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ROORKEE (Rūṛkī) is a city in North India
India
and a Municipal Corporation in the Haridwar
Haridwar
district of state Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
, India
India
. It is spread over a flat terrain under Sivalik Hills
Sivalik Hills
of Himalayas
Himalayas
. The city is developed on the banks of Ganges Canal
Ganges Canal
, its dominant feature, which flows from north–south through middle of the city. Roorkee
Roorkee
is home to Asia's first engineering college Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Roorkee
, formerly known as Thomson College of Civil Engineering. Roorkee
Roorkee
is also known for the Roorkee Cantonment , one of the country's oldest military establishment and the headquarters of Bengal Engineer Group
Bengal Engineer Group
since 1853. Roorkee
Roorkee
has unique distinction as the first train in the country ran between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar on 22 December 1851. Roorkee
Roorkee
has a population of 2,84,478 people as per 2011 Census of India
India
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Climate * 4 Demographics * 5 References * 6 External links

HISTORY

Before 1840, the city was a tiny hamlet consisting of mud huts on the banks of the Solani rivulet. Digging work on the Upper Ganges Canal formally began in April 1842, under the aegis of Proby Cautley , a British officer. Local works were designed and overseen by the engineer Thomas Login . Soon, Roorkee
Roorkee
developed into a town. The canal, which was formally opened on 8 April 1854, provided irrigation waters for more than 767,000 acres (3,100 km²) in 5,000 villages.

Col. P.T. Cautley, an officer in the British Army, was most instrumental in constructing the canal. According to Dept. of Hydrology the canal, which is still considered as a marvel of engineering, was built in 1853. However, water was released in the canal on 8 April 1854.

To look after the maintenance of canal, the Canal Workshop and Iron Foundry were established in 1843 on the civil lines on the canal bank which is known as Irrigation workshop nowadays . This was followed by the establishment of Civil Engineering School; classes started in 1845 to train local youth to assist in the civil-engineering work of the Upper Ganges Canal. This was to become the first engineering college established in India. On 25 November 1847, the college was formally constituted through a proposal by the Sir James Thomason, Lt. Governor of North Western Province (1843–53). After his death in 1853, the college was rechristened as Thomason College of Civil Engineering. The college later upgraded to University of Roorkee
University of Roorkee
in 1949; on 21 September 2001, through an Act of parliament, it was made one of the Indian Institutes of Technology
Indian Institutes of Technology
, IIT Roorkee
IIT Roorkee
. In 1853 Bengal Sappers and Miners were stationed here which provided a controlling influence during the 1857 uprising . Other important events in the history of Roorkee
Roorkee
include that under the Post Office Act of 1866, it was among the first few towns to have a post office and first telegraph office in the district. Now Roorkee
Roorkee
has a General Post Office (GPO) and a number of post offices located in Roorkee
Roorkee
City
City
and Cantt. In 1886, Roorkee
Roorkee
was placed on the Railway map of India. In 1907, first provincial trunk road Meerut-Roorkee-Dehradun was constructed. In 1920, Roorkee
Roorkee
became the first town in Uttar Pradesh to have Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
.

India's first aqueduct was constructed over the Solani river, near Roorkee, part of the Ganges Canal
Ganges Canal
project, which itself was India's first irrigation work in North India, started by the British. The Ganges Canal
Ganges Canal
led to another first for Roorkee
Roorkee
— India's first steam engine, Mary Lind, (specially shipped from England moved on rails in India) ran in Roorkee
Roorkee
on 22 December 1851, between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar , two years before the first passenger train ran from Bombay to Thane in 1853. Operated by the Bengal Sappers
Bengal Sappers
, the railway line was built to carry soil used for the construction of the Upper Ganges Canal aqueduct from Piran Kaliyar, 10 km (6.2 miles) from the city. The locomotive rail paths are still intact. A replica of what the locomotive is thought to have looked like is exhibited at Roorkee Railway Station.

The municipality of Roorkee
Roorkee
was created in 1868. Now it is a Municipal Corporation. It had been home to the Bengal Sappers
Bengal Sappers
and Miners since 1853, and two artillery units were stationed there. Today, the Roorkee Cantonment has a large army base. The Bengal Engineering Group and Centre (BEG the tehsil included in it 426 villages (of the parganas of Jwalapur, Manglaur and Bhagwanpur) and six towns, most important among them being Haridwar
Haridwar
and Manglaur . The Old Cemetery in the city is a protected monument, by the Archaeological Survey of India
India
.

GEOGRAPHY

Roorkee
Roorkee
is located at 29°52′N 77°53′E / 29.87°N 77.88°E / 29.87; 77.88 . It has an average elevation of 268 metres (879 feet).

Roorkee
Roorkee
is 165 kilometres (103 mi) north of the Indian capital, New Delhi between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna
Yamuna
, close to the foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
. Before the creation of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
on 9 November 2000, Roorkee
Roorkee
was a part of the state of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
.

CLIMATE

In Roorkee, the climate is warm and temperate. Roorkee
Roorkee
is a city with a significant rainfall. Even in the driest month there is a lot of rain. The climate here is classified as Cfa by the Köppen-Geiger system. The average annual temperature in Roorkee
Roorkee
is 23.7 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 1170 mm.

ROORKEE

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0 22 2 230 25 6 40 30 7 0 37 10 100 38 16 40 39 21 700 34 20 800 34 22 460 33 22 0 30 12 10 27 7 190 22 4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: GAIA case studies

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0 72 36 9.1 77 43 1.6 86 45 0 99 50 3.9 100 61 1.6 102 70 28 93 68 31 93 72 18 91 72 0 86 54 0.4 81 45 7.5 72 39

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION IN ROORKEE CITY

Religion

Percent

Hinduism
Hinduism
  72.72%

Islam
Islam
  23.62%

Punjabi   1.54%

Jains   1.02%

Christians
Christians
  0.94%

Others   0.16%

According to the 2011 census Roorkee
Roorkee
city has a population of 2,84,478

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Census of India, 2011". Office of the Registrar General, India. 2 March 2002. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 28 May 2010. * ^ "Bengal Sappers’ saga of valour", The Tribune , 24 November 2008. * ^ "First train ran between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar". The Hindu . 10 August 2002. Retrieved 15 February 2018. * ^ A B C D E Roorkee
Roorkee
Town2, The Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
, v. 21, p. 325. * ^ http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/10.1680/imotp.1875.22738 * ^ A B Upper Ganges Canal, The Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
, v. 12, p. 138. * ^ Indian Engineering Colleges, The Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
, 1909, v. 4, p. 321. * ^ Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1935). The Military Engineer, Vol II. Chatham: Institution of Royal Engineers. p. 358. * ^ IIT Roorkee
IIT Roorkee
Official website. * ^ Irrigation and Navigation Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
, 1909 v. 3, p. 341. * ^ A B Cautley, Proby Thomas (1860-01-01). Report on the Ganges canal works:from their commencement until the opening of the canal in 1854. London,. p. 440. * ^ First train ran between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar, The Hindu
The Hindu
, 10 August 2002. * ^ Alphabetical List of Monuments – Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Archaeological Survey of India
India
website. * ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Roorkee". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27. * ^ Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Govt. of India, Official website. * ^ "Population in Roorkee
Roorkee
City
City
2011". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2017-12-18. * ^ " City
City
Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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