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Cambodia (/kæmˈboʊdiə/ ( listen); Khmer:
កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea IPA: [kɑmpuˈciə], French:
Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of
Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa, IPA: [ˈprĕəh
riəciənaːˈcɑk kɑmpuˈciə], French: Royaume du Cambodge), is a
sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina
Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres (69,898
square miles) in area, bordered by
Thailand to the northwest,
Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of
Thailand to the
Cambodia has a population of over 15 million. The official religion is
Theravada Buddhism, practiced by approximately 95 percent of the
population. The country's minority groups include Vietnamese, Chinese,
Chams, and 30 hill tribes. The capital and largest city is Phnom
Penh, the political, economic, and cultural centre of Cambodia. The
kingdom is an elective constitutional monarchy with Norodom Sihamoni,
a monarch chosen by the Royal Throne Council, as head of state. The
head of government is Hun Sen, who is currently
Prime minister and the
longest serving non-royal leader in
Southeast Asia and has ruled
Cambodia for over 30 years.
In 802 AD,
Jayavarman II declared himself king, uniting the warring
Khmer princes of
Chenla under the name "Kambuja". This marked the
beginning of the
Khmer Empire which flourished for over 600 years,
allowing successive kings to control and exert influence over much of
Southeast Asia and accumulate immense power and wealth. The Indianized
kingdom built monumental temples including
Angkor Wat, now a World
Heritage Site, and facilitated the spread of first Hinduism, then
Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia. After the fall of
Ayutthaya in the 15th century, a reduced and weakened
then ruled as a vassal state by its neighbours. In 1863 Cambodia
became a protectorate of
France which doubled the size of the country
by reclaiming the north and west from Thailand.
Cambodia gained independence in 1953. The
Vietnam War extended into
the country with the US bombing of
Cambodia from 1969 until 1973.
Following the Cambodian coup of 1970, the deposed king gave his
support to his former enemies, the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge
emerged as a major power, taking
Phnom Penh in 1975 and later carrying
Cambodian Genocide from 1975 until 1979, when they were ousted
Vietnam and the Vietnamese-backed
People's Republic of Kampuchea
People's Republic of Kampuchea in
Cambodian–Vietnamese War (1979–91).
Following the 1991 Paris Peace Accords,
Cambodia was governed briefly
United Nations mission (1992–93). The UN withdrew after holding
elections in which around 90 percent of the registered voters cast
ballots. The 1997 coup placed power solely in the hands of Prime
Hun Sen and the Cambodian People's Party, who remain in power
as of 2017[update].
The country faces numerous challenges. Important sociopolitical issues
includes widespread poverty, pervasive corruption, lack of
political freedoms, low human development, and a high rate of
Cambodia has been described by Human Rights
Watch's Southeast Asian Director, David Roberts, as a "vaguely
communist free-market state with a relatively authoritarian coalition
ruling over a superficial democracy." 
While per capita income remains low compared to most neighboring
Cambodia has one of the fastest growing economies in Asia
with growth averaging 6 percent over the last decade. Agriculture
remains the dominant economic sector, with strong growth in textiles,
construction, garments, and tourism leading to increased foreign
investment and international trade.
Cambodia scored dismally in an
annual index (2015) ranking the rule of law in 102 countries, placing
99th overall and the worst in the region.
Cambodia also faces environmental destruction as an imminent problem.
The most severe activity in this regard is considered to be the
countrywide deforestation, which also involves national parks and
wildlife sanctuaries. Overall, environmental destruction in Cambodia
comprise many different activities, including illegal logging,
poaching of endangered and endemic species, and destruction of
important wildlife habitats from large scale construction projects and
agricultural businesses. The degrading activities involve the local
population, Cambodian businesses and political authorities, as well as
foreign criminal syndicates and many transnational corporations from
all over the world.
2.2 Pre-Angkorian and Angkorian era
2.3 Dark ages of Cambodia
2.4 French colonisation
2.5 Independence and
Khmer Republic (1970–75)
Khmer Rouge regime, 1975-1978
2.8 Vietnamese occupation and transition, 1978-1992
2.9 Restoration of the monarchy
4.2 Political culture
4.4 Foreign relations
4.6 Legal profession
4.7 Human rights
4.8 Administrative divisions
5.5 Water supply and sanitation
6.2 Ethnic groups
6.3 Population centres
8 Science and technology
9 See also
10.2 Cited sources
11 External links
Main article: Names of Cambodia
The "Kingdom of Cambodia" is the official English name of the country.
The English "Cambodia" is an anglicisation of the French "Cambodge",
which in turn is the French transliteration of the Khmer Kampuchea.
Kampuchea is the shortened alternative to the country's official name
in Khmer, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea (Khmer:
Khmer endonym Kampuchea derives from the Sanskrit name Kambojadeśa
(कम्बोजदेश), composed of देश, desa ("land of"
or "country of") and कम्बोज, Kambojas, which alludes to
the foundation myths of the first ancient Khmer kingdom.
Colloquially, Cambodians refer to their country as either Srok Khmer
(Khmer pronunciation: [srok kʰmae]), meaning "Khmer's Land", or the
slightly more formal Prateh Kampuchea
(ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា), literally "Country of
Kampuchea". The name "Cambodia" is used most often in the Western
world while "Kampuchea" is more widely used in the East.
50/68 AD-550 AD
Kingdom of Funan
Nokor Phnom - (alternate name)
Kingdom of Chenla
Division of Land
Chenla and Water
Chenla in the 8th century AD.
One of the most powerful empires in Southeast Asia.
Dark ages of Cambodia
Dark ages of Cambodia (Chaktomuk era,
Cambodia (French Protectorate)
Under Japanese occupation
Kingdom of Cambodia
The period of
Sangkum Reastr Niyum (community of the common people)
(US bombing, Civil War)
(Khmer Genocide) – Retained UN recognition
Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea
Retained UN recognition
National Government of Cambodia
Retained UN recognition
People's Republic of Kampuchea
Not recognized by the UN
State of Cambodia
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
Main article: History of Cambodia
Main article: Early history of Cambodia
Glazed stoneware dating back to the 12th century.
There exists sparse evidence for a
Pleistocene human occupation of
present-day Cambodia, which includes quartz and quartzite pebble tools
found in terraces along the
Mekong River, in
Stung Treng and Kratié
provinces, and in Kampot Province, although their dating is
unreliable. Some slight archaeological evidence shows communities
of hunter-gatherers inhabited the region during Holocene: the most
ancient archaeological discovery site in
Cambodia is considered to be
the cave of L'aang Spean, in
Battambang Province, which belongs to the
Hoabinhian period. Excavations in its lower layers produced a series
of radiocarbon dates as of 6000 BC. Upper layers in the same
site gave evidence of transition to Neolithic, containing the earliest
dated earthenware ceramics in Cambodia
Archaeological records for the period between
Holocene and Iron Age
remain equally limited. A pivotal event in Cambodian prehistory was
the slow penetration of the first rice farmers from the north, which
began in the late 3rd millennium BC. The most curious prehistoric
Cambodia are the various "circular earthworks" discovered
in the red soils near
Memot and in the adjacent region of
the latter 1950s. Their function and age are still debated, but some
of them possibly date from 2nd millennium BC.
Khmer army going to war against the Cham, from a relief on the Bayon.
Other prehistoric sites of somewhat uncertain date are Samrong Sen
(not far from the ancient capital of Oudong), where the first
investigations began in 1875, and Phum Snay, in the northern
province of Banteay Meanchey. An excavation at Phum Snay revealed
21 graves with iron weapons and cranial trauma which could point to
conflicts in the past, possible with larger cities in Angkor.
 Prehistoric artefacts are often found during mining activities in
Iron was worked by about 500 BC, with supporting evidence coming from
the Khorat Plateau, in modern-day Thailand. In Cambodia, some Iron Age
settlements were found beneath
Baksei Chamkrong and other Angkorian
temples while circular earthworks were found beneath Lovea a few
kilometres north-west of Angkor. Burials, much richer than other types
of finds, testify to improvement of food availability and trade (even
on long distances: in the 4th century BC trade relations with India
were already opened) and the existence of a social structure and
labour organisation. Also, among the artefacts from the Iron Age,
glass beads are important evidence. Different kinds of glass beads
recovered from several sites across Cambodia, such as the Phum Snay
site in northwest and the Prohear site in southeast, show that there
were two main trading networks at the time. The two networks were
separated by time and space, which indicate that there was a shift
from one network to the other at about 2nd–4th century AD, probably
with changes in socio-political powers.
Pre-Angkorian and Angkorian era
Main articles: Kingdom of Funan, Chenla, and Khmer Empire
Avalokiteshvara at Prasat Bayon.
During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries, the Indianised states of Funan
and its successor, Chenla, coalesced in present-day
southwestern Vietnam. For more than 2,000 years, what was to become
Cambodia absorbed influences from India, passing them on to other
Southeast Asian civilisations that are now
Thailand and Laos.
Little else is known for certain of these polities, however Chinese
chronicles and tribute records do make mention of them. It is believed
that the territory of
Funan may have held the port known to
Claudius Ptolemy as "Kattigara". The Chinese
chronicles suggest that after Jayavarman I of
Chenla died around 690,
turmoil ensued which resulted in division of the kingdom into Land
Chenla and Water
Chenla which was loosely ruled by weak princes under
the dominion of Java.
Khmer Empire grew out of these remnants of
Chenla becoming firmly
established in 802 when
Jayavarman II (reigned c790-850) declared
Java and proclaimed himself a Devaraja. He and his
followers instituted the cult of the
God-king and began a series of
conquests that formed an empire which flourished in the area from the
9th to the 15th centuries. During the rule of
Jayavarman VIII the
Angkor empire was attacked by the
Mongol army of Kublai Khan, however
the king was able to buy peace. Around the 13th century, monks
Sri Lanka introduced
Buddhism to Southeast Asia.
The religion spread and eventually displaced
Hinduism and Mahayana
Buddhism as the popular religion of Angkor; however it was not the
official state religion until 1295; when
Indravarman III took
Khmer Empire was Southeast Asia's largest empire during the 12th
century. The empire's centre of power was Angkor, where a series of
capitals were constructed during the empire's zenith. In 2007 an
international team of researchers using satellite photographs and
other modern techniques concluded that
Angkor had been the largest
pre-industrial city in the world with an urban sprawl of 2,980 square
kilometres (1,151 square miles). The city, which could have
supported a population of up to one million people and
the best known and best-preserved religious temple at the site, still
serves as a reminder of Cambodia's past as a major regional power. The
empire, though in decline, remained a significant force in the region
until its fall in the 15th century.
Dark ages of Cambodia
Main article: Dark ages of Cambodia
Indochina in 1760.
After a long series of wars with neighbouring kingdoms,
sacked by the
Ayutthaya Kingdom and abandoned in 1432 because of
ecological failure and infrastructure breakdown. This led to a
period of economic, social, and cultural stagnation when the kingdom's
internal affairs came increasingly under the control of its
neighbours. By this time, the Khmer penchant for monument building had
ceased. Older faiths such as Mahayana
Buddhism and the
Hindu cult of
the god-king had been supplanted by
The court moved the capital to
Longvek where the kingdom sought to
regain its glory through maritime trade. The first mention of Cambodia
in European documents was in 1511 by the Portuguese. Portuguese
travellers described the city as a place of flourishing wealth and
foreign trade. The attempt was short-lived however, as continued wars
with Ayutthaya and the Vietnamese resulted in the loss of more
Longvek being conquered and destroyed by King Naresuan
the Great of Ayutthaya in 1594. A new Khmer capital was established at
Oudong south of
Longvek in 1618, but its monarchs could survive only
by entering into what amounted to alternating vassal relationships
with the Siamese and Vietnamese for the next three centuries with only
a few short-lived periods of relative independence.
The hill tribe people in
Cambodia were "hunted incessantly and carried
off as slaves by the Siamese (Thai), the Annamites (Vietnamese), and
In the nineteenth century a renewed struggle between Siam and Vietnam
for control of
Cambodia resulted in a period when Vietnamese officials
attempted to force the
Khmers to adopt Vietnamese customs. This led to
several rebellions against the Vietnamese and appeals to
Siamese–Vietnamese War (1841–1845)
Siamese–Vietnamese War (1841–1845) ended with an
agreement to place the country under joint suzerainty. This later led
to the signing of a treaty for French Protection of
Cambodia by King
King Sisowath Monivong.
In 1863, King Norodom, who had been installed by Thailand, sought
the protection of
France from the Thai rule. In 1867, the Thai king
signed a treaty with France, renouncing suzerainty over
exchange for the control of
Siem Reap provinces which
officially became part of Thailand. The provinces were ceded back to
Cambodia by a border treaty between
Thailand in 1907.
Cambodia continued as a protectorate of
France from 1867 to 1953,
administered as part of the colony of French Indochina, though
occupied by the Japanese empire from 1941 to 1945. Between 1874
and 1962, the total population increased from about 946,000 to
5.7 million. After King Norodom's death in 1904, France
manipulated the choice of king, and Sisowath, Norodom's brother, was
placed on the throne. The throne became vacant in 1941 with the death
of Monivong, Sisowath's son, and
France passed over Monivong's son,
Monireth, feeling he was too independently minded. Instead, Norodom
Sihanouk, a maternal grandson of King Sisowath was enthroned. The
French thought young Sihanouk would be easy to control. They were
wrong, however, and under the reign of King Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodia
gained independence from
France on 9 November 1953.
Main article: Kingdom of
Norodom Sihanouk and
Mao Zedong in 1956.
Cambodia became a constitutional monarchy under King Norodom Sihanouk.
Indochina was given independence,
Cambodia lost hope of
regaining control over the
Mekong Delta as it was awarded to Vietnam.
Formerly part of the Khmer Empire, the area had been controlled by the
Vietnamese since 1698, with King
Chey Chettha II granting Vietnamese
permission to settle in the area decades before. This remains a
diplomatic sticking point with over one million ethnic
Khmer Krom) still living in this region. The
Khmer Rouge attempted
invasions to recover the territory which, in part, led to Vietnam's
Cambodia and deposition of the Khmer Rouge.
In 1955, Sihanouk abdicated in favour of his father to participate in
politics and was elected prime minister. Upon his father's death in
1960, Sihanouk again became head of state, taking the title of prince.
Vietnam War progressed, Sihanouk adopted an official policy of
neutrality in the Cold War. Sihanouk allowed the Vietnamese communists
Cambodia as a sanctuary and a supply route for their arms and
other aid to their armed forces fighting in South Vietnam. This policy
was perceived as humiliating by many Cambodians. In December 1967
Washington Post journalist Stanley Karnow was told by Sihanouk that if
the US wanted to bomb the Vietnamese communist sanctuaries, he would
not object, unless Cambodians were killed.
The same message was conveyed to US President Johnson's emissary
Chester Bowles in January 1968. However, in public Sihanouk
refuted the US' right to use air strikes in
Cambodia and on 26 March
Prince Sihanouk said "these criminal attacks must immediately and
definitively stop..." and on 28 March a press conference was held and
Sihanouk appealed to the international media "I appeal to you to
publicise abroad this very clear stand of Cambodia—that is, I will
in any case oppose all bombings on Cambodian territory under whatever
pretext." Nevertheless, the public pleas of Sihanouk were ignored and
the bombing continued.
Members of the government and army became resentful of Sihanouk's
ruling style as well as his tilt away from the United States.
Khmer Republic (1970–75)
Main article: Cambodian Civil War
Tens of thousands of people were killed during the US bombing of
Cambodia between 1970 and 1973.
While visiting Beijing in 1970 Sihanouk was ousted by a military coup
led by Prime Minister General
Lon Nol and Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak.
US support for the coup remains unproven. However, once the coup
was completed, the new regime, which immediately demanded that the
Vietnamese communists leave Cambodia, gained the political support of
the United States. The North Vietnamese and
Viet Cong forces,
desperate to retain their sanctuaries and supply lines from North
Vietnam, immediately launched armed attacks on the new government. The
king urged his followers to help in overthrowing this government,
hastening the onset of civil war.
Khmer Rouge rebels began using him to gain support. However, from
1970 until early 1972, the Cambodian conflict was largely one between
the government and army of Cambodia, and the armed forces of North
Vietnam. As they gained control of Cambodian territory, the Vietnamese
communists imposed a new political infrastructure, which was
eventually dominated by the Cambodian communists now referred to as
the Khmer Rouge. Between 1969 and 1973, Republic of
Vietnam and US
Cambodia in an effort to disrupt the
Viet Cong and Khmer
Documents uncovered from the Soviet archives after 1991 reveal that
the North Vietnamese attempt to overrun
Cambodia in 1970 was launched
at the explicit request of the
Khmer Rouge and negotiated by Pol Pot's
then second in command, Nuon Chea. NVA units overran many
Cambodian army positions while the
Communist Party of Kampuchea
Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK)
expanded their small-scale attacks on lines of communication. In
response to the North Vietnamese invasion, US President Richard Nixon
announced that US and South Vietnamese ground forces had entered
Cambodia in a campaign aimed at destroying NVA base areas in Cambodia
(see Cambodian Incursion). Although a considerable quantity of
equipment was seized or destroyed by US and South Vietnamese forces,
containment of North Vietnamese forces proved elusive.
Lon Nol with US Vice-President
Spiro Agnew in Phnom Penh, 1970.
The Khmer Republic's leadership was plagued by disunity among its
three principal figures: Lon Nol, Sihanouk's cousin Sirik Matak, and
National Assembly leader In Tam.
Lon Nol remained in power in part
because neither of the others was prepared to take his place. In 1972,
a constitution was adopted, a parliament elected, and
Lon Nol became
president. But disunity, the problems of transforming a 30,000-man
army into a national combat force of more than 200,000 men, and
spreading corruption weakened the civilian administration and army.
The Communist insurgency inside
Cambodia continued to grow, aided by
supplies and military support from North Vietnam.
Pol Pot and Ieng
Sary asserted their dominance over the Vietnamese-trained communists,
many of whom were purged. At the same time, the CPK forces became
stronger and more independent of their Vietnamese patrons. By 1973,
the CPK were fighting battles against government forces with little or
no North Vietnamese troop support, and they controlled nearly 60% of
Cambodia's territory and 25% of its population. The government made
three unsuccessful attempts to enter into negotiations with the
insurgents, but by 1974, the CPK were operating openly as divisions,
and some of the NVA combat forces had moved into South Vietnam. Lon
Nol's control was reduced to small enclaves around the cities and main
transportation routes. More than 2 million refugees from the war lived
Phnom Penh and other cities.
On New Year's Day 1975, Communist troops launched an offensive which,
in 117 days of the hardest fighting of the war, collapsed the Khmer
Republic. Simultaneous attacks around the perimeter of Phnom Penh
pinned down Republican forces, while other CPK units overran fire
bases controlling the vital lower
Mekong resupply route. A US-funded
airlift of ammunition and rice ended when Congress refused additional
aid for Cambodia. The
Lon Nol government in
Phnom Penh surrendered on
17 April 1975, just five (5) days after the US mission evacuated
Khmer Rouge regime, 1975-1978
Democratic Kampuchea and Khmer Rouge
Rooms of the
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum contain thousands of photos
taken by the
Khmer Rouge of their victims.
Khmer Rouge reached
Phnom Penh and took power in 1975. Led by Pol
Pot, they changed the official name of the country to Democratic
Kampuchea. The new regime modelled itself on Maoist
China during the
Great Leap Forward, immediately evacuated the cities, and sent the
entire population on forced marches to rural work projects. They
attempted to rebuild the country's agriculture on the model of the
11th century, discarded Western medicine and destroyed temples,
libraries, and anything considered Western.
Estimates as to how many people were killed by the
Khmer Rouge regime
range from approximately one to three million; the most commonly cited
figure is two million (about a quarter of the population).
This era gave rise to the term Killing Fields, and the prison Tuol
Sleng became notorious for its history of mass killing. Hundreds of
thousands fled across the border into neighbouring Thailand. The
regime disproportionately targeted ethnic minority groups. The Cham
Muslims suffered serious purges with as much as half of their
Pol Pot was determined to keep his power
and disenfranchise any enemies or potential threats, and thus
increased his violent and aggressive actions against his people.
Choeung Ek, a known site of mass grave for genocide victims during the
Khmer Rouge era.
Forced repatriation in 1970 and deaths during the
Khmer Rouge era
reduced the Vietnamese population in
Cambodia from between 250,000 and
300,000 in 1969 to a reported 56,000 in 1984. However, most of the
victims of the
Khmer Rouge regime were not ethnic minorities but
ethnic Khmer. Professionals, such as doctors, lawyers and teachers,
were also targeted. According to Robert D. Kaplan, "eyeglasses were as
deadly as the yellow star" as they were seen as a sign of
Religious institutions were not spared by the
Khmer Rouge as well,
religion was so viciously persecuted to such a terrifying extent that
the vast majority of Cambodia's historic architecture, 95% of
Cambodia's Buddhist temples, was completely destroyed.
Vietnamese occupation and transition, 1978-1992
People's Republic of Kampuchea
People's Republic of Kampuchea and
In November 1978, Vietnamese troops invaded
Cambodia in response to
border raids by the Khmer Rouge. The People's Republic of
Kampuchea (PRK), a pro-Soviet state led by the Kampuchean People's
Revolutionary Party, a party created by the Vietnamese in 1951, and
led by a group of
Khmer Rouge who had fled
Cambodia to avoid being
Pol Pot and Ta Mok, was established.[clarification
needed] It was fully beholden to the occupying Vietnamese army and
under direction of the Vietnamese ambassador to Phnom Penh. Its arms
Vietnam and the Soviet Union.
In opposition to the newly created state, a government-in-exile
referred to as the Coalition Government of
Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK)
was formed in 1981 from three factions. This consisted of the
Khmer Rouge, a royalist faction led by Sihanouk, and the Khmer
People's National Liberation Front. Its credentials were recognised by
the United Nations. The
Khmer Rouge representative to the UN, Thiounn
Prasith, was retained, but he had to work in consultation with
representatives of the noncommunist Cambodian parties. The
Vietnam to withdraw from
Cambodia led to economic
sanctions by the US and its allies.[specify]
Peace efforts began in Paris in 1989 under the State of Cambodia,
culminating two years later in October 1991 in a Paris Comprehensive
Peace Settlement. The UN was given a mandate to enforce a ceasefire
and deal with refugees and disarmament known as the United Nations
Transitional Authority in
Restoration of the monarchy
King-Father Norodom Sihanouk's funeral procession in 17 October 2012.
Norodom Sihanouk was restored as King of Cambodia, but all
power was in the hands of the government established after the UNTAC
sponsored elections. The stability established following the conflict
was shaken in 1997 by a coup d'état led by the co-Prime Minister Hun
Sen against the non-communist parties in the government. In recent
years, reconstruction efforts have progressed and led to some
political stability through a multiparty democracy under a
In July 2010,
Kang Kek Iew
Kang Kek Iew was the first
Khmer Rouge member found
guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity in his role as the
former commandant of the S21 extermination camp and he was sentenced
to life in prison. However,
Hun Sen has opposed extensive
trials of former
Khmer Rouge mass murderers.
In August 2014, a U.N.-backed war crimes tribunal, the Extraordinary
Chambers in the Courts of
Cambodia (also known as the Khmer Rouge
Tribunal), sentenced Khieu Samphan, the regime's 83-year-old former
head of state, and Nuon Chea, its 88-year-old chief ideologue to life
in prison on war crimes charges for their role in the country's terror
period in the 1970s. The trial began in November 2011. Former Foreign
Ieng Sary died in 2013, while his wife, Social Affairs
Minister Ieng Thirith, was deemed unfit to stand trial due to dementia
in 2012. The group's top leader, Pol Pot, died in 1998.
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Main article: Geography of Cambodia
An Western map about Cambodia.[clarification needed]
Cambodia has an area of 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 square
miles) and lies entirely within the tropics, between latitudes 10°
and 15°N, and longitudes 102° and 108°E. It borders
Thailand to the
north and west,
Laos to the northeast, and
Vietnam to the east and
southeast. It has a 443-kilometre (275-mile) coastline along the Gulf
Cambodia's landscape is characterised by a low-lying central plain
that is surrounded by uplands and low mountains and includes the Tonle
Sap (Great Lake) and the upper reaches of the
Mekong River delta.
Extending outward from this central region are transitional plains,
thinly forested and rising to elevations of about 650 feet (200
metres) above sea level.
To the north the Cambodian plain abuts a sandstone escarpment, which
forms a southward-facing cliff stretching more than 200 miles (320
kilometres) from west to east and rising abruptly above the plain to
heights of 600 to 1,800 feet (180–550 metres). This cliff marks
the southern limit of the Dângrêk Mountains.
Flowing south through the country's eastern regions is the Mekong
River. East of the
Mekong the transitional plains gradually merge with
the eastern highlands, a region of forested mountains and high
plateaus that extend into
Laos and Vietnam. In southwestern Cambodia
two distinct upland blocks, the Krâvanh Mountains and the Dâmrei
Mountains, form another highland region that covers much of the land
area between the
Tonle Sap and the Gulf of Thailand.
In this remote and largely uninhabited area, Phnom Aural, Cambodia's
highest peak rises to an elevation of 5,949 feet (1,813 metres). The
southern coastal region adjoining the Gulf of
Thailand is a narrow
lowland strip, heavily wooded and sparsely populated, which is
isolated from the central plain by the southwestern highlands.
The most distinctive geographical feature is the inundations of the
Tonle Sap (Great Lake), measuring about 2,590 square kilometres (1,000
square miles) during the dry season and expanding to about 24,605
square kilometres (9,500 square miles) during the rainy season. This
densely populated plain, which is devoted to wet rice cultivation, is
the heartland of Cambodia. Much of this area has been designated as a
Geography of Cambodia
Geography of Cambodia § Climate
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification map of Cambodia.
Cambodia's climate, like that of the rest of Southeast Asia, is
dominated by monsoons, which are known as tropical wet and dry because
of the distinctly marked seasonal differences.
Cambodia has a temperature range from 21 to 35 °C (69.8 to
95.0 °F) and experiences tropical monsoons. Southwest monsoons
blow inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand
and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast monsoon ushers in
the dry season, which lasts from November to April. The country
experiences the heaviest precipitation from September to October with
the driest period occurring from January to February.
According to the International Development Research Center and The
Cambodia is considered Southeast Asia’s most
vulnerable country to the effects of climate change, alongside the
Philippines. Rural coastal populations are particularly at
risk. Shortages of clean water, extreme flooding, mudslides, higher
sea levels and potentially destructive storms are of particular
concern, according to the
Cambodia Climate Change Alliance.
Cambodia has two distinct seasons. The rainy season, which runs from
May to October, can see temperatures drop to 22 °C
(71.6 °F) and is generally accompanied with high humidity. The
dry season lasts from November to April when temperatures can rise up
to 40 °C (104 °F) around April. Disastrous flooding
occurred in 2001 and again in 2002, with some degree of flooding
almost every year.
Main article: Wildlife of Cambodia
Macaques at Angkor
Cambodia's biodiversity is largely founded on its seasonal tropical
forests, containing some 180 recorded tree species, and riparian
ecosystems. There are 212 mammal species, 536 bird species, 240
reptile species, 850 freshwater fish species (
Tonle Sap Lake area),
and 435 marine fish species recorded by science. Much of this
biodiversity is contained around the
Tonle Sap Lake and the
Biosphere Reserve is a reserve surrounding the Tonle Sap
lake. It encompasses the lake and nine provinces: Kampong Thom, Siem
Reap, Battambang, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang, Banteay Meanchey, Pailin,
Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. In 1997, it was successfully
nominated as a
UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Other key habitats
include the dry forest of
Ratanakiri provinces and the
Cardamom Mountains ecosystem, including Bokor National Park,
Botum-Sakor National Park, and the
Phnom Aural and Phnom Samkos
Worldwide Fund for Nature
Worldwide Fund for Nature recognises six distinct terrestrial
Cambodia – the
Cardamom Mountains rain forests,
Indochina dry forest, Southeast
Indochina dry evergreen
Annamite Range tropical forest,
Tonle Sap freshwater
swamp forest, and Tonle Sap-
Mekong peat swamp forest.
Waterfall at Phnom Kulen
Cambodia has a bad but improving performance in the global
Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 146
out of 180 countries in 2016. This is among the worst in the Southeast
Asian region, only ahead of
Laos and Myanmar. The EPI was established
in 2001 by the
World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how
well individual countries perform in implementing the United Nations'
Sustainable Development Goals. The environmental areas where Cambodia
performs worst (i.e. highest ranking) are air quality (148), water
resource management (140) and health impacts of environmental issues
(137), with the areas of sanitation, environmental impacts of
fisheries and forest management following closely.
best when it comes to handling the nitrogen balance in the
agricultural industry specifically, an area where
Cambodia excels and
are among the best in the world. In addition,
Cambodia has an
unusually large area of wildlife protections, both on land and at sea,
with the land-based protections covering about 20% of the country.
Cambodia a better than average ranking of 61 in relation
to biodiversity and habitat, even though illegal logging, construction
and poaching are heavily deteriorating these protections and habitats
Prey Lang Forest
The rate of deforestation in
Cambodia is one of the highest in the
world and it is often perceived as the most destructive, singular
environmental issue in the country. Cambodia's primary forest
cover fell from over 70% in 1969 to just 3.1% in 2007. In total,
Cambodia lost 25,000 km2 (9,700 sq mi) of forest
between 1990 and 2005 – 3,340 km2 (1,290 sq mi) of
which was primary forest. Since 2007, less than 3,220 km2
(1,243 sq mi) of primary forest remain with the result that
the future sustainability of the forest reserves of
Cambodia is under
severe threat. In 2010–2015, the annual rate of
deforestation was 1.3%. The environmental degradation also includes
national parks and wildlife sanctuaries on a large scale and many
endangered and endemic species are now threatened with extinction due
to loss of habitats. There are many reasons for the deforestation in
Cambodia, which range from opportunistic illegal loggings to large
scale clearings from big construction projects and agricultural
activities. The global issue of land grabbing is particularly rampant
in Cambodia. The deforestation involves the local population,
Cambodian businesses and authorities as well as transnational
corporations from all over the world.
Plans for hydroelectric development in the Greater
Laos in particular, pose a "real danger to the food supply of
Vietnam and Cambodia. Upstream dams will imperil the fish stocks that
provide the vast majority of Cambodia's protein and could also denude
Mekong River of the silt
Vietnam needs for its rice basket." The
rich fisheries of Tonle Sap, the largest freshwater lake in Southeast
Asia, largely supply the impoverished country's protein. The lake is
unusual: It all but disappears in the dry season and then expands
massively as water flow from the
Mekong backs up when the rains come.
"Those fish are so important for their livelihoods, both economically
and nutritionally," said Gordon Holtgrieve, a professor at the
University of Washington
University of Washington who researches Cambodia's freshwater fish and
he points out that none of the dams that are either built or being
built on the
Mekong river "are pointing at good outcomes for the
In the 2010s, the Cambodian government and educational system has
increased its involvement and co-operation with both national and
international environmental groups. A new National
Environmental Strategy and Action Plan (NESAP) for
Cambodia is to be
implemented from late 2016 to 2023 and contains new ideas for how to
incite a green and environmentally sustainable growth for the
In November 2017, the U.S. cut funds to help clear unexploded ordnance
including land mines and chemical weapons in
Cambodia which it had
dropped during the
Main articles: Politics of Cambodia, List of political parties in
Cambodia, and 2013–14 Cambodian protests
Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia
National politics in
Cambodia take place within the framework of the
nation's constitution of 1993. The government is a constitutional
monarchy operated as a parliamentary representative democracy. The
Prime Minister of Cambodia, an office held by
Hun Sen since 1985, is
the head of government, while the
King of Cambodia
King of Cambodia (currently Norodom
Sihamoni) is the head of state. The prime minister is appointed by the
king, on the advice and with the approval of the National Assembly.
The prime minister and the ministerial appointees exercise executive
Legislative powers are shared by the executive and the bicameral
Parliament of Cambodia
Parliament of Cambodia (សភាតំណាងរាស្ត្រ,
saphea damnang reastr), which consists of a lower house, the National
Assembly (រដ្ឋសភា, rotsaphea) and an upper house, the
Senate (ព្រឹទ្ធសភា, protsaphea). Members of the
123-seat Assembly are elected through a system of proportional
representation and serve for a maximum term of five years. The Senate
has 61 seats, two of which are appointed by the king and two others by
the National Assembly, and the rest elected by the commune councillors
from 24 provinces of Cambodia. Senators serve six-year terms.
On 14 October 2004, King
Norodom Sihamoni was selected by a special
nine-member Royal Throne Council, part of a selection process that was
quickly put in place after the abdication of King
Norodom Sihanouk a
week prior. Sihamoni's selection was endorsed by Prime Minister Hun
Sen and National Assembly Speaker Prince
Norodom Ranariddh (the king's
half-brother and current chief advisor), both members of the throne
council. He was enthroned in
Phnom Penh on 29 October 2004.
Officially a multiparty democracy, in reality "the country remains a
one-party state dominated by the
Cambodian People's Party
Cambodian People's Party and Prime
Minister Hun Sen, a recast
Khmer Rouge official in power since 1985.
The open doors to new investment during his reign have yielded the
most access to a coterie of cronies of his and his wife, Bun
Rany." Cambodia's government has been described by the Human
Rights Watch’s Southeast Asian director, David Roberts, as a
"vaguely communist free-market state with a relatively authoritarian
coalition ruling over a superficial democracy."
Hun Sen has vowed to rule until he is 74. He
is a former
Khmer Rouge member who defected. His government is
regularly accused of ignoring human rights and suppressing political
dissent. The 2013 election results were disputed by Hun Sen's
opposition, leading to demonstrations in the capital. Demonstrators
were injured and killed in
Phnom Penh where a reported 20,000
protesters gathered, with some clashing with riot police. From a
humble farming background,
Hun Sen was just 33 when he took power in
1985, and is by some considered a long ruling dictator.
Head of State
Head of Government
Cambodian People's Party
Cambodian People's Party (CPP) is the sole dominant-party in
Cambodia. The CPP controls the lower and upper chambers of parliament,
with 79 seats in the National Assembly and 58 seats in the Senate.
Prime Minister Hun Sen
Hun Sen and his government have seen much controversy.
Hun Sen was a
Khmer Rouge commander who was originally installed by the
Vietnamese and, after the Vietnamese left the country, maintains his
strong man position by violence and oppression when deemed
necessary. In 1997, fearing the growing power of his co–prime
minister, Prince Norodom Ranariddh, Hun launched a coup, using the
army to purge Ranariddh and his supporters. Ranariddh was ousted and
fled to Paris while other opponents of
Hun Sen were arrested,
tortured, and some summarily executed.
In addition to political oppression, the Cambodian government has been
accused of corruption in the sale of vast areas of land to foreign
investors resulting in the eviction of thousands of villagers as
well as taking bribes in exchange for grants to exploit Cambodia's oil
wealth and mineral resources.
Cambodia is consistently listed as
one of the most corrupt governments in the world.
Amnesty International currently recognises one prisoner of conscience
in the country: 33-year-old land rights activist Yorm Bopha.
Journalists covering a protest over disputed election results in Phnom
Penh on 22 September 2013 say they were deliberately attacked by
police and men in plain clothes, with slingshots and stun guns. The
attack against the president of the Overseas Press Club of Cambodia,
Rick Valenzuela, was captured on video. The violence came amid
political tensions as the opposition boycotted the opening of
Parliament due to concerns about electoral fraud. Seven reporters
sustained minor injuries while at least two Cambodian protesters were
hit by slingshot projectiles and hospitalized.
In 2017 the courts dissolved the main opposition party, paving the way
for a return to a yet more authoritarian political system.
Corruption in Cambodia
The level of corruption in
Cambodia exceeds most countries in the
world. Despite adopting an 'Anti-
Corruption Law' in 2010, corruption
prevails throughout the country.
Corruption affects the judiciary, the
police and other state institutions. Favouritism by government
officials and impunity is commonplace. Lack of a clear distinction
between the courts and the executive branch of government also makes
for a deep politicisation of the judicial system.
Examples of areas where Cambodians encounter corrupt practices in
their everyday lives include obtaining medical services, dealing with
alleged traffic violations, and pursuing fair court verdicts.
Companies deal with extensive red tape when obtaining licenses and
permits, especially construction related permits, and the demand for
and supply of bribes are commonplace in this process. The 2010
Corruption Law provided no protection to whistle-blowers, and
whistle-blowers can be jailed for up to 6 months if they report
corruption that cannot be proven.
Main article: Foreign relations of Cambodia
Hun Sen shakes hands with US Secretary of State John
Kerry during his visit to
Cambodia on 25 January 2016.
The foreign relations of
Cambodia are handled by the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs under Prak Sokhon.
Cambodia is a member of the United
Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. It is a
member of the
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank (ADB), ASEAN, and joined the WTO
in 2004. In 2005
Cambodia attended the inaugural
East Asia Summit
East Asia Summit in
Cambodia has established diplomatic relations with numerous countries;
the government reports twenty embassies in the country including
many of its Asian neighbours and those of important players during the
Paris peace negotiations, including the US, Australia, Canada, China,
the European Union (EU), Japan, and Russia. As a result of its
international relations, various charitable organisations have
assisted with social, economic, and civil infrastructure needs.
While the violent ruptures of the 1970s and 1980s have passed, several
border disputes between
Cambodia and its neighbours persist. There are
disagreements over some offshore islands and sections of the boundary
Vietnam and undefined maritime boundaries.
Cambodia and Thailand
also have border disputes, with troops clashing over land immediately
adjacent to the Preah Vihear temple in particular, leading to a
deterioration in relations. Most of the territory belongs to Cambodia,
but a combination of
Thailand disrespecting international law, Thai
troop upbuild in the area and lack of resources for the Cambodian
military have left the situation unsettled since 1962.
China have cultivated ties in the 2010s. A Chinese
company with the support of the
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army built a
deep-water seaport along 90 km stretch of Cambodian coastline of
the Gulf of
Thailand in Koh Kong province; the port is sufficiently
deep to be used by cruise ships, bulk carriers or warships. Cambodia's
diplomatic support has been invaluable to Beijing's effort to claim
disputed areas in the South
China Sea. Because
Cambodia is a member of
ASEAN, and because under
ASEAN rules "the objections of one member can
thwart any group initiative,"
Cambodia is diplomatically useful to
China as a counterweight to southeast Asian nations that have closer
ties to the United States.
Main article: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces
Royal Cambodian Army
Royal Cambodian Army officers marching.
The Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Cambodian Navy, Royal Cambodian Air
Force and Royal Gendarmerie collectively form the Royal Cambodian
Armed Forces, under the command of the Ministry of National Defence,
presided over by the Prime Minister of Cambodia. His Majesty King
Norodom Sihamoni is the Supreme Commander of the Royal Cambodian Armed
Forces (RCAF), and the country's Prime Minister
Hun Sen effectively
holds the position of commander-in-chief.
The introduction of a revised command structure early in 2000 was a
key prelude to the reorganisation of the Cambodian military. This saw
the defence ministry form three subordinate general departments
responsible for logistics and finance, materials and technical
services, and defence services under the High Command Headquarters
The minister of National Defense is General Tea Banh. Banh has served
as defence minister since 1979. The Secretaries of State for Defense
Chay Saing Yun and Por Bun Sreu.
In 2010, the
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces comprised about 102,000
active personnel (200,000 reserve). Total Cambodian military spending
stands at 3% of national GDP. The
Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia
Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia total
more than 7,000 personnel. Its civil duties include providing security
and public peace, to investigate and prevent organised crime,
terrorism and other violent groups; to protect state and private
property; to help and assist civilians and other emergency forces in a
case of emergency, natural disaster, civil unrest and armed conflicts.
Hun Sen has accumulated highly centralised power in Cambodia,
including a praetorian guard that 'appears to rival the capabilities
of the country's regular military units', and is allegedly used by Hun
Sen to quell political opposition.'
The Cambodian legal profession was established in 1932. By 1978, due
Khmer Rouge regime, the entire legal system was eradicated.
Judges and lawyers were executed after being deemed "class enemies"
and only 6-12 legal professionals actually survived and remained in
the country. Lawyers did not reappear until 1995 when the Bar
Association of the Kingdom of Cambodia
Main article: Human rights in Cambodia
US State Department
US State Department report says "forces under
Hun Sen and the
Cambodian People's Party
Cambodian People's Party have committed frequent and large-scale
abuses, including extrajudicial killings and torture, with
impunity". According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an
estimated 256,800 people are enslaved in modern day Cambodia, or 1.65%
of the population.
Forced land evictions by senior officials, security forces, and
government-connected business leaders are commonplace in Cambodia.
Land has been confiscated from hundreds of thousands of Cambodians
over more than a decade for the purpose of self-enrichment and
maintaining power of various groups of special interests. Credible
non-governmental organisations estimate that "770,000 people have been
adversely affected by land grabbing covering at least four million
hectares (nearly 10 million acres) of land that have been
confiscated," says Paris-based International Federation for Human
Main article: Administrative divisions of Cambodia
The capital (reach thani) and provinces (khaet) of
first-level administrative divisions.
Cambodia is divided into 25
provinces including the capital.
Municipalities and districts are the second-level administrative
divisions of Cambodia. The provinces are subdivided into 159 districts
and 26 municipalities. The districts and municipalities in turn are
further divided into communes (khum) and quarters (sangkat).
Main article: Economy of Cambodia
The Cambodian position on the Human Development Index, 1970–2010.
In 2016 Cambodia's per capita income is $3,735 in PPP and $1,227 in
nominal per capita.
Cambodia graduated from the status of a Least
Developed Country to a Lower Middle Income country in the same year
2016. Most rural households depend on agriculture and its related
sub-sectors. Rice, fish, timber, garments and rubber are Cambodia's
major exports. The International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
reintroduced more than 750 traditional rice varieties to
its rice seed bank in the Philippines. These varieties had been
collected in the 1960s.
Based on the Economist, IMF:
Annual average GDP growth
Annual average GDP growth for the period
2001–2010 was 7.7% making it one of the world's top ten countries
with the highest annual average
GDP growth. Tourism was Cambodia's
fastest growing industry, with arrivals increasing from 219,000 in
1997 to over 2 million in 2007. In 2004, inflation was at 1.7% and
exports at $1.6 billion US$.
Cambodia country assessment "Where Have All The Poor Gone?
Cambodia Poverty Assessment 2013", the
World Bank concludes: "Over the
seven years from 2004 through 2011, Cambodian economic growth was
tremendous, ranking amid the best in the world. Moreover, household
consumption increased by nearly 40 percent. And this growth was
pro-poor—not only reducing inequality, but also proportionally
boosting poor people's consumption further and faster than that of the
non-poor. As a result, the poverty rate dropped from 52.2 to 20.5
percent, surpassing all expectations and far exceeding the country's
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) poverty target. However, the
majority of these people escaped poverty only slightly: they remain
highly vulnerable—even to small shocks—which could quickly bring
them back into poverty.".
"Two decades of economic growth have helped make
Cambodia a global
leader in reducing poverty. The success story means the Southeast
Asian nation that overcame a vicious civil war now is classified as a
lower-middle income economy by the
World Bank Group (WBG). Among 69
countries that have comparable data,
Cambodia ranked fourth in terms
of the fastest poverty reduction in the world from 2004–2008. (See
more details of Cambodia's achievements on poverty reduction. The
poverty rate fell to 10 percent in 2013, and further reduction of
poverty is expected for both urban and rural households throughout
2015–2016. However, human development, particularly in the areas of
health and education, remains an important challenge and development
priority for Cambodia" 
Oil and natural gas deposits found beneath Cambodia's territorial
waters in 2005 yield great potential but remain mostly untapped, due
in part to territorial disputes with Thailand.
Paddy field in Siem Reap.
The National Bank of
Cambodia is the central bank of the kingdom and
provides regulatory oversight to the country's banking sector and is
responsible in part for increasing the foreign direct investment in
the country. Between 2010 and 2012 the number of regulated banks and
micro-finance institutions increased from 31 covered entities to over
70 individual institutions underlining the growth within the Cambodian
banking and finance sector.
In 2012, Credit Bureau
Cambodia was established with direct regulatory
oversight by the National Bank of Cambodia. The Credit Bureau
further increases the transparency and stability within the Cambodian
Banking Sector as all banks and microfinance companies are now
required by law to report accurate facts and figures relating to loan
performance in the country.
One of the largest challenges facing
Cambodia is still the fact that
the older population often lacks education, particularly in the
countryside, which suffers from a lack of basic infrastructure. Fear
of renewed political instability and corruption within the government
discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid, although there
has been significant aid from bilateral and multilateral donors.
Donors pledged $504 million to the country in 2004, while the
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank alone has provided $850 million in loans,
grants, and technical assistance. Bribes are often demanded from
companies operating in
Cambodia when obtaining licences and permits,
such as construction-related permits.
Farmers harvesting rice in
Cambodia ranked among the worst places in the world for organised
labour in the 2015
International Trade Union Confederation
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
Global Rights Index, landing in the category of countries with "no
guarantee of rights".'
In April 2016 Cambodia's National Assembly has adopted a Law on Trade
Unions. "The law was proposed at a time when workers have been staging
sustained protests in factories and in the streets demanding wage
increases and improvements in their working conditions". The
concerns about Cambodia's new law are shared not only by labour and
rights groups, but international organisations more generally. The
International Labor Organization Country Office for Thailand, Cambodia
and Lao PDR, has noted that the law has "several key concerns and
gaps". Independent unions and employers remain as divided as
ever. "How can a factory with 25 unions survive?" asked Van Sou Ieng,
chairman of the Garment Manufacturers Association in
adding that it was incomprehensible to expect an employer to negotiate
a dispute with 25 different union leaders. A law was necessary to rein
in the country's unions, Van Sou Ieng said. According to GMAC, last
year there were 3,166 unions for the more than 500,000 workers
employed in the country's 557 garment and textile exporting factories,
and 58 footwear factories. Though garment production is already
Cambodia's largest industry, which accounts for 26.2 percent of the
country's Gross Domestic Product, Van Sou Ieng said without the trade
union law, foreign investors will not come to do business".
"Only with the trade union law will we, employers, be able to
survive…. not only Cambodia, every country has trade union law.
Those who criticize [the law] should do businesses, and [then] they
The garment industry represents the largest portion of Cambodia's
manufacturing sector, accounting for 80% of the country's exports. In
2012, the exports grew to $4.61 billion up 8% over 2011. In the first
half of 2013, the garment industry reported exports worth $1.56
billion. The sector employs 335,400 workers, of which 91% are
Main article: Tourism in Cambodia
The tourism industry is the country's second-greatest source of hard
currency after the textile industry. Between January and December
2007, visitor arrivals were 2.0 million, an increase of 18.5% over the
same period in 2006. Most visitors (51%) arrived through Siem Reap
with the remainder (49%) through
Phnom Penh and other
Other tourist destinations include Sihanoukville in the south west
which has several popular beaches and the sleepy riverside town of
Battambang in the north west, both of which are a popular stop for
backpackers who make up a large of portion of visitors to
Cambodia. The area around Kampot and Kep including the Bokor Hill
Station are also of interest to visitors. Tourism has increased
steadily each year in the relatively stable period since the 1993
UNTAC elections; in 1993 there were 118,183 international tourists,
and in 2009 there were 2,161,577 international tourists.
Most of the tourists were Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Americans,
South Koreans and French, said the report, adding that the industry
earned some 1.4 billion US dollars in 2007, accounting for almost ten
percent of the kingdom's gross national product. Chinese-language
newspaper Jianhua Daily quoted industry officials as saying that
Cambodia will have three million foreign tourist arrivals in 2010 and
five million in 2015. Tourism has been one of Cambodia's triple pillar
Angkor Wat historical park in
Siem Reap province, the
beaches in Sihanoukville and the capital city
Phnom Penh are the main
attractions for foreign tourists.
Cambodia's reputation as a safe destination for tourism however has
been hindered by civil and political unrest  and
multiple high-profile examples of serious crime perpetrated against
tourists visiting the Kingdom.
Cambodia's tourist souvenir industry employs a lot of people around
the main places of interest. Obviously, the quantity of souvenirs that
are produced is not sufficient to face the increasing number of
tourists and a majority of products sold to the tourists on the
markets are imported from China,
Thailand and Vietnam. Some of
the locally produced souvenirs include:
Krama (traditional scarf)
Soap, candle, spices
Wood carving, lacquerware, silverplating
Painted bottles containing infused rice wine
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap. Today
Angkor Wat is Cambodia's main
tourist attraction and is visited by many tourists from around the
Further information: Agriculture in Cambodia
Agriculture is the traditional mainstay of the Cambodian economy.
Agriculture accounted for 90 percent of
GDP in 1985 and employed
approximately 80 percent of the work force.
Rice is the principal
commodity. Major secondary crops include maize, cassava, sweet
potatoes, groundnuts, soybeans, sesame seeds, dry beans, and rubber.
The principal commercial crop is rubber. In the 1980s it was an
important primary commodity, second only to rice, and one of the
country's few sources of foreign exchange.
Main article: Transport in Cambodia
National Highway 4.
Neak Loeung Bridge
The civil war and neglect severely damaged Cambodia's transport
system. With assistance from other countries
Cambodia has been
upgrading the main highways to international standards and most are
vastly improved from 2006. Most main roads are now paved.
Cambodia has two rail lines, totalling about 612 kilometres (380
miles) of single, one-metre (3-foot-3-inch) gauge track. The
lines run from the capital to Sihanoukville on the southern coast.
Trains are again running to and from the Cambodian capital and popular
destinations in the south. After 14 years, regular rail services
between the two cities restarted recently – offering a safer option
than road for travelers aiming for some beach time. Trains also
Phnom Penh to
Sisophon (although trains often run only as far
as Battambang). As of 1987, only one passenger train per week operated
Phnom Penh and
Battambang but a $141 million project, funded
mostly by the Asian Development Bank, has been started to revitalise
the languishing rail system that will "(interlink)
Cambodia with major
industrial and logistics centers in Bangkok and Ho Chi Minh
Siem Reap International Airport.
Besides the main interprovincial traffic artery connecting Phnom Penh
with Sihanoukville, resurfacing a former dirt road with concrete /
asphalt and implementation of 5 major river crossings by means of
bridges have now permanently connected
Phnom Penh with Koh Kong, and
hence there is now uninterrupted road access to neighbouring Thailand
and their vast road system.
Cambodia's road traffic accident rate is high by world standards. In
2004, the number of road fatalities per 10,000 vehicles was ten times
Cambodia than in the developed world, and the number of road
deaths had doubled in the preceding three years.
Cambodia's extensive inland waterways were important historically in
international trade. The
Mekong and the
Tonle Sap River, their
numerous tributaries, and the
Tonle Sap provided avenues of
considerable length, including 3,700 kilometres (2,300 miles)
navigable all year by craft drawing 0.6 metres (2.0 feet) and another
282 kilometres (175 miles) navigable to craft drawing 1.8 metres (5.9
Cambodia has two major ports,
Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville, and five
minor ones. Phnom Penh, located at the junction of the Bassac, the
Mekong, and the
Tonle Sap rivers, is the only river port capable of
receiving 8,000-ton ships during the wet season and 5,000-ton ships
during the dry season. With increasing economic activity has come an
increase in automobile and motorcycle use, though bicycles still
predominate. "Cyclo" (as hand-me-down French) or Cycle rickshaws
are an additional option often used by visitors. These kind of
rickshaws are unique to
Cambodia in that the cyclist is situated
behind the passenger(s) seat, as opposed to Cycle rickshaws in
neighbouring countries where the cyclist is at the front and "pulls"
Cambodia has three commercial airports.
Phnom Penh International
Airport (Pochentong) in
Phnom Penh is the second largest in Cambodia.
Angkor International Airport is the largest and serves the
most international flights in and out of Cambodia. The other airport
is in Sihanoukville.
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Cambodia
The level of access to water supply in rural areas is low (66% in
2012) compared to relatively high access to an Improved water source
in urban areas (94%). Within the government, urban water supply
policy is the responsibility of the Ministry of Industry, Mines and
Energy. Service provision in urban areas is the responsibility of two
water utilities in the largest cities, the
Phnom Penh Water Supply
Authority (PPWSA) and the
Siem Reap Water Supply Authority (SRWSA), 11
Provincial Water Supply Authorities (known as PWWKs) as well as 147
smaller utilities. The Department of Rural Water Supply (DRWS) and
Department of Rural Health Care (DRHC) of the Ministry of Rural
Development are responsible for rural water supply for the smaller
towns and villages with less than 1,000 households.
Main article: Demographics of Cambodia
As of 2016[update],
Cambodia has an estimated population of 15,762,370
people. Cambodia's birth rate is 25.4 per 1,000. Its population growth
rate is 1.7%.
Fifty percent of the Cambodian population is younger than 22 years
old. At a 1.04 female to male ratio,
Cambodia has the most
female-biased sex ratio in the Greater
Mekong Subregion. Among
the Cambodian population aged over 65, the female to male ratio is
The total fertility rate in
Cambodia was 3.0 children per woman in
2010. The fertility rate was 4.0 children in 2000. Women in
urban areas have 2.2 children on average, compared with 3.3 children
per woman in rural areas. Fertility is highest in Mondol Kiri and
Rattanak Kiri Provinces, where women have an average of 4.5 children,
and lowest in
Phnom Penh where women have an average of 2.0
Ethnic groups in Cambodia
An ethnic map of Cambodia.
The vast majority of Cambodia's population is of ethnic Khmer origin
(over 95%) who are speakers of the Khmer language, the country's sole
official language. Cambodia's population is largely homogeneous. Its
minority groups include
Chams (1.2%), Vietnamese (0.1%) and Chinese
The largest ethnic group in
Cambodia are the Khmers, who comprise
around 90% of the total population in Cambodia, and are indigenous to
Mekong subregion in which they inhabit. The Khmers
historically have lived near the lower
Mekong River in a contiguous
diagonal arc, from where modern-day Thailand,
in the northwest, all the way to the mouth of the
Mekong River in
The Vietnamese are the second largest ethnic minority in Cambodia,
with an estimated 16,000 living in provinces concentrated in the
southeast of the country adjacent to the
Mekong Delta. Although the
Vietnamese language has been determined to be a
there are very few cultural connections between the two peoples
because the early
Khmers were influenced by the Indian cultural sphere
while the Vietnamese are part of the Chinese cultural sphere.
Ethnic tensions between the Khmer and the Vietnamese can be traced to
Dark Ages of Cambodia
Dark Ages of Cambodia (from the 16th to 19th centuries), during
which time a nascent
Thailand each attempted to vassalise
a weakened post-
Angkor Cambodia, and effectively dominate all of
Chinese Cambodians are approximately 0.1% of the population.
Most Chinese are descended from 19th–20th century settlers who came
in search of trade and commerce opportunities during the time of the
French protectorate. Most are urban dwellers, engaged primarily in
The indigenous ethnic groups of the mountains are known collectively
as Montagnards or Khmer Loeu, a term meaning "Highland Khmer". They
are descended from neolithic migrations of
Mon–Khmer speakers via
Austronesian speakers from insular Southeast Asia.
Being isolated in the highlands, the various
Khmer Loeu groups were
not Indianized like their Khmer cousins and consequently are
culturally distant from modern
Khmers and often from each other,
observing many pre-Indian-contact customs and beliefs.
The Cham are descended from the
Austronesian people of Champa, a
former kingdom on the coast of central and southern present-day
Vietnam and former rival to the Khmer Empire. The Cham in Cambodia
number under a million and often maintain separate villages in the
southeast of the country. Almost all Cham in
Cambodia are Muslims.
Further information: List of cities in Cambodia
Largest cities or towns in Cambodia
(2008 Cambodian census)
Demographics of Cambodia
Demographics of Cambodia § Languages
Khmer language is a member of the
Mon–Khmer subfamily of the
Austroasiatic language group. French, once the language of government
in Indochina, is still spoken by many older Cambodians, and is also
the language of instruction in some schools and universities that are
funded by the government of France. There is also a French-language
newspaper and some TV channels are available in French.
Cambodia is a
member of La Francophonie. Cambodian French, a remnant of the
country's colonial past, is a dialect found in
Cambodia and is
sometimes used in government, particularly in court. However, since
1993, there has been a growing use of English, that has been replacing
French as the main foreign language. English is widely taught in
several universities and there is also a significant press in that
language, while street signs are now bilingual in Khmer and
English. Due to this shift, English is now mostly used in
Cambodia's international relationships and has replaced French both in
Cambodia's stamps, since 2002, and currency.
Khmer script is derived from the
South Indian Pallava script.
Folk religion (0.6%)
Non religious (0.2%)
Religion in Cambodia
Buddhism is the official religion of Cambodia, practised by
more than 95 percent of the population with an estimated 4,392
monastery temples throughout the country. Cambodian
deeply pervaded by Hinduism, Tantrism, and native animism. Key
concepts in Cambodian
Buddhism include reincarnation, and religious
activities are focused on acquiring bonn (Pali punna, merit), and
erasing kamm (Pali kamma, karma), which, for Khmers, means the
negative results accrued from past actions.
Key concepts deriving from animism include the close interrelationship
between spirits and the community, the efficacy of apotropaic and
luck-attracting actions and charms, and the possibility of
manipulating one's life through contact with spiritual entities such
as the "baromey" spirits.
Hinduism has left little trace beyond the
magical practices of Tantricism and a host of
Hindu gods now
assimilated into the spirit world (for example, the important neak ta
Yeay Mao is the modern avatar of the
Buddhism is the religion of the majority of Chinese and
Vietnamese in Cambodia. Elements of other religious practices, such as
the veneration of folk heroes and ancestors, Confucianism, and Taoism
mix with Chinese
Buddhism are also practised.
Islam is followed by about 2% of the population and comes in three
varieties, two practised by the
Cham people and a third by the
descendants of Malays resident in the country for generations.
Cambodia's Muslim population is reported to be 80% ethnic Cham.
Main article: Health in Cambodia
Cambodian medical students watching a surgery operation.
Cambodian life expectancy was 72 years in 2014, a major
improvement since 1999 when the average life expectancy was 49.8 and
46.8[clarification needed]. Health care is offered by
both public and private practitioners and research has found that
trust in health providers is a key factor in improving the uptake of
health care services in rural Cambodia. The government plans to
increase the quality of healthcare in the country by raising awareness
of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases.
Cambodia's infant mortality rate has decreased from 115 per 1,000 live
births in 1993 to 54 in 2009. In the same period, the under-five
mortality rate decreased from 181 to 115 per 1,000 live births.
In the province with worst health indicators, Ratanakiri, 22.9% of
children die before age five.
Cambodia was once one of the most landmined countries in the world.
According to some estimates, unexploded land mines have been
responsible for over 60,000 civilian deaths and thousands more maimed
or injured since 1970. The number of reported landmine casualties
has sharply decreased, from 800 in 2005 to 111 in 2013 (22 dead and 89
injured). Adults that survive landmines often require amputation
of one or more limbs and have to resort to begging for survival.
Cambodia is expected to be free of land mines by 2020 but the
social and economic legacy, including orphans and one in 290 people
being an amputee, is expected to affect
Cambodia for years to
"In Cambodia, landmines and exploded ordnance alone have caused 44,630
injuries between 1979 and 2013, according to the
Victim Information System"
Main article: Education in Cambodia
Institute of Foreign Languages
Institute of Foreign Languages of the Royal University of Phnom
The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is responsible for
establishing national policies and guidelines for education in
Cambodia. The Cambodian education system is heavily decentralised,
with three levels of government, central, provincial and district –
responsible for its management. The constitution of Cambodia
promulgates free compulsory education for nine years, guaranteeing the
universal right to basic quality education.
The 2008 Cambodian census estimated that 77.6% of the population was
literate (85.1% of men and 70.9% of women). Male youth age (15–24
years) have a literacy rate of 89% compared to 86% for females.
The education system in
Cambodia continues to face many challenges,
but during the past years there have been significant improvements,
especially in terms of primary net enrolment gains, the introduction
of program based-budgeting, and the development of a policy framework
which helps disadvantaged children to gain access to education. The
country has also significantly invested in vocational education,
especially in rural areas, to tackle poverty and unemployment.
 Two of Cambodia's most acclaimed universities are based in
Traditionally, education in
Cambodia was offered by the wats (Buddhist
temples), thus providing education exclusively for the male
population. During the
Khmer Rouge regime, education suffered
significant setbacks. Education has also suffered setbacks from child
labour, A study by Kim (2011) reports that most employed children in
Cambodia are enrolled in school but their employment is associated
with late school entry, negative impacts on their learning outcomes,
and increased drop out rates.
With respects to academic performance among Cambodian primary school
children, research showed that parental attitudes and beliefs played a
significant role. Specifically, the study found that poorer
academic achievement among children were associated with parents
holding stronger fatalistic beliefs (i.e., human strength cannot
change destiny). The study further found that "length of residence" of
parents in the community in which they stay predicted better academic
achievement among their children. Overall, the study pointed out to
the role of social capital in educational performance and access in
the Cambodian society in which family attitudes and beliefs are
central to the findings.
Further information: Crime in Cambodia
Cambodia had a murder rate of 6.5 per 100,000
population. There were a total of 964 murders in
Prostitution is against the law in Cambodia, yet is still prevalent.
In a series of 1993 interviews of women about prostitution, three
quarters of the interviewees found being a prostitute to be a norm and
a profession they felt was not shameful having. That same year,
it was estimated that there were one hundred thousand sex workers in
Culture of Cambodia
Culture of Cambodia and Preah Ko Preah Keo
The 19th-century illustration tale of Vorvong & Sorvong.
Various factors contribute to the Cambodian culture including
Theravada Buddhism, Hinduism, French colonialism, Angkorian culture,
and modern globalisation. The Cambodian Ministry of Culture and Fine
Arts is responsible for promoting and developing Cambodian culture.
Cambodian culture not only includes the culture of the lowland ethnic
majority, but also some 20 culturally distinct hill tribes
colloquially known as the Khmer Loeu, a term coined by Norodom
Sihanouk to encourage unity between the highlanders and lowlanders.
Rural Cambodians wear a krama scarf which is a unique aspect of
Cambodian clothing. The sampeah is a traditional Cambodian greeting or
a way of showing respect to others. Khmer culture, as developed and
spread by the Khmer empire, has distinctive styles of dance,
architecture and sculpture, which have been exchanged with
Thailand throughout history.
Angkor Wat (Angkor
means "city" and Wat "temple") is the best preserved example of Khmer
architecture from the Angkorian era along with hundreds of other
temples that have been discovered in and around the region.
Khmer people have a recorded information on Tra
leaves. Tra leaf books record legends of the Khmer people, the
Ramayana, the origin of
Buddhism and other prayer books. They are
taken care of by wrapping in cloth to protect from moisture and the
Bon Om Tuuk (Festival of Boat Racing), the annual boat rowing contest,
is the most attended Cambodian national festival. Held at the end of
the rainy season when the
Mekong river begins to sink back to its
normal levels allowing the
Tonle Sap River to reverse flow,
approximately 10% of Cambodia's population attends this event each
year to play games, give thanks to the moon, watch fireworks, dine,
and attend the boat race in a carnival-type atmosphere.
Popular games include soccer, kicking a sey, which is similar to a
footbag, and chess. Based on the classical Indian solar calendar and
Theravada Buddhism, the
Cambodian New Year
Cambodian New Year is a major holiday that
takes place in April. Recent artistic figures include singers Sinn
Ros Serey Sothea
Ros Serey Sothea (and later Meng Keo Pichenda), who
introduced new musical styles to the country.
Main article: Cuisine of Cambodia
Variety of Cambodian cuisine.
Rice is the staple grain, as in other Southeast Asian countries. Fish
Tonle Sap rivers is also an important part of the
diet. The supply of fish and fish products for food and trade as of
2000[update] was 20 kilograms (44 pounds) per person or 2 ounces
per day per person. Some of the fish can be made into prahok for
The cuisine of
Cambodia contains tropical fruits, soups and noodles.
Key ingredients are kaffir lime, lemon grass, garlic, fish sauce, soy
sauce, curry, tamarind, ginger, oyster sauce, coconut milk and black
pepper. Some delicacies are នំបញ្ចុក (Num Banh chok),
អាម៉ុក (Amok), អាពីង (Ah Ping). The country also
boasts various distinct local street foods, such as fried spiders.
French influence on
Cambodian cuisine includes the Cambodian red curry
with toasted baguette bread. The toasted baguette pieces are dipped in
the curry and eaten. Cambodian red curry is also eaten with rice and
rice vermicelli noodles. Probably the most popular dine out dish, kuy
teav, is a pork broth rice noodle soup with fried garlic, scallions,
green onions that may also contain various toppings such as beef
balls, shrimp, pork liver or lettuce. Kampot pepper is reputed to be
the best in the world and accompanies crab at the Kep crab shacks and
squid in the restaurants on the Ou Trojak Jet river. The cuisine
is relatively unknown to the world compared to that of its neighbours
Thailand and Vietnam.
Cambodians drink plenty of tea, grown in
Mondulkiri Province and
around Kirirom. tai krolap is a strong tea, made by putting water
and a mass of tea leaves into a small glass, placing a saucer on top,
and turning the whole thing upside down to brew. When it’s dark
enough, the tea is decanted into another cup and plenty of sugar
added, but no milk. Lemon tea tai kdao kroich chhmaa, made with
Chinese red-dust tea and lemon juice, is refreshing both hot and iced,
and is generally served with a hefty dose of sugar.
Regarding coffee, the beans are generally imported from
Vietnam – although domestically produced coffee from Ratanakiri
Mondulkiri Province can be found in some places. Beans
are traditionally roasted with butter and sugar, plus various other
ingredients that might include anything from rum to pork fat, giving
the beverage a strange, sometimes faintly chocolatey aroma.
Cambodia has several industrial breweries, located mainly in
Sihanoukville Province and Phnom Penh. There are also a growing number
of microbreweries in
Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
Rice wine is a popular alcoholic drink. Its quality varies widely and
it is often infused with fruits or medicinal herbs. When prepared
with macerated fruits or spices, like the
Sombai liqueur, it is called
sraa tram (or soaked wine) and has gained more and more popularity
with the development of tourism as it is smoother to drink than plain
Further information: Women in Cambodia
Khmer women are traditionally supposed to be modest, soft-spoken,
"light" walkers, well-mannered, industrious, belong to the
household, act as the family's caregivers and caretakers and
financial controllers, perform as the "preserver of the home",
maintain their virginity until marriage, become faithful wives,
and act as advisors and servants to their husbands. The "light"
walking and refinement of Cambodian women is further described as
being "quiet in […] movements that one cannot hear the sound of
their silk skirt rustling". As financial controllers, the women
Cambodia can be identified as having real household authority at
the familial level.
Further information: Sport in Cambodia
Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports, although
professional organised sports are not as prevalent in
Cambodia as in
western countries because of the economic conditions. Soccer was
Cambodia by the French and became popular with the
Cambodia national football team
Cambodia national football team managed fourth in the
1972 Asian Cup, but development has slowed since the civil war.
Western sports such as basketball, volleyball, bodybuilding, field
hockey, rugby union, golf, and baseball are gaining popularity.
Volleyball is by far the most popular sport in the country. Native
sports include traditional boat racing, buffalo racing, Pradal Serey,
Khmer traditional wrestling
Khmer traditional wrestling and Bokator.
Cambodia first participated
in the Olympics during the 1956 Summer Olympic Games sending
Cambodia also hosted the
GANEFO Games, the
alternative to the Olympics, in the 1960s.
Main article: Dance in Cambodia
Cambodian dance can be divided into three main categories: Khmer
classical dance, folk dance, and social dances. The exact origins of
Khmer classical dance
Khmer classical dance are disputed. Most native Khmer scholars trace
modern dance forms back to the time of Angkor, seeing similarities in
the temple engravings of the period, while others hold that modern
Khmer dance styles were learned (or re-learned) from Siamese court
dancers in the 1800s.
Khmer classical dance
Khmer classical dance is the form of stylised performance art
established in the royal courts of
Cambodia exhibited for both
entertainment and ceremonial purposes. The dances are performed
by intricately costumed, highly trained men and women on public
occasions for tribute, invocation or to enact traditional stories and
epic poems such as Reamker, the Khmer version of the Ramayana.
Known formally as Robam Preah Reach Trop
(របាំព្រះរាជទ្រព្យ "theater of royal
wealth") it is set to the music of a pinpeat ensemble accompanied by a
Cambodian folk dance, often performed to mahori music, celebrates the
various cultural and ethnic groups of Cambodia. Folk dances originated
in the villages and are performed, for the most part, by the villagers
for the villagers. The movements are less stylised and the
clothing worn is that of the people the dancers are portraying, such
as hill tribes,
Chams or farmers. Typically faster-paced than
classical dance, folk dances display themes of the "common person"
such as love, comedy or warding off evil spirits.
Social dances are those performed by guests at banquets, parties or
other informal social gatherings. Khmer traditional social dances are
analogous to those of other Southeast Asian nations. Examples include
the circle dances
Romkbach as well as Saravan and Lam
Leav. Modern western popular dances including Cha-cha, Bolero, and the
Madison, have also influenced Cambodian social dance.
Main article: Music of Cambodia
Sinn Sisamouth, one of the famous Cambodian singers.
Traditional Cambodian music dates back as far as the Khmer
Empire. Royal dances like the
Apsara Dance are icons of the
Cambodian culture as are the
Mahori ensembles that accompany them.
More rural forms of music include Chapei and A Yai. The former is
popular among the older generation and is most often a solo
performance of a man plucking a Cambodian guitar (chapei) in between a
cappella verses. The lyrics usually have moral or religious theme.
A Yai can be performed solo or by a man and woman and is often comedic
in nature. It is a form of lyrical poetry, often full of double
entendres, that can be either scripted or completely impromptu and
ad-libbed. When sung by a duo, the man and women take turns,
"answering" the other's verse or posing riddles for the other to
solve, with short instrumental breaks in between verses. Pleng kaah
(lit. "wedding music") is a set of traditional music and songs played
both for entertainment and as accompaniment for the various ceremonial
parts of a traditional, days-long Khmer wedding.
Cambodian popular music is performed with western style instruments or
a mixture of traditional and western instruments. Dance music is
composed in particular styles for social dances. The music of crooner
Sinn Sisamouth and
Ros Sereysothea from the 1960s to the 1970s is
considered to be the classic pop music of Cambodia. During the Khmer
Rouge Revolution, many classic and popular singers of the 1960s and
1970s were murdered, starved to death, or overwork to death by the
Khmer Rouge. and many original master tapes from the period were
lost or destroyed.
In the 1980s, Keo Surath, (a refugee resettled in the United States)
and others carried on the legacy of the classic singers, often
remaking their popular songs. The 1980s and 1990s also saw the rise in
popularity of kantrum, a music style of the Khmer Surin set to modern
The Australian hip hop group Astronomy Class has recorded with Kak
Channthy, a native born Cambodian female singer.
The Dengue Fever rock and roll band features a Cambodian female singer
and back-up band from California. It is classified as "world music"
and combines Cambodian music with Western style rock.
Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology in Cambodia
A National Committee for Science and Technology representing 11
ministries has been in place since 1999. Although seven ministries are
responsible for the country’s 33 public universities, the majority
of these institutions come under the umbrella of the Ministry of
Education, Youth and Support.
In 2010, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Support approved a
Policy on Research Development in the Education Sector. This move
represented a first step towards a national approach to research and
development across the university sector and the application of
research for the purposes of national development.
This policy was followed by the country’s first National Science and
Technology Master Plan 2014–2020. It was officially launched by the
Ministry of Planning in December 2014, as the culmination of a
two-year process supported by the Korea International Cooperation
Agency. The plan makes provision for establishing a science and
technology foundation to promote industrial innovation, with a
particular focus on agriculture, primary industry and ICTs.
Index of Cambodia-related articles
Outline of Cambodia
World Bank in Cambodia
Cambodia – book
^ a b c d e f Cambodia. CIA World FactBook.
^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom
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^ "GINI Index". Gini Index. World Bank. Retrieved 29 August
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^ a b Chandler, David P. (1992) History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO:
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^ Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, and Concern Worldwide: 2013 Global Hunger
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^ "Cambodia's opposition leader says Australian asylum seeker deal
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^ a b David Roberts (29 April 2016). Political Transition in Cambodia
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Cambodia to outgrow LDC status by 2020 Business The Phnom Penh
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^ Cuddy, Alice (2 June 2015). "Rule of law rank near bottom". Phnom
Penh Post. Retrieved 7 February 2016. The World Justice Project's Rule
of Law Index, which is based on surveys with ordinary people and
in-country experts, ranks countries based on eight key indicators
including constraints on government powers, an absence of corruption,
and regulatory enforcement...In every factor measured,
the worst in the
East Asia and Pacific region, where other ranked
nations include Myanmar,
Vietnam and Mongolia....[w]here the rule of
law is weak, medicines fail to reach health facilities, criminal
violence goes unchecked, laws are applied unequally across societies,
and foreign investments are held back.
^ Chad, Raymond (1 April 2005). "Regional Geographic Influence on Two
Khmer Polities". Salve Regina University, Faculty and Staff: Articles
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^ "kampuchea. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary – Complete &
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^ "Cambodia". Google Books. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
^ ""On some Cambodian Words," Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter No. 20.,
Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies
Australian National University by Serge Thion". Nectec. Retrieved 31
^ Cahoon, Ben. "Cambodia". www.worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 18 August
^ "3 Unlikely Cambodian Allies Map War on Vietnam". The New York
Times. 9 July 1982. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
^ a b c Stark, Miriam (2005). "Pre-Angkorian and Angkorian Cambodia"
(PDF). In Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter S. Southeast Asia: from
prehistory to history. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39117-7.
^ Tranet, Michel (20 October 2009). "The Second Prehistoric
Archaeological Excavation in Laang Spean (2009)". Archived from the
original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
^ "The Oldest Ceramic in Cambodia's Laang Spean (1966–68)". 20
October 2009. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved
17 November 2009.
^ a b Higham, Charles (January 2002). The civilization of Angkor.
Phoenix. ISBN 978-1-84212-584-7. , pp.13–22
^ "Research History".
Memot Centre for Archaeology. Retrieved 6
^ Albrecht, Gerd; et al. (2000). "Circular Earthwork Krek 52/62 Recent
Research on the Prehistory of Cambodia" (PDF). Asian Perspectives. 39
(1–2). ISSN 0066-8435. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
^ Higham, Charles (1989). The Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27525-5. , p.120
^ O'Reilly, Dougald J.W.; von den Driesch, Angela; Voeun, Vuthy
(2006). "Archaeology and Archaeozoology of Phum Snay: A Late
Prehistoric Cemetery in Northwestern Cambodia". 45 (2).
^ Domett, K. M., O'Reilly, D. J. W., & Buckley, H. R. (2011).
Bioarchaeological evidence for conflict in
Iron Age northwest
Cambodia. Antiquity, 85(328).441–458
^ Domett, K. M., O'Reilly, D. J. W., & Buckley, H. R. (2011).
Bioarchaeological evidence for conflict in
Iron Age northwest
Cambodia. Antiquity, 85(328)
^ Carter, A. K. (2011). Trade and Exchange Networks in Iron Age
Cambodia: Preliminary Results from a Compositional Analysis of Glass
Beads. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 30,
^ "History of Cambodia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 16 March
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^ Cœdès, George. (1956) The Making of South East Asia,'
^ "Windows on Asia". Archived from the original on 21 May 2007.
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^ Evans, D. (2007). "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
United States of America: A comprehensive archaeological map of
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^ Metropolis: Angkor, the world's first mega-city, The Independent, 15
^ Chandler, David P. (1991) The Land and the People of Cambodia,
HarperCollins. New York, New York. p. 77, ISBN 0060211296.
^ Scientists dig and fly over
Angkor in search of answers to golden
city's fall, The Associated Press, 13 June 2004
^ "Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern
Thailand (Page 4 of 6)".
Kyoto Review of South East Asia; (Colquhoun 1885:53).
^ a b c Kamm, Henry (1998). Cambodia: report from a stricken land. New
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^ a b "
Cambodia – Population". Library of Congress Country Studies.
^ Kamm, Henry (1998).
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^ Washington Post, 29 December 1967
^ Morris, p. 44, ISBN 0804730490.
^ Bombing in Cambodia: Hearings before the Committee on Armed
Services, U.S. Senate, 93d Cong., 1st sess., July/August 1973, pp.
158–160, the primary source on the "secret bombings".
^ Owen, Taylor; Kiernan, Ben (October 2006). "Bombs Over Cambodia"
(PDF). The Walrus: 32–36. Archived from the original on 20 April
2016. The evidence of survivors from many parts of [Cambodia] suggests
that at least tens of thousands, probably in the range of 50,000 to
150,000 deaths, resulted from the US bombing campaigns ..." CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) See Kiernan, Ben; Owen,
Taylor (26 April 2015). "Making More Enemies than We Kill? Calculating
U.S. Bomb Tonnages Dropped on
Laos and Cambodia, and Weighing Their
Implications". The Asia-Pacific Journal. Retrieved 19 September
^ Clymer, K. J., The
United States and Cambodia, Routledge, 2004, p.22
Norodom Sihanouk (1973). My War with the CIA, The Memoirs of Prince
Norodom Sihanouk as related to Wilfred Burchett. Pantheon Books.
^ Morris, pp. 48–51.
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