ROBERT STEPHENSON FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an
early railway and civil engineer. The only son of
George Stephenson ,
the "Father of Railways", he built on the achievements of his father.
Robert has been called the greatest engineer of the 19th century.
Robert was born in
Willington Quay , Northumberland, to George and
Frances née Henderson, before they moved to
Killingworth , where
Robert was taught at the local village school. Robert attended the
middle-class Percy Street Academy in Newcastle and at the age of
fifteen was apprenticed to the mining engineer
Nicholas Wood . He left
before he had completed his three years to help his father survey the
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway . Robert spent six months at Edinburgh
University before working for three years as a mining engineer in
Colombia . When he returned his father was building the
Manchester Railway , and Robert developed the steam locomotive Rocket
that won the
Rainhill Trials in 1829. He was appointed chief engineer
London and Birmingham Railway
London and Birmingham Railway in 1833 with a salary of £1,500
per annum. By 1850 Robert had been involved in the construction of a
third of the country's railway system. He designed the High Level
Royal Border Bridge on the
East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line . With
Eaton Hodgkinson and
William Fairbairn he developed wrought-iron
tubular bridges, such the
Britannia Bridge in Wales, a design he would
later use for the Victoria Bridge in Montreal, for many years the
longest bridge in the world. He eventually worked on 160 commissions
from 60 companies, building railways in other countries such as
Belgium, Norway, Egypt and France.
In 1829 Robert married Frances Sanderson who died in 1842; the couple
had no children and he did not remarry. In 1847 he was elected Member
of Parliament for
Whitby , and held the seat until his death. Although
Robert declined a British knighthood , he was decorated in Belgium
with the Knight of the Order of Leopold , in France with the Knight of
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour and in Norway with the Knight Grand Cross of the
order of St. Olaf . He was elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)
in 1849 . He served as President of the Institution of Mechanical
Institution of Civil Engineers
Institution of Civil Engineers . Robert's death was
widely mourned, and his funeral cortège was given permission by Queen
Victoria to pass through Hyde Park , an honour previously reserved for
royalty. He is buried in
Westminster Abbey .
* 1 Early life
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway
* 3 Colombian mines
* 4 Locomotive designer
* 4.1 Newcastle
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
* 5 Civil engineer
George Stephenson and Son
London and Birmingham Railway
London and Birmingham Railway
* 5.3 Great George Street
* 5.5 Bridge builder
* 6 Politics
* 7 The house that has no knocker
* 8 Legacy
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes and references
* 10.1 Notes
* 10.2 References
* 10.3 Sources
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Robert Stephenson was born on 16 October 1803, at
Willington Quay ,
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne , to
George Stephenson and Frances née
Henderson, usually known as Fanny. She was twelve years older than
George, and when they met was working as a servant where George was
lodging. After marriage George and Fanny lived in an upper room of a
cottage; George worked as a brakesman on the stationary winding engine
on the Quay, and in his spare time cleaned and mended clocks and
repaired shoes. Fanny was suffering from tuberculosis (known at the
time as consumption), so George would take care of his son in the
evening. Robert later recalled how he would sit on his father's left
knee with his right arm wrapped around him while he watched him work
or read books; his biographer Jeaffreson explained this is why
Robert's left arm was the stronger. In autumn 1804 George became a
brakesman at the West Moor Pit and the family moved to two rooms in a
Killingworth . On 13 July 1805 Fanny gave birth to a
daughter who lived for only three weeks, Fanny's health deteriorated
and she died on 14 May 1806. Dial Cottage, Killingworth, where
Robert grew up
George employed a housekeeper to look after his son and went away for
three months to look after a
Watt engine in Montrose , Scotland. He
returned to find his housekeeper had married his brother Robert. He
moved back into the cottage with his son and briefly employed another
housekeeper before his sister Eleanor moved in. Known to Robert as
Aunt Nelly, Eleanor had been engaged to be married before travelling
to London to work in domestic service. However, returning to get
married Eleanor's ship was delayed by poor winds and she arrived to
find her fiancé had already married. Eleanor attended the local
Methodist church , whereas George would not regularly attend church,
preferring on Sundays to work on engineering problems and meet his
Robert was first sent to a village school 1½ miles (2.4 km) away in
Long Benton , where he was taught by Thomas (Tommy) Rutter. On his way
to school, he would carry picks to the smith's at Long Benton to be
sharpened. George was promoted in 1812 to be enginewright at
Killingworth Colliery with a salary of £100 per annum. He built his
first steam locomotive, Blücher , in 1814 and the following year was
earning £200 per annum. George had received little formal education
but was determined that his son would have one, and so sent the
eleven-year-old Robert to be taught by John Bruce at the Percy Street
Academy in Newcastle. Most of the children came from middle-class
families, and it was while he was at the academy that Robert lost
most of his Northumberland accent. At first Robert walked the 10
miles (16 km), but was liable to catch a cold; George fearing
tuberculosis bought him a donkey. Robert became a member of the
Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society and borrowed books for
him and his father to read. In the evening he would work with George
on designs for steam engines. In 1816 they made a sundial together,
which is still in place above the cottage door.
After leaving school in 1819, Robert was apprenticed to the mining
Nicholas Wood , who was viewer (manager) of Killingworth
colliery. The following year Robert's Aunt Nelly married and George
married Elizabeth Hindmarsh. George had courted Elizabeth before he
had met Fanny, but the relationship had been put to an end by
Elizabeth's father; Elizabeth had sworn at the time that she would not
marry anyone else. As an apprentice Robert worked hard and lived
frugally, and unable to afford to buy a mining compass , he made one
that he would later use to survey the
High Level Bridge
High Level Bridge in Newcastle.
Robert learnt to play the flute, which he played during services at
the local parish church.
STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY
The opening of the
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825
Ways were investigated in the early 19th century to transport coal
from the mines in the
Bishop Auckland area to
Darlington and the quay
Stockton-on-Tees , and canals had been proposed. The Welsh engineer
George Overton suggested a tramway , surveyed a route in September
1818 and the scheme was promoted by Edward Pease at a meeting in
November. A private bill for a
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway (S
George Stephenson met for the first time in
same day, and by 23 July George had been appointed to make a fresh
survey of the line.
Robert had not completed his apprenticeship, but he was showing
symptoms of tuberculosis and his work was hazardous; he was down West
Moor Pit when there was an underground explosion. Wood agreed to
release the 18-year-old Robert so that he could assist his father
during the survey. By the end of 1821 they reported that a usable
line could be built within the bounds of the Act, but another route
would be shorter and avoid deep cuttings and tunnels. George was
elected engineer by shareholders with a salary of £660 per annum. He
advocated the use of steam locomotives, Pease visited
the summer of 1822 and the directors visited Hetton colliery railway
, on which George had also introduced locomotives. During the survey
of the S&DR George had been persuaded, mainly by the Scottish engineer
Robert Bald , that Robert would benefit from a university education.
George could have afforded to send his son to a full degree course at
Cambridge , but agreed to a short academic year as he wished that
Robert should not become a gentleman, but should work for his living.
Robert first helped William James to survey the route of the Liverpool
and Manchester Railway , and then attended classes at Edinburgh
Natural Philosophy ,
Natural History and Chemistry
between October 1822 and April 1823.
On 23 May 1823, a second S&DR Act received Assent with the
Stephensons' deviations from the original route and permission for the
use of "loco-motives or moveable engines". In June 1823 the
Stephensons and Pease opened
Robert Stephenson and Company at Forth
Street in Newcastle to build these locomotives, Pease lending Robert
£500 so he could buy his share. As George was busy supervising the
building of the railway, Robert was placed in charge of the works with
a salary of £200 per annum. Robert also surveyed the route and
designed the Hagger Leases branch, which was planned to serve the
collieries at Butterknowle and Copley Bent. A new Act was required for
the line, and Robert stayed in London for five weeks while the bill
passed through its parliamentary process, Assent being given in May
1824. The S&DR ordered two steam locomotives and two stationary
Robert Stephenson & Co. on 16 September 1824, and the
railway opened on 27 September 1825.
On 18 June 1824 Robert had set sail on the Sir William Congreve from
Colombia with a contract for three years. The Colombian
Mining Association had been formed to reopen gold and silver mines in
South America and a
Robert Stephenson & Co. partner, Thomas Richardson
, was a promoter.
Robert Stephenson & Co. received orders for steam
engines from the company, and Richardson suggested to Robert that he
go to South America, which he accepted. To prepare for the trip
Robert took Spanish lessons, visited mines in
Cornwall and consulted a
doctor, who advised that such a change of climate would be beneficial
to his health. Robert had arrived in
Liverpool on 8 June, and George
was with him from 12 June. In his 1984 biography of the Stephensons,
L.T.C. Rolt takes issue with earlier writers' suggestions that the
assignment was solely due to Robert's health. Questioning why Robert
left the locomotive construction company and his other work, he
suggests that there must have been a disagreement between the
Stephensons over George's business dealings. Later biographers,
Hunter Davis (1975) and David Ross (2010), argue that Robert was
seeking to assert his independence from the control of his father.
Michael Longbridge, who had agreed to take over management of Robert
Stephenson "> Robert's cottage at Santa Ana
He travelled overland with an interpreter and a servant to
then the capital of Greater
Colombia , arriving on 19 January 1825.
Travelling onward, Robert found the heavier equipment at Honda on the
Magdalena River ; there was no way to get it to the mines as the only
route was a narrow and steep path. The mines were another 12 miles (19
km) from Mariquita , and Robert set up home at Santa Ana in a bungalow
built from bamboo. The Mining Association sent Cornish miners to work
the mine, but they proved difficult to manage and drank so heavily
that only two-thirds were ever available for work on any given day.
They refused to accept that Robert, who had not been brought up in
Cornwall, could know anything about mining. One night Robert broke up
a drunken party that was shouting they would not obey a bearded boy,
saying that he would not fight them as he was sober. Robert felt that
his reports to London were being ignored, as heavy equipment continued
to be sent. He suffered from fevers, and once felt his "old
complaint, a feeling of oppression in the breast."
Robert's contract ended on 16 July 1827. He travelled to Cartagena to
see if he could walk across the
Panama Isthmus , but this proved too
difficult. While waiting for a ship to New York, he met Richard
Trevithick , who had been looking for South American gold and silver
in the mines of Peru and Costa Rica, and gave him £50 so he could buy
passage home. Robert caught a ship to New York; en route this picked
up shipwrecked survivors that were so weak they had to be winched
aboard, before the ship he was on sank in another storm. Everyone was
saved, but Robert lost his money and luggage. He noticed that one
second-class passenger was given priority over first-class passengers
in the lifeboats: the captain later said privately that he and the
passenger were Freemasons and had sworn an oath to show such
preference to each other in times of peril. Robert was impressed and
Freemason in New York. Wishing to see something of North
America, Robert with four other Englishmen walked the 500 miles (800
Niagara Falls . He returned to New York, caught
the packet Pacific across the Atlantic and arrived in
Liverpool at the
end of November.
George was living in
Liverpool at the time, working as the chief
engineer of the
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR), and Robert
stayed briefly as a guest at his father's house. Robert travelled to
London to meet the directors of the Colombian Mining Association, and
then started on the business of
Robert Stephenson max-width:254px">
Lancashire Witch (1828) Rocket (1829) A Planet type locomotive
(1832) The evolution of locomotive design under
In 1827 George had built the Experiment with sloping cylinders
instead of the vertical ones on previous locomotives built in
Newcastle. Robert wanted to improve the way the wheels were driven
and had a chance when an order arrived in January 1828 from the L&MR.
Lancashire Witch was built with inclined cylinders that allowed
the axles to be sprung, but the L by mutual agreement the locomotive
was sold to the
Bolton and Leigh Railway
Bolton and Leigh Railway . A number of similar
locomotives with four or six wheels were built in the next two years,
one being sent to the US for the
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company .
As well as working at the locomotive works, Robert was also surveying
routes for railways and advised on a tunnel under the
River Mersey .
In March 1828 Robert wrote to a friend saying he had an attraction to
Broad Street in London as Frances (Fanny) Sanderson lived there.
Robert and Fanny had known each other before he had gone to South
America, and after calling on her soon after returning he had an
invitation from her father to be a frequent visitor. He introduced her
to his father in August 1828, and she accepted his proposal of
marriage at the end of that year. Robert spent so much time in London
the following year that his partners accused him of neglecting his
business. Robert had not wished for a long engagement, but it took
some time until a suitable house was found at 5 Greenfield Place in
Newcastle, and Robert and Fanny married in London on 17 June 1829.
LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY
The L when it was given the name Rocket is not known.
Rainhill Trials started on Tuesday, 6 October, and between 10,000
and 15,000 people had assembled to watch. Five locomotives had
arrived, but Perseverance did not compete, having been damaged on the
way to Rainhill, and Cyclops, powered by two horses in a frame, was
not a serious entry. Challenging Rocket was Novelty , built by John
Ericsson and John Braithwaite in London, and
Sans Pareil , built at
Shildon railway works by
Timothy Hackworth , the locomotive
supervisor of the S she tried to run that Saturday but a steam
pressurised joint rapidly failed.
Sans Pareil was found to be
overweight the following Tuesday, but allowed to run. She burnt fuel
at more than three times the rate of Rocket before her boiler ran dry.
Novelty was tried again the following day, was withdrawn after a joint
failed again, and Rocket was declared the winner.
The L&MR purchased Rocket and ordered four similar locomotives from
Robert Stephenson & Co. before the end of October. Four more similar
locomotives followed, before Planet was delivered on 4 October 1830
with cylinders placed horizontally under the boiler. Hackworth was
building Globe at the
Robert Stephenson he later said he had no
Liverpool at the time he was designing Planet. John Bull
, a Planet type locomotive, was shipped to the US and became the first
movement by steam on a railway in
New Jersey when it ran on the Camden
and Amboy Railroad in 1831. So many orders for locomotives were
received that Robert proposed in 1831 to open a second locomotive
works. It was agreed that the Stephenson name would not be attached to
any other works, and what was to become the
Vulcan Foundry was
developed at Newton-le-Willows.
There was still opposition to the use of steam locomotives, and
before the L&MR opened George and directors hosted a number of private
viewings. The actress
Fanny Kemble , then famous for her recent
Covent Garden , accompanied George for a trip
on the footplate. The L&MR opened on 15 September 1830 with the Prime
Minister the Duke of Wellington travelling in one of the inaugural
trains. During a stop on the journey another passenger, a member of
William Huskisson , stepped down from a carriage and was
hit by Rocket passing on the other track. Huskisson was taken by
train to Eccles and died that evening.
GEORGE STEPHENSON AND SON
George Stephenson & Son had been created on the last day of 1824,
when Robert was in South America, with the same partners as Robert
Stephenson & Co. Formed to carry out railway surveys and construction,
George and Robert were both listed as chief engineers and responsible
for Parliamentary business, and the list of assistant engineers
Joseph Locke , John Dixon ,
Thomas Longridge Gooch and Thomas
Storey . The company took on too much work that was delegated to
inexperienced and underpaid men.
Soon after he had returned from America Robert took over
responsibility for overseeing the construction of the Canterbury &
Whitstable Railway , and this opened on 3 May 1830 with a locomotive
similar to Rocket, called Invicta , supplied by
Robert Stephenson &
Co. He was also responsible for two branches of the L&MR, the Bolton
& Leigh and Warrington & Newton railways. The
Leicester & Swannington
Railway was built to take coal from the Long Lane colliery to
Leicester , and Robert was appointed engineer.
Robert Stephenson & Co.
supplied Planet type locomotives, but these were found underpowered
and were replaced in 1833. Robert thought that the coalfield could be
developed further, and with two friends purchased an estate at
Snibston when it came up at auction. George moved to Alton Grange in
1831 to supervise, and a seam of coal was found after digging through
a layer of waterlogged mudstone over hard volcanic greenstone. George
was to later say that
Snibston colliery was his most profitable
The route of
Grand Junction Railway
Grand Junction Railway authorised on 6 May 1833 had been
surveyed by Locke. Although he had been instructed by George, Locke
hoped to become chief engineer as his contract with Stephenson had
expired. However, George threatened to withdraw support completely and
the railway company divided the contract, with George and Locke
becoming responsible for half of the route. Locke divided the work
into small, well-defined contracts that had been all placed by
September 1834. George, delegating the work to untrained assistants,
drew up specifications and estimates that were vague or inaccurate and
difficult to place. In August 1835 Locke took over supervision of the
entire length of line and the
Grand Junction Railway
Grand Junction Railway opened in 1837.
LONDON AND BIRMINGHAM RAILWAY
On 18 September 1830
George Stephenson & Son signed a contract to
survey the route for the London that same year Robert joined the
Institution of Civil Engineers
Institution of Civil Engineers as a member. There were two surveys
in 1830–31, which met opposition from landed gentry and those who
lived in market towns on the coach route that would be bypassed.
Robert stood as the engineering authority when a bill was presented to
Parliament in 1832 and it was suggested during cross-examination that
he had allowed too steep an angle on the side of the cutting at Tring.
Thomas Telford had cut through similar ground at
Dunstable , Robert left with Gooch in post-chaise that night, and
arrived at the cutting at dawn to find it the same angle he had
proposed. He returned and was in the company solicitor's office at 10
am. That year the bill passed through the Commons but was defeated in
the Lords . After a public campaign and another survey by Robert, the
necessary Act was obtained on 6 May 1833, and it was Robert, not yet
30 years old, that signed the contract on 20 September 1833 to build
the 112-mile (180 km) railway from
Camden Town to
The incline and stationary steam engine chimneys at Camden Town.
Robert was awarded a salary of £1,500 plus £200 expenses per annum,
and he and Fanny moved from Newcastle to London, first briefly to St
John\'s Wood and then to a house on
Haverstock Hill . Robert drew up
plans and made detailed work estimates, dividing the line into 30
contracts, most of which were placed by October 1835. A drawing office
with 20–30 draughtsmen was established at the empty Eyre Arms Hotel
in St John's Wood;
George Parker Bidder
George Parker Bidder , whom Robert had first met at
Edinburgh University, started working for him there. Primrose Hill
tunnel, Wolverton embankment, and
Kilsby Tunnel , 6 miles (9.7 km)
Rugby railway station
Rugby railway station , all had engineering problems and were
completed using direct labour. The
Grand Junction Canal opposed the
railway and tried to prevent a bridge being built and this was settled
in court in 1835. The line permitted by the 1833 Act terminated north
of Regent\'s Canal at Camden (near
Chalk Farm tube station ), as Baron
Southampton , who owned the land to the south, had strongly opposed
the railway in the Lords in 1832. Later, Southampton changed his mind
and authority was gained for an extension of the line south over
Regent's Canal to
Euston Square . This incline, with a slope between 1
in 75 and 1 in 66, was worked by a stationary engine at Camden −
trains from Euston were drawn up by rope, whereas carriages would
descend under gravity. The often repeated statement that the
rope-working was necessary because locomotives of the period were
insufficiently powerful was denied in 1839 by Peter Lecount, one of
the assistant engineers. In fact the incline was worked by locomotives
from the opening date of the southern section of the line, 20 July
1837, until 14 October 1837, also whenever the stationary engine or
rope were stopped for repairs, then for Mail Trains from November
1843, and entirely from 15 July 1844, without any real increase in the
power of the locomotives. The reason given by Lecount for the rope
working was the
London and Birmingham Railway
London and Birmingham Railway Act of Parliament, by
which he said they were 'restricted ... from running locomotive
engines nearer London than Camden Town.'
Robert was unable to order from
Robert Stephenson & Co. due to
railway company rules about conflict of interest, and so locomotives
were purchased from seven other firms.
Charles Wheatstone , Robert's
friend, installed the first electric telegraph between Euston square
Camden Town stations in autumn 1837. Trains started running
between London and
Birmingham on 24 June 1838, and the L he was a firm
Tory , but avoided reading political articles in newspapers. He was
respected and known as "The Chief", but told a friend that he felt
that his reputation would "break under me like an eggshell"; he smoked
cigars and he used calomel , a form of mercury chloride; this was
commonly mixed with opium . His friend and writer, Francis Roubiliac
Conder, said that if Robert was needed on site somewhere he would
catch the northbound coach, sometimes sitting on the outside seat
without an overcoat on a winter's evening. He did not play his flute
at this time. However, Robert would be at home on Sundays attending
church and spending time with his wife. Robert and Fanny had no
children, but were surrounded by family. Fanny was liked by Robert's
friends who would visit, such as Bidder, Gooch,
John Joseph Bramah ,
and the company's solicitor, Charles Parker. She was said to rule
"her husband without ever seeming to do so"; to please her he
successfully applied to the Herald\'s College for a coat of arms,
paying for it in November 1838, but he never liked it, calling it a
"silly picture" just before his death.
GREAT GEORGE STREET
In 1835 Robert travelled with his father to Belgium. George had been
invited to advise King Leopold on the
Belgian State Railway , and was
decorated with the Order of Leopold ; Robert returned with his father
two years later to celebrate the opening of the railway between
Ghent . By agreement with the L this became the
headquarters for both father and son.
Robert Stephenson Cooke
and Robert were on first name terms and Cooke was someone Robert felt
he could trust. The
Stephenson valve gear
Stephenson valve gear was developed in 1842,
although whoever at Newcastle first thought of it was disputed; Robert
authorised the manufacture of a full size prototype on seeing a small
model. The six-coupled Stephenson long-boiler locomotive design was
developed into a successful freight locomotive, but was unsuitable for
sustained high speeds.
The Stanhope and Tyne Railroad Company (S by 1840 the lime kilns and
the section from Stanhope to Carrhouse had closed and the remaining
Stanhope to Annfield section was losing money. A creditor sent a bill
to Robert that the railway company could not pay, and Robert found
that as the S&TR was not a limited company , shareholders were liable
for the debt. Fearing financial ruin Robert sought the advice of
Parker, the insolvent railway company was dissolved on 5 February 1841
and a new limited company, the Pontop and South Shields Railway, was
created on 23 May 1842 to take over the line, Robert contributing
£20,000. The southern section from Stanhope to Carrhouse was sold to
Derwent Iron Company at Consett. The Great North of England
Railway opened in 1841 to York with a railway connection at Darlington
to London, and the Newcastle and
Darlington Junction Railway (N&DJR)
was formed to extend this line to Newcastle using five miles of the
Pontop and South Shields Railway.
George Hudson , a railway financier
known as the "Railway King", was the chairman of the N&DJR, and Robert
was appointed engineer.
Some work still needed to be completed on the L clear: right; margin:
0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em; width:33%; padding: 10px; border: 1px solid #aaa;
font-size: 88%; background-color: #F9F9F9;"> "My dear Fanny died this
morning at five o'clock. God grant that I might close my life as she
has done, in true faith and in charity with all men. Her last moments
were perfect calmness."
Robert Stephenson diary entry on 4 October
Robert, like his father, planned a railway line that avoided
gradients as much as possible, extending the route if necessary, and
proposed such a route for a line between London and
Brighton , but an
alternative was selected. In August 1841 Robert himself was made
Knight of the Order of Leopold for his improvements to locomotive
engines. In the summer of 1842 Robert was away working on the N">
Illustrated London News
Illustrated London News cartoon showing passengers changing trains
When George had built the Stockton &
Railways built with the different gauges met for the first time at
Gloucester in 1844, and although an inconvenience to passengers, this
became a serious problem for goods, with delays and packages being
lost at Gloucester. In 1845 a
Royal Commission was appointed and of
the forty-six witnesses that gave evidence, only Brunel and his
colleagues at the Great Western supported the broad gauge.
Comparisons between a Stephenson locomotive between York and
Darlington and one built by Brunel between Paddington and Didcot
showed the broad gauge locomotive to be superior, but the
commissioners found in favour of a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) gauge,
due in part to the greater number of route miles that had already been
laid. Brunel also supported propelling trains using the atmospheric
system . Robert sent assistants to the
Dalkey Atmospheric Railway in
Ireland to observe, but advised against its use as the failure of one
pump would bring traffic to a stop.
Robert's stepmother Elizabeth had died in 1845. That year George was
returning ill from a trip to Spain and suffered an attack of pleurisy
in the cabin of the packet bound for Southampton. He retired to Tapton
House , near
Chesterfield , and married his housekeeper early in 1848.
Later that year he died on 12 August following second attack of
pleurisy, and was buried in Trinity churchyard, in Chesterfield.
George had been the President of the newly formed Institution of
Mechanical Engineers , and Robert took over that role until 1853.
Dee bridge after the collapse The original box
Britannia Bridge , circa 1852.
Chester the locomotive and driver made it across, but the tender
and carriages fell into the river. Five people died. Conder attended
the inquest at Chester: he recounts that Paisley was so agitated he
was nearly unable to speak, Robert was pale and haggard and the
foreman of the jury seemed determined to get a verdict of
manslaughter. Robert had been prepared to admit liability, but was
persuaded to present a defence that the cast-iron girder could only
have fractured because the tender had derailed due to a broken wheel.
Robert was supported by expert witnesses such Locke, Charles Vignoles
, Gooch and Kennedy, and a verdict of accidental death was returned.
Robert never used long cast-iron girders again and a Royal Commission
was later set up to look at the use of cast iron by the railway
Britannia Bridge was built for the
Chester on these days Brunel
was with Robert supporting his friend. The positioning of the first of
the four tubes for the
Britannia Bridge was carried out in June 1849,
when both Brunel and Locke were with Robert, and this was lifted into
position in October. The second tube was in lifted into place 7
January 1850, a single line was open to public traffic through these
tubes 18 March 1850, and the second line was open 19 October.
High Level Bridge
High Level Bridge in Newcastle
The route north of Newcastle to
Edinburgh along the coast, via
Morpeth and Berwick , had been recommended by George in 1838, and
Hudson promoted this route for the
Newcastle and Berwick Railway in
1843. The required Act, which, was given
Royal Assent in 1845,
included a high level road and rail bridge across the Tyne at
Newcastle and the
Royal Border Bridge across the Tweed at Berwick. The
High Level Bridge
High Level Bridge is 1,372 feet (418 m) long and 146 feet (45 m) high
and made from cast-iron bows held taut by horizontal wrought-iron
strings. The first train crossed the Tyne on a temporary wooden
structure in August 1848; the iron bridge was formally opened by Queen
Victoria in September 1849, Robert having been elected a Fellow of the
Royal Society in June. The bridge across the Tweed is a 28-arch stone
viaduct, and was opened by the Queen on 29 August 1850. At the
celebratory dinner Robert sat beside the Queen; he had just been
offered a knighthood , but had declined.
In the summer of 1847 Robert was invited to stand in the election for
the Member of Parliament for
Whitby and was elected unopposed; he
continued as their MP for the rest of his life. He entered Parliament
as a member of the Conservative Party , holding strong protectionist
Tory views and opposed to free trade . His maiden speech was in favour
Great Exhibition and, with Brunel, became one of the
Commissioners. Robert spoke against educational reform, saying workmen
needed only to learn how to do their jobs, although he made donations
to educational organisations. In 1850, the pope appointed Bishop
Wiseman as the first English
Roman Catholic Cardinal since the
Reformation ; Robert wrote in a private letter that this was
aggressive, saying that in the "battle as to the mere form in which
the creator is to be worshiped – the true spirit of Christianity is
never allowed to appear." He later condemned the way the British had
Crimean War but supported the government in January 1855,
although the government lost the vote and the prime minister resigned.
Robert had become a member of the Société d\'Études du Canal de
Suez in 1846, and the following year had accompanied Talabot and
Alois Negrelli to look at the feasibility of a
Suez canal . He advised
against a canal, saying it would quickly fill up with sand, and
assisted in the building of a railway between
with two tubular bridges that he had designed. This opened in 1854,
and was extended to
Suez in 1858. He spoke in Parliament against
British involvement in a
Suez canal scheme in 1857 and 1858.
THE HOUSE THAT HAS NO KNOCKER
The first Titania in 1850, as reported by the Illustrated London
Robert had moved to 34 Gloucester Square in 1847; when in London he
would socialise at the Athenaeum and Carlton clubs, delaying returning
home until late. By 1850 Robert had been involved in a third of the
country's railway system, and had prematurely aged and become ill with
chronic nephritis , then known as Bright's Disease, a condition he
had come to share with Isambard Brunel, for much the same reasons.
Robert found that he attracted the unwelcome attention of inventors
and promoters; if he was too ill be at Great George Street they found
him at home in Gloucester Square. In part to defend himself from these
intrusions in 1850 he commissioned a 100-ton yacht, calling her
Titania. Finding he that he had no unwanted visitors when aboard, he
referred to her as "the house that has no knocker"; when he went
aboard, he seemed to grow younger and would behave like an excited
schoolboy. He joined the
Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron in 1850, becoming its
first member not from an upper-class background. Titania missed the
1851 Royal Squadron Cup race, which America won and started the
America\'s Cup challenge, but lost to America in a private race a few
days later. A second yacht, also Titania but 90 feet (27 m) long and
184 tons, was built in 1852 after the first was destroyed by fire.
In 1850 the route for the
Norwegian Trunk Railway from
Christiania) to Lake
Mjøsa was surveyed, and Robert became chief
engineer. Bidder stayed on as resident engineer, Robert returning in
1851, 1852 and 1854. In August 1852 Robert travelled to Canada to
Grand Trunk Railway
Grand Trunk Railway on crossing the
St Lawrence River
St Lawrence River at
Montreal. The 8,600-foot (2,600 m) Victoria Bridge had a
6,500-foot-long (2,000-metre-long) tube made up of 25 wrought iron
sections, and was to become for a time the longest bridge in the
In 1855 Robert was decorated
Knight of the Legion of Honour by the
Emperor of France .
Having served as vice-president of the Institution of Civil Engineers
since 1847, he was elected president in 1856, and the following year
received a Honorary Doctorate of Civil Law at
Oxford along with Brunel
Dr Livingstone .
During his life he had become close friends with Brunel and Locke,
and in 1857, although weak and ill, he responded to a plea for help
from Brunel in launching the
SS Great Eastern . Robert fell from the
slipway into riverside mud, but continued without an overcoat until
the end of his visit. The following day he was confined to his bed for
two weeks with bronchitis .
In late 1858 Robert sailed with some friends to Alexandria, where he
stayed on board Titania or at Shepheard\'s Hotel in Cairo. He dined
with his friend Brunel on Christmas Day before returning to London,
arriving in February 1859. He was ill that summer, but sailed to Oslo
in the company of
George Parker Bidder
George Parker Bidder to celebrate the opening of the
Norwegian Trunk railway and to receive the Knight Grand Cross of the
order of St. Olaf . He fell ill at the banquet on 3 September and
returned to England on board Titania in the company of a doctor, but
the journey took seven days after the yacht ran into a storm. As
Robert landed in Suffolk, Brunel was already seriously ill following a
stroke and died the following day. Robert rallied, but died on 12
October 1859. He was three years older than Brunel.
Robert Stephenson statue outside Euston station
Robert's death was deeply mourned throughout the country, especially
since it happened just a few days after the death of Brunel. His
funeral cortege was given permission by the Queen to pass through Hyde
Park , an honour previously reserved for royalty. Two thousand tickets
were issued, but 3000 men were admitted to the service at Westminster
Abbey , where he was buried beside Thomas Telford. Ships on the Thames
, Tyne, Wear and Tees placed their flags at half mast. Work stopped at
Tyneside , and the 1,500 employees of Robert Stephenson
border:solid #aaa 1px">
* Trains portal
List of British heritage and private railways
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ Robert and George both gave the month of Robert's birth
variously as October, November or December. Jeaffreson & Pole (1864a
, p. 7) states that although he celebrated his birthday on 16
November, the October date was determined by looking at an extract
from the register. Most biographies, such as Rolt (1984 , p. 10) and
Davis (1975 , p. 8), give this date of birth except Ross (2010 , pp.
21, 288), who gives the November date because
George Parker Bidder
George Parker Bidder was
invited by Robert to a birthday party on 16 November 1852, and
Robert's birthday is noted in Bidder's diary in 1853, 1854 and 1875.
* ^ George's younger brother Robert laid out the Bolton and Leigh
Railway and the narrow gauge
Nantlle Railway in Wales and was in
charge of one of the locomotives on the opening day of the Liverpool
and Manchester Railway, before coming manager of
Pendleton Colliery .
His only son,
George Robert Stephenson , inherited the Robert
Stephenson & Co. works after Robert's death.
* ^ Smiles had this story of Elizabeth and George meeting in an
early edition, but removed it in later editions after being told by
Elizabeth's brother that he had introduced the couple to each other in
1818 or 1819. However, subsequent biographers, such as Jeaffreson &
Pole (1864a , p. 49) and Rolt (1984 , p. 17) repeat the earlier
* ^ Pease was a
Quaker and after approximately a third of the
shares were bought by Quakers and Pease, his family and other local
Quakers had control of the managing committee the railway became known
* ^ In Smiles' biography, George had travelled down with Wood to
see Pease uninvited, but Wood later stated publicly that the meeting
had been by appointment. However, notes probably dictated by an
elderly George were published in 1973 that said he had travelled to
Darlington to see Pease because of the advice of friends,
* ^ When George was commissioned to survey the
Manchester Railway, William James was left without a job, and was
eventually bankrupt. Rolt argues that Robert's sympathies were with
James, using a letter from
Robert Stephenson to James as evidence,
but after Rolt wrote his book this letter was re-attributed to
George's brother, Robert. Davis quotes a letter from Robert to
Longbridge, sent before George had got the L with no brakes on the
locomotive and wooden brakes on the tender this was the only way of
stopping. There was only one S&DR driver that could do this in the
dark, the others required the firemen to hold up a light.
Marc Seguin , engineer to the St Etienne and Lyon Railway , had
the idea at about the same time, and had a French patent. He built
such a boiler that summer and fitted it to a locomotive two months
Rainhill Trials. Although Seguin had visited the S&DR and
ordered locomotives from
Robert Stephenson & Co, the
Booth-Stephenson design was different, and Seguin and the Stephensons
had not discussed the idea.
* ^ The L 157 short tons) up a 1 in 40 gradient. The competition
was won by Bavaria, built in
Munich with eight coupled wheels.
* ^ In 1857 Robert became godfather to
Robert Stephenson Smyth
Baden-Powell , and Ross (2010 , p. 305) notes that Addeyman, John;
Haworth, Victoria (2005), Robert Stephenson: Railway Engineer, North
East Railway Association, p. 150, ISBN 1-873513-60-7 repeats the
rumour that the child resulted from a long-term affair between Robert
and Henrietta Baden-Powell, but there is no evidence for this other
* ^ Smiles (1868 , p. 234) states that early tramroads had rails 4
ft 8 in apart, but Tomlinson (1915 , pp. 82–83) challenges this,
stating that the most common gauge of the early tramroads and
waggonways was of the order of 4 ft (1,219 mm), and some, such as the
Wylam waggonway , had the rails 5 ft (1,524 mm) apart.
* ^ Early documents gave 4 ft 8 in as the gauge on both the S&DR
and L&MR, but the distance between the rails was later measured as 4
ft 8 1⁄2 in, and this became the standard gauge used by 60 per cent
of railways worldwide. The difference of 1⁄2 inch (13 mm) is a
* ^ For more details see Lewis, Peter (2007), Disaster on the Dee:
Robert Stephenson's Nemesis of 1847, History Press, ISBN
* ^ Fairbairn claimed credit for the design in his book Fairbairn,
William (1849), An account of the construction of the Britannia and
Conway tubular bridges , to which Robert responded with Clark, Edwin;
Stephenson, Robert (1849), General description of the Britannia and
Conway tubular bridges on the
Chester & Holyhead Railway .
* ^ Although Rolt (1984 , p. 325) states that Robert supported the
radicals, Ross (2010 , p. 266) states he voted with the government,
and he was included in the list of noes published in The Times the day
after the vote.
* ^ For details of this journey see Bidder, Elizabeth (2012), The
Elizabeth Bidder Diary,
Robert Stephenson Trust .
* ^ It was reported in
The Morning Post
The Morning Post that "Great disappointment
was felt at the entire exclusion of ladies", but that space was
* ^ Sources differ as whether the legacy was valued over or under
* ^ A B C "Fellows of the Royal Society". London:
Royal Society .
Archived from the original on 2015-03-16.
* ^ Davis 1975 , Title of book.
* ^ "Robert Stephenson". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 19 March
* ^ A B Bailey, Michael R., ed. (2003). Robert Stephenson; The
Eminent Engineer. Ashgate. p. XXIII. ISBN 0-7546-3679-8 .
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 10.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 9–10.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 8–9.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 11.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 13.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. xix, 12, 197, 201.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 11–12.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 15–17.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 18, 22–23.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 15–16.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 19–17, 29.
* ^ Smiles 1868 , pp. 165–166.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 30, 33–34.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 16–17.
* ^ Davis 1975 , p. 14.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 35–36.
* ^ A B C Kirby, M.W. (2004). "Stephenson, Robert". The Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/26400 .
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 42–44.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 46.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 8–9, 17.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 54.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 47–49.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 50.
* ^ Allen 1974 , pp. 15–16.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 53.
* ^ Kirby, Maurice W. (4 July 2002). The Origins of Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway 1821–1863 .
Cambridge University Press. pp. 33, 37. ISBN 978-0-521-89280-3 .
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 17.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 64–65.
* ^ Davis 1975 , pp. 62–65.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 74.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 69.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 53–54.
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 20.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 79–80.
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 19.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 77.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 83.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 90–92.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 58–60.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 85–86.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 86–87.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 80–81.
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 24.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 101–102.
* ^ A B Rolt 1984 , p. 102.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 66–68.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 69, 72.
* ^ Smiles 1868 , pp. 301–302.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 74–75.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 95–96.
* ^ Davis 1975 , pp. 103, 112–113.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 66–69.
* ^ Davis 1975 , pp. 100–101.
* ^ Davis 1975 , pp. 102, 322–323.
* ^ Davis 1975 , pp. 111–112.
* ^ Natural Features of Venezuela.
Popular Science Monthly
Popular Science Monthly at
Wikisource , The Free Library
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 119–120.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 120–121.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 120–123.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 83–84.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 123–124.
* ^ Smiles 1868 , pp. 305, 307.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 93–94.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 124–126.
* ^ Smiles 1868 , pp. 108–109.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 126–127.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 112–113.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 114–115.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 188.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 131, 148.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 148–149.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 130–131.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 106–107.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 132–134, 137.
* ^ Smiles 1868 , p. 353.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 206.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 158–159.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 160.
* ^ A B Rolt 1984 , pp. 162–165.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 135–136.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 126–128.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 162.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 101–102.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 107, 294.
* ^ Jeaffreson ">(PDF). Gedney & Roberts. pp. 3, 33–34.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 187.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 127.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 188–192.
* ^ Davis 1975 , p. 201.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 196–199.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 103–105.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 211–212.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 205–206.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 207.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 208–210.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 164.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 212–215.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 215.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 166–167.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 165.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 121.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 169–172.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 166–167, 172.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 177–178.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 179–180, 185.
* ^ Acts relating to the London and
Birmingham Railway. George Eyre
and Andrew Spottiswoode. 1839. p. 1.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 223–224.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 188.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 186.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 185–187.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 188–192.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 213.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 193–203.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 206–208.
* ^ Conder 1868 , p. 32.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 206.
* ^ Lecount 1839 , p. 48.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 235–236.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 245, 247.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 209.
* ^ A B Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 232–233, 243.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 140.
* ^ Conder 1868 , pp. 22–23.
* ^ A B Ross 2010 , pp. 242–243.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 231–232.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 141.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 237.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 255–257.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 148, 177.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 257–259.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 293.
* ^ Allen 1974 , pp. 42–43.
* ^ Hoole, K. (1974). A Regional History of the Railways of Great
Britain: Volume IV The North East. David & Charles. pp. 188–189.
ISBN 0715364391 .
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 263.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 265–266.
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 75.
* ^ "Stanhope and Tyne Railroad Company (RAIL 663)". The National
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 246–250.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 261.
* ^ Allen 1974 , pp. 61, 69, 71, 89.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 238–241.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , p. 255.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 251–252.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 149.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 253–255.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 274.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 272.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 305.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 259–260.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 275–276.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864a , pp. 257–258.
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 76.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 280–281.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864b , pp. 9–11, 17–19.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 293–294.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864b , pp. 27–28.
* ^ Davis 1975 , p. 75.
* ^ "
Robert Stephenson (1803–1859)". Network Rail. Retrieved 25
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 282–283.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 288, 295–298.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 299–300.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 301–304.
* ^ Conder 1868 , pp. 286–292.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864b , p. 37.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864b , pp. 81, 101.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 235–256.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864b , pp. 82, 84–89.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 305.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 307.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 309–313.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 277–278.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 283–286.
* ^ "Fellows" . The Royal Society. (See complete listing for
Robert's election as Fellow). Retrieved 29 April 2014.
* ^ Jeaffreson & Pole 1864b , pp. 144–145.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 324–326.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 247.
* ^ Ross 2010 , p. 266.
* ^ A B "The Army Before Sebastopol". The Times (21965). 31 January
1855. p. 8.
* ^ A B Rolt 1984 , pp. 326–327.
* ^ Wilson 1939 , pp. 9–10.
* ^ Wilson 1939 , p. 11.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 315.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 318–319.
* ^ A B Rolt 1984 , pp. 328–329.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 237–238.
* ^ Ross 2010 , pp. 253–254.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 324.
* ^ "Norwegian Grand Trunk Railway". Illustrated London News. 7
October 1854. pp. 336–338.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 315–316.
* ^ Smiles 1868 , p. 485.
* ^ A B C D Davis 1975 , p. 287.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 319.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 323.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , pp. 256, 331–333.
* ^ "Funeral of
Robert Stephenson in Westminster". The Morning Post
. London. 22 October 1859.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 333.
* ^ A B Jeaffreson & Pole 1864b , p. 253.
* ^ Harding, J.T. (1986), "A History of the North of England
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers", The Mining Engineer -
Journal of the Institution of Mining Engineers 146: 252–6
* ^ Davis 1975 , pp. 288–290.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. ix.
* ^ Jones, Robin, ed. (2013). The Rocket Men: George and Robert
Stephenson. Morton's Media. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-909128-27-9 .
* ^ Davis 1975 , p. 295.
* ^ "Notes recently withdrawn from circulation". Bank of England.
Retrieved 24 December 2013.
* ^ "Join the railway revolution (about us)". Stephenson Railway
Museum. 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
* Allen, Cecil J. (1974) . The North Eastern Railway. Ian Allan .
ISBN 0-7110-0495-1 .
* Conder, F.R. (1868). Personal Recollections of English Engineers
and of the Introduction of the Railway System in the United Kingdom .
Hodder & Stoughton.
OCLC 251964171 .
* Davis, Hunter (1975). George Stephenson: A Biographical Study of
the Father of Railways. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297769340 .
* Jeaffreson, J.C. ; Pole, William (1864a). The Life of Robert
Stephenson FRS Vol. 1 . Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.
OCLC 794212771 .
* Jeaffreson, J.C.; Pole, William (1864b). The Life of Robert
Stephenson FRS Vol. 2 . Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.
OCLC 794212775 .
* Rolt, L.T.C. (1984). George and Robert Stephenson: The Railway
Revolution. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-007646-8 .
* Ross, David (2010). George and Robert Stephenson: A Passion for
Success. History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5277-7 .
* Smiles, Samuel (1868). The Life of
George Stephenson and of his
Robert Stephenson . Harper & Brothers.
OCLC 1559045 .
* Tomlinson, William Weaver (1915). The North Eastern Railway: Its
Rise and Development . Andrew Reid and Company.
OCLC 504251788 .
* Wilson, Arnold T (1939). The
Suez Canal: Its Past, Present, and
Oxford University Press.
OCLC 1981248 .
* Lecount, Lieut. Peter, RN (1839). The History of the Railway
connecting London and Birmingham. Simpkin, Marshall and Co, and
Charles Tilt. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* Addeyman, John; Haworth, Victoria (2005). Robert Stephenson:
Railway Engineer. North East Railway Association. ISBN 1-873513-60-7 .
* Bailey, Michael R., ed. (2003). Robert Stephenson; The Eminent
Engineer. Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-3679-8 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ROBERT STEPHENSON .
* Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert
Robert Stephenson Trust
* Menai Heritage A community project and museum telling the story of