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Richard Andrew Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) is an American politician who served as a United States
United States
Representative from Missouri from 1977 to 2005. A member of the Democratic Party, he was House Majority Leader from 1989 to 1995 and Minority Leader from 1995 to 2003. He ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States
United States
in 1988 and 2004. Gephardt was mentioned as a possible vice presidential nominee in 1988, 1992, 2000, 2004, and 2008.[1] Since his retirement from politics, Gephardt has become a significant lobbyist. He founded a Washington-based public affairs firm, Gephardt Government Affairs, and an Atlanta-based labor consultancy, the Gephardt Group, as well as consulting for DLA Piper, FTI Consulting and Goldman Sachs.[2]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Political career

2.1 House of Representatives 2.2 1988 presidential campaign 2.3 House leadership 2.4 2004 campaign for president

3 Political views 4 Post-congressional career 5 References 6 External links

Early life[edit] Gephardt was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Loreen Estelle (née Cassell) and Louis Andrew Gephardt, a Teamster milkman; part of his ancestry is German.[3] He graduated from the former Southwest High School in 1958. Gephardt is an Eagle Scout and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award
Distinguished Eagle Scout Award
from the Boy Scouts of America. He earned his B.S. at Northwestern University
Northwestern University
in 1962 where he was president of Beta Theta Pi, the student senate, and his freshman class. He earned his J.D. at the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
Law School in 1965. In 1965, he was admitted to the Missouri
Missouri
Bar. He then entered the Missouri
Missouri
Air National Guard, where he served until 1971. He and his wife Jane have three grown children, Matt, Katie, and Chrissy. His brother, Donald L. Gephardt, is the Dean of The College of Fine and Performing Arts at Rowan University
Rowan University
in Glassboro, New Jersey. Political career[edit] Gephardt was Democratic committeeman for the 14th ward in St. Louis from 1968 to 1971, moving up to become 14th ward alderman from 1971 to 1976, as part of a group of young aldermen known informally as "The Young Turks."[4] House of Representatives[edit] In 1976, Gephardt was elected to Congress from the St. Louis-based 3rd District, succeeding 24-year incumbent Leonor Sullivan. He was elected 13 more times, opting not to run for reelection in 2004. For most of his Congressional career, Gephardt's National Political Director was St. Louis-based political consultant Joyce Aboussie.

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1988 presidential campaign[edit]

campaign logo

Gephardt was an unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 1988 presidential election. He ran hard and early in 1987–88 and finally started moving ahead in Iowa
Iowa
after running the "Hyundai ad" that criticized trade barriers by Korea and Japan as unfair. Gephardt won the Iowa
Iowa
caucuses and South Dakota
South Dakota
primary in February while finishing a strong second in New Hampshire, making him a serious contender for the nomination.[5] His campaign ran out of money after losing badly in the March "Super Tuesday" primaries, when he won only the Missouri
Missouri
primary. An ad aired by Governor Michael Dukakis's campaign focused on Gephardt's "flip-flopping" voting record, and showed a Gephardt look-alike doing forward and backward flips for the camera. Many felt the ad killed any chance Gephardt had of winning the nomination. Gephardt dropped out after winning only 13% in Michigan, despite support from the United Auto Workers. Dukakis considered Gephardt for his running mate, but chose Texas
Texas
Senator Lloyd Bentsen. House leadership[edit]

Portrait of Gephardt from the 1997 Congressional Pictorial Directory

In part due to the visibility gained from his 1988 presidential bid, Gephardt was elected majority leader by his House colleagues in June 1989, making him the second-ranking Democrat in the House, behind then-Speaker Tom Foley. Gephardt served in that position until January 1995. After Foley was unseated in the Republican landslide of 1994 that gave the Republicans a 52-seat majority, Gephardt became the leader of the House Democrats, as minority leader, initially opposite Newt Gingrich and then, from 1999 onward, Dennis Hastert. When Gingrich faced a coup within his own party in 1997, Gephardt could have become Speaker if there had been a floor vote and he gained the support of Republican members dissatisfied with Gingrich, but Gingrich refused to resign and no vote occurred. In the 1996, 1998, and 2000 elections, Gephardt led the Democrats to gains in the House,[6] although they did not retake the majority until 2006, after Gephardt had left Congress. Gephardt was considered a keen politician who worked hard at passing legislation, defending traditional Democratic principles, and for his home district in St. Louis. He became a prolific financial supporter of Democrats around the country in the early 1990s, assembling a team of top fundraising staff who helped him support hundreds of candidates for local and federal office. Although Gephardt worked hard for many of President Bill Clinton's programs, he and his union supporters strongly opposed NAFTA and other "free trade" programs, so Clinton relied on Republican support to pass those initiatives. During the impeachment proceedings of President Clinton, Gephardt led a walkout in the House after a censure motion was ruled irrelevant to the impeachment debate.[7]

Gephardt speaking at a vigil for Matthew Shepard
Matthew Shepard
in 1998

In 2000, Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore
named Gephardt to his short list of possible vice presidential candidates. The other names on the short list were then-Indiana Senator Evan Bayh, then-North Carolina Senator John Edwards, then-Massachusetts Senator John Kerry, then-Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman, and then- New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Governor Jeanne Shaheen.[8] Gore eventually selected Lieberman. In the 2002 Congressional midterm elections, Gephardt campaigned on the economy and Social Security, but the continuing resonance of the September 11 attacks, the momentum for military action against Iraq, and President George W. Bush's popularity lead to Republican gains, with the Democrats losing four House seats. Harold Ford
Harold Ford
of Tennessee called the results an "absolute blowout" and called upon Gephardt to step down, saying that it was time for "new ideas and new faces". Due to his previous success, it has been said that Gephardt would have been easily returned as Minority Leader if he had decided to stay on.[6][9][10] But Gephardt did not run for reelection as House Minority Leader, stepping down in January 2003. His leadership position was contested by the centrist Martin Frost, the outgoing Democratic Caucus Chair, and the liberal Nancy Pelosi, the Minority Whip, who was elected as Gephardt's successor. No longer having Congressional leadership duties freed Gephardt up to concentrate on a 2004 presidential bid.[11] 2004 campaign for president[edit] Gephardt announced his second run for president on January 5, 2003. His successor as Minority Leader, Nancy Pelosi, endorsed him. His campaign was notable for the high-profile coming out of his daughter Chrissy in People magazine, while she was helping him on the campaign trail,[12][13] a subject they also discussed in interviews for the 2007 documentary film For the Bible Tells Me So;[14] he has continued to be an outspoken advocate for gay rights since the campaign, though he still opposes same-sex marriage.[15] Although Republicans considered him a formidable candidate, Gephardt was seen by many as too old-fashioned and unelectable.[16] His fundraising efforts were behind those of former Vermont
Vermont
Governor Howard Dean
Howard Dean
and Senators John Kerry
John Kerry
and John Edwards, and tied with Joe Lieberman. Gephardt's support of the Iraq War resolution hurt him among liberal activists. He promoted a form of universal health care, and was backed by 21 labor unions, but did not have enough support to receive the AFL-CIO's endorsement.[16]

Supporters of Gephardt's campaign in 2003

Throughout early 2003, Gephardt was ahead in polling for the Iowa caucus, but by August Dean had taken the lead, his campaign fueled by antiwar activists. The Gephardt campaign was embarrassed by an early August St Louis Post-Dispatch
St Louis Post-Dispatch
article that revealed that 11 of the 33 "Gephardt team leaders" listed on his Iowa
Iowa
campaign's website actually supported other candidates or were neutral. The race between Gephardt and Dean became negative, and took an ugly turn in October when a Gephardt staffer reportedly pushed a Dean staffer out of a meeting while calling him a "faggot".[17] Many press at the event claimed the Dean staffer was picking a fight and that the Gephardt staffer did not make the hurtful comment. Dean chairman Joe Trippi (who worked for Gephardt in 1988) and Gephardt chairman Steve Murphy became involved in a war of words over the incident, as well as Murphy's allegation that the Dean campaign was bringing in out-of-state non-residents to participate in the caucus. In the final days of the Iowa
Iowa
campaign, both Dean and Gephardt faded, and they finished third and fourth, respectively. Gephardt ended his presidential campaign after that disappointing result.[18] After he dropped out of the presidential race, Gephardt was mentioned as a possible running mate for John Kerry. On March 7, 2004, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson, also seen as a strong contender for the position, endorsed Gephardt for Vice President. "I think he's the best candidate," Richardson said of Gephardt in an interview with the Associated Press. "There's a good regional balance with Kerry and Gephardt." Kerry announced on July 6, 2004, that he had chosen John Edwards as his running mate. On the same day, the New York Post published a headline stating that Gephardt had become Kerry's running mate. The headline was compared to the 1948 "Dewey defeats Truman" headline in the Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
that incorrectly reported the presidential election results that year. In 2007, it was revealed in Kerry campaign adviser Bob Shrum's book No Excuses: Concessions of a Serial Campaigner that Kerry wanted to choose Gephardt but was convinced by Shrum and others to choose Edwards.

Dick Gephardt
Dick Gephardt
2004 presidential campaign endorsements

Senators

Former Senator Jean Carnahan
Jean Carnahan
of Missouri[19]

Representatives

House Minority Leader
House Minority Leader
Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
of California[20] House Minority Whip
House Minority Whip
Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer
of Maryland[21] Former House Majority and Minority Whip David Bonior
David Bonior
of Michigan[21] Representative Rob Andrews
Rob Andrews
of New Jersey[21] Representative Howard Berman
Howard Berman
of California[21] Representative Sherrod Brown
Sherrod Brown
of Ohio[21] Representative Lois Capps
Lois Capps
of California[21] Representative Ben Cardin
Ben Cardin
of Maryland[21] Representative Jerry Costello
Jerry Costello
of Illinois[21] Representative Jim Clyburn
Jim Clyburn
of South Carolina[21] Representative Chet Edwards
Chet Edwards
of Texas[21] Representative Lane Evans of Illinois[21] Representative Bart Gordon
Bart Gordon
of Tennessee[21] Representative Gene Green
Gene Green
of Texas[21] Representative Joe Hoeffel
Joe Hoeffel
of Pennsylvania[21] Representative Tim Holden
Tim Holden
of Pennsylvania[21] Representative Patrick J. Kennedy
Patrick J. Kennedy
of Rhode Island[21] Representative Jim Langevin
Jim Langevin
of Rhode Island[21] Representative Nita Lowey
Nita Lowey
of New York[21] Representative Robert Matsui
Robert Matsui
of California[21] Representative Karen McCarthy
Karen McCarthy
of Missouri[21] Representative Mike McNulty
Mike McNulty
of New York[21] Representative Jack Murtha
Jack Murtha
of Pennsylvania[21] Representative Dave Obey
Dave Obey
of Wisconsin[22] Representative Ed Pastor
Ed Pastor
of Arizona[21] Representative Silvestre Reyes
Silvestre Reyes
of Texas[21] Representative Dutch Ruppersberger
Dutch Ruppersberger
of Maryland[21] Representative Max Sandlin of Texas[21] Representative Ike Skelton
Ike Skelton
of Missouri[21] Representative John Spratt
John Spratt
of South Carolina[21] Representative John Tanner of Tennessee[21] Former Representative Norman D'Amours
Norman D'Amours
of New Hampshire[21] Former Representative Butler Derrick
Butler Derrick
of South Carolina[21] Former Representative Ed Feighan
Ed Feighan
of Ohio[21]

Governors and Lt. Governors

Former Governor Robert Evander McNair
Robert Evander McNair
of South Carolina[21] Former Lieutenant Governor Bob Kerr III of Oklahoma[21]

State Legislatures leaders

New Hampshire
New Hampshire
House of Representatives Minority Leader Peter Burling[21] Rhode Island
Rhode Island
House of Representatives Majority Leader Gordon Fox[21]

Organizations

South Carolina
South Carolina
Conference of Black Mayors American Maritime Officers International Association of Machinists International Brotherhood of Teamsters International Iron Workers Union International Longshoremen's Association International Union of Bricklayers Seafarer's International Union Transportation Workers Union

Political views[edit] Since his election to the U.S. House in 1976, Gephardt's political views gradually moved to the left. Originally, Gephardt was strongly anti-abortion and was viewed as a social conservative. He was initially extremely critical of the Supreme Court's landmark Roe v. Wade ruling that legalized abortion. He wrote on the subject in 1984:

Life is the division of human cells, a process that begins with conception. The (Supreme Court's abortion) ruling was unjust, and it is incumbent on the Congress to correct the injustice... I have always been supportive of pro-life legislation. I intend to remain steadfast on this issue.... I believe that the life of the unborn should be protected at all costs.

In 1987, when Gephardt decided to run for president, he announced that he would no longer support legislation to restrict abortion rights. He told the National Right to Life
Right to Life
Committee; "I now do not support any Constitutional amendment pertaining to the legality of abortion." Gephardt's views on economic policy also changed over the years. He voted for Ronald Reagan's tax cuts in 1981; in the 2000s, however, he became a staunch opponent of similar tax cuts by President George W. Bush, saying that the enormous surplus created during the administration of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
should have been spent on health care instead. Gephardt is widely viewed as an economic populist. He supports universal health coverage, fair trade, and progressive taxation. Although he once chaired the centrist Democratic Leadership Council, Gephardt in his later years in Congress distanced himself from the organization, finding his pro-labor views at odds with the DLC's pro-business positions. On October 10, 2002, Gephardt was among the 81 House Democrats who voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraq. He was an early supporter of the war, and cosponsor of the authorization resolution. However, three years later Gephardt said of his support for the war that "It was a mistake ... I was wrong."[23] Post-congressional career[edit]

Gephardt speaking in 2009

On January 3, 2005, Gephardt's three-decade political career ended with the expiration of his 14th term in the House of Representatives. That month, Gephardt started a consulting and lobbying firm, Gephardt Group, of which he is president and CEO.[24] Gephardt also joined the international law firm DLA Piper
DLA Piper
as strategic advisor in the government affairs practice group from June 2005 to December 2009. [1] In his new role as a Washington lobbyist, Gephardt, on behalf of the Republic of Turkey, has been actively lobbying against the House resolution condemning the Armenian genocide
Armenian genocide
of 1915 in the Ottoman Empire. While supportive of the resolution while in Congress, he now contends that facts need to be better known before any position is taken on this historical controversy.[25] Gephardt served on the board of directors of the Embarq Corporation from June 2007[26] to July 1, 2009, when he became a member of the board of directors of CenturyLink, Embarq's successor corporation.[27] Gephardt also serves as a director of Centene Corporation, Ford Motor Company, Spirit Aerosystems Holdings, Inc., and United States
United States
Steel Corporation.[27] He joined Ford's board in 2009.[28] In July 2007, Gephardt endorsed Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
for president, leading some to speculate that he was interested in running for vice president in 2008. DLA Piper
DLA Piper
become a major donor to Clinton's campaign, donating about $190,000.[29] Gephardt was mentioned during the summer of 2008 as a possible vice-presidential choice for eventual nominee Senator Barack Obama. A collection of Gephardt's congressional documents, dating from 1994 to 2004, was processed from 2006 to 2007 by the Missouri
Missouri
Historical Society for academic use, with a grant through the Institute of Museum and Library Services.[30] In 2005, Washington University in St. Louis inaugurated the Richard A. Gephardt Institute of Public Service, which promotes volunteerism and community activism. Since 2005, Gephardt has been a consultant to Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
and DLA Piper.[2] Since 2007 he has been a consultant to FTI Consulting.[2] In 2007, Gephardt began serving on the advisory board of the Extend Health insurance company, and then became a member of its board of directors. In 2009, Gephardt advised UnitedHealth Group, one of America's largest private insurers, in waging a strong campaign against a public option for national health care.[31] In 2010, Gephardt was elected chair of the Board of Trustees of The Scripps Research Institute, a nonprofit institute focusing on biomedical research.[32] Gephardt has also been significantly involved with the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to a large lobbying contract with the Medicines Company,[33] he serves as chair of the Council for American Medical Innovation (CAMI), formed by and affiliated with PhRMA. In this capacity he hired his own firm to lobby for the organization, to push to extend patents and block generic drugs from the market.[34] Gephardt has also served as a lobbyist for Boeing.[35] He is a labor consultant for Spirit Aerosystems and sits on its board of directors.[36] In these roles, Gephardt has presided over an aggressive anti-union campaign that has bewildered many of his traditional political allies. In July 2011, Spirit Aerosystems walked out of negotiations with the union that represents its engineering, technical and professional workforce.[37] The union subsequently voted down the company's last contract offer, with 96.5% voting no. The company did not change its contract offer significantly after this rejection and relations with its workforce have been contentious ever since. With negotiations at a standstill, production schedules for 2011 and 2012 were threatened.[38][39] References[edit]

^ "GOP Envisions Gephardt as Possible Obama Running Mate". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ a b c "Richard Gephardt". Forbes. Retrieved 7 August 2013.  ^ "Ancestry of Dick Gephardt". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ Kindleberger, Charles (2007). "Chapter 5: Planning Since the 1970s in the City of St. Louis". In Tranel, Mark. St. Louis
St. Louis
Plans: The Ideal and the Real St. Louis. Missouri
Missouri
Historical Society Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-1883982614.  ^ Risen, James (March 2, 1988). "But It Is Called Oversimplified : 'Hyundai' TV Ad Boosts Gephardt". Los Angeles Times.  ^ a b "AllPolitics Clinton, Gephardt Share Welfare Event Stage". CNN. August 12, 1997. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24.  ^ "Clinton impeached". BBC News. December 19, 1998.  ^ "Gore Down To Short List". ABC News. August 3, 2000. Retrieved August 1, 2015.  ^ "Dick Gephardt: Home issue campaigner". BBC News. November 7, 2002.  ^ "Top Democrat leader resigns". BBC News. November 7, 2002.  ^ Anderson, Nick (November 7, 2002). "Election 2002 / NATIONAL RESULTS; Gephardt to Leave Leadership Post; Resigning as minority chief of the House could free the Democrat for a presidential bid".  ^ No Secrets Archived September 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., people, June 2, 2003 ^ Gay Daughter Joins Gephardt Campaign Archived August 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., ABC News, June 9, 2003 ^ Chrissy and Dick Gephardt
Dick Gephardt
appear on CNN to promote new film, For The Bible Tells Me So Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., PageOneQ, October 16, 2007 ^ Home State Record: Dick Gephardt, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Public Radio, December 30, 2003 ^ a b Swarns, Rachel L. (January 20, 2004). "THE 2004 CAMPAIGN: THE MISSOURI CONGRESSMAN; Gephardt's Poignant Echo at the Site of His 1988 Victory". The New York Times.  ^ "An unlikely bigfoot". Boston Phoenix. Archived from the original on 2010-02-02. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ "Gephardt Ends Bid for White House". Washington Post. 21 January 2004. Retrieved 5 November 2015.  ^ "MO US President - D Primary Race - Feb 3, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ "CA US President - D Primary Race - Mar 2, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "Profile of Rep. Richard Gephardt (D-MO)". Politics1. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ "Candidate - David R. Obey". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ "The Next Hurrah: Gephardt on Iraq: "I was wrong"". Thenexthurrah.typepad.com. 2005-10-17. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ "Gephardt Group (2008)". Gephardt Group. Retrieved 2010-05-24.  ^ "The New Republic". Armeniapedia.org. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ "News Release EMBARQ". Investors.embarq.com. 2007-07-01. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2009-08-23.  ^ a b About Us: Directors Archived May 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., CenturyLink
CenturyLink
(accessed February 14, 2016). ^ Jack Stack (May 1, 2010). "What Does Dick Gephardt
Dick Gephardt
Know About Management?". New York Times.  ^ Morain, Dan (2007-07-17). "He backs Clinton; her backers help him". Latimes.com. Retrieved 5 November 2015.  ^ "Earmarks" (PDF). Earmarks.omb.gov. 2010-04-13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2010-05-24.  ^ "The Nation Magazine". The Nation Company, L.P. September 30, 2009. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2009.  ^ "Business Executive and Former U.S. House Leader Richard A. Gephardt Elected to Lead Scripps Research Institute Board of Trustees" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2012-12-27.  ^ Sam Stein (September 24, 2009). "Gephardt: The Public Option Is "Not Essential," Trigger Could Work". Huffington Post.  ^ Sebastian Jones (October 19, 2009). "Dick Gephardt's Spectacular Sellout". The Nation magazine.  ^ Carney, Timothy (2011-02-24) Who were Boeing's lobbyists?[permanent dead link], Washington Examiner ^ "Richard A. Gephardt Joins Onex Team" Archived October 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Spirit Aero news release 2005-04-29 (PDF) ^ SPEEA Archived October 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., SPEEA ^ SPEEA Members Reject Spirit Contract Offer Archived September 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Wichita Eagle ^ Work To Rule At Spirit Disputed Archived October 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., Wichita Business Journal

External links[edit]

Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress Richard A. Gephardt Institute for Public Service at Washington University in St. Louis Appearances on C-SPAN

Booknotes interview with Gephardt on An Even Better Place: America in the 21st Century, August 1, 1999.

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Leonor Sullivan Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Missouri's 3rd congressional district 1977–2005 Succeeded by Russ Carnahan

Preceded by Tom Foley House Majority Leader 1989–1995 Succeeded by Dick Armey

Preceded by Bob Michel House Minority Leader 1995–2003 Succeeded by Nancy Pelosi

Party political offices

Preceded by Bill Gray Chair of the House Democratic Caucus 1985–1989 Succeeded by Gillis Long

New office Chair of the Democratic Leadership Council 1985–1986 Succeeded by Chuck Robb

Preceded by Tom Foley House Democratic Leader 1989–2003 Succeeded by Nancy Pelosi

Preceded by Susan Collins Bill Frist Response to the State of the Union address 2001, 2002 Served alongside: Tom Daschle
Tom Daschle
(2001) Succeeded by Gary Locke

v t e

Majority leaders of the U.S. House of Representatives

Payne Underwood Kitchin Mondell Longworth Tilson Rainey Byrns Bankhead Rayburn McCormack Halleck McCormack Halleck McCormack Albert Boggs O'Neill Wright Foley Gephardt Armey DeLay Blunt (acting) Boehner Hoyer Cantor McCarthy

v t e

Minority Leaders of the U.S. House of Representatives

Bailey Richardson Williams Clark Mann Clark Kitchin Garrett Garner Snell Martin Rayburn Martin Rayburn Martin Halleck Ford Rhodes Michel Gephardt Pelosi Boehner Pelosi

v t e

Democratic party leaders in the U.S. House of Representatives

Bailey Richardson Williams Clark Underwood Kitchin Clark Kitchin Garrett Garner Rainey Byrns Bankhead Rayburn McCormack Rayburn McCormack Rayburn McCormack Albert Boggs O'Neill Wright Foley Gephardt Pelosi Hoyer Pelosi

v t e

Chairmen of the Democratic Leadership Council

Gephardt Robb Nunn Clinton Breaux McCurdy Lieberman Bayh Vilsack Ford

v t e

(1984 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1988 (→ 1992)

Republican Party Convention Primaries Primary results

Nominee

George H. W. Bush

VP nominee

Dan Quayle

Candidates

Bob Dole Pete du Pont Ben Fernandez Alexander Haig Jack Kemp Paul Laxalt Isabell Masters Pat Robertson Donald Rumsfeld Harold Stassen

Democratic Party Convention Primaries Primary results

Nominee

Michael Dukakis

campaign

VP nominee

Lloyd Bentsen

Candidates

Douglas Applegate Bruce Babbitt Joe Biden

campaign

David Duke Dick Gephardt Al Gore

campaign

Gary Hart Jesse Jackson

campaign

Lyndon LaRouche Andy Martin Patricia Schroeder Paul Simon James Traficant

Third party and independent candidates

Libertarian Party Convention

Nominee

Ron Paul
Ron Paul
(campaign)

VP nominee

Andre Marrou

Candidates

Jim Lewis Russell Means

New Alliance Party

Nominee

Lenora Fulani

Populist Party

Nominee

David Duke

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Earl Dodge

VP nominee

George Ormsby

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee

Edward Winn

Socialist Party

Nominee

Willa Kenoyer

VP nominee

Ron Ehrenreich

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

James Warren

VP nominee

Kathleen Mickells

Workers World Party

Nominee

Larry Holmes

VP nominee

Gloria La Riva

Independents and others

Jack Herer Lyndon LaRouche Herbert G. Lewin William A. Marra Eugene McCarthy

Other 1988 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1988 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1992 (→ 1996)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(campaign) VP nominee Al Gore

Candidates Larry Agran Jerry Brown Tom Harkin Bob Kerrey Lyndon LaRouche Tom Laughlin Eugene McCarthy Paul Tsongas Douglas Wilder Charles Woods

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee George H. W. Bush VP nominee Dan Quayle

Candidates Pat Buchanan David Duke Jack Fellure Isabell Masters Pat Paulsen Tennie Rogers Harold Stassen

Independent

Candidate Ross Perot
Ross Perot
(campaign) VP candidate James Stockdale

Other independent and third party candidates

Libertarian Party

Convention

Nominee Andre Marrou

VP nominee Nancy Lord

Natural Law Party

Nominee John Hagelin

VP nominee Mike Tompkins

New Alliance Party

Nominee Lenora Fulani

VP nominee Maria Elizabeth Muñoz

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

VP nominee George Ormsby

Socialist Party USA

Nominee J. Quinn Brisben

VP nominee Barbara Garson

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee James Warren

VP nominee Willie Mae Reid

U.S. Taxpayers Party

Convention

Nominee Howard Phillips

VP nominee Albion W. Knight, Jr.

Workers World Party

Nominee Gloria La Riva

VP nominee Larry Holmes

Independents and other candidates

Ronald Daniels (Running mate: Asiba Tupahache) Bo Gritz Isabell Masters

Other 1992 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(2000 ←)   United States
United States
presidential election, 2004   (→ 2008)

United States
United States
elections, 2004 Candidates Debates Timeline Super Tuesday Potomac primary Mini-Tuesday

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(campaign) VP nominee Dick Cheney

Candidates John Buchanan Jack Fellure Tom Laughlin

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee John Kerry
John Kerry
(campaign) VP nominee John Edwards

Candidates Carol Moseley Braun Wesley Clark
Wesley Clark
(campaign) Howard Dean
Howard Dean
(campaign) John Edwards
John Edwards
(campaign) Richard Gephardt (campaign) Bob Graham
Bob Graham
(campaign) Caroline Killeen Dennis Kucinich
Dennis Kucinich
(campaign) Lyndon LaRouche
Lyndon LaRouche
(campaign) Joe Lieberman
Joe Lieberman
(campaign) Al Sharpton

Controversies

Moss v. Bush Voting controversies Kerry military service Bush military service

Third party and independent candidates

Constitution Party

Convention

Nominee Michael Peroutka

VP nominee Chuck Baldwin

Green Party

Convention

Nominee David Cobb
David Cobb
(campaign)

VP nominee Pat LaMarche

Candidates Sheila Bilyeu Peter Camejo Paul Glover Kent Mesplay Lorna Salzman

Libertarian Party

Convention

Nominee Michael Badnarik
Michael Badnarik
(campaign)

VP nominee Richard Campagna

Candidates Gary Nolan Aaron Russo

Personal Choice Party

Nominee Charles Jay

VP nominee Marilyn Chambers

Prohibition Party

Nominee Gene Amondson Alternate nominee Earl Dodge

Reform Party

Nominee Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(campaign)

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Bill Van Auken

Socialist Party

Nominee Walt Brown

VP nominee Mary Alice Herbert

Candidates Eric Chester

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Róger Calero Alternate nominee James Harris

VP nominee Arrin Hawkins

Workers World Party

Nominee John Parker

VP nominee Teresa Gutierrez

Independents and other candidates

Thomas Harens Tom Laughlin Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(campaign) Leonard Peltier

Other 2004 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 70603608 LCCN: n93055881 GND: 124425836 US Congress: G000

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