Roorkee (Rūṛkī) is a city in North
India and a Municipal
Corporation in the
Haridwar district of state Uttarakhand, India. It
is spread over a flat terrain under
Sivalik Hills of Himalayas. The
city is developed on the banks of Ganges Canal, its dominant feature,
which flows from north–south through middle of the city.
home to Asia's first engineering college Indian Institute of
Technology Roorkee, formerly known as Thomson College of Civil
Roorkee is also known for the
Roorkee Cantonment, one of
the country's oldest military establishment and the headquarters of
Bengal Engineer Group
Bengal Engineer Group since 1853.
Roorkee has unique distinction as
the first train in the country ran between
Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar
on 22 December 1851.
Roorkee has a population of 2,84,478 people as
per 2011 Census of India.
6 External links
Before 1840, the city was a tiny hamlet consisting of mud huts on the
banks of the Solani rivulet. Digging work on the Upper Ganges Canal
formally began in April 1842, under the aegis of Proby Cautley, a
British officer. Local works were designed and overseen by the
engineer Thomas Login. Soon,
Roorkee developed into a town. The
canal, which was formally opened on 8 April 1854, provided irrigation
waters for more than 767,000 acres (3,100 km²) in 5,000
Col. P.T. Cautley, an officer in the British Army, was most
instrumental in constructing the canal. According to Dept. of
Hydrology the canal, which is still considered as a marvel of
engineering, was built in 1853. However, water was released in the
canal on 8 April 1854.
To look after the maintenance of canal, the Canal Workshop and Iron
Foundry were established in 1843 on the civil lines on the canal bank
which is known as Irrigation workshop nowadays . This was followed by
the establishment of Civil Engineering School; classes started in
1845 to train local youth to assist in the civil-engineering work
of the Upper Ganges Canal. This was to become the first engineering
college established in India. On 25 November 1847, the college was
formally constituted through a proposal by the Sir James Thomason, Lt.
Governor of North Western Province (1843–53). After his death in
1853, the college was rechristened as Thomason College of Civil
Engineering. The college later upgraded to
University of Roorkee
University of Roorkee in
1949; on 21 September 2001, through an Act of parliament, it was made
one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, IIT Roorkee. In 1853
Bengal Sappers and Miners were stationed here which provided a
controlling influence during the 1857 uprising. Other important events
in the history of
Roorkee include that under the Post Office Act of
1866, it was among the first few towns to have a post office and first
telegraph office in the district. Now
Roorkee has a General Post
Office (GPO) and a number of post offices located in
Cantt. In 1886,
Roorkee was placed on the Railway map of India. In
1907, first provincial trunk road Meerut-Roorkee-Dehradun was
constructed. In 1920,
Roorkee became the first town in Uttar Pradesh
to have Hydroelectricity.
India's first aqueduct was constructed over the Solani river, near
Roorkee, part of the
Ganges Canal project, which itself was India's
first irrigation work in North India, started by the British. The
Ganges Canal led to another first for
Roorkee — India's first steam
engine, Mary Lind, (specially shipped from England moved on rails in
India) ran in
Roorkee on 22 December 1851, between
Roorkee and Piran
Kaliyar, two years before the first passenger train ran from
Bombay to Thane in 1853. Operated by the Bengal Sappers, the railway
line was built to carry soil used for the construction of the Upper
Ganges Canal aqueduct from Piran Kaliyar, 10 km (6.2 miles) from
the city. The locomotive rail paths are still intact. A
replica of what the locomotive is thought to have looked like is
Roorkee Railway Station.
The municipality of
Roorkee was created in 1868. Now it is a
Municipal Corporation. It had been home to the
Bengal Sappers and
Miners since 1853, and two artillery units were stationed there.
Roorkee Cantonment has a large army base. The Bengal
Engineering Group and Centre (BEG&C), are still there today.
In 1901, when the city had a population of 17,197, it was made
headquarters of the
Roorkee Tehsil, in
Saharanpur district of the
United Province of the British Raj; the tehsil included in it 426
villages (of the parganas of Jwalapur,
Manglaur and Bhagwanpur) and
six towns, most important among them being
Haridwar and Manglaur.
The Old Cemetery in the city is a protected monument, by the
Archaeological Survey of India.
Roorkee is located at 29°52′N 77°53′E / 29.87°N
77.88°E / 29.87; 77.88. It has an average elevation of
268 metres (879 feet).
Roorkee is 165 kilometres (103 mi) north of the Indian capital,
New Delhi between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, close to the foothills
of the Himalayas. Before the creation of
Uttarakhand on 9 November
Roorkee was a part of the state of Uttar Pradesh.
In Roorkee, the climate is warm and temperate.
Roorkee is a city with
a significant rainfall. Even in the driest month there is a lot of
rain. The climate here is classified as Cfa by the Köppen-Geiger
system. The average annual temperature in
Roorkee is 23.7 °C. In a
year, the average rainfall is 1170 mm.
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: GAIA case studies
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
According to the 2011 census
Roorkee city has a population of
^ a b "Census of India, 2011". Office of the Registrar General, India.
2 March 2002. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 28
^ "Bengal Sappers’ saga of valour", The Tribune, 24 November 2008.
^ "First train ran between
Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar". The Hindu. 10
August 2002. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
^ a b c d e
Roorkee Town2, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p.
^ a b Upper Ganges Canal, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p.
^ Indian Engineering Colleges, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909,
v. 4, p. 321.
^ Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1935). The Military Engineer, Vol II.
Chatham: Institution of Royal Engineers. p. 358.
IIT Roorkee Official website.
^ Irrigation and Navigation Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909 v. 3, p.
^ a b Cautley, Proby Thomas (1860-01-01). Report on the Ganges canal
works:from their commencement until the opening of the canal in 1854.
London,. p. 440.
^ First train ran between
Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar, The Hindu, 10
^ Alphabetical List of Monuments –
Uttarakhand Archaeological Survey
^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Roorkee". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved
Uttarakhand Govt. of India, Official website.
^ "Population in
City 2011". Office of the Registrar General
and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
City Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roorkee.
Roorkee travel guide from Wikivoyage
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Roorkee". Encyclopædia Britannica.
23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 706.
Cities and towns in
Cities and towns
in other districts
Udham Singh Nagar
Municipalities of Uttarakhand
Mahua Dabra Haripura
Muni Ki Reti