ROORKEE (Rūṛkī) is a city in North
India and a Municipal
Corporation in the
Haridwar district of state
India . It
is spread over a flat terrain under
Sivalik Hills of
Himalayas . The
city is developed on the banks of
Ganges Canal , its dominant feature,
which flows from north–south through middle of the city.
home to Asia's first engineering college Indian Institute of
Roorkee , formerly known as Thomson College of Civil
Roorkee is also known for the
Roorkee Cantonment , one of
the country's oldest military establishment and the headquarters of
Bengal Engineer Group
Bengal Engineer Group since 1853.
Roorkee has unique distinction as
the first train in the country ran between
Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar
on 22 December 1851.
Roorkee has a population of 2,84,478 people as
per 2011 Census of
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 3 Climate
* 4 Demographics
* 5 References
* 6 External links
Before 1840, the city was a tiny hamlet consisting of mud huts on the
banks of the Solani rivulet. Digging work on the Upper Ganges Canal
formally began in April 1842, under the aegis of
Proby Cautley , a
British officer. Local works were designed and overseen by the
Thomas Login . Soon,
Roorkee developed into a town. The
canal, which was formally opened on 8 April 1854, provided irrigation
waters for more than 767,000 acres (3,100 km²) in 5,000 villages.
Col. P.T. Cautley, an officer in the British Army, was most
instrumental in constructing the canal. According to Dept. of
Hydrology the canal, which is still considered as a marvel of
engineering, was built in 1853. However, water was released in the
canal on 8 April 1854.
To look after the maintenance of canal, the Canal Workshop and Iron
Foundry were established in 1843 on the civil lines on the canal bank
which is known as Irrigation workshop nowadays . This was followed by
the establishment of Civil Engineering School; classes started in 1845
to train local youth to assist in the civil-engineering work of the
Upper Ganges Canal. This was to become the first engineering college
established in India. On 25 November 1847, the college was formally
constituted through a proposal by the Sir James Thomason, Lt. Governor
of North Western Province (1843–53). After his death in 1853, the
college was rechristened as Thomason College of Civil Engineering. The
college later upgraded to
University of Roorkee
University of Roorkee in 1949; on 21
September 2001, through an Act of parliament, it was made one of the
Indian Institutes of Technology
Indian Institutes of Technology ,
IIT Roorkee . In 1853 Bengal
Sappers and Miners were stationed here which provided a controlling
influence during the 1857 uprising . Other important events in the
Roorkee include that under the Post Office Act of 1866, it
was among the first few towns to have a post office and first
telegraph office in the district. Now
Roorkee has a General Post
Office (GPO) and a number of post offices located in
Cantt. In 1886,
Roorkee was placed on the Railway map of India. In
1907, first provincial trunk road Meerut-Roorkee-Dehradun was
constructed. In 1920,
Roorkee became the first town in Uttar Pradesh
India's first aqueduct was constructed over the Solani river, near
Roorkee, part of the
Ganges Canal project, which itself was India's
first irrigation work in North India, started by the British. The
Ganges Canal led to another first for
Roorkee — India's first steam
engine, Mary Lind, (specially shipped from England moved on rails in
India) ran in
Roorkee on 22 December 1851, between
Roorkee and Piran
Kaliyar , two years before the first passenger train ran from Bombay
to Thane in 1853. Operated by the
Bengal Sappers , the railway line
was built to carry soil used for the construction of the Upper Ganges
Canal aqueduct from Piran Kaliyar, 10 km (6.2 miles) from the city.
The locomotive rail paths are still intact. A replica of what the
locomotive is thought to have looked like is exhibited at Roorkee
The municipality of
Roorkee was created in 1868. Now it is a
Municipal Corporation. It had been home to the
Bengal Sappers and
Miners since 1853, and two artillery units were stationed there.
Roorkee Cantonment has a large army base. The Bengal
Engineering Group and Centre (BEG the tehsil included in it 426
villages (of the parganas of Jwalapur,
Manglaur and Bhagwanpur) and
six towns, most important among them being
The Old Cemetery in the city is a protected monument, by the
Archaeological Survey of
Roorkee is located at 29°52′N 77°53′E / 29.87°N
77.88°E / 29.87; 77.88 . It has an average elevation of 268
metres (879 feet).
Roorkee is 165 kilometres (103 mi) north of the Indian capital, New
Delhi between the rivers Ganges and
Yamuna , close to the foothills of
Himalayas . Before the creation of
Uttarakhand on 9 November 2000,
Roorkee was a part of the state of
Uttar Pradesh .
In Roorkee, the climate is warm and temperate.
Roorkee is a city with
a significant rainfall. Even in the driest month there is a lot of
rain. The climate here is classified as Cfa by the Köppen-Geiger
system. The average annual temperature in
Roorkee is 23.7 °C. In a
year, the average rainfall is 1170 mm.
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
0 22 2
230 25 6
40 30 7
0 37 10
100 38 16
40 39 21
700 34 20
800 34 22
460 33 22
0 30 12
10 27 7
190 22 4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: GAIA case studies
0 72 36
9.1 77 43
1.6 86 45
0 99 50
3.9 100 61
1.6 102 70
28 93 68
31 93 72
18 91 72
0 86 54
0.4 81 45
7.5 72 39
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
POPULATION IN ROORKEE CITY
According to the 2011 census
Roorkee city has a population of
* ^ A B "Census of India, 2011". Office of the Registrar General,
India. 2 March 2002. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004.
Retrieved 28 May 2010.
* ^ "Bengal Sappers’ saga of valour", The Tribune , 24 November
* ^ "First train ran between
Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar". The Hindu
. 10 August 2002. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
* ^ A B C D E
Roorkee Town2, The Imperial Gazetteer of
India , v.
21, p. 325.
* ^ http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/10.1680/imotp.1875.22738
* ^ A B Upper Ganges Canal, The Imperial Gazetteer of
India , v.
12, p. 138.
* ^ Indian Engineering Colleges, The Imperial Gazetteer of
1909, v. 4, p. 321.
* ^ Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1935). The Military Engineer, Vol II.
Chatham: Institution of Royal Engineers. p. 358.
IIT Roorkee Official website.
* ^ Irrigation and Navigation Imperial Gazetteer of
India , 1909 v.
3, p. 341.
* ^ A B Cautley, Proby Thomas (1860-01-01). Report on the Ganges
canal works:from their commencement until the opening of the canal in
1854. London,. p. 440.
* ^ First train ran between
Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar,
The Hindu ,
10 August 2002.
* ^ Alphabetical List of Monuments –
* ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Roorkee". Fallingrain.com.
Uttarakhand Govt. of India, Official website.
* ^ "Population in
City 2011". Office of the Registrar
General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
* ^ "
City Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved
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