HOME
ListMoto - Russian Language


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch). Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia
Eurasia
and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(followed by Polish and then Ukrainian). It is also the largest native language in Europe, with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers.[33] The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English.[34] Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Stress, which is unpredictable, is not normally indicated orthographically[35] though an optional acute accent (знак ударения, znak udareniya) may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words, for example замо́к (zamók, meaning a lock) and за́мок (zámok, meaning a castle), or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names.

Contents

1 Classification 2 Standard Russian 3 Geographic distribution

3.1 Europe 3.2 Asia 3.3 North America 3.4 Australia

4 As an international language 5 Dialects 6 Derived languages 7 Alphabet

7.1 Transliteration 7.2 Computing 7.3 Orthography

8 Phonology

8.1 Consonants

9 Grammar 10 Vocabulary 11 History and examples 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography

14.1 In English 14.2 in Russian

15 External links

Classification[edit] Russian is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
of the wider Indo-European family. It is a lineal[citation needed] descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus', a loose conglomerate of East Slavic tribes from the late 9th to the mid 13th centuries. From the point of view of spoken language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn,[36] the other three languages in the East Slavic languages. In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine
Ukraine
and throughout Belarus, these languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine
Ukraine
and Trasianka in Belarus. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. Also Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
influence on both languages, as well as because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, although Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian.[37] In the 19th century, the language was often called "Great Russian" to distinguish it from Belarusian, then called "White Russian" and Ukrainian, then called "Little Russian". The vocabulary (mainly abstract and literary words), principles of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and partly russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church. However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology
Russian phonology
and History of the Russian language. Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek, Latin, Polish, Dutch, German, French, Italian and English,[38] and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic, Turkic,[39][40] Persian,[41][42] Arabic, as well as Hebrew.[43] According to the Defense Language Institute
Defense Language Institute
in Monterey, California, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1,100 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency.[44] It is also regarded by the United States
United States
Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in American world policy. Standard Russian[edit] Main article: Moscow
Moscow
dialect The standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language (современный русский литературный язык). It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernization reforms of the Russian state under the rule of Peter the Great, and developed from the Moscow
Moscow
(Middle or Central Russian) dialect substratum under the influence of some of the previous century's Russian chancellery language. Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov
first compiled a normalizing grammar book in 1755; in 1783 the Russian Academy's first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, a period known as the "Golden Age", the grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation of the Russian language
Russian language
was stabilized and standardized, and it became the nationwide literary language; meanwhile, Russia's world-famous literature flourished. Until the 20th century, the language's spoken form was the language of only the upper noble classes and urban population, as Russian peasants from the countryside continued to speak in their own dialects. By the mid-20th century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government. Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features (such as fricative [ɣ] in Southern Russian dialects) are still observed in colloquial speech. Geographic distribution[edit] Main article: Geographical distribution of Russian speakers

Competence of Russian in countries of the former USSR
USSR
(except Russia), 2004

In 2010, there were 259.8 million speakers of Russian in the world: in Russia
Russia
– 137.5 million, in the CIS and Baltic countries – 93.7 million, in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
– 12.9 million, Western Europe
Western Europe
– 7.3 million, Asia – 2.7 million, Middle East and North Africa – 1.3 million, Sub-Saharan Africa – 0.1 million, Latin
Latin
America – 0.2 million, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand – 4.1 million speakers. Therefore, the Russian language
Russian language
is the 7th largest in the world by number of speakers, after English, Mandarin, Hindi, Urdu, Spanish and Arabic.[45] Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language (RSL) and native speakers in Russia
Russia
as well as many of the former Soviet republics. Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics.[46] Samuel P. Huntington
Samuel P. Huntington
wrote in the Clash of Civilizations, "During the heyday of the Soviet Union, Russian was the lingua franca from Prague to Hanoi."[47] Europe[edit] In Belarus, Russian is co-official alongside Belarusian per the Constitution of Belarus.[48] 77% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 67% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.[49] In Estonia, Russian is officially considered a foreign language.[48] Russian is spoken by 29.6% of the population according to a 2011 estimate from the World Factbook.[50] Despite large Russian-speaking minorities in Latvia
Latvia
(26.9% ethnic Russians, 2011)[51] Russian is officially considered a foreign language.[48] 55% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 26% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.[49] In Lithuania
Lithuania
Russian is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca.[48] In contrast to the other two Baltic states, Lithuania
Lithuania
has a relatively small Russian-speaking minority (5.0% as of 2008).[52] In Moldova, Russian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law.[48] 50% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 19% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.[49] According to the 2010 census in Russia, Russian language
Russian language
skills were indicated by 138 million people (99.4% of the population), while according to the 2002 census – 142.6 million people (99.2% of the population).[53] In Ukraine, Russian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the 1996 Constitution of Ukraine.[48] According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 14,400,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, and 29 million active speakers.[54] 65% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 38% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.[49] In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR. According to the Eurobarometer 2005 survey,[55] fluency in Russian remains fairly high (20–40%) in some countries, in particular those where the people speak a Slavic language and thereby have an edge in learning Russian (namely, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Bulgaria). Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language. The United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Norway, and Austria
Austria
have significant Russian-speaking communities. Asia[edit] In Armenia, Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.[48] 30% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 2% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.[49] In Azerbaijan, Russian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country.[48] 26% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 5% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.[49] In China, Russian has no official status, but it is spoken by the small Russian communities in the Northeastern Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
province. In Georgia, Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.[48] Russian is the language of 9% of the population according to the World Factbook.[56] Ethnologue cites Russian as the country's de facto working language.[57] In Kazakhstan, Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language
Kazakh language
in state and local administration.[48] The 2009 census reported that 10,309,500 people, or 84.8% of the population aged 15 and above, could read and write well in Russian, as well as understand the spoken language.[58] In Kyrgyzstan, Russian is an official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan.[48] The 2009 census states that 482,200 people speak Russian as a native language, or 8.99% of the population.[59] Additionally, 1,854,700 residents of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
aged 15 and above fluently speak Russian as a second language, or 49.6% of the population in the age group.[59] In Tajikistan, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and is permitted in official documentation.[48] 28% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 7% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.[49] The World Factbook
The World Factbook
notes that Russian is widely used in government and business.[50] In Turkmenistan, Russian lost its status as the official lingua franca in 1996.[48] Russian is spoken by 12% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook.[50] In Uzbekistan, Russian has some official roles, being permitted in official documentation and is the lingua franca of the country and the language of the élite.[48][60] Russian is spoken by 14.2% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook.[50] In 2005, Russian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia,[61] and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in 2006.[62] Russian is also spoken in Israel. The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1.5 million Israelis.[63] The Israeli press and websites regularly publish material in Russian.[citation needed]. With Israel
Israel
Plus, there is an Israeli TV channel mainly broadcasting in Russian. See also Russian language
Russian language
in Israel. Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan.[64] North America[edit] See also: Russian language
Russian language
in the United States The language was first introduced in North America
North America
when Russian explorers voyaged into Alaska
Alaska
and claimed it for Russia
Russia
during the 1700s. Although most Russian colonists left after the United States bought the land in 1867, a handful stayed and preserved the Russian language in this region to this day, although only a few elderly speakers of this unique dialect are left.[65] Sizable Russian-speaking communities also exist in North America, especially in large urban centers of the U.S. and Canada, such as New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, Nashville, San Francisco, Seattle, Spokane, Toronto, Baltimore, Miami, Chicago, Denver
Denver
and Cleveland. In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in ethnic enclaves (especially the generation of immigrants who started arriving in the early 1960s). Only about 25% of them are ethnic Russians, however. Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the overwhelming majority of Russophones in Brighton Beach, Brooklyn
Brighton Beach, Brooklyn
in New York City were Russian-speaking Jews. Afterward, the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
changed the statistics somewhat, with ethnic Russians
Russians
and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
immigrating along with some more Russian Jews
Jews
and Central Asians. According to the United States Census, in 2007 Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of over 850,000 individuals living in the United States.[66] Australia[edit] Australian cities Melbourne
Melbourne
and Sydney
Sydney
have Russian-speaking populations, with the most Russians
Russians
living in southeast Melbourne, particularly the suburbs of Carnegie and Caulfield. Two-thirds of them are actually Russian-speaking descendants of Germans, Greeks, Jews, Azerbaijanis, Armenians
Armenians
or Ukrainians, who either repatriated after the USSR
USSR
collapsed, or are just looking for temporary employment.[citation needed] As an international language[edit] See also: Russophone, List of official languages by institution, and Internet in Russian Russian is one of the official languages (or has similar status and interpretation must be provided into Russian) of the following:

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency World Health Organization International Civil Aviation Organization UNESCO World Intellectual Property Organization International Telecommunication Union World Meteorological Organization Food and Agriculture Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Criminal Court International Monetary Fund

International Olympic Committee Universal Postal Union World Bank Commonwealth of Independent States Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Eurasian Economic Community Collective Security Treaty Organization Antarctic Treaty Secretariat International Organization for Standardization GUAM
GUAM
Organization for Democracy and Economic Development International Mathematical Olympiad

The Russian language
Russian language
is also one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station
International Space Station
NASA
NASA
astronauts who serve alongside Russian cosmonauts usually take Russian language
Russian language
courses. This practice goes back to the Apollo-Soyuz
Apollo-Soyuz
mission, which first flew in 1975. In March 2013 it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English. People use the Russian language on 5.9% of all websites, slightly ahead of German and far behind English (54.7%). Russian is used not only on 89.8% of .ru sites, but also on 88.7% of sites with the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
domain .su. The websites of former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
nations also use high levels of Russian: 79.0% in Ukraine, 86.9% in Belarus, 84.0% in Kazakhstan, 79.6% in Uzbekistan, 75.9% in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and 81.8% in Tajikistan. However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1,000 sites, behind English, Chinese, French, German and Japanese.[67] Dialects[edit] Main articles: Russian dialects
Russian dialects
and Moscow
Moscow
dialect

Russian dialects
Russian dialects
in 1915

Northern dialects   1. Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
dialect   2. Olonets
Olonets
dialect   3. Novgorod dialect   4. Viatka dialect   5. Vladimir dialect

Central dialects   6. Moscow
Moscow
dialect   7. Tver
Tver
dialect Southern dialects   8. Orel (Don) dialect   9. Ryazan
Ryazan
dialect   10. Tula dialect   11. Smolensk
Smolensk
dialect

Other   12. Northern Russian dialect with Belarusian influences   13. Sloboda and Steppe dialects of Ukrainian   14. Steppe dialect of Ukrainian with Russian influences

Russian is a rather homogeneous language, in terms of dialectal variation, due to the early political centralization under Moscow's rule, compulsory education, mass migration from rural to urban areas in the 20th century, as well as other factors. The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, notwithstanding the enormous distance in between. Despite leveling after 1900, especially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow
Moscow
lying on the zone of transition between the two. Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern, Central (or Middle) and Southern, with Moscow
Moscow
lying in the Central region.[68][69] All dialects also divided in two main chronological categories: the dialects of primary formation (the territory of the Eastern Rus' or Muscovy, roughly consists of the modern Central and Northwestern Federal districts); and secondary formation (other territory). Dialectology
Dialectology
within Russia
Russia
recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary and grammar. Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language. The Northern Russian dialects
Russian dialects
and those spoken along the Volga River typically pronounce unstressed /o/ clearly, a phenomenon called okanye (оканье).[69] Besides the absence of vowel reduction, some dialects have high or diphthongal /e⁓i̯ɛ/ in the place of Proto-Slavic *ě and /o⁓u̯ɔ/ in stressed closed syllables (as in Ukrainian) instead of Standard Russian /e/ and /o/.[69] An interesting morphological feature is a post-posed definite article -to, -ta, -te similarly to that existing in Bulgarian and Macedonian.[69] In the Southern Russian dialects, instances of unstressed /e/ and /a/ following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllable are not reduced to [ɪ] (as occurs in the Moscow
Moscow
dialect), being instead pronounced [a] in such positions (e.g. несли is pronounced [nʲaˈslʲi], not [nʲɪsˈlʲi]) – this is called yakanye (яканье).[69][70] Consonants include a fricative /ɣ/, a semivowel /w⁓u̯/ and /x⁓xv⁓xw/, whereas the Standard and Northern dialects have the consonants /ɡ/, /v/, and final /l/ and /f/, respectively.[69] The morphology features a palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs (this is unpalatalized in the Standard and Northern dialects).[69][71] Some of these features such as akanye and yakanye, a debuccalized or lenited /ɡ/, a semivowel /w⁓u̯/ and palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs are also present in modern Belarusian and some dialects of Ukrainian (Eastern Polesian), indicating a linguistic continuum. The city of Veliky Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod
has historically displayed a feature called chokanye or tsokanye (чоканье or цоканье), in which /tɕ/ and /ts/ were switched or merged. So, цапля ('heron') has been recorded as чапля. Also, the second palatalization of velars did not occur there, so the so-called ě² (from the Proto-Slavic diphthong *ai) did not cause /k, ɡ, x/ to shift to /ts, dz, s/; therefore, where Standard Russian has цепь ('chain'), the form кепь [kʲepʲ] is attested in earlier texts. Among the first to study Russian dialects
Russian dialects
was Lomonosov in the 18th century. In the 19th, Vladimir Dal
Vladimir Dal
compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century. In modern times, the monumental Dialectological Atlas of the Russian Language (Диалектологический атлас русского языка [dʲɪɐˌlʲɛktəɫɐˈɡʲitɕɪskʲɪj ˈatɫəs ˈruskəvə jɪzɨˈka]), was published in three folio volumes 1986–1989, after four decades of preparatory work. Derived languages[edit]

Balachka, a dialect, spoken in Krasnodar region, Don, Kuban
Kuban
and Terek, brought by relocated Cossacks
Cossacks
in 1793 and is based on south-west Ukrainian dialect. During russification of aforementioned regions in 1920s to 1950s it was forcefully replaced by Russian language, however is still sometimes used even in media.[citation needed] Fenya, a criminal argot of ancient origin, with Russian grammar, but with distinct vocabulary Medny Aleut
Aleut
language, a nearly extinct mixed language spoken on Bering Island that is characterized by its Aleut
Aleut
nouns and Russian verbs Padonkaffsky jargon, a slang language developed by padonki of Runet Quelia, a macaronic language with Russian-derived basic structure and part of the lexicon (mainly nouns and verbs) borrowed from German Runglish, a Russian-English pidgin. This word is also used by English speakers to describe the way in which Russians
Russians
attempt to speak English using Russian morphology and/or syntax. Russenorsk, an extinct pidgin language with mostly Russian vocabulary and mostly Norwegian grammar, used for communication between Russians and Norwegian traders in the Pomor trade in Finnmark
Finnmark
and the Kola Peninsula Trasianka, a heavily russified variety of Belarusian used by a large portion of the rural population in Belarus Taimyr Pidgin Russian, spoken by the Nganasan on the Taimyr Peninsula

Alphabet[edit] Main articles: Russian alphabet
Russian alphabet
and Russian Braille

A page from Azbuka (Alphabet book), the first Russian printed textbook. Printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574. This page features the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script.

Russian is written using a Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. The following table gives their upper case forms, along with IPA values for each letter's typical sound:

А /a/ Б /b/ В /v/ Г /ɡ/ Д /d/ Е /je/ Ё /jo/ Ж /ʐ/ З /z/ И /i/ Й /j/

К /k/ Л /l/ М /m/ Н /n/ О /o/ П /p/ Р /r/ С /s/ Т /t/ У /u/ Ф /f/

Х /x/ Ц /ts/ Ч /tɕ/ Ш /ʂ/ Щ /ɕː/ Ъ /-/ Ы /ɨ/ Ь /ʲ/ Э /e/ Ю /ju/ Я /ja/

Older letters of the Russian alphabet
Russian alphabet
include ⟨ѣ⟩, which merged to ⟨е⟩ (/je/ or /ʲe/); ⟨і⟩ and ⟨ѵ⟩, which both merged to ⟨и⟩ (/i/); ⟨ѳ⟩, which merged to ⟨ф⟩ (/f/); ⟨ѫ⟩, which merged to ⟨у⟩ (/u/); ⟨ѭ⟩, which merged to ⟨ю⟩ (/ju/ or /ʲu/); and ⟨ѧ⟩ and ⟨ѩ⟩, which later were graphically reshaped into ⟨я⟩ and merged phonetically to /ja/ or /ʲa/. While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles. The yers ⟨ъ⟩ and ⟨ь⟩ originally indicated the pronunciation of ultra-short or reduced /ŭ/, /ĭ/. Transliteration[edit] Further information: Romanization of Russian
Romanization of Russian
and Informal romanizations of Russian Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic
Cyrillic
keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin
Latin
alphabet. For example, мороз ('frost') is transliterated moroz, and мышь ('mouse'), mysh or myš'. Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding, which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet. Free programs leveraging this Unicode
Unicode
extension are available which allow users to type Russian characters, even on Western 'QWERTY' keyboards.[72] Computing[edit] The Russian alphabet
Russian alphabet
has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government
Soviet government
and was intended to serve as the standard encoding. This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. Nevertheless, the spread of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and OS/2
OS/2
(IBM866), traditional Macintosh
Macintosh
(ISO/IEC 8859-5) and Microsoft Windows (CP1251) created chaos and ended by establishing different encodings as de facto standards, with Windows-1251 becoming a de facto standard in Russian Internet and e-mail communication during the period of roughly 1995–2005. All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF-8. A number of encoding conversion applications were developed. "iconv" is an example that is supported by most versions of Linux, Macintosh
Macintosh
and some other operating systems; but converters are rarely needed unless accessing texts created more than a few years ago. In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode
Unicode
(and thus UTF-8) encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet
Early Cyrillic alphabet
(which is very similar to the Greek alphabet), as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets. Orthography[edit] Main article: Russian orthography Russian spelling is reasonably phonemic in practice. It is in fact a balance among phonemics, morphology, etymology, and grammar; and, like that of most living languages, has its share of inconsistencies and controversial points. A number of rigid spelling rules introduced between the 1880s and 1910s have been responsible for the former whilst trying to eliminate the latter. The current spelling follows the major reform of 1918, and the final codification of 1956. An update proposed in the late 1990s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted. The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models. According to the Institute of Russian Language of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an optional acute accent (знак ударения) may, and sometimes should, be used to mark stress. For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: замо́к – за́мок ("lock" – "castle"), сто́ящий – стоя́щий ("worthwhile" – "standing"), чудно́ – чу́дно ("this is odd" – "this is marvelous"), молоде́ц – мо́лодец ("attaboy" – "fine young man"), узна́ю – узнаю́ ("I shall learn it" – "I recognize it"), отреза́ть – отре́зать ("to be cutting" – "to have cut"); to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words, especially personal and family names (афе́ра, гу́ру, Гарси́я, Оле́ша, Фе́рми), and to show which is the stressed word in a sentence (Ты́ съел печенье? – Ты съе́л печенье? – Ты съел пече́нье? "Was it you who ate the cookie? – Did you eat the cookie? – Was it the cookie that you ate?"). Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners. Phonology[edit] Main article: Russian phonology The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year 1400. The language possesses five vowels (or six, under the St. Petersburg Phonological School), which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized. The consonants typically come in plain vs. palatalized pairs, which are traditionally called hard and soft. (The hard consonants are often velarized, especially before front vowels, as in Irish). The standard language, based on the Moscow
Moscow
dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa. (See also: vowel reduction in Russian.) The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds. Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus (vowel) and C for each consonant, the structure can be described as follows: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme. Some examples are: взгляд ([vzglʲat], 'glance'), государство ([gəsʊˈdarstvə], 'state'), строительство ([strɐˈitʲɪlʲstvə], 'construction'). Consonants[edit]

Consonant
Consonant
phonemes

Labial Alveolar /Dental Post- alveolar Palatal Velar

plain pal. plain pal. plain pal. plain pal.

Nasal m mʲ n nʲ

Stop p b pʲ bʲ t d tʲ dʲ

k ɡ kʲ [ɡʲ]

Affricate

ts

Fricative f v fʲ vʲ s z sʲ zʲ ʂ ʐ ɕː ʑː

x [ɣ] [xʲ] [ɣʲ]

Approximant (Lateral)

j

l lʲ

Trill

r rʲ

Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants. While /k, ɡ, x/ do have palatalized allophones [kʲ, ɡʲ, xʲ], only /kʲ/ might be considered a phoneme, though it is marginal and generally not considered distinctive. The only native minimal pair that argues for /kʲ/ being a separate phoneme is это ткёт ([ˈɛtə tkʲɵt], 'it weaves') – этот кот ([ˈɛtət kot], 'this cat'). Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. In the case of /tʲ/ and /dʲ/, the tongue is raised enough to produce slight frication (affricate sounds). The sounds /t, d, ts, s, z, n, rʲ/ are dental, that is, pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth rather than against the alveolar ridge. Grammar[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2014)

Main article: Russian grammar Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic-inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place. Russian grammar encompasses:

a highly fusional morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements:[citation needed]

a polished vernacular foundation;[clarification needed] a Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
inheritance; a Western European style.[clarification needed]

The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms. The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features,[citation needed] some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language. The Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience. Firstly with the newly conquered south-western regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde, for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy. Vocabulary[edit]

This page from an "ABC" book printed in Moscow
Moscow
in 1694 shows the letter П.

See History of the Russian language
History of the Russian language
for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian. The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
(who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian), are as follows:[73][74]

Work Year Words Notes

Academic dictionary, I Ed. 1789–1794 43,257 Russian and Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
with some Old Russian vocabulary.

Academic dictionary, II Ed 1806–1822 51,388 Russian and Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
with some Old Russian vocabulary.

Dictionary of Pushkin's language 1810–1837 >21,000 The dictionary of virtually all words from his works was published in 1956–1961. Some consider his works to contain 101,105.[75]

Academic dictionary, III Ed. 1847 114,749 Russian and Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
with Old Russian vocabulary.

Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language
Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language
(Dahl's) 1880–1882 195,844 44,000 entries lexically grouped; attempt to catalogue the full vernacular language. Contains many dialectal, local and obsolete words.

Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language (Ushakov's) 1934–1940 85,289 Current language with some archaisms.

Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (Ozhegov's) 1950–1965 1991 (2nd ed.) 120,480 "Full" 17-volumed dictionary of the contemporary language. The second 20-volumed edition was begun in 1991, but not all volumes have been finished.

Lopatin's dictionary 1999–2013 ≈200,000 Orthographic, current language, several editions

Great Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language 1998–2009 ≈130,000 Current language, the dictionary has many subsequent editions from the first one of 1998.

History and examples[edit] Main article: History of the Russian language See also: Reforms of Russian orthography The history of Russian language
Russian language
may be divided into the following periods.

Kievan period and feudal breakup The Moscow
Moscow
period (15th–17th centuries) Empire (18th–19th centuries) Soviet period and beyond (20th century)

Judging by the historical records, by approximately 1000 AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
Belarus
was the Eastern branch of the Slavs, speaking a closely related group of dialects. The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
in about 880, from which modern Russia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
trace their origins, established Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
as a literary and commercial language. It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity
Christianity
in 988 and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
as the liturgical and official language. Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek
Byzantine Greek
began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
as well.

The Ostromir Gospels
Ostromir Gospels
of 1056 is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library.

Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately 1100. On the territories of modern Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine
Ukraine
emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia
Russia
medieval Russian. They became distinct since the 13th century, i.e. following the division of that land between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland
Poland
and Hungary in the west and independent Novgorod and Pskov feudal republics plus numerous small duchies (which came to be vassals of the Tatars) in the east. The official language in Moscow
Moscow
and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic, which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age, when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts. Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts. The political reforms of Peter the Great
Peter the Great
(Пётр Вели́кий, Pyótr Velíkiy) were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet, and achieved their goal of secularization and Westernization. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By 1800, a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes. Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e.g. Leo Tolstoy's (Лев Толсто́й) War and Peace, contain entire paragraphs and even pages in French with no translation given, with an assumption that educated readers would not need one. The modern literary language is usually considered to date from the time of Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
(Алекса́ндр Пу́шкин) in the first third of the 19th century. Pushkin revolutionized Russian literature by rejecting archaic grammar and vocabulary (so-called высо́кий стиль — "high style") in favor of grammar and vocabulary found in the spoken language of the time. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning. In fact, many expressions used by Russian writers of the early 19th century, in particular Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov
Mikhail Lermontov
(Михаи́л Ле́рмонтов), Nikolai Gogol
Nikolai Gogol
(Никола́й Го́голь), Aleksander Griboyedov
Aleksander Griboyedov
(Алекса́ндр Грибое́дов), became proverbs or sayings which can be frequently found even in modern Russian colloquial speech.

Winter Evening

Reading of excerpt of Pushkin’s "Winter Evening" (Зимний вечер), 1825.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Зи́мний ве́чер IPA: [ˈzʲimnʲɪj ˈvʲetɕɪr] Бу́ря мгло́ю не́бо кро́ет, Russian pronunciation: [ˈburʲə ˈmɡɫoju ˈnʲɛbə ˈkroɪt] Ви́хри сне́жные крутя́; Russian pronunciation: [ˈvʲixrʲɪ ˈsʲnʲɛʐnɨɪ krʊˈtʲa] То, как зверь, она́ заво́ет, Russian pronunciation: [ˈto kaɡ zvʲerʲ ɐˈna zɐˈvoɪt] То запла́чет, как дитя́, Russian pronunciation: [ˈto zɐˈpɫatɕɪt, kaɡ dʲɪˈtʲa] То по кро́вле обветша́лой Russian pronunciation: [ˈto pɐˈkrovlʲɪ ɐbvʲɪtˈʂaɫəj] Вдруг соло́мой зашуми́т, Russian pronunciation: [ˈvdruk sɐˈɫoməj zəʂʊˈmʲit] То, как пу́тник запозда́лый, Russian pronunciation: [ˈto ˈkak ˈputʲnʲɪɡ zəpɐˈzdaɫɨj] К нам в око́шко застучи́т. Russian pronunciation: [ˈknam vɐˈkoʂkə zəstʊˈtɕit]

The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of 1918. Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific and technological matters (especially cosmonautics), gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the mid-20th century. During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in 1990.[76] Following the break-up of the USSR
USSR
in 1991, several of the newly independent states have encouraged their native languages, which has partly reversed the privileged status of Russian, though its role as the language of post-Soviet national discourse throughout the region has continued. The Russian language
Russian language
in the world is reduced due to the decrease in the number of Russians
Russians
in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia
Russia
(where Russian is an official language). The collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and reduction in influence of Russia
Russia
also has reduced the popularity of the Russian language
Russian language
in the rest of the world.[45][77][78]

Recent estimates of the total number of speakers of Russian

Source Native speakers Native rank Total speakers Total rank

G. Weber, "Top Languages", Language Monthly, 3: 12–18, 1997, ISSN 1369-9733 160,000,000 8 285,000,000 5

World Almanac (1999) 145,000,000 8          (2005) 275,000,000 5

SIL (2000 WCD) 145,000,000 8 255,000,000 5–6 (tied with Arabic)

CIA World Factbook (2005) 160,000,000 8

According to figures published in 2006 in the journal "Demoskop Weekly" research deputy director of Research Center for Sociological Research of the Ministry of Education and Science (Russia)
Ministry of Education and Science (Russia)
Arefyev A. L.,[79] the Russian language
Russian language
is gradually losing its position in the world in general, and in Russia
Russia
in particular.[77][80][81][82] In 2012, A. L. Arefyev published a new study " Russian language
Russian language
at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of further weakening of the Russian language
Russian language
in all regions of the world (findings published in 2013 in the journal "Demoskop Weekly").[45][83][84][85] In the countries of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the Russian language
Russian language
is gradually being replaced by local languages.[45][86] Currently the number speakers of Russian language in the world depends on the number of Russians
Russians
in the world and total population in Russia.[45][77][78]

The changing proportion of Russian speakers in the world (assessment Aref'eva 2012)[45][85]:387

Year worldwide population, million population Russian Empire, Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation, million share in world population, % total number of speakers of Russian, million share in world population, %

1900 1,650 138.0 8.4 105 6.4

1914 1,782 182.2 10.2 140 7.9

1940 2,342 205.0 8.8 200 7.6

1980 4,434 265.0 6.0 280 6.3

1990 5,263 286.0 5.4 312 5.9

2004 6,400 146.0 2.3 278 4.3

2010 6,820 142.7 2.1 260 3.8

See also[edit]

Russia
Russia
portal Language portal

List of English words of Russian origin List of Russian language
Russian language
topics Slavic Voice of America Computer Russification

References[edit]

^ On the history of using "русский" ("russkij") and "российский" ("rossijskij") as the Russian adjectives denoting "Russian", see: Oleg Trubachyov. 2005. Русский – Российский. История, динамика, идеология двух атрибутов нации (pp 216–227). В поисках единства. Взгляд филолога на проблему истоков Руси., 2005. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-01-25.  . On the 1830s change in the Russian name of the Russian language
Russian language
and its causes, see: Tomasz Kamusella. 2012. The Change of the Name of the Russian Language in Russian from Rossiiskii to Russkii: Did Politics Have Anything to Do with It?(pp 73–96). Acta Slavica Iaponica. Vol 32, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-05-18. Retrieved 2013-01-07.  ^ "Världens 100 största språk 2010" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2010), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ Russian language. Archived 2015-05-10 at the Wayback Machine. University of Leicester. Retrieved 30 June 2014. ^ "Article 68. Constitution of the Russian Federation". Constitution.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ "Article 17. Constitution of the Republic of Belarus". President.gov.by. 1998-05-11. Archived from the original on 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ N. Nazarbaev (2005-12-04). "Article 7. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan". Constcouncil.kz. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ (in Russian) Статья 10. Конституция Кыргызской Республики Archived 2012-12-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Article 2. Constitution of Tajikistan". Unpan1.un.org. Archived from the original on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ http://www.gagauzia.md/ (2008-08-05). "Article 16. Legal code of Gagauzia
Gagauzia
(Gagauz-Yeri)". Gagauzia.md. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ a b Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia
South Ossetia
are only partially recognized countries ^ (in Russian) Статья 6. Конституция Республики Абхазия ^ (in Russian) Статья 4. Конституция Республики Южная Осетия ^ "Article 12. Constitution of the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica". Mfa-pmr.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ "Charter of Organization for democracy and economic development – GUAM
GUAM
– GUAM". guam-organization.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05.  ^ "Law "On Principles of State Language Policy", Article 7". Zakon2.rada.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ The Constitution of Ukraine. Article 10. ^ The status of Crimea
Crimea
and of the city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is under dispute between Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
since March 2014; Ukraine
Ukraine
and the majority of the international community consider Crimea
Crimea
to be an autonomous republic of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
to be one of Ukraine's cities with special status, whereas Russia, on the other hand, considers Crimea
Crimea
to be a federal subject of Russia
Russia
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
to be one of Russia's three federal cities. ^ a b "Русский язык стал региональным в Севастополе, Донецкой и Запорожской обл". RosBusinessConsulting. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  ^ "Русскому языку на Харьковщине предоставили статус регионального" Archived 2012-12-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Ukrinform (in Russian) ^ "Николаевский облсовет сделал русский язык региональным" Archived 2012-09-09 at the Wayback Machine.. Новости Донбасса (in Russian) ^ Одеська державна адміністрація (2013-06-01). "Про заходи щодо імплементації положень Закону України "Про засади державної мовної політики" на території Одеської області". Oblrada.odessa.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ a b c "List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. 148 (Status as of: 21/9/2011)". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 2012-05-22. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ "National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic". Vlada.cz. Archived from the original on 2012-06-07. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ Юрий Подпоренко (2001). "Бесправен, но востребован. Русский язык в Узбекистане". Дружба Народов. Archived from the original on 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2016-05-27.  ^ Шухрат Хуррамов (2015-09-11). "Почему русский язык нужен узбекам?". 365info.kz. Archived from the original on 2016-07-01. Retrieved 2016-05-27.  ^ Евгений Абдуллаев (2009). "Русский язык: жизнь после смерти. Язык, политика и общество в современном Узбекистане". Неприкосновенный запас. Archived from the original on 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-05-27.  ^ А. Е. Пьянов. "СТАТУС РУССКОГО ЯЗЫКА В СТРАНАХ СНГ". 2011. Archived from the original on 2016-05-28. Retrieved 2016-05-27.  ^ "New York State Legislature".  ^ "Russian Language Institute". Ruslang.ru. Archived from the original on 2010-07-19. Retrieved 2010-05-16.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Russian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Russian Language Enjoying a Boost in Post-Soviet States". Gallup.com. August 1, 2008. Archived from the original on May 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-16.  ^ Арефьев, Александр (2006). Падение статуса русского языка на постсоветском пространстве. Демоскоп Weekly (in Russian) (251). Archived from the original on 2013-03-08.  ^ "The World's Most Widely Spoken Languages". Saint Ignatius High School. Cleveland, Ohio. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2012.  ^ Usage Statistics and Market Share of Content Languages for Websites, January 2018 ^ Timberlake 2004, p. 17. ^ "Most similar languages to Russian". Archived from the original on 2017-05-25.  ^ Sussex & Cubberley 2006, pp. 477–478, 480. ^  Minns, Ellis Hovell (1911). "Russian Language". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. pp. 912–914.  ^ "The Turkic Languages of Central Asia: Problems of Planned Culture Contact by Stefan Wurm". Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ "Falling Sonoroty Onsets, Loanwords, and Syllable
Syllable
contact" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ Aliyeh Kord Zafaranlu Kambuziya; Eftekhar Sadat Hashemi (2010). "Russian Loanword Adoptation in Persian; Optimal Approach" (PDF). roa.rutgers.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ Iraj Bashiri (1990). "Russian Loanwords in Persian and Tajiki Language". academia.edu. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ Colin Baker, Sylvia Prys Jones Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education Archived 2018-03-20 at the Wayback Machine. pp 219 Multilingual Matters, 1998 ISBN 1-85359-362-1 ^ Thompson, Irene. "Language Learning Difficulty". Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.  ^ a b c d e f "Демографические изменения - не на пользу русскому языку". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2014-08-05. Retrieved 2014-04-23.  ^ Russia's Language Could Be Ticket in for Migrants Archived 2014-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Gallup Retrieved on May 26, 2010 ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations
Clash of Civilizations
and the Remaking of World Order. p. 63.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-10-16.  ^ a b c d e f g "Русскоязычие распространено не только там, где живут русские". demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2016-10-23.  ^ a b c d "Languages". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ "Population Census 2011 – Key Indicators – Latvijas statistika". www.csb.gov.lv. Archived from the original on 2012-06-10.  ^ "Ethnic and Language Policy of the Republic of Lithuania: Basis and Practice, Jan Andrlík" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-03.  ^ "Демоскоп Weekly. Об итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. Сообщение Росстата". Demoscope.ru. 2011-11-08. Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2014-04-23.  ^ "Падение статуса русского языка на постсоветском пространстве". demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2016-10-25.  ^ "Europeans and their Languages" (PDF). europa.eu. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-21.  ^ "Georgia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  ^ "Russian". Archived from the original on 2015-01-09.  ^ "Results Of The 2009 National Population Census Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan" (PDF). Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit. Retrieved 31 October 2015.  ^ a b "Population And Housing Census Of The Kyrgyz Republic Of 2009" (PDF). UN Stats. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2015.  ^ "Law on Official Language" (PDF). Government of Uzbekistan. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2016.  ^ Brooke, James (February 15, 2005). "For Mongolians, E Is for English, F Is for Future". The New York Times. New York Times. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved May 16, 2009.  ^ Русский язык в Монголии стал обязательным [ Russian language
Russian language
has become compulsory in Mongolia] (in Russian). New Region. 21 September 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 16 May 2009.  ^ К визиту Нетаньяху: что Россия может получить от экономики Израиля Archived 2017-03-13 at the Wayback Machine. Алексей Голубович, Forbes Russia, 9 March 2017 ^ Awde and Sarwan, 2003 ^ "Ninilchik". languagehat.com. 2009-01-01. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ "Language Use in the United States: 2007, census.gov" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ Matthias Gelbmann (19 March 2013). "Russian is now the second most used language on the web". W3Techs. Q-Success. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.  ^ David Dalby. 1999–2000. The Linguasphere Register of the World's Languages and Speech Communities. Linguasphere Press. Pg. 442. ^ a b c d e f g Sussex & Cubberley 2006, pp. 521–526. ^ "The Language of the Russian Village" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-06-18. Retrieved 2011-11-10.  ^ "The Language of the Russian Village" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2011-11-10.  ^ Caloni, Wanderley (2007-02-15). "RusKey: mapping the Russian keyboard layout into the Latin
Latin
alphabets". The Code Project. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ What types of dictionaries exist? Archived 2012-01-17 at the Wayback Machine. from www.gramota .ru
.ru
(in Russian) ^ A catalogue of Russian explanatory dictionaries Archived 2012-01-12 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian) ^ "Якнбюпмши Гюоюя Осьйхмю... (Мю Меаеяюу) / Щяяе Х Ярюрэх / Ярхух.Пс - Мюжхнмюкэмши Яепбеп Янбпелеммни Онщгхх". Stihi.ru. 2010-03-24. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ "Закон СССР от 24 April 1990 О языках народов СССР" Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (The 1990 USSR
USSR
Law about the Languages of the USSR) (in Russian) ^ a b c Арефьев, А. Меньше россиян — меньше русскоговорящих. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ a b "журнал "Демоскоп". Где есть потребность в изучении русского языка". Mof.gov.cy. 2012-05-23. Archived from the original on 2013-04-05. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ Арефьев, А. Л. Сведения об авторе. Socioprognoz.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ Арефьев, А. В странах Азии, Африки и Латинской Америки наш язык стремительно утрачивает свою роль. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ Арефьев, А. Будет ли русский в числе мировых языков в будущем?. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ Арефьев, А. Падение статуса русского языка на постсоветском пространстве. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ Все меньше школьников обучаются на русском языке. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2014-08-05. Retrieved 2014-04-23.  ^ Русский Язык На Рубеже Xx-Ххi Веков. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-04-23.  ^ a b Русский язык на рубеже XX-XXI веков Archived 2013-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. — М.: Центр социального прогнозирования и маркетинга, 2012. — 482 стр. ^ журнал "Демоскоп". Русский язык — советский язык?. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 

Bibliography[edit] In English[edit]

Comrie, Bernard; Gerald Stone; Maria Polinsky (1996). The Russian Language in the Twentieth Century (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-824066-X.  Carleton, T.R. (1991). Introduction to the Phonological History of the Slavic Languages. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Press.  Cubberley, P. (2002). Russian: A Linguistic Introduction (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-79641-5.  Iliev, Iv. The Russian Genitive of Negation and Its Japanese Counterpart. International Journal of Russian Stidies. 1, 2018 (In Print) Sussex, Roland; Cubberley, Paul (2006). The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-22315-7.  Timberlake, Alan (2004). A Reference Grammar of Russian. New York: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77292-1.  Timberlake, Alan (1993). "Russian". In Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G. The Slavonic languages. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 827–886. ISBN 0-415-04755-2. 

Wade, Terence (2000). Holman, Michael, ed. A Comprehensive Russian Grammar (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-20757-0. 

in Russian[edit]

журнал «Демоскоп Weekly» № 571 – 572 14 – 31 октября 2013. А. Арефьев. Тема номера: сжимающееся русскоязычие. Демографические изменения - не на пользу русскому языку Русский язык на рубеже XX-XXI веков — М.: Центр социального прогнозирования и маркетинга, 2012. — 482 стр. Аннотация книги в РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК НА РУБЕЖЕ XX-XXI ВЕКОВ журнал «Демоскоп Weekly» № 329 – 330 14 – 27 апреля 2008. К. Гаврилов. Е. Козиевская. Е. Яценко. Тема номера: русский язык на постсоветских просторах. Где есть потребность в изучении русского языка журнал «Демоскоп Weekly» № 251 – 252 19 июня - 20 августа 2006. А. Арефьев. Тема номера: сколько людей говорят и будут говорить по-русски? Будет ли русский в числе мировых языков в будущем? Жуковская Л. П. (отв. ред.) Древнерусский литературный язык и его отношение к старославянскому. — М.: «Наука», 1987. Иванов В. В. Историческая грамматика русского языка. — М.: «Просвещение», 1990. Новиков Л. А. Современный русский язык: для высшей школы. -— М.: Лань, 2003. Филин Ф. П. О словарном составе языка Великорусского народа. // Вопросы языкознания. — М., 1982, № 5. — С. 18—28

External links[edit]

Find more aboutRussian languageat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Russian edition of, the free encyclopedia

The dictionary definition of Appendix:Russian Swadesh list at Wiktionary Oxford Dictionaries Russian Dictionary Russian Language at Curlie (based on DMOZ) USA Foreign Service Institute Russian basic course Free English to Russian Translation Translation of Russian expressions and phrases Russian – YouTube: playlist of (mostly half-hour-long) video lessons from Dallas Schools Television Free Online Russian Language WikiTranslate Video Course Национальный корпус русского языка National Corpus of the Russian Language (in Russian) Russian Language Institute
Russian Language Institute
Language regulator of the Russian language (in Russian) Top 7 foreign universities where studied Russian language

v t e

Russian language

History

Old Church Slavonic Church Slavonic Old East Slavic In Ukraine Russification

Writing

Alphabet Romanization (transliteration) Reforms Cursive Computer Russification Morse code Braille

Features

Grammar

Declension

Orthography

Reduplication Spelling rule

Phonology

Vowel
Vowel
reduction

Literature

Russian Literature Institute Formalism Science fiction and fantasy

Dialects

Northern

Pomor

Central

Moscow Trasianka

Southern

Balachka Surzhyk

Region

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Israel Latvia Ukraine

History

United States

Other

Russophone Russian Language Institute Runglish List of topics

Links to related articles

v t e

Russian dialects

Regional

Central (Lake Peipus, Moscow) Northern Southern

Ethnic

Don Cossack Goryun Pomor

Colonial

Alaskan Doukhobor

Mixed

Trasianka Surzhyk Runglish Russenorsk

v t e

Slavic languages

History

Proto-Balto-Slavic Up to Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic (Accent) Old Church Slavonic Modern languages Cyril and Methodius Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script Glagolitic alphabet

West Slavic languages

Czech Kashubian Polabian Middle Polish Old Polish Polish Pomeranian Slovak Slovincian Lower Sorbian Upper Sorbian

East Slavic languages

Belarusian Iazychie Old East Slavic Old Novgorodian Russian Ruthenian Ukrainian

South Slavic languages

Bulgarian Macedonian Serbo-Croatian

Bosnian Croatian Montenegrin Serbian

Slovene

Constructed languages

Church Slavonic Pan-Slavic language

Interslavic Slovio

Slavonic-Serbian

Separate Slavic dialects and microlanguages

Balachka Banat Bulgarian Burgenland Croatian Carpathian Rusyn Canadian Ukrainian Chakavian Cieszyn Silesian Czechoslovak Eastern Slovak Kajkavian Knaanic Lach Lesser Polish Masovian Masurian Moravian Molise Croatian Pannonian Rusyn Podhale Prekmurje Slovene Resian Shtokavian Silesian Slavic dialects of Greece Surzhyk Torlakian Trasianka West Polesian

Historical phonology

Slavic first palatalization Slavic second palatalization Slavic liquid metathesis and pleophony Dybo's law Havlík's law Hirt's law Illič-Svityč's law Ivšić's law Meillet's law Pedersen's law Ruki sound law Winter's law

Italics indicate extinct languages.

v t e

State languages of Russia

Federal language

Russian

State languages of federal subjects

Abaza Adyghe Agul Altai Avar Azerbaijani Bashkir Buryat Chechen Chuvash Crimean Tatar Dargwa Erzya Ingush Kabardian Kalmyk Karachay-Balkar Khakas Komi Kumyk Lak Lezgian Mari

Hill Meadow

Moksha Nogai Ossetic Rutul Sakha Tabasaran Tat Tatar Tsakhur Tuvan Ukrainian Udmurt

Languages with official status

Chukchi Dolgan Even Evenki Finnish Karelian Kazakh Khanty Komi-Permyak Mansi Nenets Selkup Veps Yukaghir

Scripts

Cyrillic Cyrillic
Cyrillic
Braille

v t e

Languages of Belarus

Official languages

Belarusian Russian

Minority languages

Lithuanian Polish Trasianka Ukrainian West Polesian

Sign languages

Russian Sign Language

v t e

Languages of Kazakhstan

Official languages

Kazakh Russian

Minority languages

German Tajiki Tatar Turkish Ukrainian Uyghur Uzbek

Sign languages

Russian Sign Language

v t e

Languages of Kyrgyzstan

Official language

Kyrgyz Russian

Minority languages

Dungan Koryo-mar Uzbek

Sign languages

Russian Sign Language

v t e

Russia articles

History

Timeline

Proto-Indo-Europeans Scythians East Slavs Rus' Khaganate Kievan Rus' Novgorod Republic Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy of Moscow Tsardom of Russia Russian Empire Russian Republic Russian SFSR Soviet Union Russian Federation

By topic

Economy Military Journalism ‎ Postal

Geography

Subdivisions Borders Earthquakes Geology European Russia Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains North Caucasus Caspian Sea Ural Mountains West Siberian Plain Siberia Russian Far East North Asia Extreme points Cities and towns Islands Lakes Rivers Volcanoes Climate Mountains

Politics

Conscription Constitution Elections

Presidential elections

Federal budget Foreign relations Freedom of assembly Freedom of press

Media

Government Human rights Judiciary Law

Citizenship

Civil Service Law enforcement (Prisons) Liberalism Military Opposition Political parties President of Russia

Economy

Agriculture Aircraft industry Car industry Banking Central Bank Corruption Defence industry Economic regions Energy Fishing industry Forestry Gambling Mining Petroleum industry Russian ruble Russian oligarchs Space industry Shipbuilding Trade unions Taxation Tourism Transport Telecommunications Waste

Society

Demographics Citizens Abortion Alcoholism Crime Education Healthcare Ethnic groups Languages LGBT Immigration

Illegal

Prostitution Racism Religion Suicide Water supply and sanitation Women

Culture

Architecture Art Literature Ballet Cinema Graffiti Inventions Media Music Public holidays Opera Language Cuisine Martial arts Folklore Television Internet National anthem Coat of arms National flag Sports

Outline

Book Category Portal

Authority control

LCCN: sh85115971 GND: 4051038-4 BNF: cb11932810g (data) NDL: 00569746 NKC: ph12

.