The REGIONS OF ITALY (Italian: _regioni_) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy , constituting its second NUTS administrative level . There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes.
Each region, except for the Aosta Valley , is divided into provinces . Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Regional control
* 2 Regions * 3 Macroregions
* 4 Status
* 4.1 Regions with ordinary statute * 4.2 Autonomous regions with special statute
* 5 Institutions * 6 Representation in the Senate * 7 Economy of regions and macroregions
* 8 See also
* 8.1 Other administrative divisions
* 9 References
* 10 External links
* 10.1 Italian
As the administrative districts of the central state during the Kingdom of Italy , regions were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Constitution of the Italian Republic . The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). _Friuli_ and _Venezia Giulia_ were separate regions, and Basilicata was named _Lucania_. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into _ Abruzzo e Molise_ in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963.
Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional Elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions, where it was historically rooted (the _red belt_ of Emilia-Romagna , Tuscany , Umbria and the Marches ).
Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions.
In June 2006 the proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord , and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in a referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%. The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favour in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria .
Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995: Center-left Center-right Others
FLAG Region _Italian name_ STATUS Population January 2016 AREA POP. DENSITY CAPITAL CITY PRESIDENT NUMBER OF COMUNI METROPOLITAN CITIES
NUMBER % KM2 %
ABRUZZO _Abruzzo_ Ordinary 1,326,513 2.19% 10,832 3.59% 122 L\'Aquila
Luciano D\'Alfonso _Democratic Party _ 305 -
AOSTA VALLEY _Valle d'Aosta_ Autonomous 127,329 0.21% 3,261 1.08% 39 Aosta
APULIA _Puglia_ Ordinary 4,077,166 6.72% 19,541 6.47% 209 Bari
BASILICATA _Basilicata_ Ordinary 573,694 0.95% 10,073 3.33% 57 Potenza
Marcello Pittella _Democratic Party _ 131 -
CALABRIA _Calabria_ Ordinary 1,970,521 3.25% 15,222 5.04% 129 Catanzaro
CAMPANIA _Campania_ Ordinary 5,850,850 9.64% 13,671 4.53% 428 Naples
EMILIA-ROMAGNA _Emilia-Romagna_ Ordinary 4,448,146 7.33% 22,453 7.43% 198 Bologna
FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA _Friuli-Venezia Giulia_ Autonomous 1,221,218 2.01% 7,862 2.60% 155 Trieste
Debora Serracchiani _Democratic Party _ 216 -
LAZIO _Lazio_ Ordinary 5,888,472 9.70% 17,232 5.70% 342 Rome
LIGURIA _Liguria_ Ordinary 1,571,053 2.59% 5,416 1.79% 290 Genoa
LOMBARDY _Lombardia_ Ordinary 10,008,349 16.50% 23,864 7.90% 419 Milan
MARCHES _Marche_ Ordinary 1,543,752 2.54% 9,401 3.11% 164 Ancona
Luca Ceriscioli _Democratic Party _ 236 -
MOLISE _Molise_ Ordinary 312,027 0.51% 4,461 1.48% 70 Campobasso
Paolo Di Laura Frattura _Democratic Party _ 136 -
PIEDMONT _Piemonte_ Ordinary 4,404,246 7.26% 25,387 8.40% 173 Turin
SARDINIA _Sardegna_ Autonomous 1,658,138 2.73% 24,100 7.98% 69 Cagliari
SICILY _Sicilia_ Autonomous 5,074,261 8.36% 25,832 8.55% 196 Palermo
TRENTINO-SOUTH TYROL _Trentino-Alto Adige_ Autonomous 1,059,114 1.75% 13,606 4.50% 78 Trento
Arno Kompatscher _South Tyrolean People\'s Party _ 293 -
TUSCANY _Toscana_ Ordinary 3,744,398 6.17% 22,987 7.61% 163 Florence
UMBRIA _Umbria_ Ordinary 891,181 1.47% 8,464 2.80% 105 Perugia
Catiuscia Marini _Democratic Party _ 92 -
VENETO _Veneto_ Ordinary 4,915,123 8.10% 18,407 6.09% 267 Venice
60,665,551 100% 302,073 100% 201 ROME
Sergio Mattarella _Independent _ 7,998 14
Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union .(it)
MAP Macroregion Italian name REGIONS MAJOR CITY Population January 2016 AREA (KM2) POP. DENSITY
NUMBER % KM2 %
Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the _Constitution of Italy_ (Article 123). Although all the regions except Toscana define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes, fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.
REGIONS WITH ORDINARY STATUTE
These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. _The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law_ (Article 117). Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system .
AUTONOMOUS REGIONS WITH SPECIAL STATUTE
Article 116 of the _ Italian Constitution _ grants to five regions (namely Sardinia , Sicily , Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol , Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia ) home rule , acknowledging their powers in relation to legislation, administration and finance. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War .
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol constitutes a special case. The region is nearly powerless, and the powers granted by the region's statute are mostly exercised by the two autonomous provinces within the region, Trentino and South Tyrol . In this case, the regional institution plays a coordinating role.
Each region has an elected parliament, called _Consiglio Regionale_ (regional council), or _Assemblea Regionale_ (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called _Giunta Regionale_ (regional committee), headed by a governor called _Presidente della Giunta Regionale_ (president of the regional committee) or _Presidente della Regione_ (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council.
Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the _giunta_, and nominates or dismisses its members, called _assessori _. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.
In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol, and the regional governor is one of the two provincial commissioners.
REPRESENTATION IN THE SENATE
Number of senators currently assigned to each Region.
Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis (excluding 6 senators elected by Italians residing abroad and a small number of senator for life ) by Italian citizens aged 25 or older.
The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley (which has one) and Molise (which has two).
REGION SEATS REGION SEATS REGION SEATS
ECONOMY OF REGIONS AND MACROREGIONS
FLAG NAME GDP 2011 MILLION, EUR GDP 2011 PER CAPITA 2011, EUR GDP 2011 MILLION PPS, EUR GDP 2011 PER CAPITA 2011 PPS, EUR
Abruzzo 30,073 22,400 29,438 21,900
Aosta Valley 4,328 33,700 4,236 33,000
Apulia 69,974 17,100 68,496 16,700
Basilicata 10,744 18,300 10,517 17,900
Calabria 33,055 16,400 32,357 16,100
Campania 93,635 16,000 91,658 15,700
Emilia-Romagna 142,609 32,100 139,597 31,400
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 36,628 29,600 35,855 29,000
Lazio 172,246 29,900 168,609 29,300
Liguria 43,998 27,200 43,069 26,700
Lombardy 337,161 33,900 330,042 33,200
Marches 40,877 26,100 40,014 25,500
Molise 6,414 20,100 6,278 19,700
Piedmont 125,997 28,200 123,336 27,600
Sardinia 33,075 19,700 32,377 19,300
Sicily 83,956 16,600 82,183 16,300
Trentino-Alto Adige 35,797 34,450 35,041 33,700
Tuscany 106,013 28,200 103,775 27,600
Umbria 21,533 23,700 21,078 23,200
Veneto 149,527 30,200 146,369 29,600
CODE NAME GDP 2011 MILLION, EUR GDP 2011 PER CAPITA 2011, EUR GDP 2011 MILLION PPS, EUR GDP 2011 PER CAPITA 2011 PPS, EUR
ITE CENTRE 340,669 28,400 333,475 27,800
ITD NORTH-EAST 364,560 31,200 356,862 30,600
ITC NORTH-WEST 511,484 31,700 500,683 31,000
ITG ISLANDS 117,031 17,400 114,560 17,000
ITF SOUTH 243,895 17,200 238,744 16,800
- EXTRA-REGIO 2,771 - 2,712 -
The extra-regio territory is made up of parts of the economic territory of a country which cannot be assigned to a single region. It consists of the national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country enjoys exclusive rights, territorial exclaves, deposits of oil, natural gas etc. worked by resident units. Until 2011, the gross value added (GVA) produced in the extra-regio was allocated pro-rata to the inhabited regions of the country concerned. The order of magnitude of the extra-regio GVA depends in particular on the resource endowment in terms of natural gas and oil. In 2011, Member States and the European Commission agreed to give countries the possibility to calculate regional GDP also for the extra-regio. The resulting GDP is available only in absolute values, because the extra-regio territory by definition does not have a resident population.
OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS
* ^ "National structures". Eurostat. Retrieved 6 December 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Speciale Referendum 2006". _la Repubblica_. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2011. * ^ " Population Italian Regions". _tuttitalia.it_. * ^ "Italian Comuni". _tuttitalia.it_. * ^ Statuti Regionali - Edizioni Simone * ^ The Constitution of the Italian Republic * ^ Report RAI - Le regioni a statuto speciale (Italian), retrieved 21st Jan 2009 , Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Hiroko Kudo, “Autonomy and Managerial Innovation in Italian Regions after Constitutional Reform”, Chuo University, Faculty of Law and Graduate School of Public Policy (2008): p. 1. Retrieved on April 6, 2012 from http://www.med-eu.org/proceedings/MED1/Kudo.pdf. * ^ http://www.senato.it/leg/17/BGT/Schede/Attsen/Regioni/01.html * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ GDP per capita in the EU in 2011