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Lichen rangiferinus L. (1753) Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl. (1866)

Top view of C. rangiferina The underside of C. rangiferina

CLADONIA RANGIFERINA, also known as REINDEER LICHEN (c.p. Sw. renlav), lat. , is a light-colored, fruticose lichen belonging to the Cladoniaceae family. It grows in both hot and cold climates in well-drained, open environments. Found primarily in areas of alpine tundra , it is extremely cold-hardy.

Other common names include REINDEER MOSS and CARIBOU MOSS, but these names may be misleading since it is not a moss . As the common names suggest, reindeer lichen is an important food for reindeer (caribou) , and has economic importance as a result. Synonyms include Cladina rangiferina and Lichen rangiferinus.

Reindeer
Reindeer
lichen, like many lichens, is slow growing (3–11 mm per year) and may take decades to return once overgrazed, burned, trampled, or otherwise consumed.

A similar-looking species also known by the common name Reindeer lichen is Cladonia
Cladonia
portentosa .

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Habitat and conservation * 3 Bioactive compounds * 4 Uses * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

DESCRIPTION

Thalli are fruticose, and extensively branched, with each branch usually dividing into three or four (sometimes two); the thicker branches are typically 1–1.5 mm in diameter. The color is grayish, whitish or brownish grey. C. rangiferina forms extensive mats up to 10 cm tall. The branching is at a smaller angle than that of Cladonia portentosa . It lacks a well-defined cortex (a protective layer covering the thallus , analogous to the epidermis in plants), but rather, a loose layer of hyphae cover the photobionts. The photobiont associated with the reindeer lichen is Trebouxia irregularis . It grows on humus , or on soil over rock. it also grows mostly in taiga and the tundra.

HABITAT AND CONSERVATION

Cladonia
Cladonia
rangiferina often dominates the ground in boreal pine forests and open, low-alpine sites in a wide range of habitats, from humid, open forests, rocks and heaths . A specific biome in which this lichen is represented is the Boreal forests of Canada .

In certain parts of its range this lichen is a threatened species . For example in the British Duchy of Cornwall
Cornwall
it is protected under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan
Biodiversity Action Plan
.

BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

A variety of bioactive compounds have been isolated and identified from C. rangiferina, including abietane , labdane , isopimarane , the abietane diterpenoids hanagokenols A and B, ontuanhydride, sugiol, 5,6-dehydrosugiol, montbretol, cis-communic acid, imbricatolic acid, 15-acetylimbricatoloic acid, junicedric acid, 7α-hydroxysandaracopimaric acid, β-resorylic acid, atronol, barbatic acid, homosekikaic acid, didymic acid and condidymic acid. Some of these compounds have mild inhibitory activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci . Exposure to UV-B radiation induces the accumulation of usnic acid and melanic compounds. Usnic acid is thought to play a role in protecting the photosymbiont by absorbing excess UV-B.

USES

This lichen can be used in the making of aquavit , and is sometimes used as decoration in glass windows. The lichen is used as a traditional remedy for removal of kidney stones by the Monpa in the alpine regions of the West Kameng district of Eastern Himalaya
Himalaya
. The Inland Dena\'ina used reindeer lichen for food by crushing the dry lichen and then boiling it or soaking it in hot water until it becomes soft. They eat it plain or, preferably, mixed with berries, fish eggs, or lard. The Inland Dena'ina also boil reindeer lichen and drink the juice as a medicine for diarrhea . Due to acids present in lichens, their consumption may cause an upset stomach, especially if not well cooked.

A study released in May 2011 claims that some species of lichens, including Cladonia
Cladonia
rangiferina, are able to degrade the deadly prion implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) through the enzyme serine protease.

SEE ALSO

* List of Cladonia
Cladonia
species

REFERENCES

* ^ " Cladonia
Cladonia
rangiferina (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. 1780". MycoBank . International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2012-03-25. * ^ Rook EJS. (11 October 1999). " Cladonia
Cladonia
species. Reindeer lichens". Retrieved 2012-03-25. * ^ Geiser L, McCune B. (1997). Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-87071-394-9 . * ^ Raine M. (2009). Nature of Snowdonia: A Beginner\'s Guide to the Upland Environment. Pesda Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-906095-10-9 . * ^ Rikkinen J. (1995). "What's behind the pretty colours?: a study on the photobiology of lichens". Bryobrothera. 4: 16. * ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Black Spruce: Picea mariana, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Yoshikawa, Kazuko; Kokudo, Naoki; Tanaka, Masami; Nakano, Tatsuro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Aragaki, Naokatsu; Higuchi, Tomihiko; Hashimoto, Toshihiro (2008). "Novel Abietane Diterpenoids and Aromatic Compounds from Cladonia
Cladonia
rangiferina and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Antibiotics Resistant Bacteria". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 56 (1): 89–92. PMID 18175983 . doi :10.1248/cpb.56.89 . * ^ Nybakken, Line; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta (2006). "UV-B induces usnic acid in reindeer lichens". The Lichenologist. 38 (5): 477–85. doi :10.1017/S0024282906005883 . * ^ Bjerke, Jarle W.; Lerfall, Kjetil; Elvebakk, Arve (2002). "Effects of ultraviolet radiation and PAR on the content of usnic and divaricatic acids in two arctic-alpine lichens". Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. 1 (9): 678–85. PMID 12665305 . doi :10.1039/b203399b . * ^ Bjerke, J; Elvebakk, A; Dominguez, E; Dahlback, A (2005). "Seasonal trends in usnic acid concentrations of Arctic, alpine and Patagonian populations of the lichen". Phytochemistry. 66 (3): 337–44. PMID 15680990 . doi :10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.12.007 . * ^ Rout, Jayashree; Kar, Ashish; Upreti, D. K. (2005). "Traditional remedy for kidney stones from a high altitude lichen: Cladonia
Cladonia
rangiferina (L.) Wigg (reindeer moss) of Eastern Himalaya". Ethnobotany. 17 (1/2): 164–6. * ^ "Caribou Moss
Moss
Cladonia
Cladonia
rangiferina". Retrieved 2009-01-12. * ^ Johnson, CJ; Bennett, JP; Biro, SM; et al. (2011). "Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) by a serine protease from lichens" . PLoS ONE. 6: e19836. PMC 3092769  . PMID 21589935 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0019836 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link )

EXTERNAL LINKS

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