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S- VHS
VHS
(スーパー・ヴィエイチエス), the common initialism for Super VHS, is an improved version of the VHS
VHS
standard for consumer-level video recording. Victor Company of Japan introduced S- VHS
VHS
in Japan in April 1987 with their JVC-branded HR-S7000 VCR, and in certain overseas markets soon afterward.

Contents

1 Technical information

1.1 Hardware 1.2 Media 1.3 S- VHS
VHS
ET

2 Shadow of VHS 3 S- VHS
VHS
vs ED-Beta 4 Home use 5 Use for digital audio 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Technical information[edit] Like VHS, the S- VHS
VHS
format uses a color under modulation scheme.[1] S- VHS
VHS
improves luminance (luma) resolution by increasing luminance bandwidth.[1] Increased bandwidth is possible because of increased luminance carrier from 3.4 megahertz (MHz) to 5.4 MHz.[1] Increased luminance bandwidth produces a 60% improvement in (luminance) picture detail, or a horizontal resolution of 420 vertical lines per picture height – versus VHS's 240 lines. The often quoted horizontal resolution of "over 400" means S- VHS
VHS
captures greater picture detail than even NTSC[1] analog cable and broadcast TV, which is limited to about 330 television lines (TVL). In practice, when time shifting TV programs on S- VHS
VHS
equipment, the improvement over VHS
VHS
is quite noticeable. Yet, the trained eye can easily spot the difference between live television and a S- VHS
VHS
recording of it. This is because S- VHS
VHS
does not improve other key aspects of the video signal, particularly the chrominance (chroma) signal. In VHS, the chroma carrier is both severely bandlimited and rather noisy, a limitation that S- VHS
VHS
does not address. Poor color resolution was a deficiency shared by S-VHS's contemporaries, such as Hi8
Hi8
and ED-Beta – all of which were limited to 0.4 megahertz or 30 TVL resolution.[2] Regarding audio recording, S- VHS
VHS
retains VHS's conventional linear (baseband) and high fidelity (Hi-Fi) – Audio Frequency Modulation (AFM) soundtracks. Some professional S- VHS
VHS
decks can record a pulse-code modulation (PCM) digital audio track (stereo 48 kHz), along with the normal video and Hi-Fi stereo and mono analog audio. As an added bonus, due to the increased bandwidth of S-VHS, teletext data (PAL) signals can be recorded along with the normal video signal. As a result, this teletext data is also able to be decoded and displayed on-screen as an overlay of the conventional TV picture (though not on standard VHS
VHS
machines). A suitably teletext-equipped receiver/decoder (TV, PC card, etc.) displays the recorded teletext data information as if the video were being viewed as a real-time live broadcast. Hardware[edit] S- VHS
VHS
video cassette recorders (VCRs) and cassette tapes are nearly identical in appearance and operation, and backward compatible with VHS. Older VHS
VHS
VCRs cannot play back S- VHS
VHS
recordings at all, but can record onto an S- VHS
VHS
tape in the basic VHS
VHS
format.[dubious – discuss][citation needed] Newer VHS
VHS
VCRs, depending upon their specification, offered a feature called S- VHS
VHS
quasi-playback or Super Quasi-Play Back, abbreviated to SQPB. SQPB lets basic VHS
VHS
players view (but not record) S- VHS
VHS
recordings, though reduced to the lesser VHS quality. This feature is useful for viewing S- VHS
VHS
camcorder recordings which used either the full-size S- VHS
VHS
videotape cassette or the smaller S- VHS-C
VHS-C
videotape cassette. Later model S- VHS
VHS
VCRs offered a recording option called S- VHS
VHS
ET. S- VHS
VHS
ET is a further modification of the VHS
VHS
standards that permitted near S- VHS
VHS
quality recordings on more common and less expensive basic VHS
VHS
tapes. S- VHS
VHS
ET recordings can be viewed on most SQPB-equipped VHS VCRs and S- VHS
VHS
VCRs. To get the most benefit from S-VHS, a direct video connection to the monitor or TV is required, ideally via an S-Video
S-Video
or RGB-enabled SCART connection. Media[edit] In order to take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of the S-VHS system, i.e., for the best recordings and playback, an S- VHS
VHS
VCR requires S- VHS
VHS
video tape cassettes.[1] These have a different oxide media formulation for higher magnetic coercivity. S- VHS
VHS
video cassettes are sensed and identified by the video cassette recorder via a specific internal profile within a hole in the underside of the S- VHS
VHS
video cassette body. Videophiles were the first to theorize that since the only distinguishing feature of an S- VHS
VHS
tape is a small 3 mm hole on the underside of the video cassette, it should be possible to use more common and inexpensive VHS
VHS
tapes by duplicating that hole. However, S- VHS
VHS
cassettes also contain a higher grade and coercivity of tape stock to effectively record the higher video bandwidth offered by S-VHS. S- VHS
VHS
ET[edit] JVC
JVC
also introduced an S- VHS
VHS
ET system on its S- VHS
VHS
consumer decks, allowing the use of normal VHS
VHS
tapes for S- VHS
VHS
recording, by slightly modifying the S- VHS
VHS
recording specs while still retaining compatibility so that S- VHS
VHS
ET tapes could be played with non-ET S-VHS VCRs. Technically, in S- VHS
VHS
ET mode, the recording circuit is altered with:

Change of the W/D clip level (reducing the white clip level from 210% in S VHS
VHS
to 190% in S VHS
VHS
ET) Change of the main emphasis characteristics (changing the frequency responses) Change of the recording level (Y and C) and recording current[3]

Shadow of VHS[edit] Despite its designation as the logical successor to VHS, S- VHS
VHS
did not come close to replacing VHS. In the home market, S- VHS
VHS
failed to gain significant market share. For various reasons, consumers were not interested in paying more for an improved picture. Likewise, S-VHS rentals and movie sales did very poorly. A few pre-recorded movies were released to S-VHS, but poor market acceptance prompted studios to transition their high-end product from S- VHS
VHS
to Laserdisc, and then onto DVD. In the camcorder role, the smaller form S- VHS-C
VHS-C
camcorder enjoyed limited success among home video users. It was more popular for the amateur video industry, as it allowed for at least second generation copies at reasonable quality (necessary for editing). JVC, Panasonic, and Sony
Sony
have sold industrial S- VHS
VHS
decks for amateur and semi-professional production use. Some public-access television stations and other low-budget cable TV venues used the S- VHS
VHS
format, both for acquisition and subsequent studio editing, but the network studios largely avoided S-VHS, as descendants of the more expensive Betacam
Betacam
format had already become a de facto industry standard. S- VHS-C
VHS-C
competed directly with Hi8, the latter offering smaller cassettes, longer running time, and ultimately selling much better. A number of colleges and universities also used S- VHS
VHS
as a teaching tool for students, as the tapes cost less and offered more recording time than Betacam
Betacam
SP tapes, and yet students could still be trained on professional-level equipment. Plus on the professional level in the US a number of local access TV stations, and in Canada local cable channels used S- VHS
VHS
in the 1990s to record and playback local programs, such as city councils and Christmas parades. For most of these stations, while the 3/4 U-Matics that they had been using were being phased out, but digital video was still years away, S- VHS
VHS
was used to record from the composite setups that were still in place for U-Matic production. As of 2007[update], consumer S- VHS
VHS
VCRs were still available, but difficult to find in retail outlets. The largest VCR
VCR
manufacturers, such as Matsushita (Panasonic) and Mitsubishi, gradually moved to DVD recorders, and hard-disk based digital video recorders (DVRs). Combination DVD/ VCR
VCR
units rarely offered S- VHS
VHS
format standard, only VHS. In the mainstream consumer camcorder market, miniDV, DVD, and—eventually—solid state memory-based camcorders replaced S- VHS-C
VHS-C
camcorders. Digital camcorders generally outperform S-VHS-C units in most technical aspects: audio/video quality, recording time, lossless duplication, and form-factor. The videotapes themselves are available, mostly by mail order or online, but are vanishingly rare in retail channels, and substantially more expensive than high-quality standard VHS
VHS
media. S- VHS
VHS
vs ED-Beta[edit] Shortly after the announcement of S-VHS, Sony
Sony
responded with an announcement of Extended Definition Betamax
Betamax
(ED-Beta). S- VHS
VHS
was JVC's next generation video format designed to dominate the competing Super Betamax
Betamax
format (which already offered better-than- VHS
VHS
quality). Not to be outdone, Sony
Sony
developed ED-Beta as their next generation competitor to S-VHS. In terms of video performance, ED-Beta offered even greater luminance bandwidth than S- VHS
VHS
– 500 television lines (TVL) of horizontal resolution per picture height, versus S-VHS's or Laserdisc's 420 TVL; putting ED-Beta nearly on par with professional digital video formats (520 TVL). However, chroma performance was far less spectacular, as neither S- VHS
VHS
nor ED-Beta exceeded 0.4 megahertz or ~30 TVL maximum, whereas NTSC
NTSC
broadcast has a chroma resolution of ~120 TVL, and DVD has a chroma resolution of ~240 TVL. S- VHS
VHS
was used in some TV stations for inexpensive "on the spot" camcorder capture of breaking news, however it was not suitable for multi-generational (studio) use. In terms of audio performance, both VHS
VHS
and Beta offered analog Hi-Fi stereo of outstanding quality. Rather than re-invent the wheel, both S- VHS
VHS
and ED-Beta re-used the AFM schemes of their predecessors without change. Professional S- VHS
VHS
decks did offer digital PCM audio, a feature not matched by ED-Beta decks. In PAL
PAL
markets, depth multiplexed audio was used for both formats. In the U.S. market, the mainstream consumer market had largely ignored the release of S-VHS. With the Betamax
Betamax
market already in sharp decline, a "format war" for the next generation of video simply did not materialize. Sony
Sony
discontinued the ED-Beta product line in the U.S. market after less than two years, handing S- VHS
VHS
a victory by default, if it can even be called that. ( VHS
VHS
decks continued to outsell S- VHS
VHS
decks until the end of the VCR
VCR
product life cycle.) There is anecdotal evidence that some TV stations purchased ED-Beta equipment as a low-cost alternative to professional Betacam
Betacam
equipment, prompting speculation that Sony's management took steps to prevent its consumer (ED-Beta) division from cannibalizing the sales of its more lucrative professional video division. Nevertheless, it is clear to all that by the time of ED-Beta's introduction, VHS
VHS
had already won a decisive victory, and no amount of competition on behalf of ED-Beta could regain the home video market. Home use[edit] Getting the most benefit from S- VHS
VHS
required a direct video connection to the monitor, ideally via an S-Video
S-Video
connection. However, older television sets lacked S-Video
S-Video
or even any AV inputs. Nevertheless, viewing an S- VHS
VHS
recording through a VCR's built-in RF modulator yields a discernible quality improvement over VHS. It is not unusual to see the term S- VHS
VHS
incorrectly used to refer to S-Video
S-Video
connectors (also called Y/C connectors), even in printed material. This may be due to S- VHS
VHS
having been one of the more common consumer video products equipped with the S-Video
S-Video
connector. However, S-Video
S-Video
connectors became common on many other video devices: DVD players and recorders, MiniDV
MiniDV
and Hi8
Hi8
camcorders, cable/satellite set-top boxes, TV-compatible video outputs on computers and video game consoles, and inputs on TV sets themselves. Where the S- in S-VHS means "super", the S- in S-Video
S-Video
refers to the "separated" luminance and chrominance signals. Use for digital audio[edit]

An Alesis
Alesis
ADAT
ADAT
XT 8-channel digital audio recorder

In 1991, Alesis
Alesis
introduced ADAT, an eight-track digital audio recording system that used S- VHS
VHS
cassettes. An ADAT
ADAT
machine recorded eight tracks of uncompressed audio material in 16-bit (later 20-bit) resolution. The recording time was one-third of the cassette's nominal playing time, e.g., a 120 min S- VHS
VHS
cassette held 40 minutes of eight-track audio. Studer
Studer
also produced the V-Eight (manufuctured[clarification needed] by Alesis
Alesis
and sold by Alesis
Alesis
as the M20) and the V-Twenty-Four digital multitrack recorders. These used S- VHS
VHS
cassettes for 8-track and 24-track digital audio recording, at a significantly lower cost than their DASH reel-to-reel digital recorders. The videotape transports were made for Studer
Studer
by Matsushita. See also[edit]

S-Video D-VHS W-VHS Betamax Video
Video
2000 A-DAT Hi-8

References[edit]

^ a b c d e "Comparison Of VCR
VCR
Formats - Sencore tech tips" (PDF). Sencore. AV-iQ.com - NewBay Media, LLC. Retrieved 20 May 2016.  ^ Damjanovski, Vlado (2005). CCTV: Networking and Digital Technology. Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 238. ISBN 0-7506-7800-3.  ^ JVC
JVC
Video
Video
Technical Guide - VIDEO CASSETTE RECORDER - HR-S9500 NTSC/PAL/SECAM, March 1999 - retrieved from http://www.digitalfaq.com/forum/vcr-repair/4768-service-manual-jvc.html (members only) on January 9, 2016

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to S-VHS.

Tape loading mechanism S- VHS
VHS
VTR Telefunken A1200 — YouTube.com video Tape loading mechanism S- VHS
VHS
VTR Panasonic
Panasonic
AG-4700 — YouTube.com video Tape loading mechanism / dynamic drum S- VHS
VHS
VTR JVC
JVC
HR-S9500 — YouTube.com video Formats — High-TechProductions.com S- VHS
VHS
(1987) — VideoInterchange.com TVR Formats — LabGuysWorld.com Analog Video
Video
Recording — DanaLee.ca

v t e

Video
Video
storage formats

Videotape

Analog

Quadruplex (1956) VERA (1958) Ampex 2 inch helical VTR (1961) Sony
Sony
2 inch helical VTR (1961) Type A (1965) CV-2000 (1965) Akai (1967) U-matic
U-matic
(1969) EIAJ-1
EIAJ-1
(1969) Cartrivision (1972) Philips VCR
VCR
(1972) V-Cord (1974) VX (1974) Betamax
Betamax
(1975) IVC (1975) Type B (1976) Type C (1976) VHS
VHS
(1976) VK (1977) SVR (1979) Video 2000
Video 2000
(1980) CVC (1980) VHS-C
VHS-C
(1982) M (1982) Betacam
Betacam
(1982) Video8 (1985) MII (1986) S- VHS
VHS
(1987) S- VHS-C
VHS-C
(1987) Hi8
Hi8
(1989) Ruvi (1998)

Digital

D1 (1986) D2 (1988) D3 (1991) DCT (1992) Digital Betacam
Betacam
(1993) D5 (1994) Digital-S
Digital-S
(D9) (1995) Betacam
Betacam
SX (1996) Digital8
Digital8
(1999) MicroMV
MicroMV
(2001)

High Definition

Sony
Sony
HDVS (1984) UniHi (1984) W- VHS
VHS
(1994) HDCAM
HDCAM
(1997) D- VHS
VHS
(1998) D6 HDTV VTR
D6 HDTV VTR
(2000) HDV
HDV
(2003) HDCAM
HDCAM
SR (2003)

Videodisc

Analog

Phonovision (1927) Ampex-HS (1967) TeD (1975) LaserDisc
LaserDisc
(1978) CED (1981) VHD (1983) Laserfilm
Laserfilm
(1984) CD Video
Video
(1987) VSD (c. 1987)

Digital

VCD (1993) MovieCD
MovieCD
(1996) DVD
DVD
(1996) Mini DVD
DVD
(c. 1996) DVD- Video
Video
(1997) CVD (1998) SVCD (1998) EVD (2003) PVD (Personal Video
Video
Disc) (2003) HVD (High-Definition Versatile Disc) (2004) UMD (2004) FVD (2005)

High Definition

MUSE Hi-Vision LD (1994) VMD (2006) HD DVD
DVD
(2006) BRD (BD/ Blu-ray
Blu-ray
disc) (2006) MiniBD (c. 2006) HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) (2007) CBHD (China Blue High-definition Disc) (2008) UHD BRD (Ultra HD Blu-ray
Blu-ray
disc) (2016)

Virtual

Media agnostic

DV (1995) DVCPRO (1995) DVCAM (1996) DVCPRO50 (1997) DVCPRO HD (2000)

Tapeless

CamCutter Editcam (1995) XDCAM
XDCAM
(2003) MOD (2005) AVCHD
AVCHD
(2006) AVC-Intra (2006) TOD (2007) iFrame (2009) XAVC (2012)

Solid state

P2 (2004) SxS (2007) MicroP2
MicroP2
(2012)

Video
Video
recorded to film

Kinescope
Kinescope
(1947) Telerecording
Telerecording
(1940s) Electronicam
Electronicam
kinescope (1950s) Electronic Vide

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