HOME
ListMoto - Ronald Reagan


--- Advertisement ---



Governor of California

Governorship 1976 General election

Primaries Convention

40th President of the United States

Presidency

Timeline

Policies

Domestic

Reaganomics

Foreign

Reagan Doctrine

International trips

Appointments

Cabinet Judicial appointments

First Term

Campaign for the Presidency 1980 general election

Primaries Convention

1st inauguration Assassination attempt

Invasion of Grenada Cold War

Second Term

Re-election campaign

1984 general election Primaries Convention

2nd inauguration

Cold War Libya bombing Challenger disaster Iran–Contra affair "Tear down this wall!" INF Treaty

Post-Presidency

Presidential Library Medal of Freedom Bibliography

An American Life The Reagan Diaries

Alzheimer's diagnosis State funeral

Legacy

Speeches and debates

"A Time for Choosing"

Reagan Era Reagan Award

v t e

Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ˈreɪɡən/; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1981 to 1989. Prior to the presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd Governor of California
Governor of California
from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois. He graduated from Eureka College
Eureka College
in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to Hollywood in 1937, he became an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric
General Electric
factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected Governor of California
California
in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, and was re-elected in 1970. He twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years later in 1980, he won the nomination, and then defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his inauguration, he became the oldest president-elect to take the oath of office (a distinction now held by Donald Trump, since 2017). Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
when he ran for re-election in 1984, and defeated him in a landslide with the largest electoral college victory in American history. Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, and reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, and an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, and increased military spending contributed to increased federal outlays overall, even after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, and the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate. He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty, which shrank both countries' nuclear arsenals. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, and the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, and on December 26, 1991 (nearly three years after he left office), the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed. When Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of sixty-eight percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and later Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.[1] He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent as the disease progressed. He died at home on June 5, 2004. An icon among Republicans, he is viewed favorably in historical rankings of U.S. presidents, and his tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Religion 1.2 Formal education

2 Entertainment career

2.1 Radio and film 2.2 Military service 2.3 Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
presidency

2.3.1 Secret FBI informant in Hollywood

2.4 Television

3 Marriages and children 4 Early political career 5 Governor of California
Governor of California
(1967–1975) 6 1976 presidential campaign 7 1980 presidential campaign 8 Presidency (1981–1989)

8.1 First term

8.1.1 Prayer
Prayer
in schools and a moment of silence 8.1.2 Assassination attempt 8.1.3 Assistant Secretary of State nomination 8.1.4 Air traffic controllers' strike 8.1.5 "Reaganomics" and the economy 8.1.6 Escalation of the Cold War 8.1.7 Lebanese Civil War 8.1.8 Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada) 8.1.9 1984 presidential campaign

8.2 Second term

8.2.1 1985 placing of wreath at cemetery in Bitburg, Germany 8.2.2 War on Drugs 8.2.3 Response to AIDS epidemic 8.2.4 Libya bombing 8.2.5 Immigration 8.2.6 Iran–Contra affair 8.2.7 End of the Cold War

8.3 Health 8.4 Judiciary

9 Post-presidency (1989–2004)

9.1 Public speaking 9.2 Assault 9.3 Alzheimer's disease

9.3.1 Announcement and reaction: 1994 9.3.2 Progression: 1994–2004

10 Death and funeral 11 Legacy

11.1 Cold War 11.2 Domestic and political legacy 11.3 Cultural and political image 11.4 Honors

12 Portraits 13 See also 14 References 15 Sources 16 Further reading

16.1 Primary sources 16.2 Historiography

17 External links

17.1 Official sites 17.2 Media 17.3 News coverage 17.4 Essays and historiographies 17.5 Other

Early life Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911 in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois. He was the younger son of Nelle Clyde (née Wilson; 1883–1962) and Jack Reagan
Jack Reagan
(1883–1941).[2] Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
emigrants from County Tipperary,[3] while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent (her mother was born in Surrey).[4] Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan
Neil Reagan
(1908–1996), became an advertising executive.[5] Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut;[6] the nickname stuck with him throughout his youth.[6] Reagan's family briefly lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth, Galesburg, and Chicago.[7] In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store
H. C. Pitney Variety Store
until finally settling in Dixon.[2] After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House
White House
private quarters, and he would quip that he was "living above the store again".[8] Religion Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and often did".[9] She attended the Disciples of Christ church regularly and was active, and very influential, within it; she frequently led Sunday school services and gave the Bible
Bible
readings to the congregation during the services. A strong believer in the power of prayer, she led prayer meetings at church and was in charge of mid-week prayers when the pastor was out of town.[10] Her strong commitment to the church is what induced her son Ronald to become a Protestant Christian rather than a Roman Catholic like his father.[4] He also stated that she strongly influenced his own beliefs: "I know that she planted that faith very deeply in me."[11] For example, Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
attended Eureka College, founded by the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in 1855. While pursuing the degree he earned in economics-sociology in 1932, Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
continued to be surrounded with the same faith his mother had introduced in his life. According to Paul Kengor, author of God and Ronald Reagan, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people; this faith stemmed from the optimistic faith of his mother[12] and the Disciples of Christ faith,[12] into which he was baptized in 1922.[13] For that period of time, which was long before the civil rights movement, Reagan's opposition to racial discrimination was unusual and commendable. He recalled the time in Dixon when the proprietor of a local inn would not allow black people to stay there, and he brought them back to his house. His mother invited them to stay overnight and have breakfast the next morning.[14] After the closure of the Pitney Store in 1920 and the family's move to Dixon,[15] the midwestern "small universe" had a lasting impression on Reagan.[16] Formal education Reagan attended Dixon High School, where he developed interests in acting, sports, and storytelling.[17] His first job involved working as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park in 1927. Over a six-year period, Reagan reportedly performed 77 rescues as a lifeguard.[18] He attended Eureka College, a Disciples-oriented liberal arts school, where he became a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, a cheerleader, and studied economics and sociology. While involved, the Miller Center of Public Affairs described him as an "indifferent student". He majored in economics and sociology and graduated with a C grade.[19] He developed a reputation as a "jack of all trades", excelling in campus politics, sports, and theater. He was a member of the football team and captain of the swim team. He was elected student body president and led a student revolt against the college president after the president tried to cut back the faculty.[20] Entertainment career Further information: Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
filmography Radio and film

The Bad Man (1941)

After graduating from Eureka in 1932, Reagan drove to Iowa, where he held jobs as a radio announcer at several stations. He moved to WHO radio in Des Moines
Des Moines
as an announcer for Chicago Cubs
Chicago Cubs
baseball games. His specialty was creating play-by-play accounts of games using as his source only basic descriptions that the station received by wire as the games were in progress.[21] While traveling with the Cubs in California
California
in 1937, Reagan took a screen test that led to a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers studios.[22] He spent the first few years of his Hollywood career in the "B film" unit, where, Reagan joked, the producers "didn't want them good; they wanted them Thursday".[23] He earned his first screen credit with a starring role in the 1937 movie Love Is on the Air, and by the end of 1939 he had already appeared in 19 films,[24] including Dark Victory
Dark Victory
with Bette Davis
Bette Davis
and Humphrey Bogart. Before the film Santa Fe Trail with Errol Flynn
Errol Flynn
in 1940, he played the role of George "The Gipper" Gipp in the film Knute Rockne, All American; from it, he acquired the lifelong nickname "the Gipper."[25] In 1941, exhibitors voted him the fifth most popular star from the younger generation in Hollywood.[26] Reagan played his favorite acting role in 1942's Kings Row,[27] where he plays a double amputee who recites the line "Where's the rest of me?"—later used as the title of his 1965 autobiography. Many film critics considered Kings Row
Kings Row
to be his best movie,[28] though the film was condemned by New York Times
New York Times
critic Bosley Crowther.[29][30] Although Reagan called Kings Row
Kings Row
the film that "made me a star",[31] he was unable to capitalize on his success because he was ordered to active duty with the U.S. Army at San Francisco two months after its release, and never regained "star" status in motion pictures.[31] In the post-war era, after being separated from almost four years of World War II stateside service with the 1st Motion Picture Unit in December 1945, Reagan co-starred in such films as The Voice of the Turtle, John Loves Mary, The Hasty Heart, Bedtime for Bonzo, Cattle Queen of Montana, Tennessee's Partner, Hellcats of the Navy
Hellcats of the Navy
(the only film in which he appears with Nancy Reagan), and the 1964 remake The Killers (his final film). Throughout his film career, Reagan's mother answered much of his fan mail.[32] Military service

Capt. Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
at Fort Roach

After completing 14 home-study Army Extension Courses, Reagan enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Officers' Reserve Corps of the Cavalry on May 25, 1937.[33] On April 18, 1942, Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time. Due to his poor eyesight, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas.[34] His first assignment was at the San Francisco Port of Embarkation
San Francisco Port of Embarkation
at Fort Mason, California, as a liaison officer of the Port and Transportation Office.[35] Upon the approval of the Army Air Forces
Army Air Forces
(AAF), he applied for a transfer from the cavalry to the AAF on May 15, 1942, and was assigned to AAF Public Relations and subsequently to the First Motion Picture Unit (officially, the "18th Army Air Force Base Unit") in Culver City, California.[35] On January 14, 1943, he was promoted to first lieutenant and was sent to the Provisional Task Force Show Unit of This Is the Army
This Is the Army
at Burbank, California.[35] He returned to the First Motion Picture Unit
First Motion Picture Unit
after completing this duty and was promoted to captain on July 22, 1943.[36] In January 1944, Reagan was ordered to temporary duty in New York City to participate in the opening of the Sixth War Loan Drive, which campaigned for the purchase of war bonds. He was reassigned to the First Motion Picture Unit
First Motion Picture Unit
on November 14, 1944, where he remained until the end of World War II.[36] He was recommended for promotion to major on February 2, 1945, but this recommendation was disapproved on July 17 of that year.[37] While with the First Motion Picture Unit
First Motion Picture Unit
in 1945, he was indirectly involved in discovering actress Marilyn Monroe.[38] He returned to Fort MacArthur, California, where he was separated from active duty on December 9, 1945.[37] By the end of the war, his units had produced some 400 training films for the AAF.[36] Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
presidency

Guest stars for the premiere of The Dick Powell Show. Reagan stands behind, at the far left of the photograph

Reagan was first elected to the Board of Directors of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) in 1941, serving as an alternate member. After World War II, he resumed service and became third vice-president in 1946.[39] The adoption of conflict-of-interest bylaws in 1947 led the SAG president and six board members to resign; Reagan was nominated in a special election for the position of president and was subsequently elected.[39] He was chosen by the membership to serve seven additional one-year terms, from 1947 to 1952 and in 1959.[39] Reagan led the SAG through eventful years that were marked by labor-management disputes, the Taft–Hartley Act, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) hearings and the Hollywood blacklist
Hollywood blacklist
era.[39] Secret FBI informant in Hollywood During the late 1940s, Reagan and his then-wife, Jane Wyman, provided the FBI with the names of actors within the motion picture industry whom they believed to be communist sympathizers. Though he expressed reservations, he said, "Do they expect us to constitute ourselves as a little FBI of our own and determine just who is a Commie and who isn't?"[40] Reagan also testified on the subject before the House Un-American Activities Committee.[41] A fervent anti-communist, he reaffirmed his commitment to democratic principles, stating, "I never as a citizen want to see our country become urged, by either fear or resentment of this group, that we ever compromise with any of our democratic principles through that fear or resentment."[41] Television Though an early critic of television, Reagan landed fewer film roles in the late 1950s and decided to join the medium.[23] He was hired as the host of General Electric
General Electric
Theater,[42] a series of weekly dramas that became very popular.[23] His contract required him to tour General Electric
General Electric
(GE) plants 16 weeks out of the year, which often demanded that he give 14 speeches per day.[23] He earned approximately $125,000 (equivalent to $1011276 in 2017) in this role. The show ran for 10 seasons from 1953 to 1962, which increased Reagan's profile in American households.[43] He had previously appeared in feature films mostly in supporting roles or as a "second lead". In his final work as a professional actor, Reagan was a host and performer from 1964 to 1965 on the television series Death Valley Days.[44] Reagan and future wife Nancy Davis appeared together on television several times, including an episode of General Electric
General Electric
Theater in 1958 called "A Turkey for the President."[45] Marriages and children

First wife Jane Wyman
Jane Wyman
and Reagan, 1942

In 1938, Reagan co-starred in the film Brother Rat
Brother Rat
with actress Jane Wyman (1917–2007). They announced their engagement at the Chicago Theatre[46] and married on January 26, 1940 at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Glendale, California.[47] Together they had two biological children, Maureen (1941–2001) and Christine (b. in 1947 but lived only one day), and adopted a third, Michael (b. 1945).[48] After the couple had arguments about Reagan's political ambitions, Wyman filed for divorce in 1948,[49] citing a distraction due to her husband's Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
union duties; the divorce was finalized in 1949.[25] Wyman, who was a registered Republican, also stated that their break-up was due to a difference in politics (Reagan was still a Democrat at the time).[50] When Reagan became President 32 years later, he had the distinction of being the first divorced person to assume the nation's highest office.[51] Reagan and Wyman continued to be friends until his death, with Wyman voting for Reagan in both of his runs and, upon his death, saying "America has lost a great president and a great, kind, and gentle man."[52]

Wedding of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, 1952. Matron of honor Brenda Marshall and best man William Holden
William Holden
were the sole guests

Reagan met actress Nancy Davis (1921–2016)[53][54] in 1949 after she contacted him in his capacity as president of the Screen Actors Guild. He helped her with issues regarding her name appearing on a Communist blacklist in Hollywood. She had been mistaken for another Nancy Davis. She described their meeting by saying, "I don't know if it was exactly love at first sight, but it was pretty close."[55] They were engaged at Chasen's
Chasen's
restaurant in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and were married on March 4, 1952, at the Little Brown Church in the Valley (North Hollywood, now Studio City) San Fernando Valley.[56] Actor William Holden
William Holden
served as best man at the ceremony. They had two children: Patti (b. 1952) and Ronald "Ron" Jr. (b. 1958). Observers described the Reagans' relationship as close, authentic and intimate.[57] During his presidency, they reportedly displayed frequent affection for one another; one press secretary said, "They never took each other for granted. They never stopped courting."[55][58] He often called her "Mommy" and she called him "Ronnie."[58] He once wrote to her, "Whatever I treasure and enjoy... all would be without meaning if I didn't have you."[59] When he was in the hospital in 1981 after an assassination attempt, she slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by his scent.[60] In a letter to the American people in 1994, Reagan wrote "I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's disease... I only wish there was some way I could spare Nancy from this painful experience,"[55] and in 1998, while he was stricken by Alzheimer's, Nancy told Vanity Fair, "Our relationship is very special. We were very much in love and still are. When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true. It did. I can't imagine life without him."[55] Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
died on March 6, 2016 at the age of 94.[61] Early political career

Nancy and Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
aboard a boat in California, 1964

Reagan began as a Hollywood Democrat, and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
was "a true hero" to him.[62] He moved to the right-wing in the 1950s, became a Republican in 1962, and emerged as a leading conservative spokesman in the Goldwater campaign of 1964.[63] In his early political career, he joined numerous political committees with a left-wing orientation, such as the American Veterans Committee. He fought against Republican-sponsored right-to-work legislation and supported Helen Gahagan Douglas
Helen Gahagan Douglas
in 1950 when she was defeated for the Senate by Richard Nixon. It was his realization that Communists were a powerful backstage influence in those groups that led him to rally his friends against them.[64] At rallies, Reagan spoke frequently with a strong ideological dimension. In December 1945, he was stopped from leading an anti-nuclear rally in Hollywood by pressure from the Warner Bros. studio. He would later make nuclear weapons a key point of his presidency when he specifically stated his opposition to mutual assured destruction. Reagan also built on previous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.[65] In the 1948 presidential election, Reagan strongly supported Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
and appeared on stage with him during a campaign speech in Los Angeles.[66] In the early 1950s, his relationship with actress Nancy Davis grew,[67] and he shifted to the right when he endorsed the presidential candidacies of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1952 and 1956) and Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1960).[68] Reagan was hired by General Electric
General Electric
(GE) in 1954 to host the General Electric Theater, a weekly TV drama series. He also traveled across the country to give motivational speeches to over 200,000 GE employees. His many speeches—which he wrote himself—were non-partisan but carried a conservative, pro-business message; he was influenced by Lemuel Boulware, a senior GE executive. Boulware, known for his tough stance against unions and his innovative strategies to win over workers, championed the core tenets of modern American conservatism: free markets, anticommunism, lower taxes, and limited government.[69] Eager for a larger stage, but not allowed to enter politics by GE, he quit and formally registered as a Republican.[70] He often said, "I didn't leave the Democratic Party. The party left me."[71] When the legislation that would become Medicare was introduced in 1961, he created a recording for the American Medical Association (AMA) warning that such legislation would mean the end of freedom in America. Reagan said that if his listeners did not write letters to prevent it, "we will awake to find that we have socialism. And if you don't do this, and if I don't do it, one of these days, you and I are going to spend our sunset years telling our children, and our children's children, what it once was like in America when men were free."[72][73] He also joined the National Rifle Association
National Rifle Association
(NRA) and would become a lifetime member.[74] Reagan gained national attention in his speeches for conservative presidential contender Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
in 1964.[75] Speaking for Goldwater, Reagan stressed his belief in the importance of smaller government. He consolidated themes that he had developed in his talks for GE to deliver his famous speech, "A Time for Choosing":

The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing ... You and I are told we must choose between a left or right, but I suggest there is no such thing as a left or right. There is only an up or down. Up to man's age-old dream—the maximum of individual freedom consistent with order—or down to the ant heap of totalitarianism.[76][77] — October 27, 1964

This "A Time for Choosing" speech was not enough to turn around the faltering Goldwater campaign, but it was the key event that established Reagan's national political visibility.[78][79]

External audio

Speech to the National Press Club

Reagan's speech on June 16, 1966 (starts at 06:16; finishes at 39:04)[80]

Governor of California
Governor of California
(1967–1975) Main article: Governorship of Ronald Reagan See also: Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
§ California gubernatorial election, 1966

Ronald and Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
celebrate his gubernatorial victory at the Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles

California
California
Republicans were impressed with Reagan's political views and charisma after his "Time for Choosing" speech,[81] and in late 1965 he announced his campaign for Governor in the 1966 election.[82][83] He defeated former San Francisco mayor George Christopher in the GOP primary. In Reagan's campaign, he emphasized two main themes: "to send the welfare bums back to work," and, in reference to burgeoning anti-war and anti-establishment student protests at the University of California
California
at Berkeley, "to clean up the mess at Berkeley."[84] In 1966, Reagan accomplished what both U.S. Senator William F. Knowland
William F. Knowland
in 1958 and former Vice President Richard Nixon in 1962 had attempted to do: he was elected, defeating two-term governor Pat Brown, and was sworn in on January 2, 1967. In his first term, he froze government hiring and approved tax hikes to balance the budget.[85] Shortly after assuming his gubernatorial term, Reagan tested the 1968 presidential waters as part of a "Stop Nixon" movement, hoping to cut into Nixon's southern support[86] and become a compromise candidate[87] if neither Nixon nor second-place candidate Nelson Rockefeller received enough delegates to win on the first ballot at the Republican convention. However, by the time of the convention Nixon, had 692 delegate votes, 25 more than he needed to secure the nomination, followed by Rockefeller with Reagan in third place.[86] Reagan was involved in several high-profile conflicts with the protest movements of the era, including his public criticism of university administrators for tolerating student demonstrations at the University of California, Berkeley campus. On May 15, 1969, during the People's Park protests at the university's campus (the original purpose of which was to discuss the Arab–Israeli conflict), Reagan sent the California
California
Highway Patrol and other officers to quell the protests. This led to an incident that became known as "Bloody Thursday," resulting in the death of student James Rector and the blinding of carpenter Alan Blanchard.[88][89] In addition, 111 police officers were injured in the conflict, including one who was knifed in the chest. Reagan then called out 2,200 state National Guard troops to occupy the city of Berkeley for two weeks to crack down on the protesters.[88] The Guard remained in Berkeley for 17 days, camping in People's Park, and demonstrations subsided as the university removed cordoned-off fencing and placed all development plans for People's Park on hold.[88][90] One year after "Bloody Thursday," Reagan responded to questions about campus protest movements saying, "If it takes a bloodbath, let's get it over with. No more appeasement."[91] When the Symbionese Liberation Army
Symbionese Liberation Army
kidnapped Patty Hearst
Patty Hearst
in Berkeley and demanded the distribution of food to the poor, Reagan joked to a group of political aides about a botulism outbreak contaminating the food.[92]

The Reagans
The Reagans
meet with President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and First Lady Pat Nixon, July 1970

Early in 1967, the national debate on abortion was starting to gain traction. In the early stages of the debate, Democratic California state senator Anthony C. Beilenson
Anthony C. Beilenson
introduced the "Therapeutic Abortion Act" in an effort to reduce the number of "back-room abortions" performed in California.[88] The state legislature sent the bill to Reagan's desk where, after many days of indecision, he signed it on June 14, 1967.[93] About two million abortions would be performed as a result, mostly because of a provision in the bill allowing abortions for the well-being of the mother.[93] Reagan had been in office for only four months when he signed the bill, and later stated that had he been more experienced as governor, he would not have signed it. After he recognized what he called the "consequences" of the bill, he announced that he was pro-life.[93] He maintained that position later in his political career, writing extensively about abortion.[94] In 1967, Reagan signed the Mulford Act, which repealed a law allowing public carrying of loaded firearms (becoming California
California
Penal Code 12031 and 171(c)). The bill, which was named after Republican assemblyman Don Mulford, garnered national attention after the Black Panthers marched bearing arms upon the California
California
State Capitol to protest it.[95][96] Despite an unsuccessful attempt to force a recall election on Reagan in 1968,[97] he was re-elected governor in 1970, defeating "Big Daddy" Jesse M. Unruh. He chose not to seek a third term in the following election cycle. One of Reagan's greatest frustrations in office was the issue of capital punishment, which he strongly supported.[27] His efforts to enforce the state's laws in this area were thwarted when the Supreme Court of California
California
issued its People v. Anderson decision, which invalidated all death sentences issued in California before 1972, though the decision was later overturned by a constitutional amendment. The only execution during Reagan's governorship was on April 12, 1967, when Aaron Mitchell's sentence was carried out by the state in San Quentin's gas chamber.[98] When Reagan was governor in 1969, he signed the Family Law Act, which was an amalgam of two bills that had been written and revised by the California
California
State Legislature over more than two years.[99] It became the first no-fault divorce legislation in the United States.[100] Reagan's terms as governor helped to shape the policies he would pursue in his later political career as president. By campaigning on a platform of sending "the welfare bums back to work," he spoke out against the idea of the welfare state. He also strongly advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy, including that of undue federal taxation.[101] Reagan did not seek re-election to a third term as governor in 1974; he was succeeded by the Secretary of State, Democrat Jerry Brown, who took office on January 6, 1975. 1976 presidential campaign Main article: Republican Party presidential primaries, 1976 See also: Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
§ 1976 presidential election

On the podium with Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
after narrowly losing the nomination at the 1976 Republican National Convention

In 1976, Reagan challenged incumbent President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
in a bid to become the Republican Party's candidate for president. Reagan soon established himself as the conservative candidate with the support of like-minded organizations such as the American Conservative Union, which became key components of his political base, while Ford was considered a more moderate Republican.[102] Reagan's campaign relied on a strategy crafted by campaign manager John Sears of winning a few primaries early to damage the inevitability of Ford's likely nomination. Reagan won North Carolina, Texas, and California, but the strategy failed, as[103] he ended up losing New Hampshire, Florida, and his native Illinois.[104] The Texas campaign lent renewed hope to Reagan, when he swept all 96 delegates chosen in the May 1 primary, with four more awaiting at the state convention. Much of the credit for that victory came from the work of three co-chairmen, including Ernest Angelo, the mayor of Midland, and Ray Barnhart of Houston, whom Reagan as President would appoint in 1981 as director of the Federal Highway Administration.[105] However, as the GOP convention neared, Ford appeared close to victory. Acknowledging his party's moderate wing, Reagan chose moderate Senator Richard Schweiker
Richard Schweiker
of Pennsylvania as his running mate if nominated. Nonetheless, Ford prevailed with 1,187 delegates to Reagan's 1,070.[104] Ford would go on to lose the 1976 presidential election to the Democratic nominee, Jimmy Carter. Reagan's concession speech emphasized the dangers of nuclear war and the threat posed by the Soviet Union. Though he lost the nomination, he received 307 write-in votes in New Hampshire, 388 votes as an Independent on Wyoming's ballot, and a single electoral vote from a faithless elector in the November election from the state of Washington,[106] which Ford had won over Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter. After the campaign, Reagan remained in the public debate with the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Radio Commentary series[107] and his political action committee, Citizens for the Republic, which was later revived in Alexandria, Virginia, in 2009 by the Reagan biographer Craig Shirley.[108] 1980 presidential campaign

1980 electoral vote results

Main articles: Ronald Reagan presidential campaign, 1980
Ronald Reagan presidential campaign, 1980
and United States presidential election, 1980 See also: Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
§ 1980 presidential election The 1980 presidential election featured Reagan against incumbent President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and was conducted amid a multitude of domestic concerns as well as the ongoing Iran hostage crisis. Reagan's campaign stressed some of his fundamental principles: lower taxes to stimulate the economy,[109] less government interference in people's lives,[110] states' rights,[111] and a strong national defense.[112] Reagan launched his campaign by declaring "I believe in states' rights." After receiving the Republican nomination, Reagan selected one of his opponents in the primaries, George H. W. Bush, to be his running mate. His relaxed and confident appearance during the televised Reagan-Carter debate on October 28, boosted his popularity, and helped to widen his lead in the polls.[113] On November 4, Reagan won a decisive victory over Carter, carrying 44 states and receiving 489 electoral votes, to Carter's 49 electoral votes from six states plus the District of Columbia. He won the popular vote by a more modest margin, receiving 50.7% to Carter's 41.0%, with independent John B. Anderson
John B. Anderson
garnering 6.6%.[113][114][115] Additionally, Republicans won a majority of seats in the Senate for the first time since 1952, and gained 34 House seats, but the Democrats retained a majority. Presidency (1981–1989) Main article: Presidency of Ronald Reagan Further information: Domestic policy of the Ronald Reagan administration, Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
administration, and Reagan Doctrine

Inauguration parade (January 20, 1981). As Reagan read his inauguration address, 52 U.S. hostages (held by Iran for 444 days) were set free

During his presidency, Reagan pursued policies that reflected his personal belief in individual freedom; brought changes domestically, both to the U.S. economy and expanded military; and contributed to the end of the Cold War.[116] Termed the "Reagan Revolution," his presidency would reinvigorate American morale,[117][118] reinvigorate the U.S. economy and reduce reliance upon government.[116] As president, Reagan kept a diary in which he commented on daily occurrences of his presidency and his views on the issues of the day. The diaries were published in May 2007 in the bestselling book, The Reagan Diaries.[119] First term Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
was 69 years old when he sworn into office for his first term on January 20, 1981. In his inaugural address (which Reagan himself wrote), he addressed the country's economic malaise, arguing: "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem."[120] Prayer
Prayer
in schools and a moment of silence In 1981, Reagan became the first president to propose a constitutional amendment on school prayer.[121] Reagan's election reflected an opposition[121] to the 1962 Supreme Court case Engel v. Vitale, prohibiting state officials from composing an official state prayer and requiring that it be recited in the public schools.[122] Reagan's 1981 proposed amendment stated: "Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed to prohibit individual or group prayer in public schools or other public institutions. No person shall be required by the United States or by any state to participate in prayer." In 1984, Reagan again raised the issue, asking Congress "why can't [the] freedom to acknowledge God be enjoyed again by children in every schoolroom across this land?"[123] In 1985, Reagan expressed his disappointment that the Supreme Court ruling still bans a moment of silence for public schools, and said he had "an uphill battle."[124] In 1987 Reagan renewed his call for Congress to support voluntary prayer in schools and end "the expulsion of God from America's classrooms."[125] Critics argue that any governmental imposition of prayer on public school students is involuntary.[125] No Supreme Court rulings suggest that students cannot engage in silent prayer on their own.[125] During his term in office, Reagan campaigned vigorously to restore organized prayer to the schools, first as a moment of prayer and later as a Moment of Silence.[126]

Reagan, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
and Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
at a state dinner in 1981

Assassination attempt Main article: Attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan On March 30, 1981 (shortly into the new administration), Reagan, his press secretary James Brady, Washington police officer Thomas Delahanty, and Secret Service agent Tim McCarthy
Tim McCarthy
were struck by gunfire from would-be assassin John Hinckley Jr.
John Hinckley Jr.
outside the Washington Hilton
Washington Hilton
hotel. Although "close to death" upon arrival at George Washington
George Washington
University Hospital, Reagan was stabilized in the emergency room, then underwent emergency exploratory surgery.[127] He recovered and was released from the hospital on April 11, becoming the first serving U.S. president to survive being shot in an assassination attempt.[128] The attempt had great influence on Reagan's popularity; polls indicated his approval rating to be around 73%.[129] Reagan believed that God had spared his life so that he might go on to fulfill a greater purpose.[130] Assistant Secretary of State nomination In response to conservative criticism that the State Department lacked hardliners, Reagan in 1981 nominated Ernest W. Lefever as Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs. Lefever performed poorly at his confirmation hearings and the Senate committee rejected his nomination by vote of 4–13; Lefever withdrew his name.[131] Air traffic controllers' strike In 1981, PATCO, the union of federal air traffic controllers went on strike, violating a federal law prohibiting government unions from striking.[132] Declaring the situation an emergency as described in the 1947 Taft–Hartley Act, Reagan stated that if the air traffic controllers "do not report for work within 48 hours, they have forfeited their jobs and will be terminated."[133] They did not return and on August 5, Reagan fired 11,345 striking air traffic controllers who had ignored his order, and used supervisors and military controllers to handle the nation's commercial air traffic until new controllers could be hired and trained.[134] A leading reference work on public administration concluded, "The firing of PATCO employees not only demonstrated a clear resolve by the president to take control of the bureaucracy, but it also sent a clear message to the private sector that unions no longer needed to be feared."[135] "Reaganomics" and the economy Main article: Reaganomics

Outlining his plan for Tax Reduction Legislation from the Oval Office in a televised address, July 1981

During Jimmy Carter's last year in office (1980), inflation averaged 12.5%, compared with 4.4% during Reagan's last year in office (1988).[136] During Reagan's administration, the unemployment rate declined from 7.5% to 5.4%, with the rate reaching highs of 10.8% in 1982 and 10.4% in 1983, averaging 7.5% over the eight years, and real GDP growth averaged 3.4% with a high of 8.6% in 1983, while nominal GDP growth averaged 7.4%, and peaked at 12.2% in 1982.[137][138][139] Reagan implemented policies based on supply-side economics, advocating a laissez-faire philosophy and free-market fiscal policy,[140] seeking to stimulate the economy with large, across-the-board tax cuts.[141][142] He also supported returning the United States
United States
to some sort of gold standard, and successfully urged Congress to establish the U.S. Gold Commission to study how one could be implemented. Citing the economic theories of Arthur Laffer, Reagan promoted the proposed tax cuts as potentially stimulating the economy enough to expand the tax base, offsetting the revenue loss due to reduced rates of taxation, a theory that entered political discussion as the Laffer curve. Reaganomics
Reaganomics
was the subject of debate with supporters pointing to improvements in certain key economic indicators as evidence of success, and critics pointing to large increases in federal budget deficits and the national debt.[143] His policy of "peace through strength" resulted in a record peacetime defense buildup including a 40% real increase in defense spending between 1981 and 1985.[144] During Reagan's presidency, federal income tax rates were lowered significantly with the signing of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981,[145] which lowered the top marginal tax bracket from 70% to 50% and the lowest bracket from 14% to 11%. Other tax increases passed by Congress and signed by Reagan ensured however that tax revenues over his two terms were 18.2% of GDP as compared to 18.1% over the 40-year period of 1970–2010.[146] Then, in 1982 the Job Training Partnership Act of 1982 was signed into law, initiating one of the United States' first public–private partnerships and a major part of the president's job creation program. Reagan's Assistant Secretary of Labor and Chief of Staff, Al Angrisani, was a primary architect of the bill.

President Reagan with real estate developer and future president Donald Trump
Donald Trump
in 1987

Conversely, Congress passed and Reagan signed into law tax increases of some nature in every year from 1981 to 1987 to continue funding such government programs as Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA), Social Security, and the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 (DEFRA).[147][148] TEFRA was the "largest peacetime tax increase in American history."[148][149][150][151] Gross domestic product (GDP) growth recovered strongly after the early 1980s recession ended in 1982, and grew during his eight years in office at an annual rate of 7.9% per year, with a high of 12.2% growth in 1981.[152] Unemployment peaked at 10.8% monthly rate in December 1982—higher than any time since the Great Depression—then dropped during the rest of Reagan's presidency.[153] Sixteen million new jobs were created, while inflation significantly decreased.[154] The Tax Reform Act of 1986, another bipartisan effort championed by Reagan, simplified the tax code by reducing the number of tax brackets to four and slashing a number of tax breaks. The top rate was dropped to 28%, but capital gains taxes were increased on those with the highest incomes from 20% to 28%. The increase of the lowest tax bracket from 11% to 15% was more than offset by expansion of the personal exemption, standard deduction, and earned income tax credit. The net result was the removal of six million poor Americans from the income tax roll and a reduction of income tax liability at all income levels.[155][156] The net effect of all Reagan-era tax bills was a 1% decrease in government revenues when compared to Treasury Department revenue estimates from the Administration's first post-enactment January budgets.[157] However, federal income tax receipts increased from 1980 to 1989, rising from $308.7 billion to $549 billion[158] or an average annual rate of 8.2% (2.5% attributed to higher Social Security receipts), and federal outlays grew at an annual rate of 7.1%.[159][160]

Addressing Congress on the Program for Economic Recovery, April 28, 1981 (a few weeks after surviving an assassination attempt)

Reagan's policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment, which would then lead to higher employment and wages. Critics labeled this "trickle-down economics"—the belief that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect to the poor.[161] Questions arose whether Reagan's policies benefited the wealthy more than those living in poverty,[162] and many poor and minority citizens viewed Reagan as indifferent to their struggles.[162] These views were exacerbated by the fact that Reagan's economic regimen included freezing the minimum wage at $3.35 an hour, slashing federal assistance to local governments by 60%, cutting the budget for public housing and Section 8 rent subsidies in half, and eliminating the antipoverty Community Development Block Grant
Community Development Block Grant
program.[163] The widening gap between the rich and poor had already begun during the 1970s before Reagan's economic policies took effect.[164] Along with Reagan's 1981 cut in the top regular tax rate on unearned income, he reduced the maximum capital gains rate to 20%.[165] Reagan later set tax rates on capital gains at the same level as the rates on ordinary income like salaries and wages, with both topping out at 28%.[166] Reagan is viewed as an antitax hero despite raising taxes eleven times over the course of his presidency, all in the name of fiscal responsibility.[167] According to Paul Krugman, "Over all, the 1982 tax increase undid about a third of the 1981 cut; as a share of GDP, the increase was substantially larger than Mr. Clinton's 1993 tax increase."[168] According to historian and domestic policy adviser Bruce Bartlett, Reagan's tax increases over the course of his presidency took back half of the 1981 tax cut.[169] Reagan was opposed to government intervention, and he cut the budgets of non-military[170] programs[171] including Medicaid, food stamps, federal education programs[170] and the EPA.[172] He protected entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare,[173] but his administration attempted to purge many people with disabilities from the Social Security disability rolls.[174] The administration's stance toward the savings and loan industry contributed to the savings and loan crisis. A minority of the critics of Reaganomics
Reaganomics
also suggested that the policies partially influenced the stock market crash of 1987,[175] but there is no consensus regarding a single source for the crash.[176] In order to cover newly spawned federal budget deficits, the United States
United States
borrowed heavily both domestically and abroad, raising the national debt from $997 billion to $2.85 trillion.[177] Reagan described the new debt as the "greatest disappointment" of his presidency.[154] He reappointed Paul Volcker
Paul Volcker
as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and in 1987 he appointed monetarist Alan Greenspan
Alan Greenspan
to succeed him. Reagan ended the price controls on domestic oil that had contributed to the energy crises of 1973–74 and the summer of 1979.[178][179] The price of oil subsequently dropped, and the 1980s did not see the fuel shortages that the 1970s had.[179] Reagan also fulfilled a 1980 campaign promise to repeal the windfall profits tax in 1988, which had previously increased dependence on foreign oil.[180] Some economists, such as Nobel Prize winners Milton Friedman
Milton Friedman
and Robert Mundell, argue that Reagan's tax policies invigorated America's economy and contributed to the economic boom of the 1990s.[181] Other economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Robert Solow, argue that Reagan's deficits were a major reason his successor, George H. W. Bush, reneged on a campaign promise and resorted to raising taxes.[181] During Reagan's presidency, a program was initiated within the United States Intelligence Community to ensure America's economic strength. The program, Project Socrates, developed and demonstrated the means required for the United States
United States
to generate and lead the next evolutionary leap in technology acquisition and utilization for a competitive advantage—automated innovation. To ensure that the United States
United States
acquired the maximum benefit from automated innovation, Reagan, during his second term, had an executive order drafted to create a new federal agency to implement the Project Socrates results on a nationwide basis. However, Reagan's term came to end before the executive order could be coordinated and signed, and the incoming Bush administration, labeling Project Socrates as "industrial policy," had it terminated.[182][183] Escalation of the Cold War See also: Cold War
Cold War
(1979–85)

As the first U.S. president invited to speak before the British Parliament (June 8, 1982), Reagan predicted Marxism would end up on the "ash heap of history"[184]

Reagan escalated the Cold War, which accelerated a reversal from the policy of détente that began in 1979 after the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[185] Reagan ordered a massive buildup of the United States
United States
Armed Forces[144] and implemented new policies that were directed towards the Soviet Union; he revived the B-1 Lancer
B-1 Lancer
program that had been canceled by the Carter administration, and he produced the MX missile.[186] In response to Soviet deployment of the SS-20, Reagan oversaw NATO's deployment of the Pershing missile
Pershing missile
in West Germany.[187] In 1984, journalist Nicholas Lemann
Nicholas Lemann
interviewed Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger
Caspar Weinberger
and summarized the strategy of the Reagan administration to roll back the Soviet Union:

Their society is economically weak, and it lacks the wealth, education, and technology to enter the information age. They have thrown everything into military production, and their society is starting to show terrible stress as a result. They can't sustain military production the way we can. Eventually it will break them, and then there will be just one superpower in a safe world—if, only if, we can keep spending.[188]

Lemann noted that when he wrote that in 1984, he thought the Reaganites were living in a fantasy world. But by 2016, Lemann stated that the passage represents "a fairly uncontroversial description of what Reagan actually did."[188]

Meeting with leaders of the Afghan Mujahideen
Mujahideen
in the Oval Office, 1983

Reagan and the United Kingdom's prime minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
both denounced the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in ideological terms.[189] In a famous address on June 8, 1982, to the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
in the Royal Gallery of the Palace of Westminster, Reagan said, "the forward march of freedom and democracy will leave Marxism–Leninism on the ash heap of history."[190][191] On March 3, 1983, he predicted that communism would collapse, stating, " Communism
Communism
is another sad, bizarre chapter in human history whose last pages even now are being written."[192] In a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals on March 8, 1983, Reagan called the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
"an evil empire."[193] After Soviet fighters downed Korean Air Lines Flight 007
Korean Air Lines Flight 007
near Moneron Island on September 1, 1983, carrying 269 people, including Georgia congressman Larry McDonald, Reagan labeled the act a "massacre" and declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere."[194] The Reagan administration responded to the incident by suspending all Soviet passenger air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being negotiated with the Soviets, wounding them financially.[194] As a result of the shootdown, and the cause of KAL 007's going astray thought to be inadequacies related to its navigational system, Reagan announced on September 16, 1983, that the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
would be made available for civilian use, free of charge, once completed in order to avert similar navigational errors in future.[195][196]

Reagan with actress Sigourney Weaver
Sigourney Weaver
and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia
Fahd of Saudi Arabia
in 1985. The U.S. and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.

Under a policy that came to be known as the Reagan Doctrine, Reagan and his administration also provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist resistance movements in an effort to "rollback" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.[197] However, in a break from the Carter Administration policy of arming Taiwan under the Taiwan Relations Act, Reagan also agreed with the communist government in China to reduce the sale of arms to Taiwan.[198] Reagan deployed the CIA's Special Activities Division
Special Activities Division
to Afghanistan and Pakistan. They were instrumental in training, equipping and leading Mujahideen
Mujahideen
forces against the Soviet Army.[199][200] President Reagan's Covert Action program has been given credit for assisting in ending the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan,[201] though some of the United States
United States
funded armaments introduced then would later pose a threat to U.S. troops in the 2001 War in Afghanistan.[202] The CIA also began sharing information with the Iranian government, which it was secretly courting. In one instance, in 1982, this practice enabled the government to identify and purge communists from its ministries, and to virtually eliminate the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran.[203] In March 1983, Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative, a defense project[204] that would have used ground- and space-based systems to protect the United States
United States
from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.[205] Reagan believed that this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible.[204][206] There was much disbelief surrounding the program's scientific feasibility, leading opponents to dub SDI "Star Wars" and argue that its technological objective was unattainable.[204] The Soviets became concerned about the possible effects SDI would have;[207] leader Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
said it would put "the entire world in jeopardy."[208] For those reasons, David Gergen, former aide to President Reagan, believes that in retrospect, SDI hastened the end of the Cold War.[209] Though supported by leading American conservatives who argued that Reagan's foreign policy strategy was essential to protecting U.S. security interests, critics labeled the administration's foreign policy initiatives as aggressive and imperialistic, and chided them as "warmongering."[207] The administration was also heavily criticized for backing anti-communist leaders accused of severe human rights violations, such as Hissène Habré
Hissène Habré
of Chad[210] and Efraín Ríos Montt of Guatemala.[211][212] During the 16 months (1982–1983) Montt was President of Guatemala, the Guatemalan military was accused of genocide for massacres of members of the Ixil people
Ixil people
and other indigenous groups. Reagan had said that Montt was getting a "bum rap,"[213] and described him as "a man of great personal integrity."[214] Previous human rights violations had prompted the United States
United States
to cut off aid to the Guatemalan government; but the Reagan administration appealed to Congress to restart military aid. Although unsuccessful with that, the administration was successful, however, in providing nonmilitary aid such as USAID.[213][215] Lebanese Civil War Further information: 1983 Beirut
Beirut
barracks bombings

Reagan (far left) and First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
pay their respects to the 17 American victims of the April 18 attack on the U.S. embassy by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in Beirut, 1983

With the approval of Congress, Reagan sent forces to Lebanon
Lebanon
in 1983 to reduce the threat of the Lebanese Civil War. The American peacekeeping forces in Beirut, a part of a multinational force during the Lebanese Civil War, were attacked on October 23, 1983. The Beirut barracks bombing killed 241 American servicemen and wounded more than 60 others by a suicide truck bomber.[216] Reagan sent in the USS New Jersey battleship to shell Syrian positions in Lebanon. He then withdrew all the Marines from Lebanon.[217] Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada) Main article: Invasion of Grenada On October 25, 1983, Reagan ordered U.S. forces to invade Grenada (codenamed "Operation Urgent Fury") where a 1979 coup d'état had established an independent non-aligned Marxist–Leninist government. A formal appeal from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) led to the intervention of U.S. forces; President Reagan also cited an allegedly regional threat posed by a Soviet-Cuban military build-up in the Caribbean and concern for the safety of several hundred American medical students at St. George's University as adequate reasons to invade. Operation Urgent Fury was the first major military operation conducted by U.S. forces since the Vietnam War, several days of fighting commenced, resulting in a U.S. victory,[218] with 19 American fatalities and 116 wounded American soldiers.[219] In mid-December, after a new government was appointed by the governor-general, U.S. forces withdrew.[218]

1984 presidential campaign Main article: United States
United States
presidential election, 1984 Further information: Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
Electoral history of Ronald Reagan
§ 1984 presidential election

1984 presidential electoral votes by state. Reagan (red) won every state except Mondale's home state of Minnesota; Mondale also carried the District of Columbia

Reagan accepted the Republican nomination in Dallas, Texas. He proclaimed that it was "morning again in America," regarding the recovering economy and the dominating performance by the U.S. athletes at the 1984 Summer Olympics, among other things.[23] He became the first president to open an Olympic Games held in the United States.[220] Reagan's opponent in the 1984 presidential election was former Vice President Walter Mondale. With questions about Reagan's age, and a weak performance in the first presidential debate, his ability to perform the duties of president for another term was questioned. His apparent confused and forgetful behavior was evident to his supporters; they had previously known him clever and witty. Rumors began to circulate that he had Alzheimer's disease.[221][222] Reagan rebounded in the second debate, and confronted questions about his age, quipping, "I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience," which generated applause and laughter, even from Mondale himself.[223] That November, Reagan won a landslide re-election victory, carrying 49 of the 50 states, while Mondale won only Minnesota, his home state, and the District of Columbia.[113] Reagan won 525 of the 538 electoral votes, the most of any presidential candidate in U.S. history,[224] and also received 58.8% of the popular vote to Mondale's 40.6%. His popular vote margin of victory, nearly 16.9 million votes (54.4 million for Reagan to 37.5 million for Mondale),[225][226] was exceeded only by Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
in his 1972 victory over George McGovern.[113] Second term

Reagan is sworn in for a second term as president by Chief Justice Burger in the Capitol rotunda

Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, 1985, in a private ceremony at the White House. To date, at 73 years of age, he is the oldest person to take the presidential oath of office. Because January 20 fell on a Sunday, a public celebration was not held but took place in the Capitol rotunda
Capitol rotunda
the following day. January 21 was one of the coldest days on record in Washington, D.C.; due to poor weather, inaugural celebrations were held inside the Capitol. In the weeks that followed, he shook up his staff somewhat, moving White House
White House
Chief of Staff James Baker
James Baker
to Secretary of the Treasury and naming Treasury Secretary Donald Regan, a former Merrill Lynch officer, Chief of Staff.[227][227]

Play media

Reagan addresses the nation after the Challenger disaster

The disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger
Space Shuttle Challenger
on January 28, 1986, proved a pivotal moment in Reagan's presidency. All seven astronauts aboard were killed.[228] On the night of the disaster, Reagan delivered a speech, written by Peggy Noonan, in which he said:

The future doesn't belong to the fainthearted; it belongs to the brave ... We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and 'slipped the surly bonds of Earth' to 'touch the face of God.'[229]

In 1988, near the end of the Iran–Iraq War, the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes accidentally shot down Iran Air Flight 655 killing 290 civilian passengers. The incident further worsened already tense Iran– United States
United States
relations.[230] 1985 placing of wreath at cemetery in Bitburg, Germany In February 1985, the administration accepted an invitation for Reagan to visit a German military cemetery in Bitburg
Bitburg
and to place a wreath alongside West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl. Deputy Chief of Staff Michael Deaver
Michael Deaver
was given assurances by a German head of protocol that no war criminals were buried there. It was later determined that the cemetery held the graves of 49 members of the Waffen-SS. What neither Deaver nor other administration officials initially realized was that many Germans drew a distinction between the regular SS, who typically were composed of Nazi true believers, and the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
which were attached to military units and composed of conscripted soldiers.[231] As the controversy brewed in April 1985, Reagan issued a statement that called the Nazi soldiers buried in that cemetery as themselves "victims," a designation which ignited a stir over whether Reagan had equated the SS men to victims of the Holocaust.[232] Pat Buchanan, Reagan's Director of Communications, argued that the president did not equate the SS members with the actual Holocaust, but as victims of the ideology of Nazism.[233] Now strongly urged to cancel the visit,[234] the president responded that it would be wrong to back down on a promise he had made to Chancellor Kohl. On May 5, 1985, President Reagan and Chancellor Kohl visited first visited the site of the former Nazi Bergen-Belsen concentration camp and then the Bitburg cemetery where, along with two military generals, they did place a wreath.[235][236] War on Drugs Main article: War on Drugs Reagan announced a War on Drugs
War on Drugs
in 1982, in response to concerns about the increasing crack epidemic. Though Nixon had previously declared a war on drugs, Reagan advocated more militant policies.[237] He said that "drugs were menacing our society" and promised to fight for drug-free schools and workplaces, expanded drug treatment, stronger law enforcement and drug interdiction efforts, and greater public awareness.[238][239] In 1986, Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill that budgeted $1.7 billion to fund the War on Drugs
War on Drugs
and specified a mandatory minimum penalty for drug offenses.[240] The bill was criticized for promoting significant racial disparities in the prison population[240] and critics also charged that the policies did little to reduce the availability of drugs on the street, while resulting in a great financial burden for America.[241] Defenders of the effort point to success in reducing rates of adolescent drug use:[242] marijuana use among high-school seniors declined from 33% in 1980 to 12% in 1991.[243] First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
made the War on Drugs
War on Drugs
her main priority by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which aimed to discourage children and teenagers from engaging in recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying "no." Nancy Reagan traveled to 65 cities in 33 states, raising awareness about the dangers of drugs including alcohol.[244] Response to AIDS epidemic According to AIDS activist organizations such as ACT UP, the Reagan administration largely ignored the AIDS crisis, which began to unfold in the United States
United States
in 1981, the same year Reagan took office. They also claim AIDS research was chronically underfunded during Reagan's administration, and requests for more funding by doctors at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) were routinely denied.[245][246] By the time President Reagan had given his first prepared speech on the epidemic, some six years into his presidency, 36,058 Americans had been diagnosed with AIDS and 20,849 had died of it.[247] By the end of 1989, the year Reagan left office, 115,786 people had been diagnosed with AIDS in the United States, and more than 70,000 of them had died of it. Others however point out that federal funding for AIDS-related programs was $2.3 billion in 1989 and nearly $6 billion total over his presidency. In a September 1985 press conference Reagan said: "this is a top priority with us...there's no question about the seriousness of this and the need to find an answer."[248] Libya bombing Main article: 1986 United States
United States
bombing of Libya

British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(here with Reagan outside 10 Downing Street in June 1982, as the Falklands War
Falklands War
drew to a close) granted the U.S. use of British airbases to launch the Libya attack

Relations between Libya and the United States
United States
under President Reagan were continually contentious, beginning with the Gulf of Sidra incident in 1981; by 1982, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
was considered by the CIA to be, along with USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev and Cuban leader Fidel Castro, part of a group known as the "unholy trinity" and was also labeled as "our international public enemy number one" by a CIA official.[249] These tensions were later revived in early April 1986, when a bomb exploded in a Berlin discothèque, resulting in the injury of 63 American military personnel and death of one serviceman. Stating that there was "irrefutable proof" that Libya had directed the "terrorist bombing," Reagan authorized the use of force against the country. In the late evening of April 15, 1986, the United States
United States
launched a series of airstrikes on ground targets in Libya.[250][251] Britain's prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, allowed the U.S. Air Force to use Britain's air bases to launch the attack, on the justification that the UK was supporting America's right to self-defense under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.[251] The attack was designed to halt Gaddafi's "ability to export terrorism," offering him "incentives and reasons to alter his criminal behavior."[250] The president addressed the nation from the Oval Office after the attacks had commenced, stating, "When our citizens are attacked or abused anywhere in the world on the direct orders of hostile regimes, we will respond so long as I'm in this office."[251] The attack was condemned by many countries. By a vote of 79 in favor to 28 against with 33 abstentions, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 41/38 which "condemns the military attack perpetrated against the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya on April 15, 1986, which constitutes a violation of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law."[252] Immigration Reagan signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. The act made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants, required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to approximately three million illegal immigrants who entered the United States
United States
before January 1, 1982, and had lived in the country continuously. Critics argue that the employer sanctions were without teeth and failed to stem illegal immigration.[253] Upon signing the act at a ceremony held beside the newly refurbished Statue of Liberty, Reagan said, "The legalization provisions in this act will go far to improve the lives of a class of individuals who now must hide in the shadows, without access to many of the benefits of a free and open society. Very soon many of these men and women will be able to step into the sunlight and, ultimately, if they choose, they may become Americans."[254] Reagan also said, "The employer sanctions program is the keystone and major element. It will remove the incentive for illegal immigration by eliminating the job opportunities which draw illegal aliens here."[254] Iran–Contra affair Main article: Iran–Contra affair Further information: Reagan administration scandals § Iran–Contra affair, and Nicaragua v. United States

Reagan (center) receives the Tower Commission
Tower Commission
Report regarding the Iran-Contra affair in the Cabinet Room with John Tower
John Tower
(left) and Edmund Muskie
Edmund Muskie
(right)

In 1986, the Iran–Contra affair
Iran–Contra affair
became a problem for the administration stemming from the use of proceeds from covert arms sales to Iran during the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
to fund the Contra rebels fighting against the government in Nicaragua, which had been specifically outlawed by an act of Congress.[255][256] The affair became a political scandal in the United States
United States
during the 1980s.[257] The International Court of Justice, whose jurisdiction to decide the case was disputed by the United States,[258] ruled that the United States had violated international law and breached treaties in Nicaragua in various ways.[259][260] President Reagan professed that he was unaware of the plot's existence. He opened his own investigation and appointed two Republicans and one Democrat, John Tower, Brent Scowcroft
Brent Scowcroft
and Edmund Muskie, respectively, to investigate the scandal. The commission could not find direct evidence that Reagan had prior knowledge of the program, but criticized him heavily for his disengagement from managing his staff, making the diversion of funds possible.[261] A separate report by Congress concluded that "If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have."[261] Reagan's popularity declined from 67% to 46% in less than a week, the greatest and quickest decline ever for a president.[262] The scandal resulted in fourteen indictments within Reagan's staff, and eleven convictions.[263] Many Central Americans criticize Reagan for his support of the Contras, calling him an anti-communist zealot, blinded to human rights abuses, while others say he "saved Central America."[264] Daniel Ortega, Sandinistan and president of Nicaragua, said that he hoped God would forgive Reagan for his "dirty war against Nicaragua."[264] End of the Cold War See also: Cold War
Cold War
(1985–91)

Gorbachev
Gorbachev
and Reagan sign the INF Treaty
INF Treaty
at the White House, 1987

Until the early 1980s, the United States
United States
had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons to essentially frighten the Soviets, but the gap had been narrowed.[265] Although the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
did not accelerate military spending after President Reagan's military buildup,[266] their large military expenses, in combination with collectivized agriculture and inefficient planned manufacturing, were a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.[267] At the same time, Saudi Arabia increased oil production,[268] which resulted in a drop of oil prices in 1985 to one-third of the previous level; oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues.[267] These factors contributed to a stagnant Soviet economy during Gorbachev's tenure.[267] Reagan recognized the change in the direction of the Soviet leadership with Mikhail Gorbachev, and shifted to diplomacy, with a view to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements.[269] Reagan's personal mission was to achieve "a world free of nuclear weapons," which he regarded as "totally irrational, totally inhumane, good for nothing but killing, possibly destructive of life on earth and civilization."[270][271][272] He was able to start discussions on nuclear disarmament with General Secretary Gorbachev.[272] Gorbachev
Gorbachev
and Reagan held four summit conferences between 1985 and 1988: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third in Washington, D.C., and the fourth in Moscow.[273] Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to reform and the end of Communism.[274]

Challenging Gorbachev
Gorbachev
to "tear down this wall!" at the Brandenburg Gate (June 12, 1987)

Speaking at the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
on June 12, 1987, Reagan challenged Gorbachev
Gorbachev
to go further, saying "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" Before Gorbachev's visit to Washington, D.C., for the third summit in 1987, the Soviet leader announced his intention to pursue significant arms agreements.[275] The timing of the announcement led Western diplomats to contend that Gorbachev
Gorbachev
was offering major concessions to the United States
United States
on the levels of conventional forces, nuclear weapons, and policy in Eastern Europe.[275] He and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
(INF Treaty) at the White House, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons.[276] The two leaders laid the framework for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, or START I; Reagan insisted that the name of the treaty be changed from Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
to Strategic Arms Reduction Talks.[271] When Reagan visited Moscow for the fourth summit in 1988, he was viewed as a celebrity by the Soviets. A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the evil empire. "No," he replied, "I was talking about another time, another era."[277] At Gorbachev's request, Reagan gave a speech on free markets at the Moscow State University.[278] In his autobiography, An American Life, Reagan expressed his optimism about the new direction that they charted and his warm feelings for Gorbachev.[279] In November 1989, ten months after Reagan left office, the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
was opened, the Cold War
Cold War
was unofficially declared over at the Malta Summit
Malta Summit
on December 3, 1989, and two years later, the Soviet Union collapsed.[280] Health Early in his presidency, Reagan started wearing a custom-made, technologically advanced hearing aid, first in his right ear[281] and later in his left ear as well.[282] His decision to go public in 1983 regarding his wearing the small, audio-amplifying device boosted their sales.[283] On July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery at Bethesda Naval Hospital to remove cancerous polyps from his colon. He relinquished presidential power to the Vice President for eight hours in a similar procedure as outlined in the 25th Amendment, which he specifically avoided invoking.[284] The surgery lasted just under three hours and was successful.[285] Reagan resumed the powers of the presidency later that day.[286] In August of that year, he underwent an operation to remove skin cancer cells from his nose.[287] In October, more skin cancer cells were detected on his nose and removed.[288] In January 1987, Reagan underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate that caused further worries about his health. No cancerous growths were found and he was not sedated during the operation.[289] In July of that year, aged 76, he underwent a third skin cancer operation on his nose.[290] On January 7, 1989, Reagan underwent surgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to repair a Dupuytren's contracture
Dupuytren's contracture
of the ring finger of his left hand. The surgery lasted for more than three hours and was performed under regional anesthesia.[291] This procedure was done just thirteen days before he left office. For this reason, he had a hand and finger bandage the day of his farewell speech and the day of the inauguration of George H. W. Bush. Judiciary Main articles: Ronald Reagan Supreme Court candidates
Ronald Reagan Supreme Court candidates
and List of federal judges appointed by Ronald Reagan During his 1980 campaign, Reagan pledged that he would appoint the first female Supreme Court Justice if given the opportunity.[292] That opportunity came in his first year in office when he nominated Sandra Day O'Connor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Potter Stewart. In his second term, Reagan elevated William Rehnquist to succeed Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
as Chief Justice, and named Antonin Scalia to fill the vacant seat. Reagan nominated conservative jurist Robert Bork to the high court in 1987. Senator Ted Kennedy, a Democrat of Massachusetts, strongly condemned Bork, and great controversy ensued.[293] Bork's nomination was rejected 58–42.[294] Reagan then nominated Douglas Ginsburg, but Ginsburg withdrew his name from consideration after coming under fire for his cannabis use.[295] Anthony Kennedy
Anthony Kennedy
was eventually confirmed in his place.[296] Along with his three Supreme Court appointments, Reagan appointed 83 judges to the United States
United States
courts of appeals, and 290 judges to the United States district courts. Reagan also nominated Vaughn Walker—who would later be revealed to be the earliest known gay federal judge—[297] to the United States District Court for the Central District of California. However, the nomination stalled in the Senate, and Walker was not confirmed until he was renominated by Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush.[298] Early in his tenure, Reagan appointed Clarence M. Pendleton Jr., of San Diego
San Diego
as the first African American to chair the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Pendleton tried to steer the commission into a conservative direction in line with Reagan's views on social and civil rights policy during his tenure from 1981 until his sudden death in 1988. Pendleton soon aroused the ire of many civil rights advocates and feminists when he ridiculed the comparable worth proposal as being "Looney Tunes."[299][300][301] In 1984, Reagan commuted the 18-year sentence of former Louisiana Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry Gil Dozier, a Democrat from Baton Rouge, to the time served for violations of both the Hobbs and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations acts. On September 23, 1980, the United States
United States
District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana convicted Dozier of extortion and racketeering when he pushed companies doing business with his department to make campaign contributions on his behalf.[302] Reagan determined that the 18-year sentence was excessive compared to what other political figures in similar circumstances had been receiving.[303][304] Post-presidency (1989–2004) Public speaking

The Reagans
The Reagans
in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
after leaving the White House, early 1990s

After leaving office in 1989, the Reagans purchased a home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, in addition to the Reagan Ranch in Santa Barbara. They regularly attended Bel Air Church[305] and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Republican Party; Reagan delivered a well-received speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention.[306] Previously on November 4, 1991, the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library was dedicated and opened to the public. At the dedication ceremonies, five presidents were in attendance, as well as six first ladies, marking the first time that five presidents were gathered in the same location.[307] Reagan continued publicly to speak in favor of a line-item veto; the Brady Bill;[308] a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget; and the repeal of the 22nd Amendment, which prohibits anyone from serving more than two terms as president.[309] In 1992 Reagan established the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award with the newly formed Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation.[310] His final public speech was on February 3, 1994, during a tribute to him in Washington, D.C., and his last major public appearance was at the funeral of Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
on April 27, 1994. Assault On April 13, 1992, Reagan was assaulted by an anti-nuclear protester during a luncheon speech while accepting an award from the National Association of Broadcasters in Las Vegas.[311] The protester, 41-year old Richard Paul Springer, smashed a 2-foot-high (60 cm) 30-pound (13.5 kg) crystal statue of an eagle that the broadcasters had given the former president. Flying shards of glass hit Reagan, but he was not injured. Using media credentials, Springer intended to announce government plans for an underground nuclear weapons test in the Nevada desert the following day.[312] Springer was the founder of an anti-nuclear group called the 100th Monkey. Following his arrest on assault charges, a Secret Service spokesman could not explain how Springer got past the federal agents who guarded Reagan's life at all times.[313] Later, Springer pled guilty to reduced charges and said he hadn't meant to hurt Reagan through his actions. He pled guilty to a misdemeanor federal charge of interfering with the Secret Service, but other felony charges of assault and resisting officers were dropped.[314] Alzheimer's disease Announcement and reaction: 1994 In August 1994, at the age of 83, Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease,[315] an incurable neurological disorder which destroys brain cells and ultimately causes death.[315][316] In November, he informed the nation through a handwritten letter,[315] writing in part: I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease ... At the moment I feel just fine. I intend to live the remainder of the years God gives me on this earth doing the things I have always done ... I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life. I know that for America there will always be a bright dawn ahead. Thank you, my friends. May God always bless you.[317] After his diagnosis, letters of support from well-wishers poured into his California
California
home.[318]

The Reagans
The Reagans
with a model of USS Ronald Reagan, May 1996. At left is Newport News Shipbuilding
Newport News Shipbuilding
Chairman and CEO Bill Fricks

But there was also speculation over how long Reagan had demonstrated symptoms of mental degeneration.[319] Not long after the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan, at a reception for mayors, Reagan greeted his Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Samuel Pierce in 1981 by saying "How are you, Mr Mayor? How are things in your city?",[320][321] although he later realized his mistake.[322] Former CBS
CBS
White House
White House
correspondent Lesley Stahl
Lesley Stahl
recounted that, in her final meeting with the president in 1986, Reagan did not seem to know who Stahl was, and that she came close to reporting that Reagan was senile, but at the end of the meeting, Reagan had regained his alertness.[323] However, Dr. Lawrence K. Altman, a physician employed as a reporter for The New York Times, noted that "the line between mere forgetfulness and the beginning of Alzheimer's can be fuzzy,"[324] and all four of Reagan's White House
White House
doctors said that they saw no evidence of Alzheimer's while he was president.[324] Dr. John E. Hutton, Reagan's primary physician from 1984 to 1989, said the president "absolutely" did not "show any signs of dementia or Alzheimer's."[324] His former Chief of Staff James Baker
James Baker
considered "ludicrous" the idea that Reagan slept during cabinet meetings.[325] Other staff members, former aides, and friends said they saw no indication of Alzheimer's while he was president.[324] Reagan did experience occasional memory lapses, though, especially with names.[324] Reagan's doctors say that he only began exhibiting overt symptoms of the illness in late 1992[326] or 1993,[324] several years after he had left office. For example, Reagan repeated a toast to Margaret Thatcher, with identical words and gestures, at his 82nd-birthday party on February 6, 1993.[327] Complicating the picture, Reagan suffered an episode of head trauma in July 1989, five years before his diagnosis. After being thrown from a horse in Mexico, a subdural hematoma was found and surgically treated later in the year.[315][316] Nancy Reagan, citing what doctors told her, asserted that her husband's 1989 fall hastened the onset of Alzheimer's disease,[316] although acute brain injury has not been conclusively proven to accelerate Alzheimer's or dementia.[328][329] Reagan's one-time physician Daniel Ruge has said it is possible, but not certain, that the horse accident affected the course of Reagan's memory.[326] Progression: 1994–2004 As the years went on, the disease slowly destroyed Reagan's mental capacity.[324] He was only able to recognize a few people, including his wife, Nancy.[324] He remained active, however; he took walks through parks near his home and on beaches, played golf regularly, and until 1999 he often went to his office in nearby Century City.[324] Reagan suffered a fall at his Bel Air home on January 13, 2001, resulting in a broken hip.[330] The fracture was repaired the following day[331] and the 89-year-old Reagan returned home later that week, although he faced difficult physical therapy at home.[332] On February 6, 2001, Reagan reached the age of 90, becoming the third former president to do so (the other two being John Adams
John Adams
and Herbert Hoover, with Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
and Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
later reaching 90).[333] Reagan's public appearances became much less frequent with the progression of the disease, and as a result, his family decided that he would live in quiet semi-isolation with his wife Nancy. Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
told CNN's Larry King
Larry King
in 2001 that very few visitors were allowed to see her husband because she felt that "Ronnie would want people to remember him as he was."[334] After her husband's diagnosis and death, Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
became a stem-cell research advocate, urging Congress and President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
to support federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research, something Bush opposed. In 2009, she praised President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
for lifting restrictions on such research.[335] Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
said that she believed it could lead to a cure for Alzheimer's.[336] Death and funeral Main article: Death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan

Reagan lying in state in the Capitol rotunda

Reagan died of pneumonia, complicated by Alzheimer's disease,[337] at his home in the Bel Air district of Los Angeles, California, on the afternoon of June 5, 2004.[338] A short time after his death, Nancy Reagan released a statement saying, "My family and I would like the world to know that President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
has died after 10 years of Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
at 93 years of age. We appreciate everyone's prayers."[338] President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
declared June 11 a National Day of Mourning,[339] and international tributes came in from around the world.[340] Reagan's body was taken to the Kingsley and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica, California
California
later in the day, where well-wishers paid tribute by laying flowers and American flags in the grass.[341] On June 7, his body was removed and taken to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where a brief family funeral was held conducted by Pastor Michael Wenning. His body lay in repose in the Library lobby until June 9; over 100,000 people viewed the coffin.[342] On June 9, Reagan's body was flown to Washington, D.C. where he became the tenth U.S. president to lie in state; in thirty-four hours, 104,684 people filed past the coffin.[343] On June 11, a state funeral was conducted in the Washington National Cathedral, and presided over by President George W. Bush. Eulogies were given by former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher,[344] former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, and both former President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
and President George W. Bush. Also in attendance were Mikhail Gorbachev, and many world leaders, including British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prince Charles, representing his mother Queen Elizabeth II, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, and interim presidents Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, and Ghazi al-Yawer of Iraq.[345] After the funeral, the Reagan entourage was flown back to the Ronald W. Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, where another service was held, and President Reagan was interred.[346] At the time of his death, Reagan was the longest-lived president in U.S. history, having lived 93 years and 120 days (2 years, 8 months, and 23 days longer than John Adams, whose record he surpassed). He was the first U.S. president to die in the 21st century, and his was the first state funeral in the United States
United States
since that of President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973. His burial site is inscribed with the words he delivered at the opening of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library: "I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life."[347] Legacy

A bronze statue of Reagan standing in the Capitol rotunda
Capitol rotunda
(a part of the National Statuary Hall Collection)

Since Reagan left office in 1989, substantial debate has occurred among scholars, historians, and the general public surrounding his legacy.[348] Supporters have pointed to a more efficient and prosperous economy as a result of Reagan's economic policies,[349] foreign policy triumphs including a peaceful end to the Cold War,[350] and a restoration of American pride and morale.[118] Proponents say that he had an unabated and passionate love for the United States which restored faith in the American Dream,[351] after a decline in American confidence and self-respect under Jimmy Carter's perceived weak leadership, particularly during the Iran hostage crisis, as well as his gloomy, dreary outlook for the future of the United States during the 1980 election.[352] Critics point out that Reagan's economic policies resulted in rising budget deficits,[154] a wider gap in wealth, and an increase in homelessness[163] and that the Iran–Contra affair
Iran–Contra affair
lowered American credibility.[353] Opinions of Reagan's legacy among the country's leading policy makers and journalists differ as well. Edwin Feulner, president of The Heritage Foundation, said that Reagan "helped create a safer, freer world" and said of his economic policies: "He took an America suffering from 'malaise'... and made its citizens believe again in their destiny."[354] However, Mark Weisbrot, co-Director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, contended that Reagan's "economic policies were mostly a failure"[355] while Howard Kurtz of The Washington Post opined that Reagan was "a far more controversial figure in his time than the largely gushing obits on television would suggest."[356] Despite the continuing debate surrounding his legacy, many conservative and liberal scholars agree that Reagan has been the most influential president since Franklin D. Roosevelt, leaving his imprint on American politics, diplomacy, culture, and economics through his effective communication and pragmatic compromising.[357] Since he left office, historians have reached a consensus,[358] as summarized by British historian M. J. Heale, who finds that scholars now concur that Reagan rehabilitated conservatism, turned the nation to the right, practiced a considerably pragmatic conservatism that balanced ideology and the constraints of politics, revived faith in the presidency and in American exceptionalism, and contributed to victory in the Cold War.[359] Cold War

President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev, 1985

The Cold War
Cold War
was a major political, economic and military endeavor for over four decades, but the confrontation between the two superpowers had decreased dramatically by the end of Reagan's presidency.[360] The significance of Reagan's role in ending the Cold War
Cold War
has spurred contentious and opinionated debate.[361][362][363] That Reagan played a role in contributing to the downfall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is agreed, but the extent of this role is continuously debated,[269] with many believing that Reagan's defense policies, economic policies, military policies and hard line rhetoric against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Communism, as well as summits with General Secretary Gorbachev
Gorbachev
played a significant part in ending the Cold War.[162][269]

President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
at the Geneva Summit in 1985

He was first among post–World War II presidents to put into practice the concept that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
could be defeated rather than simply negotiated with, a post- Détente
Détente
strategy,[269] a conviction that was vindicated by Gennadi Gerasimov, the Foreign Ministry spokesman under Gorbachev, who said that the Strategic Defense Initiative
Strategic Defense Initiative
was "very successful blackmail. ...The Soviet economy couldn't endure such competition."[364] Reagan's aggressive rhetoric toward the USSR had mixed effects; Jeffery W. Knopf observes that being labeled "evil" probably made no difference to the Soviets but gave encouragement to the East-European citizens opposed to communism.[269] General Secretary Gorbachev
Gorbachev
said of his former rival's Cold War
Cold War
role: "[He was] a man who was instrumental in bringing about the end of the Cold War,"[365] and deemed him "a great president."[365] Gorbachev does not acknowledge a win or loss in the war, but rather a peaceful end; he said he was not intimidated by Reagan's harsh rhetoric.[366] Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, said of Reagan, "he warned that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had an insatiable drive for military power... but he also sensed it was being eaten away by systemic failures impossible to reform."[367] She later said, "Ronald Reagan had a higher claim than any other leader to have won the Cold War for liberty and he did it without a shot being fired."[368] Said Brian Mulroney, former Prime Minister of Canada: "He enters history as a strong and dramatic player [in the Cold War]."[369] Former President Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
of Poland acknowledged, "Reagan was one of the world leaders who made a major contribution to communism's collapse."[370] That Reagan had little or no effect in ending the Cold War
Cold War
is argued with equal weight; that Communism's internal weakness had become apparent, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would have collapsed in the end regardless of who was in power.[269] President Harry S. Truman's policy of containment is also regarded as a force behind the fall of the USSR, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
undermined the Soviet system itself.[362] Domestic and political legacy See also: Political positions of Ronald Reagan
Political positions of Ronald Reagan
and Reagan coalition

Reagan in Minnesota, 1982

Reagan reshaped the Republican party, led the modern conservative movement, and altered the political dynamic of the United States.[371] More men voted Republican under Reagan, and Reagan tapped into religious voters.[371] The so-called "Reagan Democrats" were a result of his presidency.[371] After leaving office, Reagan became an iconic influence within the Republican party.[372] His policies and beliefs have been frequently invoked by Republican presidential candidates since 1988.[23] The 2008 Republican presidential candidates were no exception, for they aimed to liken themselves to him during the primary debates, even imitating his campaign strategies.[373] Republican nominee John McCain frequently said that he came to office as "a foot soldier in the Reagan Revolution."[374] Reagan's most famous statement regarding the role of smaller government was that "Government is not a solution to our problem, government is the problem."[375] Reagan has become an iconic figure in the Republican Party. Praise for his accomplishments were part of the standard GOP rhetoric a quarter century after his retirement. Washington Post reporter Carlos Lozada noted how the main Republican contenders in the 2016 presidential race adopted "standard GOP Gipper worship." The contenders included even Donald Trump, who had previously been skeptical.[376] The period of American history most dominated by Reagan and his policies that concerned taxes, welfare, defense, the federal judiciary and the Cold War
Cold War
is known today as the Reagan Era. This time period emphasized that the conservative "Reagan Revolution," led by Reagan, had a permanent impact on the United States
United States
in domestic and foreign policy. The Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
administration is often treated as an extension of the Reagan Era, as is the George W. Bush administration.[377] Historian Eric Foner
Eric Foner
noted that the Obama candidacy in 2008 "aroused a great deal of wishful thinking among those yearning for a change after nearly thirty years of Reaganism."[378] Cultural and political image See also: Reagan (film) According to columnist Chuck Raasch, "Reagan transformed the American presidency in ways that only a few have been able to."[379] He redefined the political agenda of the times, advocating lower taxes, a conservative economic philosophy, and a stronger military.[380] His role in the Cold War
Cold War
further enhanced his image as a different kind of leader.[381][382] Reagan's "avuncular style, optimism, and plain-folks demeanor" also helped him turn "government-bashing into an art form."[163]

President Reagan's approval ratings

Date Event Approval (%) Disapproval (%)

March 30, 1981 Shot by Hinckley 73 19

January 22, 1983 High unemployment 42 54

April 26, 1986 Libya bombing 70 26

February 26, 1987 Iran–Contra affair 44 51

December 27–29, 1988[383] Near end of presidency 63 29

N/A Career average 57 39

July 30, 2001 (Retrospective)[384] 64 27

As a sitting president, Reagan did not have the highest approval ratings,[385] but his popularity has increased since 1989. Gallup polls in 2001 and 2007 ranked him number one or number two when correspondents were asked for the greatest president in history. Reagan ranked third of post–World War II presidents in a 2007 Rasmussen Reports poll, fifth in an ABC 2000 poll, ninth in another 2007 Rasmussen poll, and eighth in a late 2008 poll by British newspaper The Times.[386][387][388] In a Siena College
Siena College
survey of over 200 historians, however, Reagan ranked sixteenth out of 42.[389][390] While the debate about Reagan's legacy is ongoing, the 2009 Annual C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Survey of Presidential Leaders ranked Reagan the 10th greatest president. The survey of leading historians rated Reagan number 11 in 2000.[391]

Approval ratings
Approval ratings
for President Reagan (Gallup)

In 2011, the Institute for the Study of the Americas released the first ever British academic survey to rate U.S. presidents. This poll of British specialists in U.S. history and politics placed Reagan as the eighth greatest U.S. president.[392] Reagan's ability to connect with Americans[393] earned him the laudatory moniker "The Great Communicator."[394] Of it, Reagan said, "I won the nickname the great communicator. But I never thought it was my style that made a difference—it was the content. I wasn't a great communicator, but I communicated great things."[395] His age and soft-spoken speech gave him a warm grandfatherly image.[396][397][398] Reagan also earned the nickname "the Teflon President," in that public perceptions of him were not tarnished by the controversies that arose during his administration.[399] According to Colorado congresswoman Patricia Schroeder, who coined the phrase, and reporter Howard Kurtz, the epithet referred to Reagan's ability to "do almost anything wrong[399] and not get blamed for it."[393][400] Public reaction to Reagan was always mixed. He was the oldest president up to that time and was supported by young voters, who began an alliance that shifted many of them to the Republican party.[401] Reagan did not fare well with minority groups, especially African-Americans. However, his support of Israel throughout his presidency earned him support from many Jews.[402] He emphasized family values in his campaigns and during his presidency, although he was the first president to have been divorced.[403] The combination of Reagan's speaking style, unabashed patriotism, negotiation skills, as well as his savvy use of the media, played an important role in defining the 1980s and his future legacy.[404]

President Reagan clowning with Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
in the Oval Office, 1983

Reagan was known to joke frequently during his lifetime, displayed humor throughout his presidency,[405] and was famous for his storytelling.[406] His numerous jokes and one-liners have been labeled "classic quips" and "legendary."[407] Among the most notable of his jokes was one regarding the Cold War. As a microphone test in preparation for his weekly radio address in August 1984, Reagan made the following joke: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes."[408] Former aide David Gergen commented, "It was that humor... that I think endeared people to Reagan."[209] Reagan never left the United States
United States
during the war, but he kept a film reel that he obtained while he was in the service. The reel depicted the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp; he believed that doubts would someday arise as to whether the Holocaust had occurred.[409] It has been alleged that he was overheard telling Israeli foreign minister Yitzhak Shamir
Yitzhak Shamir
in 1983 that he had filmed that footage himself and helped liberate Auschwitz,[409][410] though this purported conversation was disputed by Secretary of State George P. Shultz.[411] Honors Further information: List of things named after Ronald Reagan Reagan received a number of awards in his pre- and post-presidential years. After his election as president, Reagan received a lifetime gold membership in the Screen Actors Guild, was inducted into the National Speakers Association
National Speakers Association
Speaker Hall of Fame,[412] and received the United States
United States
Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award.[413] In 1981, Reagan was inducted as a Laureate of The Lincoln Academy of Illinois
Illinois
and awarded the Order of Lincoln (the state's highest honor) by the Governor of Illinois
Illinois
in the area of Government.[414] In 1983, he received the highest distinction of the Scout Association of Japan, the Golden Pheasant Award.[415] In 1989, Reagan was made an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, one of the highest British orders (this entitled him to the use of the post-nominal letters "GCB" but, as a foreign national, not to be known as "Sir Ronald Reagan"); only two U.S. presidents have received this honor since attaining office, Reagan and George H. W. Bush,[416] while Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
received his before becoming President in his capacity as a general after World War II. Reagan was also named an honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford. Japan awarded him the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
Order of the Chrysanthemum
in 1989; he was the second U.S. president to receive the order and the first to have it given to him for personal reasons ( Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
received it as a commemoration of U.S.-Japanese relations).[417] In 1990, Reagan was awarded the WPPAC's Top Honor Prize because he signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
with H.E. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
Gorbachev
(then President of Russia), ending the cold war.[418][419]

Former President Reagan returns to the White House
White House
to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
from President Bush, 1993

On January 18, 1993, Reagan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom (awarded with distinction), the highest honor that the United States can bestow, from President George H. W. Bush, his Vice President and successor.[420] Reagan was also awarded the Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, the highest honor bestowed by Republican members of the Senate.[421] On Reagan's 87th birthday, in 1998, Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
by a bill signed into law by President Bill Clinton. That year, the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center was dedicated in Washington, D.C.[422] He was among 18 included in Gallup's most admired man and woman poll of the 20th century, from a poll conducted in the U.S. in 1999; two years later, USS  Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
was christened by Nancy Reagan and the United States
United States
Navy. It is one of few Navy ships christened in honor of a living person and the first aircraft carrier to be named in honor of a living former president.[423] In 1998 the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Reagan its Naval Heritage award for his support of the U.S. Navy and military in both his film career and while he served as president.[424] Congress authorized the creation of the Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home
Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home
in Dixon, Illinois
Illinois
in 2002, pending federal purchase of the property.[425] On May 16 of that year, Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
accepted the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor bestowed by Congress, on behalf of the president and herself.[426] After Reagan's death, the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
issued a President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
commemorative postage stamp in 2005.[427] Later in the year, CNN, along with the editors of Time magazine, named him the "most fascinating person" of the network's first 25 years;[428] Time listed Reagan one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century as well.[429] The Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
asked its viewers to vote for The Greatest American
The Greatest American
in June 2005; Reagan placed in first place, ahead of Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr.[430] In 2006, Reagan was inducted into the California
California
Hall of Fame, located at The California
California
Museum.[431] Every year from 2002, California governors Gray Davis
Gray Davis
and Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
proclaimed February 6 " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Day" in the state of California
California
in honor of their most famous predecessor.[432] In 2010, Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 944, authored by Senator George Runner, to make every February 6 Ronald Reagan Day
Ronald Reagan Day
in California.[433] In 2007, Polish President Lech Kaczyński
Lech Kaczyński
posthumously conferred on Reagan the highest Polish distinction, the Order of the White Eagle, saying that Reagan had inspired the Polish people to work for change and helped to unseat the repressive communist regime; Kaczyński said it "would not have been possible if it was not for the tough-mindedness, determination, and feeling of mission of President Ronald Reagan."[434] Reagan backed the nation of Poland throughout his presidency, supporting the anti-communist Solidarity movement, along with Pope John Paul II;[435] the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Park, a public facility in Gdańsk, was named in his honor. On June 3, 2009, Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
unveiled a statue of her late husband in the United States
United States
Capitol rotunda. The statue represents the state of California
California
in the National Statuary Hall Collection. After Reagan's death, both major American political parties agreed to erect a statue of Reagan in the place of that of Thomas Starr King.[436] The day before, President Obama signed the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Centennial Commission Act into law, establishing a commission to plan activities to mark the upcoming centenary of Reagan's birth.[437] Independence Day 2011 saw the unveiling of another statue to Reagan—this time in the British capital of London, outside the U.S. embassy in Grosvenor Square. The unveiling was supposed to be attended by Reagan's wife Nancy, but she did not attend; former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
took her place and read a statement on her behalf; further to the former First Lady's absence, President Reagan's friend and British prime minister during his presidency, Baroness Thatcher, was also unable to attend due to frail health.[438] Portraits

c. 1916–17. Pictured from left: Father Jack, older brother Neil, Reagan (with "Dutchboy" haircut), and mother Nelle

1920s. As a teenager, in Dixon, Illinois

c. 1960. Hosting General Electric
General Electric
Theater

1976. At his home at Rancho del Cielo

Presentation of Americo Makk
Americo Makk
Portrait to President Reagan, 1984

See also

Book: Ronald Reagan

List of Presidents of the United States
List of Presidents of the United States
by previous experience Presidents of the United States
United States
on U.S. postage stamps Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
bibliography Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
in fiction

Biography portal California
California
portal Cold War
Cold War
portal Politics portal Conservatism portal United States
United States
portal Government of the United States
United States
portal

References

^ "A Look Back At The Polls". CBS
CBS
News. Retrieved May 15, 2015.  ^ a b "Main Street Historic District, National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form" (PDF). Illinois
Illinois
Historic Preservation Agency. April 1, 1982. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.  ^ Terry Golway, Ronald Reagan's America (2008) p. 1 ^ a b Kengor, p. 4 ^ Lynette Holloway (December 13, 1996). "Neil Reagan, 88, Ad Executive And Jovial Brother of President". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2009.  ^ a b " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Facts". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation. Retrieved June 9, 2007.  ^ Janssen, Kim. "Is Ronald Reagan's Chicago boyhood home doomed?". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 2, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2012.  ^ Schribman, David (June 6, 2004). "Reagan, all-American, dies at 93". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 17, 2008.  ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990), p. 22 ^ Kengor, Paul (2004), p. 12 ^ Kengor, paul (2004), p. 48 ^ a b Kengor, p. 16 ^ Lewis, Warren; Rollmann, Hans, eds. (2005). Restoring the First-century Church in the Twenty-first Century. Wipf and Stock. pp. 181–192. ISBN 1-59752-416-6.  ^ Kengor, p. 15 ^ Cannon (2001), p. 2 ^ Reagan (1990), p. 27 ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 12–5 ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 16–7 ^ "Ronald Reagan: Life Before the Presidency". Miller Center. Retrieved August 30, 2015.  ^ Cannon (2003), p. 25 ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 24–31 ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 35–41 ^ a b c d e f Cannon, Lou (June 6, 2004). "Actor, Governor, President, Icon". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved January 26, 2008.  ^ " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
> Hollywood Years". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2007.  ^ a b Cannon (2001), p. 15 ^ "CUPID'S INFLUENCE ON THE FILM BOX-OFFICE". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848–1956). Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia. October 4, 1941. p. 7 Supplement: The Argus Week-end Magazine. Retrieved April 24, 2012.  ^ a b Reagan, Ronald (1965). Where's the Rest of Me?. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce. ISBN 0-283-98771-5.  ^ Wood, Brett. "Kings Row". TCM website. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 24, 2009.  ^ Crowther, Bosley (February 3, 1942). "The Screen; 'Kings Row,' With Ann Sheridan and Claude Rains, a Heavy, Rambling Film, Has Its First Showing Here at the Astor". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2007.  ^ Cannon (2003), pp. 56–57 ^ a b Friedrich, Otto (1997). City of nets: a portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s. University of California
California
Press (reprint). pp. 86–89. ISBN 978-0-520-20949-7.  ^ Skinner, et al. (2003), p. 836 ^ "History of the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment". 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.  ^ "USS Ronald Reagan: Ronald Reagan". United States
United States
Navy. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.  ^ a b c "President Ronald Reagan". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2007.  ^ a b c "Military service of Ronald Reagan". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved June 22, 2007.  ^ a b " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
1911–2004". Tampico, Illinois
Tampico, Illinois
Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 16, 2006. Retrieved December 30, 2007.  ^ Hurlburt, Roger (January 6, 1991). "Monroe An Exhibit Of The Early Days Of Marilyn Monroe – Before She Became A Legend – Brings The Star's History In Focus". Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, FL. Retrieved November 19, 2012.  ^ a b c d " Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
Presidents: Ronald Reagan". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.  ^ "American Notes Hollywood". Time. September 9, 1985. Retrieved April 21, 2009.  ^ a b " House Un-American Activities Committee
House Un-American Activities Committee
Testimony: Ronald Reagan". Tennessee Wesleyan College. October 23, 1947. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2007.  ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xeSmNaKCjaw ^ "Morning Joe on MSNBC".  ^ "Death Valley Days". CBS
CBS
Interactive Inc. Retrieved August 25, 2013.  ^ Reagan, American Icon. Metzger, Robert Paul. 1989. University of Pennsylvania. p. 26 ^ "Dispute Over Theatre Splits Chicago City Council". The New York Times. May 8, 1984. Retrieved May 17, 2007.  ^ Oliver, Marilyn (March 31, 1988). "Locations Range From the Exotic to the Pristine". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times.  ^ "Jane Wyman: Biography". JaneWyman.com. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ Severo, Richard (September 11, 2007). "Jane Wyman, 90, Star of Film and TV, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ "Reagan: Home". HBO. Retrieved September 5, 2011.  ^ National Constitution Center (February 6, 2013). "10 interesting facts on Ronald Reagan's birthday". National Constitution Center. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.  ^ POLITICO. "Jane Wyman, Ronald Reagan's first wife, dies at 93". politico.com.  ^ " Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
> Her Life & Times". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2007.  ^ Fieldstadt, Elisha; Gittens, Hasani (March 6, 2016). "Former First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
Dead at 94". NBC News. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ a b c d "End of a Love Story". BBC News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved March 21, 2007.  ^ "Nancy Davis Reagan". The White House. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2008.  ^ Beschloss, p. 296 ^ a b Berry, Deborah Barfield (June 6, 2004). "By Reagan's Side, but her own person". Newsday. Archived from the original on June 28, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ "Reagan Love Story". MSNBC. June 9, 2004. Retrieved May 25, 2007.  ^ Beschloss, p. 284 ^ Fieldstadt, Elisha; Gittens, Hasani (March 6, 2016). "Former First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
Dead at 94". NBC News. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ Edward M. Yager (2006). Ronald Reagan's Journey: Democrat to Republican. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 12–15.  ^ Lori Clune, "Political Ideology and Activism to 1966" in Andrew L. Johns, ed., A Companion to Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(2015) pp. 22–39. ^ J. David Woodard (2012). Ronald Reagan: A Biography. ABC-CLIO. p. 28.  ^ "President Reagan's Legacy and U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy." Heritage.org. July 20, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ McCullough, David. Truman. Simon & Schuster, 1992, p. 665. ISBN 0-671-45654-7. ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990). An American Life: The Autobiography. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-69198-8.  ^ Pemberton (1998) pp. 29–31 ^ Thomas W. Evans, The Education of Ronald Reagan: The General Electric Years and the Untold Story of His Conversion to Conservatism (2008). ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) p. 128 ^ Hayward, p. 635. ^ Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
speaks out on Socialized Medicine – Audio on YouTube ^ Richard Rapaport, June 21, 2009, How AMA 'Coffeecup' gave Reagan a boost. San Francisco Chronicle. ^ Tatalovich, Raymond; Byron W. Daynes, Theodore J. Lowi
Theodore J. Lowi
(2010). Moral Controversies in American Politics (4th ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7656-2651-6.  ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 1–6 ^ "A Time for Choosing". PBS. Retrieved April 17, 2007.  ^ Reagan, Ronald. "A time for choosing." (1964) online. ^ Ellen Reid Gold, " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and the oral tradition." Communication Studies (1988) 39#3–4 pp. 159–175 ^ Kurt W. Ritter, " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and 'the speech': The rhetoric of public relations politics." Western Journal of Communication (1968) 32#1 pp. 50–58. ^ National Press Club Luncheon Speakers, Ronald Reagan, June 16, 1966 (Speech). Washington, D.C.: National Press Club. June 16, 1966. Retrieved October 27, 2016 – via Library of Congress, Recorded Sound Research Center.  ^ "The Governors' Gallery – Ronald Reagan". California
California
State Library. Retrieved March 21, 2007.  ^ Gerard J. De Groot, "'A Goddamned Electable Person': The 1966 California
California
Gubernatorial Campaign of Ronald Reagan." History 82#267 (1997) pp. 429–448. ^ Totton J. Anderson and Eugene C. Lee, "The 1966 Election in California," Western Political Quarterly (1967) 20#2 pp. 535–554 in JSTOR ^ Kahn, Jeffery (June 8, 2004). " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
launched political career using the Berkeley campus as a target". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved March 30, 2007.  ^ Cannon (2001), p. 47. ^ a b *Fischer, Klaus (2006). America in White, Black, and Gray: The Stormy 1960s. Continuum. pp. 241–243. ISBN 0-8264-1816-3.  ^ "The New Rules of Play". Time. March 8, 1968. Retrieved October 16, 2007.  ^ a b c d Cannon, Lou (2001), p. 50. ^ "Postscript to People's Park". Time. February 16, 1970. Retrieved December 9, 2007.  ^ "A Brief History of UCPD: Berkeley, History Topic: People's Park". police.berkeley.edu. August 2006. Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.  ^ Cannon, Lou (2003), p. 295. ^ Reagan's botulism joke is variously reported as "sometimes you wonder whether there shouldn't be an outbreak of botulism" (Sarasota Journal, March 7, 1974, p. 15A) and "It's just too bad we can't have an epidemic of botulism" ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times, March 14, 1974, "Reagan Raps Press on Botulism
Botulism
Quote.") ^ a b c Cannon (2001), p. 51 ^ Reagan, Ronald. (1984) Abortion and the conscience of the nation. Nashville: T. Nelson. ISBN 0-8407-4116-2 ^ "From "A Huey P. Newton Story"". Retrieved July 7, 2010.  ^ "How to Stage a Revolution Introduction". Retrieved July 7, 2010.  ^ Recall Idea Got Its Start in L.A. in 1898, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times, July 13, 2003 ^ Seneker, Carl J (May 1967). "Governor Reagan and Executive Clemency". California
California
Law Review. 55 (2): 412–418. doi:10.2307/3479351. JSTOR 3479351.  ^ Community Property and Family Law: The Family Law Act of 1969 by Aidan R. Gough, Digitalcommons.law.ggu.edu ^ 1969 Cal. Stats. chapter 1608, p. 3313 ^ Kubarych, Roger M (June 9, 2004). "The Reagan Economic Legacy". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2007.  ^ "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". The White House. Archived from the original on April 11, 2007. Retrieved March 29, 2007.  Ford considered himself as "a moderate in domestic affairs, a conservative in fiscal affairs, and a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist in foreign affairs." ^ "Candidate Reagan is Born Again". Time. September 24, 1979. Retrieved May 10, 2008.  ^ a b "1976 New Hampshire presidential Primary, February 24, 1976 Republican Results". New Hampshire Political Library. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved November 10, 2008.  ^ Hathorn Billy (2010). "Mayor Ernest Angelo
Ernest Angelo
Jr., of Midland and the 96–0 Reagan Sweep of Texas, May 1, 1976". West Texas Historical Association Yearbook. 86: 77–91.  ^ "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". U.S. National Archives and Records Admin. Retrieved April 30, 2007.  ^ "Register of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Radio Commentary Sound Recordings, 1967–1980". Retrieved October 7, 2014.  ^ "Citizens for the Republic: Who We Are". cftr.org. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013.  ^ Uchitelle, Louis (September 22, 1988). "Bush, Like Reagan in 1980, Seeks Tax Cuts to Stimulate the Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2008.  ^ Hakim, Danny (March 14, 2006). "Challengers to Clinton Discuss Plans and Answer Questions". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2008.  ^ Kneeland, Douglas E. (August 4, 1980) "Reagan Campaigns at Mississippi Fair; Nominee Tells Crowd of 10,000 He Is Backing States' Rights." The New York Times. p. A11. Retrieved January 1, 2008. ^ John David Lees, Michael Turner. Reagan's first four years: a new beginning? Manchester University Press ND, 1988. p. 11 ^ a b c d Cannon, Lou. "Ronald Reagan: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ "1980 Presidential Election Results". Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved March 28, 2007.  ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woollley, John T. "Election of 1980". Santa Barbara, California: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ a b *Freidel, Frank; Sidey, Hugh (1995). The Presidents of the United States
United States
of America. Washington, D.C.: White House
White House
Historical Association. p. 84. ISBN 0-912308-57-5.  ^ Hayward, Steven F (May 16, 2005). "Reagan in Retrospect". American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2009.  ^ a b Cannon (1991, 2000), p. 746 ^ Reagan, Ronald (2007). The Reagan Diaries. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-087600-X. Retrieved June 5, 2007.  ^ Murray, Robert K.; Tim H. Blessing (1993). Greatness in the White House. Penn State Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-271-02486-0.  ^ a b David M. Ackerman, The Law of Church and State: Developments in the Supreme Court Since 1980. Novinka Books, 2001. p. 2. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court: Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962)". Retrieved July 30, 2016.  ^ Ronald Reagan, Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union. January 25, 1984 ^ George de Lama, Reagan Sees An "Uphill Battle" For Prayer
Prayer
In Public Schools. June 7, 1985, Chicago Tribune. ^ a b c Stuart Taylor Jr., High Court Accepts Appeal Of Moment Of Silence Law. January 28, 1987, The New York Times. ^ Lodi News-Sentinel, Reagan Urges School 'Moment of Silence'. July 12, 1984. ^ "Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". CNN. March 30, 2001. Retrieved December 19, 2007.  ^ D'Souza, Dinesh (June 8, 2004). "Purpose". National Review. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009.  ^ Langer, Gary (June 7, 2004). "Reagan's Ratings: 'Great Communicator's' Appeal Is Greater in Retrospect". ABC. Retrieved May 30, 2008.  ^ Kengor, Paul (2004). "Reagan's Catholic Connections". Catholic Exchange. Retrieved May 30, 2008.  ^ Robert David Johnson (2005). Congress and the Cold War. Cambridge UO. pp. 253–254.  ^ Herbert R. Northrup, "[www.jstor.org/stable/2522839 The Rise And Demise Of PATCO]," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, January 1984, Vol. 37 Issue 2, pp. 167–184 ^ "Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session With Reporters on the Air Traffic Controllers Strike". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation. 1981. Retrieved May 13, 2007.  ^ "Unhappy Again". Time. October 6, 1986. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ David Schultz, Encyclopedia of public administration and public policy (2004) p. 359 ^ Cannon (1991, 2000), p. 235. ^ "Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over, 1940 to date". United States
United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 6, 2010.  ^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Data.bls.gov. August 17, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2012.  ^ "Real Gross Domestic Product, 3 Decimal". US. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved September 23, 2015.  ^ Karaagac, John (2000). Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and Conservative Reformism. Lexington Books. p. 113. ISBN 0-7391-0296-6.  ^ Cannon (2001) p. 99 ^ Hayward, pp. 146–148 ^ Peter B. Levy (1996). Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years. ABC-CLIO. pp. 305–306.  ^ a b Bartels, Larry M., L. M. (June 1, 1991). "Constituency Opinion and Congressional Policy Making: The Reagan Defense Build Up". The American Political Science Review. 85 (2): 457–474. doi:10.2307/1963169. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 1963169.  ^ Mitchell, Daniel J. (July 19, 1996). "The Historical Lessons of Lower Tax Rates". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on May 30, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2007.  ^ Sahadi, Jeanne (September 12, 2010). "Taxes: What people forget about Reagan". CNN. Retrieved January 27, 2017.  ^ " Bruce Bartlett on Tax Increases & Reagan on NRO Financial". Old.nationalreview.com. October 29, 2003. Archived from the original on August 10, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.  ^ a b Bartlett, Bruce (February 27, 2009). "Higher Taxes: Will The Republicans Cry Wolf Again?". Forbes. Retrieved August 14, 2010.  ^ Tempalski, Jerry (2003). "OTA Paper 81 – Revenue Effects of Major Tax Bills, rev. September 2006" (PDF). United States
United States
Department of the Treasury, Office of Tax Analysis. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2007.  ^ Krugman, Paul (June 8, 2004). "The Great Taxer". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "Even Reagan Raised Taxes," Forbes. Retrieved August 14, 2010. ^ "Gross Domestic Product" (Excel). Bureau of Economic Analysis. July 27, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ Hayward, p. 185 ^ a b c Cannon (2001), p. 128 ^ Brownlee, Elliot; Graham, Hugh Davis (2003). The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism & Its Legacies. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press. pp. 172–173.  ^ Steuerle, C. Eugene (1992). The Tax Decade: How Taxes Came to Dominate the Public Agenda. Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute Press. p. 122. ISBN 0-87766-523-0.  ^ Tempalski (2006), Table 2 ^ "Historical Budget Data". Congressional Budget Office. March 20, 2009. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2009.  ^ "Federal Budget Receipts and Outlays". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 8, 2010.  ^ "Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 – Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds (4.A)" (PDF). Retrieved March 8, 2010.  ^ "Reaganomics". PBS. June 10, 2004. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2007.  ^ a b c Meacham, John; Murr, Andrew; Clift, Eleanor; Lipper, Tamara; Breslau, Karen; Ordonez, Jennifer (June 14, 2004). "American Dreamer". Newsweek. Retrieved June 3, 2008.  ^ a b c Dreier, Peter (April 3, 2011). "Don't add Reagan's Face to Mount Rushmore". The Nation.  ^ "Making Sense of the 'Me Decade'". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved January 13, 2012.  ^ Bartlett, Bruce (June 5, 2012). "Rich Nontaxpayers". The New York Times.  ^ Kocieniewski, David (January 18, 2012). "Since 1980s, the Kindest of Tax Cuts for the Rich". The New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2012.  ^ Rampell, Catherine (November 18, 2011). "Tax Pledge May Scuttle a Deal on Deficit". The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2012.  ^ Krugman, Paul (June 8, 2004). "The Great Taxer". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.  ^ Barlett, Bruce (April 6, 2010). "Reagan's Tax Increases". CapitalGainsandGames.com. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2012.  ^ a b Rosenbaum, David E (January 8, 1986). "Reagan insists Budget Cuts are way to Reduce Deficit". The New York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2008.  ^ "Ronald Reagan: Presidency, Domestic Policies". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 21, 2008.  ^ "Views from the Former Administrators". EPA Journal. Environmental Protection Agency. November 1985. Archived from the original on July 15, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008.  ^ "The Reagan Presidency". Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved August 4, 2008.  ^ Pear, Robert (April 19, 1992). "U.S. to Reconsider Denial of Benefits to Many Disabled". The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2008.  ^ Bergsten, C. Fred (2001). "Strong Dollar, Weak Policy". The International Economy.  ^ Sornette, Didier; Johansen, Anders; &Amp,; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe (1996). "Stock Market Crashes, Precursors and Replicas". Journal de Physique I. 6 (1): 167–175. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.54.6577 . doi:10.1051/jp1:1996135.  ^ "Historical Debt Outstanding". U.S. Treasury Department. Retrieved September 8, 2010.  ^ Brandly, Mark (May 20, 2004). "Will We Run Out of Energy?". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved November 6, 2008.  ^ a b Lieberman, Ben (September 1, 2005). "A Bad Response To Post-Katrina Gas Prices". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on November 1, 2008. Retrieved November 6, 2008.  ^ Thorndike, Joseph J. (November 10, 2005). "Historical Perspective: The Windfall Profit Tax—Career of a Concept". TaxHistory.org. Retrieved November 6, 2008.  ^ a b "Reagan's Economic Legacy". Business Week. June 21, 2004. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2007.  ^ Koprowski, Gene (March 7, 1991). "Tech Intelligence Revival? Commerce May Model on DIA's Project Socrates". Washington Technology.  ^ Smith, Esther (May 5, 1988). "DoD Unveils Competitive Tool: Project Socrates Offers Valuable Analysis". Washington Technology.  ^ Reagan, Ronald. (June 8, 1982). " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Address to British Parliament". The History Place. Retrieved April 19, 2006.  ^ "Towards an International History of the War in Afghanistan, 1979–89". The Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
International Center for Scholars. 2002. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2007.  ^ "LGM-118A Peacekeeper". Federation of American Scientists. August 15, 2000. Retrieved April 10, 2007.  ^ "Großdemo gegen Nato-Doppelbeschluss, SPIEGEL on the mass protests against deployment of nuclear weapons in West Germany".  ^ a b Nicholas Lemann, "Reagan: The Triumph of Tone" The New York Review of Books 10 March, 2016 ^ "Reagan and Thatcher, political soul mates". MSNBC. Associated Press. June 5, 2004. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ Robert C. Rowland, and John M. Jones. Reagan at Westminster: Foreshadowing the End of the Cold War
Cold War
(Texas A&M University Press; 2010) ^ "Addresses to both Houses of Parliament since 1939," Parliamentary Information List, Standard Note: SN/PC/4092, Last updated: November 12, 2014, Author: Department of Information Services ^ "Former President Reagan Dies at 93". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. June 6, 2004. Retrieved March 7, 2007.  ^ Cannon (1991), pp. 314–317. ^ a b "1983: Korean Airlines flight shot down by Soviet Union". A&E Television. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2007.  ^ Pace (1995). "GPS History, Chronology, and Budgets". The Global Positioning System (PDF). Rand. p. 248.  ^ Pellerin, United States
United States
Updates Global Positioning System Technology: New GPS satellite ushers in a range of future improvements ^ Stephen S. Rosenfeld (Spring 1986). "The Reagan Doctrine: The Guns of July". Foreign Affairs. 64 (4). Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.  ^ Harrison, Selig S. "A Chinese Civil War." The National Interest, February 7, 2011. ^ Crile, George (2003). Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-854-9.  ^ Pach, Chester (2006). "The Reagan Doctrine: Principle, Pragmatism, and Policy". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 36 (1): 75–88. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00288.x. JSTOR 27552748.  ^ Coll, Steve (July 19, 1992). "Anatomy of a Victory: CIA's Covert Afghan War". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 24, 2009.  ^ Harnden, Toby (September 26, 2001). "Taliban still have Reagan's Stingers". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved September 17, 2010.  ^ Tower, John; Muskie, Edmund; Scowcroft, Brent (1987). Report of the President's Special
Special
Review Board. Bantam Books. p. 104. ISBN 9780553269680.  Available online here. ^ a b c "Deploy or Perish: SDI and Domestic Politics". Scholarship Editions. Retrieved April 10, 2007.  ^ Adelman, Ken (July 8, 2003). "SDI:The Next Generation". Fox News Channel. Retrieved March 15, 2007.  ^ Beschloss, p. 293 ^ a b "Foreign Affairs: Ronald Reagan". PBS. Archived from the original on June 16, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.  ^ Beschloss, p. 294 ^ a b Thomas, Rhys (Writer/Producer) (2005). The Presidents (Documentary). A&E Television.  ^ From U.S. Ally to Convicted War Criminal: Inside Chad's Hissène Habré's Close Ties to Reagan Admin. Democracy Now!
Democracy Now!
May 31, 2016. ^ Richard Allen Greene, "Critics question Reagan legacy," BBC News, June 9, 2004 ^ What Guilt Does the U.S. Bear in Guatemala? The New York Times, May 19, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2014. ^ a b Did Reagan Finance Genocide in Guatemala?, ABC News, Santiago Wills, May 14, 2013. " . . The [Guatemalan] army was targeting the Ixil and other indigenous groups, killing them indiscriminately, whether they had helped the guerrillas or not. . " ^ Allan Nairn: After Ríos Montt Verdict, Time for U.S. to Account for Its Role in Guatemalan Genocide. Democracy Now!
Democracy Now!
May 15, 2013. ^ Ronald Reagan’s genocidal secret: A true story of right-wing impunity in Guatemala, Salon, Miles Culpepper, 2015. ^ Timothy J. Geraghty (2009). Peacekeepers at War: Beirut 1983 – The Marine Commander Tells His Story. Potomac Books. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-59797-595-7.  ^ Lou Cannon & Carl M. Cannon (2007). Reagan's Disciple: George W. Bush's Troubled Quest for a Presidential Legacy. PublicAffairs. p. 154.  ^ a b "Operation Agent Fury" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.  ^ Cooper, Tom (September 1, 2003). "Grenada, 1983: Operation 'Urgent Fury'". Air Combat Information Group. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2007.  ^ " Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1984". Swedish Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on December 30, 2006. Retrieved March 7, 2007.  ^ "The Debate: Mondale vs. Reagan". National Review. October 4, 2004. Archived from the original on April 16, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2007.  ^ "Reaction to first Mondale/Reagan debate". PBS. October 8, 1984. Archived from the original on January 25, 2008. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ "1984 Presidential Debates". CNN. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2007.  ^ "The Reagan Presidency". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation. Retrieved April 19, 2008.  ^ "1984 Presidential Election Results". David Leip. Retrieved May 25, 2007.  ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woollley, John T. "Election of 1984". Santa Barbara, California: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved March 30, 2018.  ^ a b "Phil Gailey and Warren Weaver Jr., "Briefing"". The New York Times. June 5, 1982. Retrieved January 27, 2011.  ^ Berkes, Howard (January 28, 2006). "Challenger: Reporting a Disaster's Cold, Hard Facts". NPR. Retrieved April 19, 2008.  ^ Noonan, Peggy (January 28, 1986). "Address to the Nation on the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger". University of Texas. Retrieved December 27, 2009.  ^ "America's Flight 17". Slate. July 23, 2014.  ^ President Reagan: The Role Of A Lifetime, Lou Cannon, 1991, pages 507-08. ^ Reagan Defends Cemetery Visit : Says German Dead Are Also Victims of Nazis, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times, Don Shannon, April 19, 1985. ^ Buchanan, Pat (1999). "Pat Buchanan's Response to Norman Podhoretz's OP-ED". The Internet Brigade. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2007.  ^ Reeves, p. 249 ^ Reagan Joins Kohl in Brief Memorial at Bitburg
Bitburg
Graves, New York Times, Bernard Weinraub, May 6, 1985, ^ Reeves, p. 255 ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow. New York: The New Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-59558-103-7.  ^ Lamar, Jacob V., Jr (September 22, 1986). "Rolling Out the Big Guns". Time. Retrieved August 20, 2007.  ^ Randall, Vernellia R. (April 18, 2006). "The Drug War as Race War". The University of Dayton School of Law. Retrieved April 11, 2007.  ^ a b "Thirty Years of America's Drug War". Retrieved April 4, 2007.  ^ "The Reagan-Era Drug War Legacy". Drug Reform Coordination Network. June 11, 2004. Retrieved April 4, 2007.  ^ "NIDA InfoFacts: High School and Youth Trends". National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH. Retrieved April 4, 2007.  ^ "Interview: Dr. Herbert Kleber". PBS. Retrieved June 12, 2007. The politics of the Reagan years and the Bush years probably made it somewhat harder to get treatment expanded, but at the same time, it probably had a good effect in terms of decreasing initiation and use. For example, marijuana went from thirty-three percent of high-school seniors in 1980 to twelve percent in 1991.  ^ "The 'just say no' first lady". MSNBC. February 18, 2004. Retrieved June 24, 2007.  ^ Bronski, Michael. "Rewriting the Script on Reagan: Why the President Ignored AIDS". Retrieved March 13, 2016.  ^ Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. Macmillan. Retrieved March 12, 2016.  ^ Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. Macmillan. Retrieved March 12, 2016.  ^ "Reagan and AIDS: A Reassessment - IGF Culture Watch". IGF Culture Watch. Retrieved January 12, 2015.  ^ "Libya: Fury in the Isolation Ward". Time. August 23, 1982. Retrieved August 12, 2011.  ^ a b "Operation El Dorado Canyon". GlobalSecurity.org. April 25, 2005. Retrieved April 19, 2008.  ^ a b c "1986:US Launches air-strike on Libya". BBC News. April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 19, 2008.  ^ "A/RES/41/38 November 20, 1986". United Nations. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ Graham, Otis (January 27, 2003). "Ronald Reagan's Big Mistake". The American Conservative. Archived from the original on July 29, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ a b Reagan, Ronald. (November 6, 1986) Statement on Signing the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Collected Speeches, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved August 15, 2007. ^ "Understanding the Iran–Contra Affairs".  ^ "The Iran Contra scandal". CNN. 2001. Retrieved August 14, 2007.  ^ Parry, Robert (June 2, 2004). "NYT's apologies miss the point". Consortium for Independent Journalism. Retrieved April 1, 2007.  ^ Morrison, Fred L., F. L. (January 1, 1987). "Legal Issues in The Nicaragua Opinion". American Journal of International Law. 81 (1): 160–166. doi:10.2307/2202146. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2202146. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012.  ^ "Managua wants $1B from US; demand would follow word court ruling". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. June 29, 1986.  ^ "Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua ( Nicaragua v. United States
Nicaragua v. United States
of America)". Cases. International Court of Justice. June 27, 1986. Retrieved January 24, 2009.  ^ a b "Reagan's mixed White House
White House
legacy". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved August 19, 2007.  ^ Mayer, Jane; McManus, Doyle (1988). Landslide: The Unmaking of The President, 1984–1988. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 292, 437. ISBN 978-0-395-45185-4.  ^ Dwyer, Paula (June 23, 1997). "Pointing a Finger at Reagan". Business Week. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved August 23, 2007.  ^ a b Sullivan, Kevin & Mary Jordan (June 10, 2004). "In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2007.  ^ Hamm, Manfred R. (June 23, 1983). "New Evidence of Moscow's Military Threat". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2007.  ^ Lebow, Richard Ned & Stein, Janice Gross (February 1994). "Reagan and the Russians". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 28, 2010.  ^ a b c Gaidar, Yegor (2007). Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia (in Russian). Brookings Institution Press. pp. 190–205. ISBN 5-8243-0759-8.  ^ Gaidar, Yegor. "Public Expectations and Trust towards the Government: Post-Revolution Stabilization and its Discontents". Retrieved March 15, 2008.  ^ a b c d e f Knopf, PhD, Jeffery W. (August 2004). "Did Reagan Win the Cold War?". Strategic Insights. Center for Contemporary Conflict. III (8). Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ Stein, Sam (April 7, 2010). "Giuliani's Obama-Nuke Critique Defies And Ignores Reagan". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2017.  ^ a b Lettow, Paul (July 20, 2006). "President Reagan's Legacy and U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010.  ^ a b "Hyvästi, ydinpommi". Helsingin Sanomat. September 5, 2010. pp. D1–D2.  ^ "Toward The Summit; Previous Reagan- Gorbachev
Gorbachev
Summits". The New York Times. May 29, 1988. Retrieved January 26, 2008.  ^ "Modern History Sourcebook: Ronald Reagan: Evil Empire Speech, June 8, 1982". Fordham University. May 1998. Retrieved November 15, 2007.  ^ a b Keller, Bill (March 2, 1987). " Gorbachev
Gorbachev
Offer 2: Other Arms Hints". The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2008.  ^ "INF Treaty". US State Department. Retrieved May 28, 2007.  ^ Talbott, Strobe (August 5, 1991). "The Summit Goodfellas". Time. Retrieved January 26, 2008.  ^ Reagan (1990), p. 713 ^ Reagan (1990), p. 720 ^ "1989: Malta summit ends Cold War". BBC News. December 3, 1984. Retrieved August 12, 2011.  ^ Weisman, Steven R. (September 8, 1983). "Reagan Begins to Wear a Hearing Aid in Public". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ "Reagan Begins Using A Second Hearing Aid". United Press International. March 21, 1985. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ Friess, Steve (August 9, 2006). "He amplifies hearing aids". USA Today. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ "What is the 25th Amendment and When Has It Been Invoked?". History News Network. Retrieved June 6, 2007.  ^ Bumgarner, p. 285 ^ Bumgarner, p. 204 ^ Boyd, Gerald M (August 2, 1985). "'Irritated Skin' is Removed from Side of Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ Herron, Caroline Rand & Michael Wright (October 13, 1987). "Balancing the Budget and Politics; More Cancer on Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ Altman, Lawrence K (January 6, 1987). "President is Well after Operation to Ease Prostate". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ Herron, Caroline Rand & Martha A. Miles (August 2, 1987). "The Nation; Cancer Found on Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ "Statement by Assistant to the President for Press Relations Fitzwater on the President's Hand Surgery". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library. January 7, 1989. Retrieved June 14, 2016.  ^ Reagan (1990), p. 280 ^ Reston, James (July 5, 1987). "Washington; Kennedy And Bork". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ Greenhouse, Linda (October 24, 1987). "Bork's Nomination Is Rejected, 58–42; Reagan 'Saddened'". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2007.  ^ "Media Frenzies in Our Time," Special
Special
to The Washington Post ^ "Anthony M. Kennedy". Supreme Court Historical Society. 1999. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007.  ^ Levine, Dan (April 6, 2011). "Gay judge never considered dropping Prop 8 case". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Biographical Directory of Federal Judges: Walker, Vaughn R." History of the Federal Judiciary. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved March 19, 2013. ^ "Pendleton, Clarence M. Jr". Notable Kentucky African Americans Database. University of Kentucky. Retrieved March 19, 2013.  ^ Gerald B. Jordan (June 7, 1988). "Pendleton Is Remembered Kindly But Colleague Regrets Official's Sharp Rhetoric". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  ^ "Clarence Pendleton Blasts Comparable Pay Concept". Jet. December 10, 1984. p. 19. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  ^ "707 F.2d 862: United States
United States
of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Gilbert L. Dozier, Defendant-appellant". law.justia.com. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  ^ "Persistence paid off for jailed Dozier," Minden Press-Herald, July 23, 1984, p. 1 ^ Sherman, Bill (July 3, 2008). "Louisiana ag chiefs: past and present" (PDF). Market Bulletin. Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry. 91 (14): 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  ^ Netburn, Deborah (December 24, 2006). "Agenting for God". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ "1992 Republican National Convention, Houston". The Heritage Foundation. August 17, 1992. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved March 29, 2007.  ^ Reinhold, Robert (November 5, 1991). "Four Presidents Join Reagan in Dedicating His Library". The New York Times.  ^ Reagan, Ronald (March 29, 1991). "Why I'm for the Brady Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ Reagan (1990), p. 726 ^ "The Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on August 28, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2007.  ^ "Protester at Reagan Speech Had Press Credentials". The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2016.  ^ "Man Who Disrupted Reagan Speech Flees 4-Month Jail Term". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 28, 2016.  ^ "How Do You Really Protect a President?". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved July 28, 2016.  ^ "Activist pleads guilty in Reagan attack". Deseret News. Retrieved July 28, 2016.  ^ a b c d Gordon, Michael R (November 6, 1994). "In Poignant Public Letter, Reagan Reveals That He Has Alzheimer's". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2007.  ^ a b c Reagan, Nancy (2002), pp. 179–180 ^ "The Alzheimer's Letter". PBS. Archived from the original on December 16, 2006. Retrieved March 7, 2007.  ^ Altman, Lawrence K (November 13, 1994). "November 6–12: Amid Rumors; Reagan Discloses His Alzheimer's". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2008.  ^ "President Ronald Reagan's Alzheimer's Disease". Radio National. June 7, 2004. Retrieved January 7, 2008.  ^ Jacob Weisberg (January 5, 2016). Ronald Reagan: The American Presidents Series: The 40th President, 1981–1989. Henry Holt and Company. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8050-9728-3.  ^ Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. July 9, 1981. p. 5. ISSN 0021-5996.  ^ Associated Press (19 June 1981). "Cabinet Aide Greeted by Reagan as 'mayor'". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 January 2018.  ^ Lesley Stahl
Lesley Stahl
(1999). Reporting Live. Simon & Schuster. pp. 256 & 318. ISBN 0-684-82930-4.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Altman, Lawrence K (October 5, 1997). "Reagan's Twilight – A special report; A President Fades Into a World Apart". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2008.  ^ Thomas, Rhys (Writer/Producer); Baker, James (interviewee) (2005). The Presidents (Documentary). A&E Television.  ^ a b Altman, Lawrence K. (June 15, 2004). "The Doctors World; A Recollection of Early Questions About Reagan's Health". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2008.  ^ Morris, Edmund (January 23, 2011). "Edmund Morris: Reagan and Alzheimer's". Newsweek. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ Van Den Heuvel C, Thornton E, Vink R (2007). "Traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease: a review". Progress in Brain Research. Progress in Brain Research. 161: 303–316. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)61021-2. ISBN 978-0-444-53017-2. PMID 17618986.  ^ Szczygielski J, Mautes A, Steudel WI, Falkai P, Bayer TA, Wirths O (November 2005). "Traumatic brain injury: cause or risk of Alzheimer's disease? A review of experimental studies". Journal of Neural Transmission. 112 (11): 1547–1564. doi:10.1007/s00702-005-0326-0. PMID 15959838.  ^ "Reagan Breaks Hip In Fall at His Home". The New York Times. January 13, 2001. Retrieved June 18, 2008.  ^ "Reagan recovering from hip surgery, wife Nancy remains at his side". CNN. January 15, 2001. Retrieved June 13, 2008.  ^ "Reagan able to sit up after hip repair". CNN. January 15, 2001. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.  ^ "Reagan Resting Comfortably After Hip Surgery". CNN. January 13, 2001. Retrieved December 28, 2007.  ^ " Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
Reflects on Ronald". CNN. March 4, 2001. Retrieved April 6, 2007.  ^ Gordon, Craig (March 9, 2009). " Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
praises Obama". Politico. Retrieved October 27, 2011.  ^ " Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
plea on stem cells". BBC News. May 10, 2004. Retrieved June 6, 2007.  ^ "Former President Reagan Dies at 93". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. June 6, 2004. Retrieved July 9, 2013.  ^ a b Von Drehle, David (June 6, 2004). " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Dies: 40th President Reshaped American Politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2007.  ^ "Announcing the Death of Ronald Reagan" (Press release). The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. June 6, 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2008.  ^ "Ronald Reagan: Tributes". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2008.  ^ Leigh, Andrew (June 7, 2004). "Saying Goodbye in Santa Monica". National Review. Archived from the original on March 30, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.  ^ "100,000 file past Reagan's casket". CNN. June 9, 2004. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ "Lying In State for former President Reagan" (Press release). United States Capitol Police. June 11, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ "Thatcher's eulogy can be viewed online". Margaretthatcher.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010.  ^ "BBC NEWS – Americas – Reagan funeral guest list". BBC.  ^ "A Nation Bids Reagan Farewell: Prayer
Prayer
And Recollections At National Funeral For 40th President". CBS. Associated Press. June 11, 2004. Retrieved December 21, 2007.  ^ " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Library Opening". Plan B Productions. November 4, 1991. Retrieved March 23, 2007.  ^ Andrew L. Johns, ed., A Companion to Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(Wiley-Blackwell, 2015). ^ Hayward, pp. 635–638 ^ Beschloss, p. 324 ^ " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
restored faith in America". Retrieved October 7, 2014.  ^ Lipset, Seymour Martin; Schneider, William. "The Decline of Confidence in American Institutions" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.  ^ Gilman, Larry. "Iran-Contra Affair". Advameg. Retrieved August 23, 2007.  ^ Feulner, Edwin J. (June 9, 2004). "The Legacy of Ronald Reagan". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 23, 2007.  ^ Weisbrot, Mark (June 7, 2004). "Ronald Reagan's Legacy". Common Dreams News Center. Retrieved August 23, 2007.  ^ Kurtz, Howard (June 7, 2004). "Reagan: The Retake". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2005.  ^ "American President". Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.  ^ Henry, David (December 2009). " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and the 1980s: Perceptions, Policies, Legacies. Ed. by Cheryl Hudson and Gareth Davies. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. xiv, 268 pp. $84.95, ISBN 978-0-230-60302-8.)". The Journal of American History. 96 (3): 933–934. doi:10.1093/jahist/96.3.933. JSTOR 25622627.  ^ Heale, M.J. in Cheryl Hudson and Gareth Davies, eds. Ronald Reagan and the 1980s: Perceptions, Policies, Legacies (2008) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 0-230-60302-5 p. 250 ^ "Reagan's legacy". U-T San Diego. June 6, 2004. Archived from the original on December 6, 2004. Retrieved February 16, 2008.  ^ D'Souza, Dinesh (June 6, 2004). "Russian Revolution". National Review. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ a b Chapman, Roger (June 14, 2004). "Reagan's Role in Ending the Cold War
Cold War
Is Being Exaggerated". George Mason University. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ Chang, Felix (February 11, 2011). "Reagan Turns One Hundred: Foreign Policy Lessons". The National Interest. Retrieved December 21, 2011.  ^ Lebow, Richard Ned; Stein, Janice Gross (February 1994). "Reagan and the Russians". The Atlantic. 273 (2): 35–37. Retrieved February 11, 2017.  ^ a b Heintz, Jim (June 7, 2004). " Gorbachev
Gorbachev
mourns loss of honest rival". Oakland Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original (Reprint) on May 1, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ Kaiser, Robert G (June 11, 2004). "Gorbachev: 'We All Lost Cold War'". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ "Full Text: Thatcher Eulogy to Reagan". BBC News. June 11, 2004. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ "Reagan and Thatcher; political soul mates". MSNBC. June 5, 2004. Retrieved January 8, 2008.  ^ Clayton, Ian (June 5, 2004). "America's Movie Star President". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ "Ronald Reagan: Tributes". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2008.  ^ a b c Loughlin, Sean (July 6, 2004). "Reagan cast a wide shadow in politics". CNN. Retrieved June 19, 2008.  ^ " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Remains Potent Republican Icon". Voice of America. February 11, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2012.  ^ Broder, John M (January 20, 2008). "The Gipper Gap: In Search of Reagan". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2008.  ^ Issenberg, Sasha (February 8, 2008). "McCain touts conservative record". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 19, 2008.  ^ "Reagan's First Inaugural: "Government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem."". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ Carlos Lozada, "I just binge-read eight books by Donald Trump. Here's what I learned: From memoirs to financial advice to politics, inside the collected writings of Donald J. Trump," Washington Post 30 July, 2015 ^ Jack Godwin, Clintonomics: How Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
Reengineered the Reagan Revolution (2009) ^ Eric Foner, "Obama the Professional," The Nation
The Nation
Jan. 14, 2010 ^ Raasch, Chuck (June 10, 2004). "Reagan transformed presidency into iconic place in American culture". USA Today. Retrieved July 2, 2008.  ^ "Ronald Reagan". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2008.  ^ "Toward the Summit; Previous Reagan- Gorbachev
Gorbachev
Summits". The New York Times. May 28, 1988. Retrieved March 8, 2008.  ^ "1987: Superpowers to reverse arms race". BBC News. December 8, 1987. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ Woolley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "Presidential Job Approval". Pesidency.ucsb.edu. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved July 25, 2016.  ^ Sussman, Dalia (August 6, 2001). "Improving With Age: Reagan Approval Grows Better in Retrospect". ABC. Retrieved April 8, 2007.  ^ "How the Presidents Stack Up". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 7, 2007.  ^ "Reagan Tops Presidential Poll". CBS. February 19, 2001. Retrieved September 7, 2007.  ^ "Presidents and History". Polling Report. Retrieved March 18, 2007.  ^ "Post-War Presidents: JFK, Ike, Reagan Most Popular". Rasmussen Reports. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.  ^ "Presidential Survey". Siena Research Institute. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved August 28, 2007.  ^ Hines, Nico (October 31, 2008). "The top ten – The Times
The Times
US presidential rankings". The Times. UK. Retrieved January 12, 2009.  ^ C-SPAN
C-SPAN
(February 16, 2009). " C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Survey of Presidential Leaders". Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2012.  ^ "USPC Survey". Americas.sas.ac.uk. Archived from the original on July 30, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2011.  ^ a b Schroeder, Patricia (June 6, 2004). "Nothing stuck to 'Teflon President'". USA Today. Retrieved January 8, 2008.  ^ "'The Great Communicator' strikes chord with public". CNN. 2001. Retrieved January 8, 2008.  ^ "Reagan: The great communicator". BBC News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved January 26, 2008.  ^ "Mourning in America: Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Dies at 93". Fox News Channel. June 5, 2004. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  ^ "The Reagan Diaries". The High Hat. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  ^ "Sunday Culture: Charlie Wilson's War?". theseminal. Archived from the original on February 12, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  ^ a b Kurtz, Howard (June 7, 2004). "15 Years Later, the Remaking of a President". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2008.  ^ Sprengelmeyer, M.E. (June 9, 2004). "'Teflon' moniker didn't have intended effect on Reagan". Howard Scripps News Service. Archived from the original on January 24, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.  ^ Dionne, E.J. (October 31, 1988). "Political Memo; G.O.P. Makes Reagan Lure Of Young a Long-Term Asset". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2008.  ^ Geffen, David. "Reagan, Ronald Wilson". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2009.  ^ Hendrix, Anastasia (June 6, 2004). "Trouble at home for family values advocate". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 4, 2008.  ^ Morning in America: how Ronald ... 2005. ISBN 978-0-691-09645-2. Retrieved March 8, 2010.  ^ Marinucci, Carla & Carolyn Lochhead (June 12, 2004). "Last Goodbye: Ex-president eulogized in D.C. before final ride into California
California
sunset; Laid to Rest: Ceremony ends weeklong outpouring of grief". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 15, 2009.  ^ "Ronald Reagan, Master Storyteller". CBS. June 6, 2004. Retrieved March 4, 2008.  ^ McCuddy, Bill (June 6, 2004). "Remembering Reagan's Humor". Fox News Channel. Retrieved July 2, 2008.  ^ "Remembering President Reagan For His Humor-A Classic Radio Gaffe". About. Retrieved January 22, 2007.  ^ a b Cannon, Lou (1991), pp. 486–490 ^ Schaller, M., Reckoning with Reagan, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 9 ^ Shultz, George (1993). "Turmoil and Triumph: My Years As Secretary of State". Scribner's Sons. p. 550. ISBN 0684193256 ^ "Zig Ziglar Bio". Zig Ziglar. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2011.  ^ "Association of Graduates USMA: Sylvanus Thayer Award
Sylvanus Thayer Award
Recipients". Association of Graduates, West Point, New York. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.  ^ "Laureates by Year – The Lincoln Academy of Illinois". The Lincoln Academy of Illinois. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "䝪䞊䜲䝇䜹䜴䝖日本連盟 きじ章受章者" (PDF). Reinanzaka-sc.o.oo7.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved February 12, 2017.  ^ "Order of the Bath". The Official website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on April 26, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.  ^ Weisman, Steven R (October 24, 1989). "Reagan Given Top Award by Japanese". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2008.  ^ World Peace Prize Recipients World Peace Prize. ^ Top Honer Prize Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
WPPAC.(October 1990). ^ "Remarks on presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
to President Ronald Reagan-President George Bush-Transcript". The White House: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. January 18, 1993. Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ "Julio E. Bonfante". LeBonfante International Investors Group. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2008.  ^ " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Building and International Trade Center". U.S. General Services Administration. Retrieved March 22, 2007.  ^ " USS Ronald Reagan
USS Ronald Reagan
Commemorates Former President's 90th Birthday". CNN. July 12, 2003. Retrieved January 25, 2008.  ^ "Naval Heritage Award Recipients". United States Navy
United States Navy
Memorial. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Public Law 107-137" (PDF). United States
United States
Government Printing Office. February 6, 2002. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ " Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
Recipients 1776 to present". Office of the Clerk, US House of Representatives. Retrieved March 22, 2007.  ^ "Postmaster General, Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
unveil Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
stamp image, stamp available next year" (Press release). USPS. November 9, 2004. Retrieved May 13, 2007.  ^ "Top 25: Fascinating People". CNN. June 19, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2005.  ^ "Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century". Time. 2003. Retrieved March 7, 2007.  ^ "Greatest American". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2007.  ^ Geiger, Kimberly (August 1, 2006). "California: State to establish a Hall of Fame; Disney, Reagan and Alice Walker among 1st inductees". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 21, 2008.  ^ "Governor Davis Proclaims February 6, 2002 " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Day" in California". Office of the Governor, State of California. February 6, 2002.  ^ "Governor Schwarzenegger Signs Legislation Honoring President Ronald Reagan". Office of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. July 19, 2010.  ^ "President Kaczyński Presents Order of the White Eagle to Late President Ronald Reagan". United States
United States
Department of State. July 18, 2007. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2008.  ^ Bernstein, Carl (February 24, 1992). "The Holy Alliance". Time. Retrieved August 18, 2007.  ^ "Reagan statue unveiled in Capitol Rotunda". MSNBC. Associated Press. June 3, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2011.  ^ "Obama creates Reagan centennial commission". MSNBC. Associated Press. June 2, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2011.  ^ " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
statue unveiled at US Embassy in London". BBC News. July 4, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2011. 

Sources

Beschloss, Michael (2008). Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How they Changed America 1789–1989. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5744-8.  Brands, H.W. Reagan: The Life (2015) Bumgarner, John R. (1994). The Health of the Presidents: The 41 United States Presidents Through 1993 from a Physician's Point of View. Jefferson, NC: MacFarland & Company. ISBN 0-89950-956-8.  Cannon, Lou (2000) [1991]. President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-891620-91-6.  Cannon, Lou; Beschloss, Michael (2001). Ronald Reagan: The Presidential Portfolio: A History Illustrated from the Collection of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Library and Museum. PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-891620-84-3.  Cannon, Lou (2003). Governor Reagan: His Rise to Power. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-284-8.  Hayward, Steven F. (2009). The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution: 1980–1989. ISBN 0-307-45369-3.  Holden, Kenneth. Making of the Great Communicator: Ronald Reagan's Transformation From Actor To Governor (2013) Pemberton, William E. (1998). Exit With Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan. ISBN 0-7656-0096-X.  Putnam, Jackson K. "Governor Reagan: A Reappraisal." California History (2006): 24–45. in JSTOR Reeves, Richard (2005). President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-3022-1.  Troy, Gil (2009). The Reagan Revolution: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.  Wills, Garry (1987). Reagan's America: Innocents at Home. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-18286-4. 

Further reading Main article: Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
bibliography Primary sources

Reagan, Nancy (2002). I Love You, Ronnie: The Letters of Ronald Reagan to Nancy Reagan. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-76051-2.  Reagan, Ronald (2003). Skinner, Kiron K.; Anderson, Annelise; Anderson, Martin, eds. Reagan: A Life in Letters. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-1967-8.  Reagan, Ronald (2003). An American Life. New York: Free Press, A Division of Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-0025-9. 

Historiography

Johns, Andrew L., ed. A Companion to Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(Wiley-Blackwell, 2015). xiv, 682 pp.; topical essays by scholars emphasizing historiography; contents free at many libraries

External links

Listen to this article (info/dl)

This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Ronald Reagan" dated 2012-12-17, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles

Find more aboutRonald Reaganat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource

Official sites

Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Foundation & Presidential Library White House
White House
biography Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
& His Legacy at Eureka College

Media

Appearances on C-SPAN

"Life Portrait of Ronald Reagan", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, December 6, 1999

Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
audio archives at NPR Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Oral Histories from the Miller Center of Public Affairs Television ads from Reagan's 1976 campaign for the Republican presidential nomination, which among the Citizens for Reagan records at the Hoover Institution Archives Timeline at PBS

News coverage

" Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
from The Washington Post Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
at CNN " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
collected news and commentary". The Guardian. 

Essays and historiographies

Essays on Ronald Reagan, each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs The Presidents: Reagan, an American Experience
American Experience
documentary

Other

Works by or about Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
at Internet Archive Works by Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
on IMDb Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
at the TCM Movie Database Finding aid author: Elisa Visick. " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
radio programs". Prepared for the L. Tom Perry Special
Special
Collections, Provo, UT. Retrieved May 16, 2016. Ronald Reagan's Personal Manuscripts

Offices and distinctions

Non-profit organization positions

Preceded by Robert Montgomery President of the Screen Actors Guild 1947–1952 Succeeded by Walter Pidgeon

Preceded by Howard Keel President of the Screen Actors Guild 1959–1960 Succeeded by George Chandler

Party political offices

Preceded by Richard Nixon Republican nominee for Governor of California 1966, 1970 Succeeded by Houston
Houston
I. Flournoy

Preceded by John Chafee Chair of the Republican Governors Association 1968–1970 Succeeded by Louie B. Nunn

Preceded by Gerald Ford Republican nominee for President of the United States 1980, 1984 Succeeded by George H. W. Bush

Political offices

Preceded by Pat Brown Governor of California 1967–1975 Succeeded by Jerry Brown

Preceded by Jimmy Carter 40th President of the United States 1981–1989 Succeeded by George H. W. Bush

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by François Mitterrand Chair of the Group of Seven 1983 Succeeded by Margaret Thatcher

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Ruhollah Khomeini Time Person of the Year 1980 Succeeded by Lech Wałęsa

Preceded by The Computer Time Person of the Year 1983 With: Yuri Andropov Succeeded by Peter Ueberroth

Honorary titles

Preceded by Richard Nixon Oldest living President of the United States 1981–2004 Succeeded by Gerald Ford

Preceded by John Gibson Persons who have lain in state or honor in the United States
United States
Capitol rotunda 2004 Succeeded by Rosa Parks

Preceded by Jacob Chestnut

v t e

Ronald Reagan

40th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1981–1989) 33rd Governor of California
Governor of California
(1967–1975)

Life and politics

Birthplace Pitney Store Boyhood home Rancho del Cielo Filmography Presidential Library Death and state funeral Political positions Governship of California Namesakes and memorials Reagan Era

Presidency

First inauguration Second inauguration Domestic policy Economic policy Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 Tax Reform Act of 1986 Assassination attempt Strategic Defense Initiative Foreign policy Reagan Doctrine Cold War

1st term 2nd term

1985 Geneva Summit 1986 Reykjavík Summit

INF Treaty

1987 Washington Summit 1988 Moscow Summit Invasion of Grenada Iran–Contra affair International trips The Grace Commission Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Supreme Court controversies

Administration scandals "We begin bombing in five minutes"

Speeches

Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine "A Time for Choosing" Reagan's Neshoba County Fair "states' rights" speech First inaugural address Second inaugural address "Ash heap of history" "Evil empire" "Tear down this wall!" State of the Union: 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

Books

Where's the Rest of Me? (1965 autobiography with Richard G. Hubler) An American Life
An American Life
(1990 autobiography with Robert Lindsey) The Reagan Diaries
The Reagan Diaries
(2007, edited by Douglas Brinkley)

Elections

California
California
gubernatorial election, 1966 1970 Republican Party presidential primaries, 1968 1976 1980 1984 Republican National Convention
Republican National Convention
1968 1976 1980 1984 Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
presidential campaign, 1980

"There you go again" "Make America Great Again"

United States
United States
presidential election, 1976 1980 1984

"Morning in America" "Bear in the woods"

Popular culture

In fiction In music U.S. Postage stamps The Day Reagan Was Shot
The Day Reagan Was Shot
(2001 film) The Reagans
The Reagans
(2003 film) Reagan (2011 documentary) The Butler (2013 film) Killing Reagan (2016 film) "What would Reagan do?"

Family

Jack Reagan
Jack Reagan
(father) Nelle Wilson Reagan
Nelle Wilson Reagan
(mother) Neil Reagan
Neil Reagan
(brother) Jane Wyman
Jane Wyman
(first wife) Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
(second wife) Maureen Reagan
Maureen Reagan
(daughter) Michael Reagan
Michael Reagan
(adopted son) Patti Davis
Patti Davis
(daughter) Ron Reagan
Ron Reagan
(son) Rex (dog)

← Jimmy Carter George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush

Book Category

Articles related to Ronald Reagan

v t e

Presidents of the United States
United States
(list)

George Washington
George Washington
(1789–1797) John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1801–1809) James Madison
James Madison
(1809–1817) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1817–1825) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1825–1829) Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(1829–1837) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1837–1841) William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
(1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841–1845) James K. Polk
James K. Polk
(1845–1849) Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
(1849–1850) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1850–1853) Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
(1853–1857) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1857–1861) Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865–1869) Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869–1877) Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877–1881) James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
(1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881–1885) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1885–1889) Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
(1889–1893) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1893–1897) William McKinley
William McKinley
(1897–1901) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901–1909) William H. Taft (1909–1913) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1913–1921) Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1923–1929) Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953–1961) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963–1969) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1969–1974) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1974–1977) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1977–1981) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1989–1993) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–2009) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2017–present)

Presidency timelines

Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. D. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. B. Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan G. H. W. Bush Clinton G. W. Bush Obama Trump

Book Category

v t e

Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–89)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981–82) George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz
(1982–89)

Secretary of the Treasury

Donald T. Regan (1981–85) James A. Baker (1985–88) Nicholas F. Brady
Nicholas F. Brady
(1988–89)

Secretary of Defense

Caspar W. Weinberger (1981–87) Frank C. Carlucci (1987–89)

Attorney General

William French Smith
William French Smith
(1981–85) Edwin Meese
Edwin Meese
(1985–88) Richard L. Thornburgh (1988–89)

Secretary of the Interior

James G. Watt
James G. Watt
(1981–83) William P. Clark (1983–85) Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel
(1985–89)

Secretary of Agriculture

John R. Block (1981–86) Richard E. Lyng (1986–89)

Secretary of Commerce

Malcolm Baldrige (1981–87) C. William Verity (1987–89)

Secretary of Labor

Raymond J. Donovan
Raymond J. Donovan
(1981–85) William E. Brock III (1985–87) Ann Dore McLaughlin (1987–89)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Richard S. Schweiker (1981–83) Margaret M. Heckler (1983–85) Otis Bowen
Otis Bowen
(1985–89)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Samuel R. Pierce (1981–89)

Secretary of Transportation

Drew Lewis (1981–83) Elizabeth H. Dole (1983–87) James H. Burnley IV
James H. Burnley IV
(1987–89)

Secretary of Energy

James B. Edwards
James B. Edwards
(1981–83) Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel
(1983–85) John S. Herrington
John S. Herrington
(1985–89)

Secretary of Education

Terrel H. Bell (1981–85) William J. Bennett (1985–88) Lauro F. Cavazos (1988–89)

Cabinet-level

Vice President

George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1981–89)

White House
White House
Chief of Staff

James A. Baker (1981–85) Donald T. Regan (1985–87) Howard H. Baker Jr. (1987–88) Kenneth M. Duberstein (1988–89)

Director of the Office of Management and Budget

David Stockman
David Stockman
(1981–85) James C. Miller III
James C. Miller III
(1985–88) Joseph R. Wright Jr. (1988–89)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Anne M. Gorsuch (1981–83) William D. Ruckelshaus (1983–85) Lee M. Thomas
Lee M. Thomas
(1985–89)

Director of Central Intelligence

William J. Casey
William J. Casey
(1981–87) William H. Webster
William H. Webster
(1987–89)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
(1981–85) Vernon A. Walters
Vernon A. Walters
(1985–89)

Trade Representative

William E. Brock III (1981–85) Clayton K. Yeutter (1985–89)

Chairperson of the Council of Economic Advisers

Murray L. Weidenbaum (1981–82) Martin S. Feldstein (1982–84) Beryl W. Sprinkel (1985–89)

v t e

United States
United States
Republican Party

Chairpersons of the RNC

Morgan Raymond Ward Claflin Morgan Chandler Cameron Jewell Sabin Jones Quay Clarkson Carter Hanna Payne Cortelyou New Hitchcock Hill Rosewater Hilles Wilcox Hays Adams Butler Work Huston Fess Sanders Fletcher Hamilton Martin Walsh Spangler Brownell Reece Scott Gabrielson Summerfield Roberts Hall Alcorn T. B. Morton Miller Burch Bliss R. Morton Dole Bush Smith Brock Richards Laxalt/Fahrenkopf Reagan/Fahrenkopf Atwater Yeutter Bond Barbour Nicholson Gilmore Racicot Gillespie Mehlman Martínez Duncan Steele Priebus Romney McDaniel

Presidential tickets

Frémont/Dayton Lincoln/Hamlin Lincoln/Johnson Grant/Colfax Grant/Wilson Hayes/Wheeler Garfield/Arthur Blaine/Logan Harrison/Morton Harrison/Reid McKinley/Hobart McKinley/Roosevelt Roosevelt/Fairbanks Taft/Sherman Taft/Sherman/Butler Hughes/Fairbanks Harding/Coolidge Coolidge/Dawes Hoover/Curtis (twice) Landon/Knox Willkie/McNary Dewey/Bricker Dewey/Warren Eisenhower/Nixon (twice) Nixon/Lodge Goldwater/Miller Nixon/Agnew (twice) Ford/Dole Reagan/G. H. W. Bush (twice) G. H. W. Bush/Quayle (twice) Dole/Kemp G. W. Bush/Cheney (twice) McCain/Palin Romney/Ryan Trump/Pence

Parties by state and territory

State

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Territory

American Samoa District of Columbia Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands

Conventions (list)

1856 (Philadelphia) 1860 (Chicago) 1864 (Baltimore) 1868 (Chicago) 1872 (Philadelphia) 1876 (Cincinnati) 1880 (Chicago) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Chicago) 1892 (Minneapolis) 1896 (Saint Louis) 1900 (Philadelphia) 1904 (Chicago) 1908 (Chicago) 1912 (Chicago) 1916 (Chicago) 1920 (Chicago) 1924 (Cleveland) 1928 (Kansas City) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Cleveland) 1940 (Philadelphia) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (San Francisco) 1960 (Chicago) 1964 (San Francisco) 1968 (Miami Beach) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (Kansas City) 1980 (Detroit) 1984 (Dallas) 1988 (New Orleans) 1992 (Houston) 1996 (San Diego) 2000 (Philadelphia) 2004 (New York) 2008 (St. Paul) 2012 (Tampa) 2016 (Cleveland)

Affiliated organizations

Fundraising groups

National Republican Congressional Committee National Republican Senatorial Committee Republican Conference of the United States
United States
House of Representatives Republican Conference of the United States
United States
Senate Republican Governors Association

Sectional groups

College Republicans

Chairmen

Congressional Hispanic Conference International Democrat Union Log Cabin Republicans Republican Jewish Coalition Republican National Hispanic Assembly Republicans Abroad Teen Age Republicans Young Republicans

Factional groups

Republican Main Street Partnership Republican Majority for Choice Republican Liberty Caucus Republican National Coalition for Life Republican Study Committee ConservAmerica Liberty Caucus Freedom Caucus Ripon Society The Wish List

Related articles

History Primaries Debates 2009 chairmanship election 2011 chairmanship election 2013 chairmanship election 2015 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election Bibliography Timeline of modern American conservatism

Republican Party portal

v t e

Governors of California

Colony (1769–1822)

Capt. Portolà Col. Fages Capt. Rivera Capt-Gen. de Neve Col. Fages Capt. Roméu Capt. Arrillaga Col. Bórica Lt. Col. Alberní Capt. Arrillaga Capt. J. Argüello Don Solá

Territory (1822–36)

Capt. L. Argüello Lt. Col. Echeandía Gen. Victoria Don P. Pico Lt. Col. Echeandía Brig. Gen. Figueroa Lt. Col. Castro Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Col. Chico Lt. Col. Gutiérrez

Sovereignty (1836–46)

Pres. Castro Pres. Alvarado · Uncle Carrillo (rival) Brig. Gen. Micheltorena Don P. Pico

Republic (1846–50)

Cdre. Sloat Cdre. Stockton · Gen. Flores (rival) Gen. Kearny · Maj. Frémont (mutineer) Gen. Mason Gen. Smith Gen. Riley Burnett (from 1849)

U.S. State (since 1850)

Burnett McDougal Bigler J. Johnson Weller Latham Downey Stanford Low Haight Booth Pacheco Irwin Perkins Stoneman Bartlett Waterman Markham Budd Gage Pardee Gillett H. Johnson Stephens Richardson Young Rolph Merriam Olson Warren Knight P. Brown Reagan J. Brown Deukmejian Wilson Davis Schwarzenegger J. Brown

Before 1850 After 1850 After 1850 by age

v t e

(1964 ←)    United States
United States
presidential election, 1968    (→ 1972)

United States
United States
elections, 1968

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Richard Nixon

campaign

VP nominee

Spiro Agnew

Candidates

Frank Carlson Clifford P. Case Hiram Fong John Lindsay Ronald Reagan Jim Rhodes Nelson Rockefeller Winthrop Rockefeller George W. Romney

campaign

Harold Stassen John Volpe

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Protests

Nominee

Hubert Humphrey

campaign

VP nominee

Edmund Muskie

Candidates

Roger D. Branigin John G. Crommelin Paul C. Fisher Lyndon B. Johnson Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(campaign) Thomas C. Lynch Eugene McCarthy (campaign) George McGovern Dan K. Moore Channing E. Phillips George Smathers Stephen M. Young

American Independent Party

Nominee

George Wallace

campaign

VP nominee

Curtis LeMay

Other third party and independent candidates

Communist Party

Nominee

Charlene Mitchell

VP nominee

Michael Zagarell

Peace and Freedom Party

Nominee

Eldridge Cleaver

VP nominee

Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd

Prohibition Party

Nominee

E. Harold Munn

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Henning A. Blomen

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Fred Halstead

VP nominee

Paul Boutelle

Independents and other candidates

Dick Gregory Pat Paulsen Pigasus

Other 1968 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1972 ←) United States presidential election, 1976
United States presidential election, 1976
(→ 1980)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Jimmy Carter

VP nominee

Walter Mondale

Candidates

Birch Bayh Lloyd Bentsen Jerry Brown Robert Byrd Hugh Carey Frank Church Fred R. Harris Hubert Humphrey Henry M. Jackson Leon Jaworski Barbara Jordan Eugene McCarthy Ellen McCormack Walter Mondale Jennings Randolph Terry Sanford Milton Shapp

campaign

Sargent Shriver Adlai Stevenson III Mo Udall George Wallace

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Gerald Ford

VP nominee

Bob Dole

Candidates

James L. Buckley Ronald Reagan Harold Stassen

Third party and independent candidates

American Party

Nominee

Thomas J. Anderson

American Independent Party

Nominee

Lester Maddox

Communist Party

Nominee

Gus Hall

VP nominee

Jarvis Tyner

Libertarian Party

Nominee

Roger MacBride

VP nominee

David Bergland

People's Party

Nominee

Margaret Wright

VP nominee

Benjamin Spock

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Ben Bubar

VP nominee

Earl Dodge

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Peter Camejo

VP nominee

Willie Mae Reid

U.S. Labor Party

Nominee

Lyndon LaRouche

Other 1976 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1976 ←) United States presidential election, 1980
United States presidential election, 1980
(→ 1984)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Ronald Reagan

VP nominee George H. W. Bush

Candidates John B. Anderson Howard Baker George H. W. Bush John Connally Phil Crane Bob Dole Ben Fernandez Harold Stassen

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Jimmy Carter

VP nominee Walter Mondale

Candidates Jerry Brown Ted Kennedy Ron Dellums

Independent

Candidate John B. Anderson

VP candidate Patrick Lucey

Other independent and third party candidates

Citizens Party

Nominee Barry Commoner

VP nominee LaDonna Harris

Libertarian Party

Nominee Ed Clark

VP nominee David Koch

Prohibition Party

Nominee Ben Bubar

VP nominee Earl Dodge

Socialist Party

Nominee David McReynolds

VP nominee Diane Drufenbrock

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Andrew Pulley Alternate nominees Richard Congress Clifton DeBerry

Workers World Party

Nominee Deirdre Griswold

VP nominee Gavrielle Holmes

Independents and other candidates

Lyndon LaRouche Maureen Smith Running mate Elizabeth Cervantes Barron Warren Spannaus

Other 1980 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1980 ←) United States presidential election, 1984
United States presidential election, 1984
(→ 1988)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Ronald Reagan

VP nominee George H. W. Bush

Candidates Ben Fernandez Harold Stassen

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Walter Mondale

VP nominee Geraldine Ferraro

Candidates Reubin Askew Alan Cranston John Glenn Gary Hart Fritz Hollings Jesse Jackson George McGovern

Third party and independent candidates

Citizens Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Communist Party

Nominee Gus Hall

VP nominee Angela Davis

Libertarian Party

Nominee David Bergland

VP nominee Jim Lewis

Candidates Gene Burns Earl Ravenal Mary Ruwart

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Edward Winn

VP nominee Helen Halyard

Socialist Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Melvin T. Mason

VP nominee Matilde Zimmermann

Workers World Party

Nominee Larry Holmes Alternate nominee Gavrielle Holmes

VP nominee Gloria La Riva

Independents and other candidates

Charles Doty Larry Flynt Larry "Bozo" Harmon Lyndon LaRouche Running mate Billy Davis

Other 1984 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

Revolutions of 1989

Internal background

Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies

International background

Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia

Reforms

Uskoreniye Perestroika

Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine

Glasnost Socialism
Socialism
with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới

Government leaders

Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker János Kádár Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre

Opposition methods

Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action

Opposition leaders

Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II

Opposition movements

Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces

Events by location

Central and Eastern Europe

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia

Soviet Union

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

Elsewhere

Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen

Individual events

1988 Polish strikes April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1987–89 Tibetan unrest Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Malta Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events

Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
/ Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Award winners

1967: Eisenhower 1968: Saltonstall 1969: White 1970: Hovde 1971: Kraft Jr. 1972: Holland 1973: Bradley 1974: Owens 1975: Ford 1976: Hamilton 1977: Bradley 1978: Zornow 1979: Chandler 1980: Cooley 1981: Linkletter 1982: Cosby 1983: Palmer 1984: Lawrence 1985: Fleming 1986: Bush 1987: Zable 1988: Not presented 1989: Ebert 1990: Reagan 1991: Gibson 1992: Kemp 1993: Alexander 1994: Johnson 1995: Mathias 1996: Wooden 1997: Payne 1998: Dole 1999: Richardson 2000: Staubach 2001: Cohen 2002: Shriver 2003: de Varona 2004: Page 2005: Ride 2006: Kraft 2007: Tagliabue 2008: Glenn 2009: Albright 2010: Mitchell 2011: Dunwoody 2012: Allen 2013: Dungy 2014: Mills 2015: Jackson 2016: Ueberroth 2017: Brooke-Marciniak

v t e

National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
& Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno
Joe Paterno
& Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins
Pete Dawkins
& Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight
Phil Knight
& Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby 2011: Robert Gates 2012: Roscoe Brown 2013: National Football League
National Football League
& Roger Goodell 2014: Tom Catena
Tom Catena
& George Weiss 2015: Condoleezza Rice 2016: Archie Manning

v t e

Presidents of the Screen Actors Guild

Ralph Morgan
Ralph Morgan
(1933) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1933) Robert Montgomery (1935) Ralph Morgan
Ralph Morgan
(1938) Edward Arnold (1940) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1942) George Murphy
George Murphy
(1944) Robert Montgomery (1946) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1947) Walter Pidgeon
Walter Pidgeon
(1952) Leon Ames
Leon Ames
(1957) Howard Keel
Howard Keel
(1958) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1959) George Chandler
George Chandler
(1960) Dana Andrews
Dana Andrews
(1963) Charlton Heston
Charlton Heston
(1965) John Gavin
John Gavin
(1971) Dennis Weaver
Dennis Weaver
(1973) Kathleen Nolan
Kathleen Nolan
(1975) William Schallert
William Schallert
(1979) Edward Asner (1981) Patty Duke
Patty Duke
(1985) Barry Gordon (1988) Richard Masur
Richard Masur
(1995) William Daniels
William Daniels
(1999) Melissa Gilbert
Melissa Gilbert
(2001) Alan Rosenberg
Alan Rosenberg
(2005) Ken Howard
Ken Howard
(2009) Gabrielle Carteris (2016)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 76321889 LCCN: n79059562 ISNI: 0000 0001 2140 0474 GND: 118598724 SELIBR: 237204 SUDOC: 027091775 BNF: cb11921304q (data) MusicBrainz: f7d8abe8-c693-4514-92e1-7d62275d3a51 NLA: 36591309 NDL: 00453805 NKC: jn19990006873 BNE: XX1025

.