Junker Schools or Junkerschulen was a term introduced by Nazi Germany
in 1937 for the SS leadership training facilities established at Bad
Braunschweig in 1934 and 1935. Additional schools were
Klagenfurt and Posen-Treskau in 1943, and
Prague in 1944.
Unlike the Wehrmacht's "war schools", admission to the
did not require a secondary diploma. Training at these schools
provided the groundwork for employment with the Sicherheitspolizei
(SiPo; security police), the
Sicherheitsdienst (SD; security service),
and later for the Waffen-SS.
Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler
intended for these schools to mold cadets for future service in the
officer ranks of the SS.
As part of an effort to professionalize their officers, the SS founded
a Leadership School in 1934; the first one was at the Bavarian town of
Bad Tölz, established under the leadership of SS-Colonel Paul Lettow.
Following shortly, a second school at
Braunschweig under the direction
Obersturmführer (later SS-Gruppenführer)
Paul Hausser was
In 1937, Himmler rechristened the Leadership Schools to "Junker
Schools" in honor of the land-owning
Junker aristocracy that once
dominated the Prussian military. Akin to the
Junker officers of their
namesake, most cadets eventually led
Waffen-SS regiments into
combat. By the time
World War II
World War II in Europe was underway, additional
SS Leadership Schools at Klagenfurt, Posen-Treskau and
Prague had been
Created to educate and mold the next generation of leadership within
the SS, cadets were taught to be adaptable officers who could perform
any task assigned to them, whether in a police role, in a
concentration camp, as part of a fighting unit, or within the greater
SS organization. Additional administrative and economic training
was included at the behest of SS-
Oswald Pohl and the SS
Main Economic and Administrative Department. Pohl intended to shape
future SS officers into effective and efficient managers of the SS
economics industry and insisted that supplemental training in
corporate operations was integrated into the curriculum.
General military instruction over logistics and planning was provided
but much of the training concentrated on small-unit tactics associated
with raids, patrols, and ambushes. Training an SS officer took as
much as nineteen months overall and encompassed additional things like
map reading, tactics, military maneuvers, political education, weapons
training, physical education, combat engineering and even automobile
mechanics, all of which were provided in varying degrees at additional
training facilities based on the cadet’s specialization.
Political and ideological indoctrination was part of the syllabus for
all SS cadets but there was no merger of academic learning and
military instruction like that found at West Point in the United
States. Instead, personality training was stressed, which meant
future SS leaders/officers were shaped above all things by a National
Socialist worldview and attitude. Instruction at the
was designed to communicate a sense of racial superiority, a
connection to other dependable like-minded men, ruthlessness, and a
toughness that accorded the value system of the SS. Throughout their
stay during the training, cadets were constantly monitored for their
"ideological reliability." It is postulated that the merger of the
police with the SS was at least partly the result of their shared
attendance at the SS
^ Snyder 1976, p. 187.
^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 480.
^ Weale 2012, p. 206.
^ a b Allen 2002, p. 112.
^ Pine 2010, p. 89.
^ Weale 2012, pp. 206–207.
^ Weale 2012, p. 207.
^ Weale 2012, pp. 207–208.
^ Weale 2012, p. 209.
^ Mineau 2011, p. 29.
^ Laqueur & Baumel 2001, p. 606.
Allen, Michael Thad (2002). The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave
Labor, and the Concentration Camps. London and Chapel Hill: The
University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-80782-677-5.
Laqueur, Walter; Baumel, Judith Tydor (2001). The Holocaust
Encyclopedia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Mineau, André (2011). SS Thinking and the Holocaust. New York:
Editions Rodopi. ISBN 978- 9401207829.
Pine, Lisa (2010). Education in Nazi Germany. New York: Berg.
Snyder, Louis L (1976). Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. London:
Robert Hale. ISBN 978-1-56924-917-8.
Weale, Adrian (2012). Army of Evil: A History of the SS. New York:
Caliber Printing. ISBN 978-0451237910.
Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). The Encyclopedia of
the Third Reich. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 0-