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Roorkee
Roorkee
(Rūṛkī) is a city in North India
India
and a Municipal Corporation in the Haridwar
Haridwar
district of state Uttarakhand, India. It is spread over a flat terrain under Sivalik Hills
Sivalik Hills
of Himalayas. The city is developed on the banks of Ganges Canal, its dominant feature, which flows from north–south through middle of the city. Roorkee
Roorkee
is home to Asia's first engineering college Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, formerly known as Thomson College of Civil Engineering. Roorkee
Roorkee
is also known for the Roorkee
Roorkee
Cantonment, one of the country's oldest military establishment and the headquarters of Bengal Engineer Group
Bengal Engineer Group
since 1853.[2] Roorkee
Roorkee
has unique distinction as the first train in the country ran between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar on 22 December 1851.[3] Roorkee
Roorkee
has a population of 2,84,478 people as per 2011 Census of India.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Before 1840, the city was a tiny hamlet consisting of mud huts on the banks of the Solani rivulet.[4] Digging work on the Upper Ganges Canal formally began in April 1842, under the aegis of Proby Cautley, a British officer. Local works were designed and overseen by the engineer Thomas Login.[5] Soon, Roorkee
Roorkee
developed into a town. The canal, which was formally opened on 8 April 1854, provided irrigation waters for more than 767,000 acres (3,100 km²) in 5,000 villages.[6] Col. P.T. Cautley, an officer in the British Army, was most instrumental in constructing the canal. According to Dept. of Hydrology the canal, which is still considered as a marvel of engineering, was built in 1853. However, water was released in the canal on 8 April 1854. To look after the maintenance of canal, the Canal Workshop and Iron Foundry were established in 1843 on the civil lines on the canal bank which is known as Irrigation workshop nowadays . This was followed by the establishment of Civil Engineering School; classes started in 1845[4] to train local youth to assist in the civil-engineering work of the Upper Ganges Canal.[7] This was to become the first engineering college established in India.[8] On 25 November 1847, the college was formally constituted through a proposal by the Sir James Thomason, Lt. Governor of North Western Province (1843–53).[4] After his death in 1853, the college was rechristened as Thomason College of Civil Engineering. The college later upgraded to University of Roorkee
University of Roorkee
in 1949; on 21 September 2001, through an Act of parliament, it was made one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, IIT Roorkee.[9] In 1853 Bengal Sappers
Bengal Sappers
and Miners were stationed here which provided a controlling influence during the 1857 uprising. Other important events in the history of Roorkee
Roorkee
include that under the Post Office Act of 1866, it was among the first few towns to have a post office and first telegraph office in the district. Now Roorkee
Roorkee
has a General Post Office (GPO) and a number of post offices located in Roorkee
Roorkee
City
City
and Cantt. In 1886, Roorkee
Roorkee
was placed on the Railway map of India. In 1907, first provincial trunk road Meerut-Roorkee-Dehradun was constructed. In 1920, Roorkee
Roorkee
became the first town in Uttar Pradesh to have Hydroelectricity. India's first aqueduct was constructed over the Solani river, near Roorkee, part of the Ganges Canal
Ganges Canal
project, which itself was India's first irrigation work in North India, started by the British.[10] The Ganges Canal
Ganges Canal
led to another first for Roorkee
Roorkee
— India's first steam engine, Mary Lind, (specially shipped from England moved on rails in India) ran in Roorkee
Roorkee
on 22 December 1851, between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar,[11] two years before the first passenger train ran from Bombay to Thane in 1853. Operated by the Bengal Sappers, the railway line was built to carry soil used for the construction of the Upper Ganges Canal
Ganges Canal
aqueduct from Piran Kaliyar, 10 km (6.2 miles) from the city.[11][12] The locomotive rail paths are still intact. A replica of what the locomotive is thought to have looked like is exhibited at Roorkee
Roorkee
Railway Station. The municipality of Roorkee
Roorkee
was created in 1868.[4] Now it is a Municipal Corporation. It had been home to the Bengal Sappers
Bengal Sappers
and Miners since 1853, and two artillery units were stationed there.[4] Today, the Roorkee Cantonment
Roorkee Cantonment
has a large army base. The Bengal Engineering Group and Centre (BEG&C), are still there today. In 1901, when the city had a population of 17,197, it was made headquarters of the Roorkee
Roorkee
Tehsil, in Saharanpur
Saharanpur
district of the United Province of the British Raj; the tehsil included in it 426 villages (of the parganas of Jwalapur, Manglaur
Manglaur
and Bhagwanpur) and six towns, most important among them being Haridwar
Haridwar
and Manglaur.[6] The Old Cemetery in the city is a protected monument, by the Archaeological Survey of India.[13] Geography[edit] Roorkee
Roorkee
is located at 29°52′N 77°53′E / 29.87°N 77.88°E / 29.87; 77.88.[14] It has an average elevation of 268 metres (879 feet). Roorkee
Roorkee
is 165 kilometres (103 mi) north of the Indian capital, New Delhi
New Delhi
between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, close to the foothills of the Himalayas. Before the creation of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
on 9 November 2000,[15] Roorkee
Roorkee
was a part of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Climate[edit] In Roorkee, the climate is warm and temperate. Roorkee
Roorkee
is a city with a significant rainfall. Even in the driest month there is a lot of rain. The climate here is classified as Cfa by the Köppen-Geiger system. The average annual temperature in Roorkee
Roorkee
is 23.7 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 1170 mm.

Roorkee

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0     22 2

    230     25 6

    40     30 7

    0     37 10

    100     38 16

    40     39 21

    700     34 20

    800     34 22

    460     33 22

    0     30 12

    10     27 7

    190     22 4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: GAIA case studies

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0     72 36

    9.1     77 43

    1.6     86 45

    0     99 50

    3.9     100 61

    1.6     102 70

    28     93 68

    31     93 72

    18     91 72

    0     86 54

    0.4     81 45

    7.5     72 39

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Demographics[edit]

Population in Roorkee
Roorkee
City[16]

Religion

Percent

Hinduism

72.72%

Islam

23.62%

Punjabi

1.54%

Jains

1.02%

Christians

0.94%

Others

0.16%

According to the 2011 census Roorkee
Roorkee
city has a population of 2,84,478[17] References[edit]

^ a b "Census of India, 2011". Office of the Registrar General, India. 2 March 2002. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ "Bengal Sappers’ saga of valour", The Tribune, 24 November 2008. ^ "First train ran between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar". The Hindu. 10 August 2002. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ a b c d e Roorkee
Roorkee
Town2, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 325. ^ http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/10.1680/imotp.1875.22738 ^ a b Upper Ganges Canal, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 138. ^ Indian Engineering Colleges, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 4, p. 321. ^ Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1935). The Military Engineer, Vol II. Chatham: Institution of Royal Engineers. p. 358.  ^ IIT Roorkee Official website. ^ Irrigation and Navigation Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909 v. 3, p. 341. ^ a b Cautley, Proby Thomas (1860-01-01). Report on the Ganges canal works:from their commencement until the opening of the canal in 1854. London,. p. 440.  ^ First train ran between Roorkee
Roorkee
and Piran Kaliyar, The Hindu, 10 August 2002. ^ Alphabetical List of Monuments – Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Archaeological Survey of India
India
website. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Roorkee". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27.  ^ Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Govt. of India, Official website. ^ "Population in Roorkee
Roorkee
City
City
2011". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2017-12-18.  ^ " City
City
Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roorkee.

Roorkee
Roorkee
travel guide from Wikivoyage  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Roorkee". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 706. 

v t e

Cities and towns in Haridwar
Haridwar
district

Haridwar

Bahadrabad Bhagwanpur Dhandera Haridwar Jhabrera Laksar Laldhang Landhaura Manglaur Mohanpur Mohammadpur Ranipur Roorkee Roorkee
Roorkee
Cantonment

Cities and towns in other districts

Almora Bageshwar Chamoli Champawat Dehradun Nainital Pauri
Pauri
Garhwal Pithoragarh Rudraprayag Tehri
Tehri
Garhwal Udham Singh Nagar Uttarkashi

v t e

Municipalities of Uttarakhand

Municipal Corporations

Dehradun Haldwani Haridwar Kashipur Roorkee Rudrapur

Municipalities

Almora Bageshwar Bajpur Bhowali Chamoli Gopeshwar Dogadda Gadarpur Jaspur Jyotirmath Khatima Kichha Kotdwar Manglaur Mussoorie Nainital Narendranagar Pauri Pithoragarh Ramnagar Rishikesh Rudraprayag Sitarganj Srinagar Tanakpur Tehri Uttarkashi Vikasnagar

Nagar Panchayats

Badrinath Barkot Bhimtal Chamba Champawat Devprayag Dharchula Didihat Dineshpur Doiwala Dwarahat Gangotri Gochar Herbertpur Jhabrera Kaladungi Karnaprayag Kedarnath Kela Khera Kirtinagar Laksar Lalkuan Landhaura Lohaghat Mahua Dabra Haripura Mahua Kheraganj Muni Ki Reti Nandaprayag Shaktigarh Sultanpur

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158246

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