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Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii is a species of gram-negative, alphaproteobacteria, obligate intracellular parasitic, aerobic Bacillus
Bacillus
bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, transmitted in the feces of lice. In North America, the main reservoir for R. prowazekii is the flying squirrel. R. prowazekii is often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer; the natural life cycle of the bacterium generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host, usually an arthropod, typically the human body louse. A form of R. prowazekii that exists in the feces of arthropods remains stably infective for months. R. prowazekii also appears to be the closest free-living relative of mitochondria, based on genome sequencing.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Discovery

2 Genome 3 Treatment 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] Discovery[edit] Henrique da Rocha Lima, a Brazilian doctor, discovered this bacterium in 1916. He named it after his colleague Stanislaus von Prowazek, who had died from typhus in 1915. Both Prowazek and Rocha Lima had been infected with typhus while studying its causative agent in a prison hospital in Hamburg, Germany.[1] This bacterium lacks flagella and is aerobic.[citation needed] It is stained gram-negative.[citation needed] Genome[edit] The genome of R. prowazekii is reduced, being about 1Mb in size and encoding 834 proteins.[2] Some strains encode 866 proteins.[2] That is, they do not encode all the proteins required to live on their own. Missing activities have to be provided by its host, a eukaryotic cell. For this reason, R. prowazekii has sometimes been regarded as a model for the intracellular bacterial ancestor of mitochondria.[3] Treatment[edit] Vaccines against R. prowazekii were developed in the 1940s, and were highly effective in reducing typhus deaths among U.S. soldiers during World War II. Immunity following recovery from infection with, or by immunization against, R. prowazekii is lifelong in most cases. However, R. prowazekii can establish a latent infection, which can reactivate after years or decades (referred to as Brill-Zinsser disease). Treatment with tetracycline antibiotics is usually successful. References[edit]

^ Henrique da Rocha Lima
Henrique da Rocha Lima
at Who Named It? ^ a b Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Ge, Hong; Butani, Amy; Osborne, Brian; Verratti, Kathleen; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Pop, Mihai; Read, Timothy D. (2013-06-27). "Genome Sequencing of Four Strains of Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii, the Causative Agent of Epidemic Typhus, Including One Flying Squirrel Isolate". Genome Announcements. 1 (3). doi:10.1128/genomeA.00399-13. PMC 3695431 . PMID 23814035.  ^ Kurland, Charles G.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Andersson, Jan O.; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Alsmark, U. Cecilia M.; Podowski, Raf M.; Näslund, A. Kristina; et al. (1998). "The genome sequence of Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria". Nature. 396 (6707): 133–40. doi:10.1038/24094. PMID 9823893. 

External links[edit]

" Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii::Taxon Overview". PATRIC. Virginia Bioinformatics Institute.  NIAID Biodefense Research Agenda for Category B and C Priority Pathogens (PDF). National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. January 2003. 

v t e

Infectious diseases Bacterial disease: Proteobacterial G−

primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109

α

Rickettsiales

Rickettsiaceae/ (Rickettsioses)

Typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
typhi

Murine typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii

Epidemic typhus, Brill–Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel
Flying squirrel
typhus

Spotted fever

Tick-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
rickettsii

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
conorii

Boutonneuse fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
japonica

Japanese spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
sibirica

North Asian tick typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
australis

Queensland tick typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
honei

Flinders Island spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
africae

African tick bite fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
parkeri

American tick bite fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
aeschlimannii

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
aeschlimannii infection

Mite-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
akari

Rickettsialpox

Orientia tsutsugamushi

Scrub typhus

Flea-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
felis

Flea-borne spotted fever

Anaplasmataceae

Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis

Ehrlichia chaffeensis

Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichia ewingii

Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection

Rhizobiales

Brucellaceae

Brucella abortus

Brucellosis

Bartonellaceae

Bartonellosis: Bartonella henselae

Cat-scratch disease

Bartonella quintana

Trench fever

Either B. henselae or B. quintana

Bacillary angiomatosis

Bartonella bacilliformis

Carrion's disease, Verruga peruana

β

Neisseriales

M+

Neisseria meningitidis/meningococcus

Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia

M−

Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus

Gonorrhea

ungrouped:

Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae

HACEK

Chromobacterium violaceum

Chromobacteriosis infection

Burkholderiales

Burkholderia pseudomallei

Melioidosis

Burkholderia mallei

Glanders

Burkholderia cepacia complex Bordetella pertussis/Bordetella parapertussis

Pertussis

γ

Enterobacteriales (OX−)

Lac+

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia

Klebsiella granulomatis

Granuloma inguinale

Klebsiella oxytoca

Escherichia coli: Enterotoxigenic Enteroinvasive Enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 O104:H4

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Enterobacter aerogenes/Enterobacter cloacae

Slow/weak

Serratia marcescens

Serratia infection

Citrobacter koseri/Citrobacter freundii

Lac−

H2S+

Salmonella enterica

Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis

H2S−

Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii

Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery

Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris Yersinia pestis

Plague/Bubonic plague

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersiniosis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Far East scarlet-like fever

Pasteurellales

Haemophilus:

H. influenzae

Haemophilus
Haemophilus
meningitis Brazilian purpuric fever

H. ducreyi

Chancroid

H. parainfluenzae

HACEK

Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurellosis Actinobacillus

Actinobacillosis

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

HACEK

Legionellales

Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae

Legionnaires' disease

Coxiella burnetii

Q fever

Thiotrichales

Francisella tularensis

Tularemia

Vibrionaceae

Vibrio cholerae

Cholera

Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio alginolyticus Plesiomonas shigelloides

Pseudomonadales

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas infection

Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter baumannii

Xanthomonadaceae

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Cardiobacteriaceae

Cardiobacterium hominis

HACEK

Aeromonadales

Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas veronii

Aeromonas infection

ε

Campylobacterales

Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacteriosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome

Helicobacter pylori

Peptic ulcer, MALT lymphoma, Gastric cancer

Helicobacter cinaedi

Helicobacter cellulitis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q952862 EoL: 976584 EPPO: RICKPR GBIF: 3221493 ITIS

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