A vast number[vague] of ancient Roman deities are known by name. The
most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek
counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths,
iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture,
including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was
experienced throughout the Empire. Many of the Romans' own gods remain
obscure, known only by name and function, through inscriptions and
texts that are often fragmentary. This is particularly of those gods
belonging to the archaic religion of the Romans dating back to the era
of kings, the so-called "religion of Numa," which was perpetuated or
revived over the centuries. Some archaic deities have Italic or
Etruscan counterparts, as identified both by ancient sources and by
modern scholars. Throughout the Empire, the deities of peoples in the
provinces were given new theological interpretations in light of
functions or attributes they shared with Roman deities.
An extensive alphabetical list follows a survey of theological groups
as constructed by the Romans themselves. For the cult pertaining to
deified Roman emperors (divi), see Imperial cult.
Roman god lists
The so-called "
Venus in a bikini", from the house of Julia Felix,
Pompeii, Italy actually depicts her Greek counterpart
Aphrodite as she
is about to untie her sandal, with a small
Eros squatting beneath her
left arm, 1st-century AD 
Archaic Triad: Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus.
Capitoline Triad: Jupiter, Juno, Minerva
Plebeian or Aventine Triad: Ceres, Liber, Libera, dating to 493 BC.
Groupings of twelve
Lectisternium of 217 BC
A lectisternium is a banquet for the gods, at which they appear as
images seated on couches, as if present and participating. In
describing the lectisternium of the Twelve Great gods in 217 BC, the
Livy places the deities in gender-balanced
Divine male-female complements such as these, as well as the
anthropomorphic influence of Greek mythology, contributed to a
Latin literature to represent the gods as "married"
couples or (as in the case of
Venus and Mars) lovers.
Di Consentes on an altar
Varro uses the name
Dii Consentes for twelve deities whose gilded
images stood in the forum. These were also placed in six male-female
pairs. Although individual names are not listed, they are assumed
to be the deities of the lectisternium. A fragment from Ennius, within
whose lifetime the lectisternium occurred, lists the same twelve
deities by name, though in a different order from that of Livy: Juno,
Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercurius, Jove, Neptunus,
Dii Consentes are sometimes seen as the Roman equivalent of the
Greek Olympians. The meaning of Consentes is subject to
interpretation, but is usually taken to mean that they form a council
or consensus of deities.
The three Roman deities cultivated by major flamens
Twelve Roman deities attended by the minor flamens
One other deity who is not known.
Varro gives a list of twenty-one principal gods of Roman religion:
Livia, wife of Augustus, dressed as the goddess Ops
Varro, who was himself of
Sabine origin, gives a list of
who were adopted by the Romans:
Varro claims Sol Indiges, who had a sacred grove at
Sabine but at the same time equates him with Apollo.
Of those listed, he writes, "several names have their roots in both
languages, as trees that grow on a property line creep into both
fields. Saturn, for instance, can be said to have another origin here,
and so too Diana."
Varro makes various claims for
throughout his works, some more plausible than others, and his list
should not be taken at face value. But the importance of the
Sabines in the early cultural formation of Rome is evidenced, for
instance, by the bride abduction of the
Sabine women by Romulus's men,
and in the
Sabine ethnicity of Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, to
whom are attributed many of Rome's religious and legal
institutions. Varro, however, says that the altars to most of
these gods were established at Rome by King Tatius as the result of a
Even in invocations, which generally required precise naming, the
Romans sometimes spoke of gods as groups or collectives rather than
naming them as individuals. Some groups, such as the
Parcae, were thought of as a limited number of individual deities,
even though the number of these might not be given consistently in all
periods and all texts. The following groups, however, are numberless
Varro grouped the gods broadly into three divisions of heaven, earth,
di superi, the gods above or heavenly gods, whose altars were
designated as altaria.
di terrestres, "terrestrial gods," whose altars were designated as
di inferi, the gods below, that is, the gods of the underworld,
infernal or chthonic gods, whose altars were foci, fire pits or
specially constructed hearths.
More common is a dualistic contrast between superi and inferi.
Di indigetes and novensiles
The di indigetes were thought by
Georg Wissowa to be Rome's indigenous
deities, in contrast to the di novensides or novensiles, "newcomer
gods". No ancient source, however, poses this dichotomy, which is not
generally accepted among scholars of the 21st century. The meaning of
the epithet indiges (singular) has no scholarly consensus, and noven
may mean "nine" (novem) rather than "new".
Titles and honorifics
Certain honorifics and titles could be shared by different gods,
divine personifications, demi-gods and divi (deified mortals).
Augustus and Augusta
Augustus, "the elevated or august one" (masculine form) is an
honorific and title awarded to
Octavian in recognition of his unique
status, the extraordinary range of his powers, and the apparent divine
approval of his principate. After his death and deification, the title
was awarded to each of his successors. It also became a near
ubiquitous title or honour for various minor local deities, including
Lares Augusti of local communities, and obscure provincial deities
such as the North African Marazgu Augustus. This extension of an
Imperial honorific to major and minor deities of Rome and her
provinces is considered a ground-level feature of Imperial cult.
Augusta, the feminine form, is an honorific and title associated with
the development and dissemination of Imperial cult as applied to Roman
Empresses, whether living, deceased or deified as divae. The first
Augusta was Livia, wife of Octavian, and the title is then shared by
various state goddesses including Bona Dea, Ceres, Juno, Minerva, and
Ops; by many minor or local goddesses; and by the female
personifications of Imperial virtues such as Pax and Victoria.
Bonus and Bona
The epithet Bonus, "the Good," is used in Imperial ideology with
abstract deities such as Bona
Fortuna ("Good Fortune"), Bona Mens
("Good Thinking" or "Sound Mind"), and Bona
Spes ("Valid Hope,"
perhaps to be translated as "Optimism"). During the Republic, the
epithet may be most prominent with Bona Dea, "the Good Goddess" whose
rites were celebrated by women. Bonus Eventus, "Good Outcome", was one
of Varro's twelve agricultural deities, and later represented success
Isis in black and white marble, from the time of Apuleius
From the middle Imperial period, the title Caelestis, "Heavenly" or
"Celestial" is attached to several goddesses embodying aspects of a
single, supreme Heavenly Goddess. The Dea Caelestis was identified
with the constellation Virgo ("The Virgin"), who holds the divine
balance of justice. In the Metamorphoses of Apuleius, the
protagonist Lucius prays to the Hellenistic Egyptian goddess
Regina Caeli, "Queen of Heaven", who is said to manifest also as
Ceres, "the original nurturing parent"; Heavenly
Caelestis); the "sister of Phoebus", that is, Diana or
Artemis as she
is worshipped at Ephesus; or
Proserpina as the triple goddess of the
underworld. Juno Caelestis was the Romanised form of the Carthaginian
Grammatically, the form Caelestis can also be a masculine word, but
the equivalent function for a male deity is usually expressed through
syncretization with Caelus, as in
Caelus Aeternus Iuppiter, "Jupiter
the Eternal Sky."
Dedication made to the Deus Invictus by a
Roman legionary in Brigetio,
Invictus ("Unconquered, Invincible") was in use as a divine epithet by
the early 3rd century BC. In the Imperial period, it expressed the
invincibility of deities embraced officially, such as Jupiter, Mars,
Hercules, and Sol. On coins, calendars, and other inscriptions,
Mercury, Saturn, Silvanus, Fons, Serapis, Sabazius, Apollo, and the
Genius are also found as Invictus. Cicero considers it a normal
epithet for Jupiter, in regard to whom it is probably a synonym for
Omnipotens. It is also used in the Mithraic mysteries.
Mater and Pater
Mater ("Mother") was an honorific that respected a goddess's maternal
authority and functions, and not necessarily "motherhood" per se.
Early examples included
Terra Mater (Mother Earth) and the Mater Larum
(Mother of the Lares). Vesta, a goddess of chastity usually conceived
of as a virgin, was honored as Mater. A goddess known as Stata Mater
was a compital deity credited with preventing fires in the city.
From the middle Imperial era, the reigning Empress becomes Mater
castrorum et senatus et patriae, the symbolic Mother of military
camps, the senate, and the fatherland. The Gallic and Germanic cavalry
(auxilia) of the Roman Imperial army regularly set up altars to the
"Mothers of the Field" (Campestres, from campus, "field," with the
title Matres or Matronae). See also Magna Mater (Great Mother)
Gods were called Pater ("Father") to signify their preeminence and
paternal care, and the filial respect owed to them. Pater was found as
an epithet of Dis, Jupiter, Mars, and Liber, among others.
"The Great Mother" was a title given to
Cybele in her Roman cult. Some
Roman literary sources accord the same title to Maia and other
Main article: Indigitamenta
The indigitamenta are deities known only or primarily as a name; they
may be minor entities, or epithets of major gods. Lists of deities
were kept by the
College of Pontiffs
College of Pontiffs to assure that the correct names
were invoked for public prayers. The books of the Pontiffs are lost,
known only through scattered passages in Latin literature. The most
extensive lists are provided by the
Church Fathers who sought
systematically to debunk Roman religion while drawing on the
theological works of Varro, also surviving only in quoted or
referenced fragments. W.H. Roscher collated the standard modern list
of indigitamenta, though other scholars may differ with him on
For minor deities known for a single function or by a single name,
List of Roman birth and childhood deities
List of Roman agricultural deities
A number of figures from
Greek mythology who were not part of Roman
religious practice appear in Latin mythological narratives and as
poetic allusions; for these names, see:
List of Greek mythological figures
Apollo on a mosaic from Roman Africa
Abundantia, divine personification of abundance and prosperity.
Acca Larentia, a diva of complex meaning and origin in whose honor the
Larentalia was held .
Acis, god of the Acis River in Sicily.
Aerecura, goddess possibly of Celtic origin, associated with the
underworld and identified with Proserpina.
Aequitas, divine personification of fairness.
Aesculapius, the Roman equivalent of Asclepius, god of health and
Aeternitas, goddess and personification of eternity.
Aion (Latin spelling Aeon), Hellenistic god of cyclical or unbounded
time, related to the concepts of aevum or saeculum
Aius Locutius, divine voice that warned the Romans of the imminent
Alernus or Elernus (possibly Helernus), an archaic god whose sacred
grove (lucus) was near the
Tiber river. He is named definitively only
by Ovid. The grove was the birthplace of the nymph Cranea, and
despite the obscurity of the god, the state priests still carried out
sacred rites (sacra) there in the time of Augustus.
have been a chthonic god, if a black ox was the correct sacrificial
offering to him, since dark victims were offered to underworld
Dumézil wanted to make him a god of beans.
Angerona, goddess who relieved people from pain and sorrow.
Angitia, goddess associated with snakes and Medea.
Anna Perenna, early goddess of the "circle of the year", her festival
was celebrated March 15.
Annona, the divine personification of the grain supply to the city of
Antevorta, goddess of the future and one of the Camenae; also called
Apollo, god of poetry, music, and oracles, and one of the Dii
Arimanius, an obscure Mithraic god.
Aura, often plural Aurae, "the Breezes".
Aurora, goddess of the dawn.
Averruncus, a god propitiated to avert calamity.
Bacchus from Roman Spain, 2nd century
Bacchus, god of wine, sensual pleasures, and truth, originally a cult
title for the Greek
Dionysus and identified with the Roman Liber.
Bellona or Duellona, war goddess.
Bona Dea, the "women's goddess" with functions pertaining to
fertility, healing, and chastity.
Bonus Eventus, divine personification of "Good Outcome".
Bubona, goddess of cattle.
Caca, an archaic fire goddess and "proto-Vesta"; the sister of
Cacus, originally an ancient god of fire, later regarded as a giant.
Caelus, god of the sky before Jupiter.
Camenae, goddesses with various attributes including fresh water,
prophecy, and childbirth. There were four of them: Carmenta, Egeria,
Antevorta, and Postvorta.
Cardea, goddess of the hinge (cardo), identified by
Ovid with Carna
Carmenta, goddess of childbirth and prophecy, and assigned a flamen
minor. The leader of the Camenae.
Carmentes, two goddesses of childbirth:
Antevorta and Postvorta or
Porrima, future and past.
Carna, goddess who preserved the health of the heart and other
Ceres, goddess of the harvest and mother of Proserpina, and one of the
Dii Consentes.The Roman equivalent of Demeter [Greek goddess].
Clementia, goddess of forgiveness and mercy.
Cloacina, goddess who presided over the system of sewers in Rome;
identified with Venus.
Concordia, goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony.
Consus, chthonic god protecting grain storage.
Cupid, Roman god of love. The son of Venus, and equivalent to Greek
Cura, personification of care and concern who according to a single
source created humans from clay.
Cybele, an imported tutelary goddess often identified with Magna Mater
Dea Dia, goddess of growth.
Dea Tacita ("The Silent Goddess"), a goddess of the dead; later
equated with the earth goddess Larenta.
Decima, minor goddess and one of the
Parcae (Roman equivalent of the
Moirai). The measurer of the thread of life, her Greek equivalent was
Diana Nemorensis on a denarius
Devera or Deverra, goddess who ruled over the brooms used to purify
temples in preparation for various worship services, sacrifices and
celebrations; she protected midwives and women in labor.
Diana, goddess of the hunt, the moon, virginity, and childbirth, twin
Apollo and one of the Dii Consentes.
Diana Nemorensis, local version of Diana. The Roman equivalent of
Artemis [Greek goddess]
Discordia, personification of discord and strife. The Roman equivalent
of Eris [Greek goddess]
Dius Fidius, god of oaths, associated with Jupiter.
Di inferi, deities associated with death and the underworld.
Disciplina, personification of discipline.
Dis Pater or Dispater, god of wealth and the underworld; perhaps a
translation of Greek Plouton (Pluto).
Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona
Egeria, water nymph or goddess, later considered one the Camenae.
Empanda or Panda, a goddess whose temple never closed to those in
Gallo-Roman goddess of horses and horsemanship, usually assumed
to be of Celtic origin.
Edesia, Roman Goddess of food who presides over banquets.
Falacer, obscure god. He was assigned a minor flamen.
Fama, goddess of fame and rumor.
Fascinus, phallic god who protected from invidia (envy) and the evil
Fauna, goddess of prophecy, but perhaps a title of other goddesses
such as Maia.
Faunus, god of flocks.
Faustitas, goddess who protected herd and livestock.
Februus, god of Etruscan origin for whom the month of February was
named; concerned with purification
Febris, "Fever," goddess with the power to cause or prevent fevers and
Fecunditas, personification of fertility.
Felicitas, personification of good luck and success.
Ferentina, patron goddess of the city Ferentinum, Latium, protector of
the Latin commonwealth.
Feronia, goddess concerned with wilderness, plebeians, freedmen, and
liberty in a general sense.
Fides, personification of loyalty.
Flora, goddess of flowers, was assigned a flamen minor.
Fornax, goddess probably conceived of to explain the Fornacalia, "Oven
Fontus or Fons, god of wells and springs.
Fortuna, goddess of fortune.
Fufluns, god of wine, natural growth and health. He was adopted from
Fulgora, personification of lightning.
Furrina, goddess whose functions are mostly unknown, but in archaic
times important enough to be assigned a flamen.
Genius, the tutelary spirit or divinity of each individual
Gratiae, Roman term for the
Charites or Graces.
Roman statue of the infant
Hercules strangling a snake
Hercules, god of strength, whose worship was derived from the Greek
Heracles but took on a distinctly Roman character.
Hermaphroditus, an androgynous Greek god whose mythology was imported
into Latin literature.
Honos, a divine personification of honor.
Hora, the wife of Quirinus.
Indiges, the deified Aeneas.
Intercidona, minor goddess of childbirth; invoked to keep evil spirits
away from the child; symbolised by a cleaver.
Inuus, god of fertility and sexual intercourse, protector of
Invidia, goddess of envy and wrongdoing.
A janiform sculpture, perhaps of Janus
Punishment of Ixion: in the center is Mercury holding the caduceus and
on the right Juno sits on her throne. Behind her Iris stands and
gestures. On the left is Vulcan (blond figure) standing behind the
wheel, manning it, with
Ixion already tied to it.
Nephele sits at
Mercury's feet; a Roman fresco from the eastern wall of the triclinium
in the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Fourth Style (60-79 AD).
Janus, double-faced or two-headed god of beginnings and endings and of
Juno, Queen of the gods, goddess of matrimony, and one of the Dii
Consentes. Equivalent to Greek Hera.
Jupiter, King of the gods, god of storms, lightning, sky, and one of
the Dii Consentes; was assigned a flamen maior. Equivalent to Greek
Justitia, goddess of justice.
Juturna, goddess of fountains, wells, and springs.
Juventas, goddess of youth.
Lares, household gods.
Laverna, patroness of thieves, con men and charlatans.
Latona, goddess of light.
Lemures, the malevolent dead.
Levana, goddess of the rite through which fathers accepted newborn
babies as their own.
Letum, personification of death.
Liber, a god of male fertility, viniculture and freedom, assimilated
Bacchus and Greek Dionysus.
Libera, Liber's female equivalent, assimilated to Roman
Liberalitas, goddess or personification of generosity.
Libertas, goddess or personification of freedom.
Libitina, goddess of death, corpses and funerals.
Lua, goddess to whom soldiers sacrificed captured weapons, probably a
consort of Saturn.
Lucifer, god of the morning star
Lucina, goddess of childbirth, but often as an aspect of Juno.
Luna, goddess of the moon.
Lupercus, god of shepherds and wolves; as the god of the Lupercalia,
his identity is obscure, but he is sometimes identified with the Greek
Lympha, often plural lymphae, a water deity assimilated to the Greek
Capitoline Triad of Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva
Mana Genita, goddess of infant mortality
Manes, the souls of the dead who came to be seen as household deities.
Mania, the consort of the Etruscan underworld god Mantus, and perhaps
to be identified with the tenebrous Mater Larum; not to be confused
with the Greek Maniae.
Mantus, an Etruscan god of the dead and ruler of the underworld.
Mars, god of war and father of Romulus, the founder of Rome; one of
Archaic Triad assigned a flamen maior; lover of Venus; one of the
Dii Consentes.Greek equivalent-Ares.
Mater Matuta, goddess of dawn and childbirth, patroness of mariners.
Meditrina, goddess of healing, introduced to account for the festival
Mefitis or Mephitis, goddess and personification of poisonous gases
and volcanic vapours.
Mellona or Mellonia, goddess of bees and bee-keeping.
Mena or Mene, goddess of fertility and menstruation.
Mercury, messenger of the gods and bearer of souls to the underworld,
and one of the Dii Consentes. Roman counterpart of the Greek god
Minerva, goddess of wisdom, war, the arts, industries and trades, and
one of the Dii Consentes. Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess
Mithras, god worshipped in the Roman empire; popular with soldiers.
Molae, daughters of Mars, probably goddesses of grinding of the grain.
Moneta, minor goddess of memory, equivalent to the Greek Mnemosyne.
Also used as an epithet of Juno.
Mors, personification of death and equivalent of the Greek Thanatos.
Morta, minor goddess of death and one of the
Parcae (Roman equivalent
of the Moirai). The cutter of the thread of life, her Greek equivalent
Murcia or Murtia, a little-known goddess who was associated with the
myrtle, and in other sources was called a goddess of sloth and
laziness (both interpretations arising from false etymologies of her
name). Later equated with
Venus in the form of
Mutunus Tutunus, a phallic god.
Neptune velificans on a 3rd-century mosaic
Naenia, goddess of funerary lament.
Nascio, personification of the act of birth.
Necessitas, goddess of destiny, the Roman equivalent of Ananke.
Nemesis, goddess of revenge (Greek).
Neptune, god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses, and one of the Dii
Consentes. Greek equivalent is Poseidon.
Nerio, ancient war goddess and the personification of valor. The
consort of Mars.
Neverita, presumed a goddess, and associated with
Consus and Neptune
in the Etrusco-Roman zodiac of
Martianus Capella but otherwise
Nixi, also di nixi, dii nixi, or Nixae, goddesses of childbirth,.
Nona, minor goddess, one of the
Parcae (Roman equivalent of the
Moirai). The spinner of the thread of life, her Greek equivalent was
Nortia a Roman-adopted Etruscan goddess of fate, destiny, and chance
from the city of Volsinii, where a nail was driven into a wall of her
temple as part a new-year ceremony.
Nox, goddess of night, derived from the Greek Nyx.
Ops or Opis, goddess of resources or plenty.
Orcus, a god of the underworld and punisher of broken oaths.
Palatua, obscure goddess who guarded the Palatine Hill. She was
assigned a flamen minor.
Pales, deity of shepherds, flocks and livestock.
Parcae, the three fates.
Pax, goddess of peace; equivalent of Greek Eirene.
Aeneas and the Penates, from a 4th-century manuscript
Penates or Di Penates, household gods.
Picumnus, minor god of fertility, agriculture, matrimony, infants and
Picus, Italic woodpecker god with oracular powers.
Pietas, goddess of duty; personification of the Roman virtue pietas.
Pilumnus, minor guardian god, concerned with the protection of infants
Pluto, Greek Plouton, a name for the ruler of the dead popularized
through the mystery religions and Greek philosophy, sometimes used in
Latin literature and identified with
Dis pater or Orcus.
Poena, goddess of punishment.
Pomona, goddess of fruit trees, gardens and orchards; assigned a
Porrima, goddess of the future. Also called Antevorta. One of the
Carmentes and the Camenae.
Portunus, god of keys, doors, and livestock, he was assigned a flamen
Postverta or Prorsa Postverta, goddess of childbirth and the past, one
of the two Carmentes (other being Porrima).
Priapus, imported phallic guardian of guardians.
Proserpina, Queen of the Dead and a grain-goddess, the Roman
equivalent of the Greek Persephone.
Providentia, goddess of forethought.
Pudicitia, goddess and personification of chastity, one of the Roman
virtues. Her Greek equivalent was Aidôs.
Querquetulanae, nymphs of the oak.
Sabine god identified with Mars; Romulus, the founder of
Rome, was deified as
Quirinus after his death.
Quirinus was a war god
and a god of the Roman people and state, and was assigned a flamen
maior; he was one of the
Archaic Triad gods.
Quiritis, goddess of motherhood. Originally
Sabine or pre-Roman, she
was later equated with Juno.
Robigo or Robigus, a god or goddess who personified grain disease and
Roma, personification of the Roman state.
Rumina, goddess who protected breastfeeding mothers.
Sol Invictus, or
Christ depicted in his guise. 3rd century AD
Salacia, goddess of seawater, wife of Neptune.
Salus, goddess of the public welfare of the Roman people; came to be
equated with the Greek Hygieia.
Sancus, god of loyalty, honesty, and oaths.
Saturn, a titan, god of harvest and agriculture, the father of
Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, and Pluto.
Securitas, goddess of security, especially the security of the Roman
Silvanus, god of woodlands and forests.
Sol Invictus, sun god.
Somnus, god of sleep; equates with the Greek Hypnos.
Soranus, a god later subsumed by
Apollo in the form
Sors, god of luck.
Spes, goddess of hope.
Stata Mater, goddess who protected against fires. Sometimes equated
Sterquilinus ("Manure"), god of fertilizer. Also known as Stercutus,
Sterculius, Straculius, Struculius.
Suadela, goddess of persuasion, her Greek equivalent was Peitho.
Summanus, god of nocturnal thunder.
Sulis Minerva, a conflation of the Celtic goddess Sul and Minerva
Tellumo or Tellurus, male counterpart of Tellus.
Tempestas, a goddess of storms or sudden weather, usually plural as
Terra Mater or Tellus, goddess of the earth and land. The Greek
equivalent is Gaea, mother of titans, consort of
Terminus, the rustic god of boundaries.
Tiberinus, river god; deity of the
Tibertus, god of the river Anio, a tributary of the Tiber.
Tranquillitas, goddess of peace and tranquility.
Trivia, goddess of crossroads and magic, equated with Hecate.
Ubertas, minor agricultural goddess, who personified fruitfulness of
soil and plants, and abundance in general.
Unxia, minor goddess of marriage, concerned with anointing the
bridegroom's door. The name occurs as a surname of Juno.
Venus, Mars, and
Cupid on a wall painting from Pompeii
Sabine goddess of rest after harvest who protected the
farmers' sheep; later identified with Nike and worshipped as a war
Vagitanus, or Vaticanus, opens the newborn's mouth for its first cry.
Vediovus or Veiovis, obscure god, a sort of anti-Jupiter, as the
meaning of his name suggests. May be a god of the underworld.
Venilia or Venelia, sea goddess, wife of
Neptune or Faunus.[citation
Venti, the winds, equivalent to the Greek Anemoi: North wind Aquilo(n)
or Septentrio (Greek Boreas); South wind Auster (Greek Notus); East
wind Vulturnus (Eurus); West wind Favonius (Zephyrus); Northwest wind
Caurus or Corus (see minor winds).
Venus, goddess of love, beauty, sexuality, and gardens; mother of the
founding hero Aeneas; one of the Dii Consentes.
Veritas, goddess and personification of the Roman virtue of veritas or
Verminus, god of cattle worms.
Vertumnus, Vortumnus or Vertimnus, god of the seasons, and of gardens
and fruit trees.
Vesta, goddess of the hearth, the Roman state, and the sacred fire;
one of the Dii Consentes.
Vica Pota, goddess of victory and competitions.
Victoria, goddess of victory.
Viduus, god who separated the soul and body after death.
Virbius, a forest god, the reborn Hippolytus.
Virtus, god or goddess of military strength, personification of the
Roman virtue of virtus.
Volturnus, god of water, was assigned a flamen minor. Not to be
confused with Vulturnus.
Voluptas, goddess of pleasure.
Vulcan, god of the forge, fire, and blacksmiths, husband to Venus, and
one of the Dii Consentes, was assigned a flamen minor.
List of Metamorphoses characters
Roman polytheistic reconstructionism
^ Robert Schilling, "Roman Gods," Roman and European Mythologies
(University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981),
pp. 75 online and 77 (note 49). Unless otherwise noted, citations of
primary sources are Schilling's.
^ Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Napoli). "so-called
Venus in a
bikini." Cir.campania.beniculturali.it. Accessed 3 October 2016.
"The statuette portrays
Aphrodite on the point of untying the laces of
the sandal on her left foot, under which a small
Eros squats, touching
the sole of her shoe with his right hand. The goddess is leaning with
her left arm (the hand is missing) against a figure of Priapus
standing, naked and bearded, positioned on a small cylindrical altar
while, next to her left thigh, there is a tree trunk over which the
garment of the goddess is folded. Aphrodite, almost completely naked,
wears only a sort of costume, consisting of a corset held up by two
pairs of straps and two short sleeves on the upper part of her arm,
from which a long chain leads to her hips and forms a star-shaped
motif at the level of her navel. The 'bikini', for which the statuette
is famous, is obtained by the masterly use of the technique of
gilding, also employed on her groin, in the pendant necklace and in
the armilla on Aphrodite’s right wrist, as well as on Priapus’
phallus. Traces of the red paint are evident on the tree trunk, on the
short curly hair gathered back in a bun and on the lips of the
goddess, as well as on the heads of
Priapus and the Eros.
Aphrodite’s eyes are made of glass paste, while the presence of
holes at the level of the ear-lobes suggest the existence of precious
metal ear-rings which have since been lost. An interesting insight
into the female ornaments of Roman times, the statuette, probably
imported from the area of Alexandria, reproduces with a few
modifications the statuary type of
Aphrodite untying her sandal, known
from copies in bronze and terracotta."
For extensive research and a bibliography on the subject, see: de
Franciscis 1963, p. 78, tav. XCI; Kraus 1973, nn. 270-271, pp.
194-195; Pompei 1973, n. 132; Pompeji 1973, n. 199, pp. 142 e 144;
Pompeji 1974, n. 281, pp. 148-149;
Pompeii A.D. 79 1976, p. 83 e n.
Pompeii A.D. 79 1978, I, n. 208, pp. 64-65, II, n. 208, p. 189;
Döhl, Zanker 1979, p. 202, tav. Va;
Pompeii A.D. 79 1980, p. 79 e n.
198; Pompeya 1981, n. 198, p. 107;
Pompeii lives 1984, fig. 10, p. 46;
Collezioni Museo 1989, I, 2, n. 254, pp. 146-147; PPM II, 1990, n. 7,
p. 532; Armitt 1993, p. 240; Vésuve 1995, n. 53, pp. 162-163; Vulkan
1995, n. 53, pp. 162-163; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 210, s.v. Venus, n.
182; LIMC VIII, 2, 1997, p. 144; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 1031, s.v.
Priapos, n. 15; LIMC VIII, 2, 1997, p. 680; Romana Pictura 1998, n.
153, p. 317 e tav. a p. 245; Cantarella 1999, p. 128; De Caro 1999,
pp. 100-101; De Caro 2000, p. 46 e tav. a p. 62;
Pompeii 2000, n. 1,
^ Livy, 1.38.7, 1.55.1–6.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus 6.17.2
^ Livy, 22.10.9.
^ Varro, De re rustica 1.1.4: "eos urbanos, quorum imagines ad forum
auratae stant, sex mares et feminae totidem.
^ Ennius, Annales frg. 62, in J. Vahlen, Ennianae Poesis Reliquiae
(Leipzig, 1903, 2nd ed.). Ennius's list appears in poetic form, and
the word order may be dictated by the metrical constraints of dactylic
^ As recorded by Augustine of Hippo,
De civitate Dei
De civitate Dei 7.2.
^ Or Novensiles: the spelling -d- for -l- is characteristic of the
^ For Fides, see also Semo
Sancus or Dius Fidius; Roger D. Woodard,
Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult p. 184.
^ Varro, De lingua latina 5.10; Paul Rehak, Imperium and Cosmos:
Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius (University of Wisconsin
Press, 2006), p. 94.
^ e quis nonnulla nomina in utraque lingua habent radices, ut arbores
quae in confinio natae in utroque agro serpunt: potest enim Saturnus
hic de alia causa esse dictus atque in Sabinis, et sic Diana.
^ Anna Clark, Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome
(Oxford University Press, 2007) pp. 37–38; Emma Dench, Romulus'
Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of
Hadrian (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 317–318.
^ William Warde Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People
(London, 1922), p. 108.
^ Tatius is said by
Varro to have dedicated altars to "Ops, Flora,
Vediovis and Saturn, to Sol, Luna, Vulcan and Summanus, and likewise
to Larunda, Terminus, Quirinus, Vortumnus, the Lares, Diana and
^ Varro, Divine Antiquities, book 5, frg. 65; see also
Paulus apud Festus, p. 27; Servius Danielis, note to
Lactantius Placidus , note to Statius, Theb. 4.459–60.
^ Hendrik H.J. Brouwer, Bona Dea: The Sources and a Description of the
Cult pp. 245–246.
^ Apuleius, Metamorphoses 11.2.
^ Benko, Stephen, The virgin goddess: studies in the pagan and
Christian roots of mariology, Brill, 2004, pp. 112–114: see also pp.
^ CIL 03, 11008"A soldier of the
Legio I Adiutrix
Legio I Adiutrix [dedicated this] to
the Unconquered God" (Deo Invicto / Ulpius Sabinus / miles legio/nis
primae / (A)diutricis).
^ Steven Ernst Hijmans, Sol: The Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome
(diss., University of Groningen 2009), p. 18, with citations from the
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.
^ Lawrence Richardson, A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome
(Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), pp. 156–157.
^ R.W. Davies, "The Training Grounds of the Roman Cavalry,"
Archaeological Journal 125 (1968), p. 73 et passim.
^ Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.12.16–33. Cited in H.H.J. Brouwer, Bona
Dea: The Sources and a Description of the Cult (Brill, 1989), pp. 240,
^ W.H. Roscher, Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen
Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner, 1890–94), vol. 2, pt. 1, pp.
^ Ovid, Fasti 2.67 and 6.105 (1988 Teubner edition).
^ Ovid, Fasti 6.106.
^ This depends on a proposed emendation of Aternus to
Alernus in an
entry from Festus, p. 83 in the edition of Lindsay. At Fasti 2.67, a
reading of Avernus, though possible, makes no geographical sense. See
discussion of this deity by Matthew Robinson, A Commentary on Ovid's
Fasti, Book 2 (Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 100–101.
^ As noted by Robinson, Commentary, p. 101; Georges Dumézil, Fêtes
romaines d'été et d'automne (1975), pp. 225ff., taking the name as
Helernus in association with Latin holus, holera, "vegetables." The
risks and "excessive fluidity" inherent in Dumézil's reconstructions
of lost mythologies were noted by Robert Schilling, "The Religion of
the Roman Republic: A Review of Recent Studies," in Roman and European
Mythologies, pp. 87–88, and specifically in regard to the myth of
Carna as a context for the supposed Helernus.
^ Dea feminarum: Macrobius, Saturnalia I.12.28.
^ Marko Marinčič, "Roman Archaeology in Vergil's Arcadia (Vergil
Livy 1.7), in Clio and the Poets: Augustan Poetry
and the Traditions of Ancient Historiography (Brill, 2002), p. 158.
^ Hyginus, Fabulae 220; compare Prometheus.
^ de Grummond, N. T., and Simon, E., (Editors) The religion of the
Etruscans, University of Texas Press, 2006, p.200
Lists of mythological figures
Fate and time
King of the Gods
Love or lust