ROXARSONE is an organoarsenic compound that is widely used in poultry
production as a feed additive to increase weight gain and improve feed
efficiency , and as a coccidiostat . The drug is also approved in the
United States for use in pigs .
Roxarsone is marketed as 3-NITRO by
Zoetis , a former subsidiary of
Pfizer now a publicly traded company.
In 2006, approximately one million kilograms of roxarsone were
produced in the U.S.
Roxarsone is one of four arsenical animal drugs approved by the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in poultry and/or swine,
along with nitarsone , arsanilic acid , and carbarsone . In September
2013, the FDA announced that
Zoetis and Fleming Laboratories would
voluntarily withdraw current roxarsone, arsanilic acid , and
carbarsone approvals, leaving only nitarsone approvals in place. In
2015 FDA withdraw the approval of using nitarsone in animal feeds. The
ban came into effect at the end of 2015.
Roxarsone is banned in the
* 1 Production and applications
* 2 Controversy
* 3 References
* 4 Further reading
* 5 External links
PRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS
Roxarsone is a derivative of phenylarsonic acid (C6H5As(O)(OH)2). It
was first reported in a 1923 British patent that described the
nitration and diazotization of arsanilic acid . When blended with
calcite powder, it is used in poultry feed premixes and is usually
available in 5%, 20% and 50% concentrations.
Roxarsone has attracted attention as a source of arsenic
contamination of poultry and other foods. In July 2011, Pfizer
suspended sale of roxarsone in the U.S. in response to a study by the
Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the FDA found that roxarsone use
was associated with elevated levels of inorganic arsenic in chicken
livers. An FDA press release stated that the findings raised
"concerns of a very low but completely avoidable exposure to a
carcinogen." The voluntary suspension does not preempt
selling roxarsone in the future, as FDA has not withdrawn its approval
to market the drug in the U.S. As of 2011, roxarsone was approved
for use in 14 other countries as well.
A 2013 market basket study linked the use of roxarsone and other
arsenical feed additives to increased levels of inorganic arsenic in
chicken breast meat . Breast meat from conventionally produced
chickens (in which arsenical use is permitted under U.S. law) had
three times more inorganic arsenic than did breast meat from chickens
produced according to USDA Organic standards. The USDA Organic program
prohibits arsenical use in organic chicken production. The researchers
also found that inorganic arsenic concentrations were almost three
times higher in samples with detectable levels of roxarsone than in
samples without detectable roxarsone.
* ^ "
PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem
Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Descriptors Computed from Structure.
* ^ A B C
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (June 8, 2011).
"Questions and Answers Regarding 3-Nitro (Roxarsone)".
* ^ Hileman, B. (April 9, 2007). "
Arsenic in Chicken Production".
Chemical and Engineering News . pp. 34–35.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (September 20, 2011). "FDA
Response to Citizen Petition on Arsenic-based Animal Drugs".
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (April 1, 2015). "FDA
Announces Pending Withdrawal of Approval of Nitarsone".
* ^ Some
Arsenic With That Supermarket Chicken? Tom Philpott Sat
Jun. 11, 2011
* ^ GB 226255 19230718
* ^ Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (April 4, 2006).
"Playing Chicken: Avoiding
Arsenic in Your Meat".
* ^ Consumer Reports (November 2012). "
Arsenic in your food".
* ^ A B
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (June 8, 2011). "FDA:
Pfizer will voluntarily suspend sale of animal drug 3-Nitro".
* ^ Cevallos, M. (June 9, 2011). "Arsenic-containing drug in
chicken feed to be pulled from U.S".
LA Times .
* ^ A B Gardiner Harris & Denise Grady (June 8, 2011). "Pfizer
Suspends Sales of Chicken Drug With Arsenic".
New York Times
New York Times .
* ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Animal Drugs @ FDA".
* ^ KE Nachman; PA Baron; G Raber; KA Francesconi; A Navas-Acien;
DC Love (2013). "Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic
Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample" (PDF).
Environmental Health Perspectives
Environmental Health Perspectives .
* ^ Sabrina Tavernise (May 11, 2013). "Study Finds an Increase in
Arsenic Levels in Chicken". New York Times.
* J. R. Garbarino; A. J. Bednar; D. W. Rutherford; R. S. Beyer & R.
L. Wershaw (2003). "Environmental Fate of
Roxarsone in Poultry Litter.
I. Degradation of
Roxarsone during Composting". Environ. Sci. Technol.
37 (8): 1509–1514. PMID 12731831 . doi
:10.1021/es026219q+S0013-936X(02)06219-3 (inactive 2017-08-15).
* Chiou P. W.-S.; Chen K.-L.; Yu B. (1997). "Effects of roxarsone on
performance, toxicity, tissue accumulation and residue of eggs and
excreta in laying".
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture .
74 (2): 229–236. doi :10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199706)74:23.0.CO;2-F
* R. L. Wershaw; J. R. Garbarino ">(PDF).
* KB Kerr; JR Narveson; FA Lux (1969). "Toxicity of an organic
arsenical, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid. Residues in chicken
tissues". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 17 (6): 1400.
doi :10.1021/jf60166a021 .