammar

Vedic

Drama Epics Literature Poetry Prosody Sanskrit Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Wikisource

Literature

Vedic Sanskrit Vyākaraṇa Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit List of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poets

Categories

Literature Writers plays Poetry Operas Dictionaries Encyclopedias

v t e

Old and Middle Indo-Aryan languages

Old

Mitanni-Aryan Vedic Sanskrit Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

Middle

Abahattha Apabhraṃśa Dramatic Prakrits

Ardhamagadhi Maharashtri Shauraseni

Elu Gāndhārī Kamarupi Magadhi Paishachi Pāli Prakrit

See also

Proto-Indo-Iranian Indo-Iranian languages Modern Indo-Aryan languages

v t e

Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

v t e

Major languages of South Asia

Main articles

Languages of India

list by number of speakers scheduled

Languages of Pakistan Languages of Bangladesh Languages of Bhutan Languages of the Maldives Languages of Nepal Languages of Sri Lanka

Contemporary languages

Austronesian

Sri Lankan Creole Malay

Dravidian

Brahui Jeseri Kannada Malayalam Tamil Telugu Tulu

Indo-Aryan

Angika Assamese Bhojpuri Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Dhivehi Dogri Gujarati Hindi Hindko Kashmiri Konkani Kumaoni Magahi Mahal Maithili Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Saraiki Sindhi Sinhala Sylheti Rajasthani language Urdu

Iranian

Balochi Pashto Wakhi

Isolates

Great Andamanese Burushaski Nihali Kusunda

Mon–Khmer

Khasi Nicobarese

Munda

Ho Korku Mundari Santali Sora

Ongan

Önge Jarawa

Tibeto-Burman

Ao Bodo Dzongkha Garo Meithei Mizo Nepal
Nepal
Bhasa Sikkimese Tenyidie Tibetan Tripuri

European influence

English

Indian English Pakistani English Sri Lankan English

French Portuguese

Scripts

Historical

Indus (Undeciphered) Brahmi (Abugida) Kharosthi

Brahmic

Devanagari Bengali Gujarati Gurmukhī Malayalam Kannada Odia Ranjana Sinhala Tamil Telugu

European

Latin
Latin
alphabet

Arabic

Arwi Nastaʿlīq Shahmukhi Arabi Malayalam

Language activism

Hela Havula Bengali Language Movement Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival Pure Tamil movement Nepal
Nepal
Bhasa movement Punjabi Language Movement Urdu
Urdu
movement

Authority control

GND: 40516

.