SANITATION refers to public health conditions related to clean
drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta
and sewage . Preventing human contact with feces is part of
sanitation, as is hand washing with soap.
A range of sanitation technologies and approaches exists. Some examples are community-led total sanitation , container-based sanitation , ecological sanitation , emergency sanitation , environmental sanitation, onsite sanitation and sustainable sanitation . A sanitation system includes the capture, storage, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta and wastewater . Reuse activities within the sanitation system may focus on the nutrients, water, energy or organic matter contained in excreta and wastewater. This is referred to as the "sanitation value chain" or "sanitation economy".
Several sanitation "levels" are being used to compare sanitation service levels within countries or across countries. The sanitation ladder defined by the Joint Monitoring Programme in 2016 starts at open defecation and moves upwards using the terms "unimproved", "limited", "basic", with the highest level being "safely managed ". This is partiularly applicable to developing countries .
The Human Right to Water and
* 1 Definition * 2 Purposes
* 3 Types and terms
* 3.1 Basic sanitation * 3.2 Container-based sanitation * 3.3 Community-led total sanitation * 3.4 Dry sanitation * 3.5 Ecological sanitation * 3.6 Emergency sanitation * 3.7 Environmental sanitation * 3.8 Improved and unimproved sanitation * 3.9 Lack of sanitation * 3.10 Onsite sanitation * 3.11 Safely managed sanitation * 3.12 Sustainable sanitation * 3.13 Other
* 4 Health aspects
* 5 Environmental aspects
* 6 Other industries
* 6.1 Food industry
* 7.1 Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (from 2016 onwards)
* 7.1.1 Millennium Development Goal Number 7 until 2015
* 7.2 Economic benefits * 7.3 Various initiatives
* 8 History * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links
Play media Animated video to underline the importance of sanitation (here with a focus on toilets ) on public health in developing countries
World Health Organization
There are some variations on the use of the term "sanitation" between
countries. For example, hygiene promotion is seen by some as an
integral part of sanitation. For this reason, the Water Supply and
Despite the fact that sanitation includes wastewater treatment, the two terms are often used side by side as "sanitation and wastewater management".
The overall purposes of sanitation are to provide a healthy living environment for everyone, to protect the natural resources (such as surface water , groundwater , soil ), and to provide safety, security and dignity for people when they defecate or urinate .
We also have a human right to sanitation : In September, 2010, the UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution recognizing that the human right to water and sanitation are a part of the right to an adequate standard of living.
Effective sanitation systems provide barriers between excreta and humans in such a way as to break the disease transmission cycle (for example in the case of fecal-borne diseases). This aspect is visualised with the F-diagram where all major routes of fecal-oral disease transmission begin with the letter F: feces, fingers, flies, fields, fluids, food.
One of the main challenges is to provide sustainable sanitation ,
especially in developing countries . Maintaining and sustaining
sanitation has aspects that are technological, institutional and
social in nature.
Providing sanitation to people requires attention to the entire system, not just focusing on technical aspects such as the toilet , fecal sludge management or the wastewater treatment plant. The "sanitation chain" involves the experience of the user, excreta and wastewater collection methods, transporting and treatment of waste, and reuse or disposal. All need to be thoroughly considered.
TYPES AND TERMS
Percentage of population served by different types of sanitation
systems Example of sanitation infrastructure: Shower,
double-vault urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) and waterless urinal in
The term sanitation is connected with various descriptors or adjectives to signify certain types of sanitation systems (which may deal only with human excreta management or with the entire sanitation system, i.e. also greywater, stormwater and solid waste management) - in alphabetical order:
In 2017, JMP defined a new term: "basic sanitation service". This is defined as the use of improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households. A lower level of service is now called "limited sanitation service" which refers to use of improved sanitation facilities that are shared between two or more households.
Main article: Container-based sanitation
Container-based sanitation (CBS) refers to a sanitation system where human excreta is collected in sealable, removable containers (or cartridges) that are transported to treatment facilities. Container-based sanitation is usually provided as a service involving provision of certain types of portable toilets , and collection of excreta at a cost borne by the users. With suitable development, support and functioning partnerships, CBS can be used to provide low-income urban populations with safe collection, transport and treatment of excrement at a lower cost than installing and maintaining sewers . In most cases, CBS is based on the use of urine-diverting dry toilets .
COMMUNITY-LED TOTAL SANITATION
Main article: Community-led total sanitation
The term "dry sanitation" is not in widespread use and is not very well defined. It usually refers to a system that uses a type of dry toilet and no sewers to transport excreta. Often when people speak of "dry sanitation" they mean a sanitation system that uses urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDTs).
Main article: Ecological sanitation
Ecological sanitation , which is commonly abbreviated to ecosan, is an approach, rather than a technology or a device which is characterized by a desire to "close the loop" (mainly for the nutrients and organic matter) between sanitation and agriculture in a safe manner. Put in other words: "Ecosan systems safely recycle excreta resources (plant nutrients and organic matter) to crop production in such a way that the use of non-renewable resources is minimised". When properly designed and operated, ecosan systems provide a hygienically safe, economical, and closed-loop system to convert human excreta into nutrients to be returned to the soil, and water to be returned to the land. Ecosan is also called resource-oriented sanitation. Emergency pit lining kits by Evenproducts
Main article: Emergency sanitation
Emergency sanitation is required in situations including natural disasters and relief for refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). There are three phases: Immediate, short term and long term. In the immediate phase, the focus is on managing open defecation , and toilet technologies might include very basic latrines , pit latrines , bucket toilets, container-based toilets , chemical toilets . The short term phase might also involve technologies such as urine-diverting dry toilets , septic tanks , decentralized wastewater systems . Providing handwashing facilities and management of fecal sludge are also part of emergency sanitation. The Sphere Project handbook provides protection principles and core standards for sanitation to put in place after a disaster or conflict.
Environmental sanitation encompasses the control of environmental factors that are connected to disease transmission . Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.
IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED SANITATION
Main article: Improved sanitation
Improved sanitation and unimproved sanitation refers to the
management of human feces at the household level. This terminology is
the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium
Development Goal on sanitation, by the
LACK OF SANITATION
Lack of sanitation refers to the absence of sanitation. In practical terms it usually means lack of toilets or lack of hygienic toilets that anybody would want to use voluntarily. The result of lack of sanitation is usually open defecation (and open urination but this is of less concern) with associated serious public health issues. It is estimated that 2.4 billion people still lacked improved sanitation facilities as of 2015.
Onsite sanitation (or on-site sanitation) is defined as a sanitation system in which excreta and wastewater are collected, stored or treated at the same location (or on the same plot) where they are generated. Examples are pit latrines and septic tanks . On-site sanitation systems are often connected to fecal sludge management systems where the fecal sludge that is generated onsite is treated as an offsite location. A related term is a decentralized wastewater system which refers in particular to the wastewater part of on-site sanitation. Similarly, an onsite sewage facility can treat the wastewater generated locally.
SAFELY MANAGED SANITATION
A relatively high level of sanitation service is now called "safely managed sanitation" by the JMP definition. This is basic sanitation service where in addition excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite.
Main article: Sustainable sanitation
Sustainable sanitation considers the entire "sanitation value chain", from the experience of the user, excreta and wastewater collection methods, transportation or conveyance of waste, treatment, and reuse or disposal. The term is widely used since about 2009. In 2007 the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance defined five sustainability criteria to compare the sustainability of sanitation systems. In order to be sustainable, a sanitation system has to be economically viable, socially acceptable, technically and institutionally appropriate, and it should also protect the environment and the natural resources.
Other terms used to describe certain types of sanitation include:
* Community-based sanitation (often related to decentralized wastewater treatment or DEWATS)
The "F-diagram" (feces , fingers, flies, fields, fluids, food), showing pathways of fecal-oral disease transmission . The vertical blue lines show barriers: toilets , safe water , hygiene and handwashing . Further information: Child mortality and Infant mortality
For any social and economic development, adequate sanitation in conjunction with good hygiene and safe water are essential to good health. Lack of proper sanitation causes diseases. Most of the diseases resulting from sanitation have a direct relation to poverty. The lack of clean water and poor sanitation causes many diseases and the spread of diseases. It is estimated that inadequate sanitation is responsible for 4.0 percent of deaths and 5.7 percent of disease burden worldwide.
Lack of sanitation is a serious issue that is affecting most developing countries and countries in transition. The importance of the isolation of excreta and waste lies in an effort to prevent diseases which can be transmitted through human waste, which afflict both developed countries as well as developing countries to differing degrees.
This situation presents substantial public health risks as the waste could contaminate drinking water and cause life-threatening forms of diarrhea to infants. Improved sanitation, including hand washing and water purification, could save the lives of 1.5 million children who die from diarrheal diseases each year.
It is estimated that up to 5 million people die each year from
preventable waterborne diseases , as a result of inadequate
sanitation and hygiene practices. The effects of sanitation has
impacted the society of people throughout history.
Numerous studies have shown that improvements in drinking water and
Open defecation - or lack of sanitation - is a major factor in causing various diseases, most notably diarrhea and intestinal worm infections . For example, infectious diarrhea resulted in about 0.7 million deaths in children under five years old in 2011 and 250 million lost school days. It can also lead to malnutrition and stunted growth in children. Open defecation is a leading cause of diarrheal death; 2,000 children under the age of five die every day, one every 40 seconds, from diarrhea .
MALNUTRITION AND STUNTING
Further information: Malnutrition in children A child receiving malnutrition treatment in Northern Kenya
The combination of direct and indirect deaths from malnutrition
caused by unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices is
estimated by the World Health Organisation to lead to 860,000 deaths
per year in children under five years of age. The multiple
interdependencies between malnutrition and infectious diseases make it
very difficult to quantify the portion of malnutrition that is caused
by infectious diseases which are in turn caused by unsafe WASH
practices. Based on expert opinions and a literature survey,
DISEASES CAUSED BY LACK OF SANITATION
Relevant diseases and conditions caused by lack of sanitation and hygiene include:
* Diseases transmitted by the fecal-oral route
* Infections with intestinal helminths (worms) - approximately two billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide; they are transmitted by eggs present in human faeces which in turn contaminate soil in areas where sanitation is poor.
The list of diseases that could be reduced with proper access to sanitation and hygiene practices is very long. For example, in India, 15 diseases have been listed which could be stamped out by improving sanitation:
Anaemia , malnutrition
In many settings, provision of sanitation facilities alone does not guarantee good health of the population. Studies have suggested that the impact of hygiene practices have as great an impact on sanitation related diseases as the actual provision of sanitation facilities. Hygiene promotion is therefore an important part of sanitation and is usually key in maintaining good health.
Hygiene promotion is a planned approach of enabling people to act and
change their behaviour in an order to reduce and/or prevent incidences
of water, sanitation and hygiene (
When analysing environmental samples, various types of indicator
organisms are used to check for fecal pollution of the sample.
Commonly used indicators for bacteriological water analysis include
WASTEWATER AND STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
In developing countries most wastewater is still discharged untreated into the environment. Alternatives to centralized sewer systems include onsite sanitation , decentralized wastewater systems , dry toilets connected to fecal sludge management .
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
Disposal of solid waste is most commonly conducted in landfills , but
incineration, recycling , composting and conversion to biofuels are
also avenues. In the case of landfills, advanced countries typically
have rigid protocols for daily cover with topsoil, where
underdeveloped countries customarily rely upon less stringent
protocols. The importance of daily cover lies in the reduction of
vector contact and spreading of pathogens .
For incineration options, the release of air pollutants , including certain toxic components is an attendant adverse outcome. Recycling and biofuel conversion are the sustainable options that generally have superior lifecycle costs, particularly when total ecological consequences are considered. Composting value will ultimately be limited by the market demand for compost product.
Modern restaurant food preparation area. Main article: food safety
In the food and biopharmaceutical industries, the term "sanitary
equipment" means equipment that is fully cleanable using
clean-in-place (CIP) and sterilization-in-place (SIP) procedures: that
is fully drainable from cleaning solutions and other liquids . The
design should have a minimum amount of deadleg, or areas where the
turbulence during cleaning is insufficient to remove product deposits.
In general, to improve cleanability, this equipment is made from
Modified logo of International Year of Sanitation , used in the UN Drive to 2015 campaign logo
In December 2006, the
United Nations General Assembly
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL NUMBER 6 (FROM 2016 ONWARDS)
In the year 2016, the
Sustainable Development Goals replaced the
Millennium Development Goals.
One indicator for the sanitation target is the "Proportion of
population using safely managed sanitation services, including a
hand-washing facility with soap and water". The current value in the
2017 baseline estimate by JMP is that 4.5 billion people currently do
not have safely managed sanitation . JMP is the Joint Monitoring
Millennium Development Goal Number 7 Until 2015
Example for lack of sanitation: Unhygienic pit latrine with ring slab in Kalibari community in Mymensingh, Bangladesh
There are numerous reasons for this gap. A major one is that
sanitation is rarely given political attention received by other
topics despite its key importance.
Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO
* Between 1990 and 2015, open defecation rates have decreased from 38% to 25% globally. Just under one billion people (946 million) still practise open defecation worldwide in 2015. * 82% of the global urban population, and 51% of the rural population is using improved sanitation facilities in 2015, as per the JMP definition of "improved sanitation ".
The benefits to society of managing human excreta are considerable, for public health as well as for the environment. For every US$1 spent on sanitation, the estimated return to society is US$5.5. :2
In 2011 the Bill "> The treatment components of the Nano Membrane
Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near rivers or natural springs . Throughout history people have devised systems to get water into their communities and households, and to dispose (and later also treat) wastewater. The focus of sewage treatment at that time was on conveying raw sewage to a natural body of water, e.g. a river or ocean , where it would be diluted and dissipated.
Sanitation in the Indus Valley Civilization
Sanitation in ancient Rome was quite extensive. These systems
consisted of stone and wooden drains to collect and remove wastewater
from populated areas—see for instance the
Cloaca Maxima into the
There is little record of other sanitation in most of
Fecal sludge management (FSM)
List of abbreviations used in sanitation
List of water supply and sanitation by country
Self-supply of water and sanitation
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
* Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH)
* ^ "sanitation Definition of sanitation in English by Oxford
Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries English. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
* ^ A B SuSanA (2008). Towards more sustainable sanitation
solutions - SuSanA Vision Document.