REGGIO DI CALABRIA (Italian pronunciation: , also ;
Sicilian-Calabrian dialect : Rìggiu, Italic-Greek of
Bovesia : Righi,
Ancient Greek : Ῥήγιον, Rhḗgion, Latin : Rhēgium), commonly
known as REGGIO CALABRIA listen (help ·info ) or simply REGGIO in
Italy , is the largest city and the most populated comune of
Calabria , Southern
Italy . It is the capital of the Metropolitan City
Calabria and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria.
Reggio is located on the "toe" of the
Italian Peninsula and is
separated from the island of
Sicily by the
Strait of Messina . It is
situated on the slopes of the
Aspromonte , a long, craggy mountain
range that runs up through the centre of the region. The third
economic centre of mainland Southern
Italy , the city proper has a
population of more than 200,000 inhabitants spread over 236 square
kilometres (91 sq mi), while the fast-growing urban area numbers
260,000 inhabitants. About 560,000 people live in the metropolitan
area, recognised in 2015 by
Italian Republic as a metropolitan city .
As a major functional pole in the region, it has strong historical,
cultural and economic ties with the city of
Messina , which lies
across the strait in
Sicily , forming a metro city of less than 1
Reggio is the oldest city in the region, and despite its ancient
foundation – Ρηγιον was an important and flourishing colony of
Magna Graecia – it has a modern urban system, set up after the
catastrophic earthquake on 28 December 1908 , which destroyed most of
the city. The region has been subject to earthquakes.
It is a major economic centre for regional services and transport on
the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reggio, with
Taranto , is home to one of the most important archaeological museums,
the prestigious National Archaeological Museum of
Magna Græcia ,
Ancient Greece (which houses the Bronzes of
Riace , rare
example of Greek bronze sculpture , which became one of the symbols of
the city). Reggio is the seat, since 1907, of the Archeological
Superintendence of Bruttium and Lucania.
The city centre, consisting primarily of Liberty buildings, has a
linear development along the coast with parallel streets, and the
promenade is dotted with rare magnolias and exotic palms . Reggio has
commonly used popular nicknames: The "city of Bronzes", after the
Riace that are testimonials of its Greek origins; the "city
of bergamot ", which is exclusively cultivated in the region; and the
"city of Fatamorgana ", an optical phenomenon visible in
from the Reggio seaside.
The city was an Italian candidate to become the European Capital of
Culture . in 2019.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Etymology
* 1.2 Ancient times
* 1.3 Middle Ages
* 1.4 Early modern period
* 1.5 Late modern and contemporary
* 1.6 Earthquakes in history
* 1.7 European travellers who visited Reggio
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Administrative division and city government
* 4 Twin towns
* 5 Economy
* 6 Main sights
* 6.1 Castles, churches and cathedrals
* 6.2 Museums, palaces and theatres
* 6.3 Archaeological sites and natural sites
* 6.4 New waterfront: Museum and Performing Arts Centre
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Literature and theatre
* 8 Education
* 9 Notable people
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Highway
* 10.2 Tramway
* 10.3 Railway
* 10.4 Port
* 10.5 Airport
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 14 External links
See also: Timeline of Reggio
During its 3,500-year history Reggio has often been renamed. Each
name corresponds with the city's major historical phases:
* Recion (to read Rekion), name appeared on the most ancient coins
retrieved in Reggio.
* Erythrà (Ερυθρά, "The Red One"), the pre-Greek settlement
populated by the Italic people.
* Rhégion (Ῥήγιον, "Cape of the King"), the Greek city from
the archaic age (starting from Pallantiòn site) to the Magna Grecia
age, from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BC.
* Febèa (Phoebea, solemnly dedicated to
Apollo ), a short period
Dionysius II of Syracuse , in the 4th century BC.
* Regium, its first Latin name, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC,
then became Rhegium.
* Rhègium Julium (Reggio Giulia), as a noble Roman city during the
* Rivàh, Arabic name under the short domination by Emirate of
Sicily , between 10th and 11th centuries.
* Rìsa, under the
Normans , between the 11th and 12th centuries.
* Regols, Catalan name under the
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon , in the late 13th
* Reggio or Regio, usual Italian name in the Middle and Modern age.
* Règgio di Calàbria, post
Italian Unification (to be
distinguished from Reggio di Lombardia or di
Modena – located in
Italy – which was renamed Reggio nell'Emilia).
The toponym of the city is perhaps derived from Chaldean word Rec
(meaning king) or maybe from the Greek one régnȳmi referring to the
Sicily as a break in the land.
From the late 3rd millennium BC onwards until the 8th century BC the
city was inhabited by peoples such as the
Osci (sometimes referred to
Phoenicians , Trojans ,
Mycenaeans and Achæans , then by
Mamertines , Taureanes ,
Morgeti and Itali . The sculptor Léarchos was at Reggio at the end
of the 15th century BC, and one Iokastos appears on its coinage at the
beginning of the 13th century BC. The land around Reggio was first
known as Saturnia, or Neptunia, and later Italia, which in Roman times
became the name of the whole Italian peninsula. In those days however,
it corresponded only to present-day, southern Calabria, which later
came to be known as Bruttium, while the name Italia (Italy), in fact,
was first used only for the area of Reggio itself.
Cumae , Reggio is one of the oldest Greek colonies in southern
Italy. The colony was settled by the inhabitants of
Chalcis in 730 or
743 BC on the site of the older settlement, Erythrà (Ερυθρά),
meaning "the Red one". This dated back to the 3rd millennium BC and
was perhaps established by the
Ausones . The last Ausonian ruler was
king Italós , from whom the name of
Italy is derived. King Iokastos
is buried on the Punta Calamizzi promontory, called "Pallantiòn",
where Greek settlers later arrived. The colony retained the earlier
name of "Rhégion" (Ρήγιoν).
Under Greek rule, Reggio became a Polis of
Magna Græcia and an ally
Athens ; it was also first an ally and then an enemy of nearby
Locri . Rhégion was governed by the Messenians, from 737 to 461 BC;
by Syracuse from 387 to 351 BC, when it was known as Phœbèa and
subsequently by the Campanians but between the 5th–3rd centuries BC,
from time to time, it was also a republic . Reggio was one of the most
important cities in
Greater Greece , reaching great economic and
political power during the 5th and 6th centuries BC under the Anaxilas
Anaxilas allowed Reggio to rule over all the Messina
Strait , including
Messina ). Rhegion later allied with
Athens during the
Peloponnesian War until 387 BC when the city was
taken by the Syracusans .
Throughout classical antiquity Rhégion remained an important
maritime and commercial city as well as a cultural centre as is
demonstrated by the presence of academies of art, philosophy and
science, such as the Pythagorean School and also by its well-known
poet, Íbykos , the historian, Ippys, the musicologist, Glaúkos and
the sculptors Pythagóras and Kléarkhos .
Under the Greek rule, the former Italic culture was amalgamated into
the Hellenic before disappearing altogether.
As an independent city since 271 BC Regium was an important ally and
"socia navalis" of Rome. During the Imperial age it became one of the
most important and flourishing cities of southern
Italy when it was
the seat of the "Corrector", the Governor of "Regio II Lucania et
Bruttii" (province of Lucany and Brutium). During the
Roman Empire it
was elected a Municipium and named "Rhegium Julium" as a noble Roman
city. It was a central pivot for both maritime and mainland traffic,
reached by the final part of the
Via Popilia (also known as Via
Annia), which was built in the 2nd century BC and joined the older,
Via Appia at
Capua , south of Rome. Close to Reggio, on the Straits of
Messina, was the busy port of Columna Rhegina. Rhegium boasted in
imperial times, nine thermal baths, one of which is still visible
today on the sea-front. During the whole Latin age Reggio maintained
not only its Greek customs and language but also its Mint .
In 61 AD the apostle
St. Paul passed through Rhegium on his final
voyage towards Rome, converting the first local Christians and,
according to tradition, laying the foundations of the Christianization
of Bruttium. Due to its seismic activity, the Reggio area was often
damaged by earthquakes, such as in 91 BC, when it was destroyed but
then was rebuilt by order of the Emperor
Augustus . Other memorable
shocks took place in the years 17, 305 and 374 AD.
Invasions by the
Vandals , the
Lombards and the
Goths occurred in the
5th- 6th centuries, and then, under
Byzantine rule, Reggio became, a
Metropoli of the
Byzantine possessions in
Italy and several times
between 536 and 1060 AD was also the capital of the Duchy of Calabria
. Following wars between the
Lombards and Byzantines in the 6th
century, present-day Calabria, then known as Bruttium, was renamed
As Reggio was a
Byzantine centre of culture, certain monks undertook
the work of scribes and carried out the transcription of ancient
classical works. Until the 15th century Reggio was one of the most
important Greek-rite Bishoprics in
Italy and even today Greek words
are used and are recognisable in local speech and
Byzantine terms can
be found in local liturgy, in religious icons and even in local
Reggio in a medieval engraving.
Numerous occupying armies came to Reggio during the early Middle Ages
due to the city's strategic importance. The
Arabs occupied Reggio in
918 and sold most of its inhabitants into slavery. For brief periods
in the 10th–11th centuries the city was ruled by the
renamed Rivàh (or sometimes Rŷu), became part of the Emirate of
Sicily . During the period of Arab rule various beneficial ideas were
introduced into Calabria, such as Citrus fruit trees, Mulberry trees
(used in silk production) and several ways of cooking local vegetables
such as aubergines. The
Arabs introduced water ices and ice cream and
also greatly improved agricultural and hydraulic techniques for
In 1060 the
Normans , under
Robert Guiscard and Roger I of
captured Reggio but Greek cultural and religious elements persisted
until the 17th century. In 1194 Reggio and the whole of southern Italy
went to the Hohenstaufen , who held it until 1266. In 1234 the town
fair was established by decree of Emperor Frederick II .
From 1266 it was ruled by the Angevins , under whom life in Calabria
deteriorated because of the their tendency to accumulate wealth in
their capital, Naples, leaving
Calabria in the power of local Barons.
In 1282, during the
Sicilian Vespers , Reggio rallied in support of
Messina and the other oriental
Sicily cities because of the shared
history, commercial and cultural interests. From 1147 to 1443 and
again from 1465 to 1582, Reggio was the capital of the Calabrian
Giustizierato. It supported the Aragonese forces against the House of
Anjou. In the 14th century it obtained new administrative powers. In
1459 the Aragonese enlarged its medieval castle.
Reggio, throughout the Middle Ages, was first an important centre of
calligraphy and then of printing after its inventions, boasting the
first dated printed edition of a
Hebrew , a
Rashi commentary on the
Pentateuch , printed in 1475 in
La Giudecca of Reggio although
Rome as the city where
Hebrew printing began. The
Jewish Community was also considered to be among the foremost
internationally, for the dyeing and the trading of silk : silk woven
in Reggio was esteemed and bought by the Spaniards, the Genoese, the
Dutch, the English and the Venetians, as it was recognised as the best
silk in the Kingdom of Naples.
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
From the early 16th century, the Kingdom of
Naples was under the
Habsburgs of Spain, who put Reggio undet a viceroy from 1504 to 1713.
The 16th and 17th centuries were an age of decay due to high Spanish
taxes, pestilence, the 1562 earthquake, and the Ottoman Turkish
invasions suffered by Reggio between 1534 and 1594. In 1534, facing
attack by an Ottoman fleet under
Hayreddin Barbarossa the townspeople
abandoned Reggio. Barbarossa captured eight hundred of those who
remained, and then burned the town. After
Barbary pirates attacked
Reggio in 1558, they took most of its inhabitants as slaves to Tripoli
In 1714 southern
Italy became once more property of the Austrian
Habsburgs who remained until 1734, when they were replaced by the
Bourbons of Spain. Reggio was the capital of
Calabria Ulteriore Prima
from 1759 to 1860. In 1783, a disastrous earthquake damaged Reggio,
The precious citrus fruit,
Bergamot orange , had been cultivated and
used in the Reggio area since the 15th century. By 1750 it was being
grown intensively in the Rada Giunchi area of Reggio and was the first
plantation of its kind in the world.
Napoleon Bonaparte took Reggio and made the city a Duchy and
General Headquarters. After the former's fall, in 1816, the two
ancient Kingdoms of
Naples and of
Sicily were unified becoming the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies .
During the course of the 19th century new public gardens were laid
out, the piazzas (or squares) were embellished and cafés and a
theatre were opened. On the newly opened sea promenade a Civic Museum
was inaugurated. In fact, some 60 years after the devastation caused
by the 1783 earthquake, the English traveller and painter Edward Lear
remarked "Reggio is indeed one vast garden, and doubtless one of the
loveliest spots to be seen on earth. A half-ruined castle, beautiful
in colour and picturesque in form, overlooks all the long city, the
wide straits, and snow-topped Mongibello beyond."
LATE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY
Effects of the 1908 earthquake . Reggio di
On 21 August 1860, during the famous "Battaglia di Piazza Duomo"
(Cathedral Square Battle),
Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered the Kingdom of
the Two Sicilies . Bruno Antonio Rossi (the mayor of Reggio after the
historian Domenico Spanò Bolani, who helped the citizenship during
the previous turbulent years) was the first in the kingdom to proclaim
the new Garibaldi Dictatorship and the end of the rule of Francis II .
On 28 December 1908, at 5:21 AM, the town was hit by a heavy
earthquake and shook violently for 31 seconds. Damage was even worse
Messina across the Straits. It is estimated that 25,000 people
perished in Reggio and 65,000 in Messina. Reggio lost 27% of its
Messina lost 42%. Ten minutes after the catastrophic
earthquake those who tried to escape running towards the open spaces
of the coast were engulfed by a 10 metre high tsunami . Three waves of
6–12 metres swept away the whole waterfront. The 1908 Messina
earthquake remains one of the worst on record in modern western
During the World War II, due to its strategic military position, it
suffered a devastating air raid and was used as the invasion target by
the British Eighth Army in 1943 which led to the city's capture. After
the war Reggio recovered considerably. During 1970–71 the city was
the scene of a popular uprising – known as the Moti di Reggio –
against the government choice of
Catanzaro as capital of the newly
instituted Region of Calabria. The revolt was taken over by young
neofascists of the
Italian Social Movement , backed by the
'Ndrangheta , a
Mafia -type criminal organisation based in Calabria.
Calabria protests were the expression of malcontent about
cronyism and the lack of industrial planning. Between the 1970s and
the 1980s Reggio went through twenty years of an increase in organized
crime by the
'Ndrangheta as well as urban decay. The town is home to
several \'ndrine , such as the Condello -Imerti and the De Stefano
-Tegano clans, which were involved in bloody wars against each other
during this period. The
'Ndrangheta extorts protection money ("pizzo
") from every shop and viable business in town and has more power than
the city council in awarding licences to retailers.
The spiral of corruption reached its zenith in the early 1990s. The
sitting mayor at the time, Agatino Licandro , made a confession
reporting "suitcases coming into city hall stuffed with money but
going out empty". As a result of the nationwide corruption scandals
most of the city council was arrested. Since the early 1990s, the
so-called "Primavera di Reggio" (Reggio Spring) – a spontaneous
movement of people and government institutions – encouraged city
recovery and a renewed and stronger identity. The symbol of the Reggio
Spring is the Lungomare Falcomatà, the sea-side boulevard named after
Italo Falcomatà, the centre-left mayor who initiated the recovery of
On 9 October 2012, the Italian government decided to dissolve the
city council of Reggio
Calabria for infiltration by the 'Ndrangheta.
The move came after some councillors were suspected of having ties to
the powerful crime syndicate, under the 10-year centre-right rule of
Giuseppe Scopelliti, mayor from 2002 to 2010. His successor, the
centre-right mayor Demetrio Arena and all 30 city councilors were
sacked to prevent any "mafia contagion" in the local government. It
was the first time that the entire government of a provincial capital
has been dismissed over suspected links to organized crime. Three
commissioners ran the city for 18 months until a new election .
According to anti-mafia investigators in 2016, Scopelliti was elected
thanks to votes from the 'Ndrangheta.
EARTHQUAKES IN HISTORY
Main article: List of earthquakes in
Reggio has been destroyed by earthquakes several times over the
centuries, such as in 91 BC, after which the city was reconstructed by
order of the Emperor Augustus, followed by another in the year 17 AD;
yet another one in 305 AD, and again another in 374. In 1562 one
destroyed the natural, medieval port of the city and brought about the
submersion of the Calamizzi promontory, known in ancient times as the
Pallantiòn, where, we are told, the first Greek settlers, the
Calcidesi, had set foot. The particularly devastating of 1783 and that
of 1908, which was the worst natural calamity to take place in Europe
in human memory, both profoundly altered the urban aspect of the city,
due to the successive re-building which gave the present-day layout of
straight, intersecting roads, planned by Giovanbattista Mori in 1784
and by Pietro De Nava in 1911. But some town-planning policies at the
time were decided upon with no respect for the architectural history
of Reggio, as is shown by the demolition of the remaining Norman part
of the Castle, following the last big in 1923.
EUROPEAN TRAVELLERS WHO VISITED REGGIO
Although Reggio and
Calabria in general were less popular
Naples for the first Northern European
travellers, several famous names such as the Flemish Pieter Bruegel
(in c. 1550), the German Johann Hermann von Riedesel (in 1767), the
Frenchmen Jean Claude Richard de Saint-Non (in 1778) and
1817), the British travellers
Henry Swinburne (in c. 1775), Richard
Keppel Craven (in c. 1820),
Craufurd Tait Ramage (in 1828), the Strutt
Elizabeth Byron (in 1840),
Edward Lear (in 1847), Norman
Douglas (in 1911),
D. H. Lawrence (in c. 1920) and
Eric Whelpton (in
1950s) and the Belgian
Jules Destrée (in 1915 and in 1930) visited
With an exceptionally high population density, Reggio
cited as having the least green space in a study of 386 European
cities. The study reported that green space coverage varied markedly,
averaging 18.6 per cent and "ranging from 1.9 (Reggio di Calabria,
Italy) to 46 (Ferrol, Spain) per cent." The study further reported
"Per capita green space provision varied by two orders of magnitude,
from 3 to 4 m2 per person in Cádiz, Fuenlabrada and Almería
(Spain) and Reggio di
Calabria (Italy) to more than 300 m2 in Liège
(Belgium), Oulu (Finland) and Valenciennes (France)."
According to the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification , Reggio Calabria
possesses a typical
Mediterranean climate (Köppen : Csa). Its climate
is mostly identical with
Messina which lies on the other side of the
Precipitation is the only exception because
approximately 300 mm (12 in) more.
CLIMATE DATA FOR REGGIO CALABRIA
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM)
Servizio Meteorologico (1971–2000 data)
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION AND CITY GOVERNMENT
The municipality of Reggio is divided into 15 sub-municipalities
(Circoscrizioni) containing the frazioni ("subdivisions", mainly
villages and hamlets) of
Catona , Gallico, Archi, Pentimele, Gallina,
Mosorrofa (Greek : Messorofè), Ortì (Greek : Orthioi), Pellaro
(Greek : Pèllaros) and Saracinello. They are: Centro Storico (1st);
Pineta Zerbi, Tremulini and Eremo (2nd); Santa Caterina, San Brunello
and Vito (3rd); Trabochetto, Condera and Spirito Santo (4th); Rione
Ferrovieri, Stadio and Gebbione (5th); Sbarre (6th); San Giorgio,
Scido and San Sperato (7th); Catona, Salice, Rosalì and Villa
San Giuseppe (8th); Gallico and Sambatello (9th); Archi (10th); Ortì,
Podàrgoni and Terreti (11th); Cannavò, Mosorrofa and Cataforio
(12th); Ravagnese, San Gregorio, Croce Valanidi and Trunca (13th);
Pellaro and Bocale (15th).
Calabria is twinned with:
Patras , Greece
Athens , Greece, since 2003
Egaleo , Greece, since 2004
Cesana Torinese , Italy, since 2006
Montesilvano , Italy, since 2009
Fairfield City ,
View on the
Strait of Messina by the beach of Reggio
Reggio retains a somewhat rural ambience despite its sizable
population. Industry in the city revolves primarily around agriculture
and export, fruits, tobacco, briar and the precious essence of the
bergamot which is used in perfume production. Reggio is a port city
with a sizeable fishing industry.
The beaches of the city have become a popular tourist destination .,
even if the sea is often polluted by untreated sewers . Tourism is
distributed between the Ionian coast (Costa Jonica), the Tyrrhenian
coast (the Costa Viola, Purple Coast) and the
behind the city, containing the natural reserve of the Aspromonte
National Park where, at 1,300–1,950 metres above sea level, there is
a panoramic view of the
Strait of Messina from the snowy mount Etna to
Aeolian Islands . Bathing establishments along the beach
Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
Castle Cathedral. Cilea Theatre. Giudecca
Street. Villa Genoese-Zerbi.
CASTLES, CHURCHES AND CATHEDRALS
* The Castle, originally built before 540 AD and enlarged by the
Normans and later by the Aragonese in 1459, unfortunately partially
torn in the late 19th century and in 1923, is now home to art
* The Cathedral of Reggio, re-built after the last earthquake ,
actually the largest religious building in
* The Church of Saint
Gaetano Catanoso , in the Santo Spirito
neighborhood. It houses the namesake saint's glass tomb, in the
sanctuary as well as museum exhibits.
* The Church of the Optimates constructed in
style, containing medieval artistic items of interest.
MUSEUMS, PALACES AND THEATRES
* The National Archaeological Museum of Magna Græcia, dedicated to
Ancient Greece , heir of the previous City Museum (created in 1819);
its building was built in 1932 with project of Marcello Piacentini
under the auspices of Archæological Superintendent Edoardo Galli.
* The Villa Genoese-Zerbi is a modern villa in 14th century Venetian
Neo-Gothic ). It is the seat of exhibition of the Venice
Biennale in southern Italy.
* The Palazzo Nesci is a mansion in Neoclassical style; it is one of
the few 19th-century buildings survived to the 1908 earthquake .
* The Pinacoteca Comunale ("Town Art Gallery") houses works by
Abraham Served by the Angels and St. Jerome in
Mattia Preti ,
Luca Giordano , Giuseppe Benessai and
* The Piccolo Museo San Paolo, a museum with a collection of
Byzantine and Russian artistic items.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND NATURAL SITES
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* Soprintendenza alle Antichità della Calabria, established in 1907
as Archeological Superintendence of Bruttium and Lucania.
Riace bronzes , that can be seen at the important National
Greater Greece , are some of the main touristic destinations
* The Lungomare Falcomatà, a seaside promenade located in the
downtown, is a swimming destination and main symbol of the summer
movida ; it was defined by Nando Martellini , quoting the poet
Gabriele D\'Annunzio , as "the most beautiful kilometre of Italy".
* The botanic gardens facing the sea.
* The walls of the ancient city, one of the few remaining examples
of the original Greek walls, are divided into four separate sections.
The one at the Falcomatà Seaside dates to the 5th–4th century BC
and is attributed to the city's reconstruction by Dionysius II of
* The remains of Roman baths, along the sea promenade.
* The archaeological excavations of Piazza Italia, which was the
central square of Reggio since
Greater Greece age until today.
* The archaeological site of Griso Laboccetta, an ancient Greek and
Roman sacred area.
* The archaeological excavations nearby Church San Giorgio al Corso.
* Other sites of archæological interest in the upper-eastern part
of the city, such as a Greek mansion, a necropolis, or some ancient
Greek walls and
Byzantine items of interest nearby Reggio Campi
NEW WATERFRONT: MUSEUM AND PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE
The new waterfront, designed by architect
Zaha Hadid , is located on
a narrow strait separating
Sicily . The museum (13,400 m2)
draws inspiration from the organic form of the starfish, utilizing a
radial symmetry to coordinate communication and circulation between
different program elements: exhibition spaces, restoration facilities,
archive, aquarium and library. A second, multifunctional building
(8,000 m2), comprises two separate elements, placed around a partially
covered piazza. It houses offices, gyms, craft laboratories, cinema
and flexible auditoria.
Arena dello Stretto, hosts musical and theatrical events.
LITERATURE AND THEATRE
* Teatro Comunale "Francesco Cilea": Municipal Theatre, firstly
inaugurated in 1818 as Real Teatro Borbonio, it was rebuilt in a
different place after the 1908 earthquake .
* Politeama "Siracusa": multi-purpose theatre inaugurated in 1922
inside a Liberty style building.
* Biblioteca Comunale "Pietro De Nava": the Municipal Library, the
most long-standing of its kind in Calabria, was inaugurated in 1818 as
Regia Biblioteca Ferdinandiana and set in its present-day building in
1928, after the last earthquake.
* Università "Mediterranea" : established in 1968, it is the first
* Università per Stranieri "Dante Alighieri": it is one of the
three Italian Universities for Foreigners; created in 1984 it includes
several Linguistic and Philology courses.
* Accademia di Belle Arti : the Academy of Fine Arts, established in
1967 is the most long-standing of its kind in
Calabria and the third
one in Southern Italy.
* Conservatorio Musicale "
Francesco Cilea ": founded in 1927, the
most ancient Conservatory of Music in Calabria, was then dedicated to
the musician from
* Liceo Classico "
Tommaso Campanella ", established in 1814 as Real
Joachim Murat government; poet Diego Vitrioli , from
Reggio, attended this college.
* Liceo Scientifico "Leonardo da Vinci", founded in the 1920s, under
For more information, see Category:People from Reggio
* Agatho (7th century), pope born in
Umberto Boccioni (1882–1916), painter/sculptor
Diego Carpitella (1924–1990), ethno-musicologist
Gaetano Catanoso (1879–1963), saint, priest born in Choriò
Francesco Cilea (1866–1950), musician and composer born in Palmi
* Clearchus (7th–6th century BC), sculptor
Theagenes of Rhegium (6th century BC), literary critic
Proclus of Rhegium (1st–2nd century), physician
* Giuseppe De Nava (1858–1924), politician
* Rocco de Zerbi (1843–1924), born in
Giuseppe Filianoti , (1974), operatic tenor
* Alfonso Frangipane (1881–1970), born in
* Glaucus of Rhegium (5th century BC), historian
Ibycus (6th century BC), poet
* Iokastos (13th century BC), probably king of Reggio
* Giuseppe Logoteta (1758–1799), politician
Luigi Malice (1937), painter/sculptor born in
Tito Minniti (1909–1935), pilot
Domingo Periconi (1883–1940), painter
Raffaele Piria (1814–1865), chemist born in Scilla
* Pythagoras (6th–5th century BC), sculptor born in
Mino Reitano (1944–2009), singer born in
Leopoldo Trieste (1917–2003), actor and movie director
Gianni Versace (1946–1997), fashion designer
Donatella Versace (born 1955), fashion designer
Santo Versace (born 1944), fashion designer and politician
Goffredo Zehender (1901–1958), Grand Prix driver
Calabria metro area transport system
Reggio is a road junction on the SS18
Naples -Reggio and on the SS106
Taranto roads and also on the A2 Salerno-Reggio motorway .
The Tramway of Reggio was operative since 1918 until 1937. Tramway
line was 5.3 km long, from Sbarre district (southern suburbs) until
Annunziata bridge (northern part of town centre) passing by the whole
It has an important main central railway station , the largest in
Calabria, opened in 1866, with ten smaller stations.
Port of Reggio was enlarged after the 1908 earthquake.
View on Reggio
Reggio Calabria, served by air from the Reggio
Calabria Airport (IATA
ICAO : LICR) also known as Aeroporto dello Stretto or Tito
Minniti Airport, is located a few kilometres south of Reggio.
Fatti di Reggio
* List of mayors of Reggio
* Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reggio-Bova
* ^ Spanò Bolani, Domenico. Storia di Reggio da\' Tempi Primitivi
sino all\'anno di Cristo 1797. Stamperia e Cartiere del Fibreno,
Napoli, 1857. ISBN 8874481535 .
* ^ Spanò Bolani, Domenico. Storia di Reggio da\' Tempi Primitivi
sino all\'anno di Cristo 1797. Stamperia e Cartiere del Fibreno,
Napoli, 1857. ISBN 8874481535 .
* ^ "Dizionario d\'ortografia e di pronunzia".
* ^ "E Reggio
Calabria diventa "metropoli"". Retrieved 26 March
* ^ "Area dello Stretto:
Messina rilancia". Retrieved 26 March
* ^ Corno, Massimo. "L\'Italia è un paese ad alto rischio sismico
- Protezione Civile Imbersago".
* ^ "Reggio: Presentata ufficialmente la candidatura a Capitale
Europea della Cultura 2019". Retrieved 26 March 2015.
* ^ Storia di Reggio di
Calabria ... sino all\'anno ... 1797 –
Domenico Spanň Bolani. Books.google.it. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
* ^ A B C D E F G H Alessandro Gioffrè d'Ambra and others Reggio
Centro del Mediterraneo - un excursus storico di 3500 anni, Club
UNESCO 'Re Italo', Provincia di Reggio, Tipografia Enotria, Reggio di
Calabria, May 2014
* ^ A B C D E F Domenico Spanò Bolani, Storia di Reggio – da'
tempi primitivi sino all'anno 1797 • Stamperia e Cartiere del
Fibreno, Naples, 1857 Cite error: Invalid tag; name
"books.google.it" defined multiple times with different content (see
the help page ).
* ^ Lessico Universale Italiano XI, "Italo", Enciclopedia Italiana
Treccani, Roma, 1973.
* ^ De Gregorio, Lucia. "Le Terme Romane di Reggio Calabria. La
ricerca archeologica tra il 1881 e il 1924",
Calabria Sconosciuta n.
139/140– Azienda Grafica Biroccio, Reggio di Calabria
* ^ (Acts XXVIII:13)
* ^ AAVV "Reggio di Calabria" in "L'Italia - Basilicata e
Calabria", Touring Club Italiano, La Repubblica, Pioltello, 2005
* ^ Western Europe on the Eve of the Crusades, Sidney Painter, A
History of the Crusades, Vol. I, ed. Kenneth M. Setton and Marshall W.
Baldwin, (University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), p. 50.
* ^ A B C Mario Caligiuri, Breve Storia della Calabria. Newton
accessed 26 March 2015.
* ^ Roger Crowley, Empires of the Sea, faber and faber 2008 p.58
* ^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic
period, pg. 191.
* ^ Edward Lear, Journals of a landscape painter in Southern
Calabria, R. Bentley, London, 1852
* ^ Reggio
Calabria commemorates its 1908 earthquake victims, on
* ^ The 28 December 1908
Messina Straits Earthquake (Mw 7.1): A
Great Earthquake throughout a Century of Seismology, Historical
Seismologist, March/April 2009.
* ^ Partridge, Italian politics today, p. 50.
* ^ Paoli,
Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 198.
* ^ A B C Town the mafia shut down, The Independent, 4 February
* ^ Godfather\'s arrest fuels fear of bloody conflict, The
Observer, 24 February 2008.
* ^ Dieci anni senza Italo, il sindaco della primavera di Reggio
Calabria, Corriere della Calabria, 11 December 2011.
* ^ Sprechi e mafia in Calabria, repubblica.it, 23 September 2012.
Italy sacks Reggio
Calabria council over \'mafia ties\', BBC
News, 9 October 2012.
* ^ Il Viminale scioglie per mafia il comune di Reggio Calabria,
Repubblica.it, 9 October 2012.
* ^ Secret \
'Ndrangheta cupola \'picked men for parliament\', Ansa,
July 15, 2016
* ^ Giuseppe Caruso, "Il Castello Aragonese di Reggio Calabria" ·
Caruso Edizioni, Reggio di C, 2016
* ^ AA VV (attualmente a cura di: Carmelina Sicari, Gaetanina
Sicari Ruffo, Luciana Polimeni, Sara Polimeni, Cettina Nostro, Antonio
Maria Leone; fondata da Giuseppe Polimeni)
Calabria Sconosciuta ·
case editrici varie, redazione in Reggio di Calabria, 1978~2013
* ^ Richard A. Fuller, and Kevin J. Gaston, The scaling of green
space coverage in European cities, Biol Lett. 2009 Jun 23; 5(3):
352–355, Published online 2009 Feb 25, retrieved 2016-04-07
* ^ "Reggio
Calabria (RC) 21 m. s.l.m. (a.s.l.)" (PDF). Servizio
Meteorologico. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
* ^ "Patto di amicizia tra Reggio e Montesilvano".
* ^ "Sister cities of Fairfield City". Archived from the original
* ^ "Reggio di Calabria". Questia.com. January 8, 2008.
* ^ "E Nando Martellini lanciò il più bel chilometro d’Italia.
D’annunzio? Mai messo piede a Reggio".
* ^ A Londra la firma per il waterfront di Reggio Calabria.
archiportale.com. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
* Paoli, Letizia (2003).
Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime,
Italian Style, New York:
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press ; ISBN 0-19-515724-9
(Organized-crime.de, Review by Klaus Von Lampe) (CCKA-ACJP.ca, Review
by Alexandra V. Orlova)
* Partridge, Hilary (1998). Italian politics today, Manchester:
Manchester University Press ; ISBN 0-7190-4944-X
See also: Bibliography of the history of Reggio
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for REGGIO DI CALABRIA .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to REGGIO CALABRIA .
* Official website
* Official tourist site
* The City of Reggio