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A. f. fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825 A. f. styani Thomas, 1902[2][3]

Range of the red panda

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas
Himalayas
and southwestern China.[1] It has reddish-brown fur, a long, shaggy tail, and a waddling gait due to its shorter front legs; it is roughly the size of a domestic cat, though with a longer body and somewhat heavier. It is arboreal, feeds mainly on bamboo, but also eats eggs, birds, and insects. It is a solitary animal, mainly active from dusk to dawn, and is largely sedentary during the day. The red panda has been classified as Endangered by the IUCN
IUCN
because its wild population is estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals and continues to decline due to habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, and inbreeding depression, although red pandas are protected by national laws in their range countries.[1][4] The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus and the family Ailuridae. It has been previously placed in the raccoon and bear families, but the results of phylogenetic analysis provide strong support for its taxonomic classification in its own family, Ailuridae, which is part of the superfamily Musteloidea, along with the weasel, raccoon and skunk families.[5] Two subspecies are recognized.[3] It is not closely related to the giant panda, which is a basal ursid.

Contents

1 Physical characteristics 2 Distribution and habitat

2.1 Distribution of subspecies

3 Biology and behavior

3.1 Behavior 3.2 Diet 3.3 Reproduction

4 Threats 5 Conservation

5.1 In situ initiatives 5.2 In captivity

6 As pets 7 Phylogenetics

7.1 Evolutionary history 7.2 Taxonomic
Taxonomic
history

8 Local names 9 Cultural depictions 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 Further reading 12 External links

Physical characteristics

Red panda
Red panda
descending head first

Red panda
Red panda
skull

The head and body length of a red panda measures 50 to 64 cm (20 to 25 in), and its tail is 28 to 59 cm (11 to 23 in). Males weigh 3.7 to 6.2 kg (8.2 to 13.7 lb) and females 3 to 6.0 kg (6.6 to 13.2 lb).[6][7][8] They have long, soft, reddish-brown fur on the upper parts, blackish fur on the lower parts, and a light face with tear markings and robust cranio-dental features. The light face has white badges similar to those of a raccoon, but each individual can have distinctive markings. Their roundish heads have medium-sized upright ears, black noses, and blackish eyes. Their long, bushy tails with six alternating transverse ochre rings provide balance and excellent camouflage against their habitat of moss- and lichen-covered trees. The legs are black and short with thick fur on the soles of the paws. This fur serves as thermal insulation on snow-covered or icy surfaces and conceals scent glands, which are also present on the anus.[9] The red panda is specialized as a bamboo feeder with strong, curved and sharp semi-retractile claws[6] standing inward for grasping narrow tree branches, leaves, and fruit. Like the giant panda, it has a “false thumb” which is an extension of the wrist bone. When descending a tree head-first, the red panda rotates its ankle to control its descent, one of the few climbing species to do so.[10] Distribution and habitat

Red panda
Red panda
sleeping

The red panda is endemic to the temperate forests of the Himalayas, and ranges from the foothills of western Nepal
Nepal
to China
China
in the east.[11] Its easternmost limit is the Qinling Mountains
Qinling Mountains
of the Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Province
in China. Its range includes southern Tibet, Sikkim and Assam
Assam
in India, Bhutan, the northern mountains of Burma, and in south-western China, in the Hengduan Mountains
Hengduan Mountains
of Sichuan
Sichuan
and the Gongshan Mountains in Yunnan. It may also live in south-west Tibet
Tibet
and northern Arunachal Pradesh, but this has not been documented. Locations with the highest density of red pandas include an area in the Himalayas
Himalayas
that has been proposed as having been a refuge for a variety of endemic species in the Pleistocene. The distribution range of the red panda should be considered disjunct, rather than continuous.[6] A disjunct population inhabits the Meghalaya Plateau of north-eastern India.[12] During a survey in the 1970s, signs of red pandas were found in Nepal's Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve.[13] Their presence was confirmed in spring 2007 when four red pandas were sighted at elevations ranging from 3,220 to 3,610 m (10,560 to 11,840 ft).[14] The species' westernmost limit is in Rara National Park
Rara National Park
located farther west of the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve.[15] Their presence was confirmed in 2008.[16] The red panda lives between 2,200 and 4,800 m (7,200 and 15,700 ft) altitude, inhabiting areas of moderate temperature between 10 and 25 °C (50 and 77 °F) with little annual change. It prefers mountainous mixed deciduous and conifer forests, especially with old trees and dense understories of bamboo.[6][11] The red panda population in Sichuan
Sichuan
Province is larger and more stable than the Yunnan
Yunnan
population, suggesting a southward expansion from Sichuan
Sichuan
into Yunnan
Yunnan
in the Holocene.[17] The red panda has become extirpated from the Chinese provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Qinghai.[18] Distribution of subspecies Distribution of the red panda is disjointed, with two extant subspecies:

Western red panda A. f. fulgens (Cuvier, 1825) lives in the western part of its range, in Nepal, Assam, Sikkim, and Bhutan. Styan's red panda A. f. styani lives in the east-north-eastern part of its range, in southern China
China
and northern Burma.[19]

A. f. styani has been described by Thomas in 1902 based on one skull from a specimen collected in Sichuan.[2] Pocock distinguished A. f. styani from A. f. fulgens by its longer winter coat and greater blackness of the pelage, bigger skull, more strongly curved forehead, and more robust teeth. His description is based on skulls and skins collected in Sichuan, Myitkyina close to the border of Yunnan, and Upper Burma.[9] The Styan's red panda is supposedly larger and darker in color than the Western member of the species, but with considerable variation in both subspecies, and some individuals may be brown or yellowish brown rather than red.[11] The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River is often considered the natural division between the two subspecies, where it makes a curve around the eastern end of the Himalayas, although some authors suggest A. f. fulgens extends farther eastward, into China. Biology and behavior Behavior

Sounds of red panda twittering

The red panda is territorial; it is solitary except during mating season. The species is generally quiet except for some twittering, tweeting, and whistling communication sounds. It has been reported to be both nocturnal and crepuscular, sleeping on tree branches or in tree hollows during the day and increasing its activity in the late afternoon and early evening hours. It sleeps stretched out on a branch with legs dangling when it is hot, and curled up with its tail over the face when it is cold.[6] This animal is very heat sensitive, with an optimal “well-being” temperature between 17 and 25 °C (63 and 77 °F), and cannot tolerate temperatures over 25 °C (77 °F).

Red panda
Red panda
standing

Shortly after waking, red pandas clean their fur somewhat like a cat would, licking their front paws and then rubbing their backs, torsos, and sides. They also rub their backs and bellies along the sides of trees or rocks. Then they patrol their territories, marking with urine and a weak musk-smelling secretion from their anal glands. They search for food running along the ground or through the trees. Red pandas may use their forepaws alternately to bring food to their mouths or place food directly into their mouths.[6] Predators of the red panda include the snow leopard, mustelids, and humans. If they feel threatened or sense danger, they may try to escape by climbing a rock column or tree. If they can no longer flee, they stand on their hind legs to make themselves appear larger and use the sharp claws on their front paws to defend themselves. A red panda, Futa, became a visitor attraction in Japan
Japan
for his ability to stand upright for ten seconds at a time[citation needed]. Diet

Play media

Red panda
Red panda
gnawing

Red pandas are excellent climbers, and forage largely in trees. They eat mostly bamboo, and may eat small mammals, birds, eggs, flowers, and berries. In captivity, they were observed to eat birds, flowers, maple and mulberry leaves, and bark and fruits of maple, beech, and mulberry.[6] Like the giant panda, they cannot digest cellulose, so they must consume a large volume of bamboo to survive. Their diets consist of about two-thirds bamboo, but they also eat mushrooms, roots, acorns, lichens, and grasses. Occasionally, they supplement their diets with fish and insects. They do little more than eat and sleep due to their low-calorie diets.[20][21]

Red panda
Red panda
and its herbivore diet

Bamboo
Bamboo
shoots are more easily digested than leaves, exhibiting the highest digestibility in summer and autumn, intermediate digestibility in the spring, and lowest digestibility in the winter. These variations correlate with the nutrient contents in the bamboo. Red pandas process bamboo poorly, especially the cellulose and cell wall components. This implies microbial digestion plays only a minor role in their digestive strategy. To survive on this poor-quality diet, they have to eat the high-quality sections of the bamboo plant, such as the tender leaves and shoots, in large quantities, over 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) of fresh leaves and 4 kg (8.8 lb) of fresh shoots daily. This food passes through the digestive tract fairly rapidly (about 2–4 hr) so as to maximize daily nutrient intake.[22] Red pandas can taste artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, and are the only nonprimates known to be able to do so.[23] Reproduction

Red panda
Red panda
tending its cub

Red pandas are able to reproduce at around 18 months of age, and are fully mature at two to three years. Adults rarely interact in the wild except to mate. Both sexes may mate with more than one partner during the mating season from mid-January to early March.[24] A few days before birth, females begin to collect material, such as brushwood, grass, and leaves, to build a nest, which is normally located in a hollow tree or a rock crevice. After a gestation period of 112 to 158 days, the female gives birth in mid-June to late July to one to four (usually 1–2) blind and deaf cubs weighing 110 to 130 g (3.9 to 4.6 oz) each.[6] After birth, the mother cleans the cubs, and can then recognize each by its smell. At first, she spends 60% to 90% of her time with the cubs. After the first week, the mother starts spending more time outside the nest, returning every few hours to nurse and groom the cubs. She moves the young frequently among several nests, all of which she keeps clean. The cubs start to open their eyes at about 18 days of age. By about 90 days, they achieve full adult fur and coloring, and begin to venture out of the nest. They also start eating solid foods at this point, weaning at around six to eight months of age. The cubs stay with their mother until the next litter is born in the following summer. Males rarely help raise the young, and only if they live in pairs or in small groups.[6] A red panda's average lifespan is between eight and 10 years, but individuals have been known to reach 15 years[citation needed]. Threats The primary threats to red pandas are direct harvest from the wild, live or dead, competition with domestic livestock resulting in habitat degradation, and deforestation resulting in habitat loss or fragmentation. The relative importance of these factors is different in each region, and is not well understood.[11] For instance, in India, the biggest threat seems to be habitat loss followed by poaching, while in China, the biggest threat seems to be hunting and poaching.[1] A 40% decrease in red panda populations has been reported in China
China
over the last 50 years, and populations in western Himalayan areas are considered to be lower.[18] Deforestation
Deforestation
can inhibit the spread of red pandas and exacerbate the natural population subdivision by topography and ecology, leading to severe fragmentation of the remaining wild population. Fewer than 40 animals in four separate groups share resources with humans in Nepal's Langtang National Park, where only 6% of 1,710 km2 (660 sq mi) is preferred red panda habitat. Although direct competition for food with domestic livestock is not significant, livestock can depress bamboo growth by trampling.[25] Small groups of animals with little opportunity for exchange between them face the risk of inbreeding, decreased genetic diversity, and even extinction. In addition, clear-cutting for firewood or agriculture, including hillside terracing, removes old trees that provide maternal dens and decreases the ability of some species of bamboo to regenerate.[11] In south-west China, red pandas are hunted for their fur, especially for the highly valued bushy tails, from which hats are produced. In these areas, the fur is often used for local cultural ceremonies. In weddings, the bridegroom traditionally carries the hide. The "good-luck charm" red panda-tail hats are also used by local newly-weds.[18] This practice may be quite old, as the red panda seems to be depicted in a 13th-century Chinese pen-and-ink scroll showing a hunting scene. Little or no mention of the red panda is made in the culture and folklore of Nepal.[26] In the past, red pandas were captured and sold to zoos. Angela Glatston reported she had personally handled 350 red pandas in 17 years.[27] Due to CITES, this zoo harvest has decreased substantially in recent years, but poaching continues, and red pandas are often sold to private collectors at exorbitant prices. In some parts of Nepal
Nepal
and India, red pandas are kept as pets.[28] The red panda has a naturally low birth rate (usually one single or twin birth per year), and a high death rate in the wild[citation needed]. Conservation

Closeup of red panda

Red panda
Red panda
resting on a tree

The red panda is listed in CITES
CITES
Appendix I.[29] The species has been classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
since 2008 because the global population is estimated at about 10,000 individuals, with a decreasing population trend; only about half of the total area of potential habitat of 142,000 km2 (55,000 sq mi) is actually being used by the species. Due to their shy and secretive nature, and their largely nocturnal habits, observation of red pandas is difficult. Therefore, population figures in the wild are determined by population density estimates and not direct counts.[1] Worldwide population estimates range from fewer than 2,500[24] to between 16,000 and 20,000 individuals.[12] In 1999, the total population in China
China
was estimated at between 3,000 and 7,000 individuals.[18] In 2001, the wild population in India
India
was estimated at between 5,000 and 6,000 individuals.[12] Estimates for Nepal indicate only a few hundred individuals.[30] No records from Bhutan
Bhutan
or Burma
Burma
exist. Reliable population numbers are hard to find, partly because other animals have been mistaken for the red panda. For instance, one report from Burma
Burma
stated that red pandas were still fairly common in some areas; however, the accompanying photographic proof of the "red panda" is in fact a species of civet.[31] The red panda is protected in all range countries, and hunting is illegal.[1] Beyond this, conservation efforts are highly variable between countries:

China
China
has 35 protected areas, covering about 42.4% of red panda habitat.[1] India
India
has 20 protected areas with known or possible red panda populations in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal
West Bengal
such as Khangchendzonga National Park, Namdapha National Park, and Singalila National Park, and a coordinated conservation policy for the red panda.[1] In Nepal, known populations occur in Langtang National Park, Sagarmatha National Park, Makalu Barun National Park, Rara National Park, Annapurna Conservation Area, Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, and Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve.[32] Bhutan
Bhutan
has five protected areas that support red panda populations.[1] Burma
Burma
has 26 protected areas, of which at least one hosts red panda populations.[1]

In situ initiatives A community-managed forest in Ilam District
Ilam District
of eastern Nepal
Nepal
is home to 15 red pandas which generate household income through tourism activities, including home stays. Villagers in the high-altitude areas of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
have formed the Pangchen Red Panda Conservation Alliance comprising five villages with a community-conserved forest area of 200 km2 (77 sq mi) at an altitude of 2,500 m (8,200 ft) to over 4,000 m (13,000 ft).[33] In captivity

Red panda
Red panda
at Prospect Park Zoo, New York, US

The red panda is quite adaptable to living in captivity, and is common in zoos worldwide. By 1992, more than 300 births had occurred in captivity, and more than 300 individuals lived in 85 institutions worldwide.[34] By 2001, 182 individuals were in North American zoos alone.[35] As of 2006, the international studbook listed more than 800 individuals in zoos and parks around the world. Of these, 511 individuals of subspecies A. f. fulgens were kept in 173 institutions[36] and 306 individuals of subspecies A. f. styani were kept in 81 institutions.[37] The international studbook is currently managed at the Rotterdam Zoo in the Netherlands. In cooperation with the International Red Panda Management Group, they coordinate the Species Survival Plan
Species Survival Plan
in North America, the European Endangered Species Programme
European Endangered Species Programme
in Europe, and other captive-breeding programs in Australia, India, Japan, and China.[37][38] In 2009, Sarah Glass, curator of red pandas and special exhibits at the Knoxville Zoo
Zoo
in Knoxville, Tennessee, was appointed as coordinator for the North American Red Panda Species Survival Plan. The Knoxville Zoo
Zoo
has the largest number of captive red panda births in the Western Hemisphere (101 as of August 2011). Only the Rotterdam Zoo
Zoo
has had more captive births worldwide.[36][37] The Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park
Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park
in Darjeeling, India, successfully released four captive-bred red pandas to the wild in August and November 2003.[38] Three red panda cubs were born in captivity at Hamilton Zoo
Zoo
in New Zealand in December 2012, doubling the number held there.[39] As pets

Red panda
Red panda
in a ginkgo tree

The most often cited example of keeping red pandas as pets is the case of former Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi. Pandas were presented to her family as a gift, and they were then housed in "a special tree house".[40] Phylogenetics Main article: Ailuridae The taxonomic classification of the red panda has been controversial since it was discovered. French zoologist Frédéric Cuvier initially described the red panda in 1825, and classified it as a close relative of the raccoon (Procyonidae), though he gave it the genus name Ailurus, (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
αἴλουρος, "cat"), based on superficial similarities with domestic cats. The specific epithet is the Latin
Latin
adjective fulgens, "shining".[41] At various times, it has been placed in the Procyonidae, Ursidae, with Ailuropoda
Ailuropoda
(giant panda) in the Ailuropodinae
Ailuropodinae
(until this family was moved into the Ursidae), and into its own family, the Ailuridae. This uncertainty comes from difficulty in determining whether certain characteristics of Ailurus are phylogenetically conservative or are derived and convergent with species of similar ecological habits.[6]

Red panda
Red panda
gnawing on an exfoliated bamboo bush

Evidence based on the fossil record, serology, karyology, behavior, anatomy, and reproduction reflect closer affinities with Procyonidae than Ursidae. However, ecological and foraging specializations and distinct geographical distribution in relation to modern procyonids support classification in the separate family Ailuridae.[3][6][42] Recent molecular systematic DNA
DNA
research also places the red panda into its own family, Ailuridae, a part of the broad superfamily Musteloidea
Musteloidea
that also includes the skunk, raccoon, and weasel families.[5][42][43]

It is not a bear, nor closely related to the giant panda, nor a raccoon, nor a lineage of uncertain affinities. Rather it is a basal lineage of musteloid, with a long history of independence from its closest relatives (skunks, raccoons, and otters/weasels/badgers). — Flynn et al., Whence the Red Panda, [5] p. 197

The two subspecies are A. f. fulgens and A. f. styani. However, the name Ailurus fulgens refulgens is sometimes incorrectly used for A. f. styani. This stems from a lapsus made by Henri Milne-Edwards
Henri Milne-Edwards
in his 1874 paper "Recherches pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des mammifères comprenant des considérations sur la classification de ces animaux",[44] making A. f. refulgens a nomen nudum.[9][19] The most recent edition of Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World still shows the subspecies as A. f. refulgens.[3] This has been corrected in more recent works, including A guide to the Mammals of China[45] and Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Volume 1: Carnivores.[46] Evolutionary history

Captive red panda

The red panda is considered a living fossil and only distantly related to the giant panda ( Ailuropoda
Ailuropoda
melanoleuca), as it is naturally more closely related to the other members of the superfamily Musteloidea
Musteloidea
to which it belongs. The common ancestor of both pandas (which also was an ancestor for all living bears; pinnipeds like seals and walruses; and members of the family Musteloidea
Musteloidea
like weasels and otters) can be traced back to the Early Tertiary period tens of millions of years ago, with a wide distribution across Eurasia. Fossils of the extinct red panda Parailurus anglicus have been unearthed from China
China
in the east to Britain in the west.[47] In 1977, a single tooth of Parailurus was discovered in the Pliocene
Pliocene
Ringold Formation of Washington. This first North American record is almost identical to European specimens and indicates the immigration of this species from Asia.[48] In 2004, a tooth from a red panda species never before recorded in North America was discovered at the Gray Fossil Site in Tennessee. The tooth dates from 4.5–7 million years ago. This species, described as Pristinailurus bristoli, indicates that a second, more primitive ailurine lineage inhabited North America during the Miocene. Cladistic analysis suggests that Parailurus and Ailurus are sister taxa.[47][49] Additional fossils of Pristinailurus bristoli were discovered at the Gray Fossil
Fossil
Site in 2010 and in 2012.[50][51] The frequency with which panda fossils are being found at Gray Fossil Site suggests the species played a large role in the overall ecosystem of the area. The discovery in Spain of the postcranial remains of Simocyon batalleri, a Miocene
Miocene
relative to the red panda, supports a sister-group relationship between red pandas and bears. The discovery suggests the red panda's "false thumb" was an adaptation to arboreal locomotion — independent of the giant panda's adaptation to manipulate bamboo — one of the most dramatic cases of convergent evolution among vertebrates.[52] Taxonomic
Taxonomic
history

Captive red panda

The first known written record of the red panda occurs in a 13th-century Chinese scroll depicting a hunting scene between hunters and the red panda.[26][34] Major General Thomas Hardwicke’s 1821 presentation of an article titled "Description of a new Genus of the Class Mammalia, from the Himalaya
Himalaya
Chain of Hills Between Nepaul and the Snowy Mountains" at the Linnean Society
Linnean Society
in London is usually regarded as the moment the red panda became a bona fide species in Western science. Hardwicke proposed the name "wha" and explained: "It is frequently discovered by its loud cry or call, resembling the word ‘Wha’, often repeating the same: hence is derived one of the local names by which it is known. It is also called Chitwa." Hardwicke's paper was not published until 1827, by which time Frédéric Cuvier had published his description and a figure. Hardwicke's originally proposed taxonomic name was removed from the 1827 publication of his paper with his permission, and naming credit is now given to Cuvier.[53] Frédéric Cuvier had received the specimen he described from his brother's stepson, Alfred Duvaucel, who had sent it "from the mountains north of India".[54] He was the first to use both the binomial name Ailurus fulgens and the vernacular name panda in his description of the species published in 1825 in Histoire naturelle des mammifères.[55][56] Ailurus is adopted from the ancient Greek word αἴλουρος (ailouros), meaning "cat".[57] The specific epithet fulgens is Latin
Latin
for "shining, bright".[58] Panda is the French name for the Roman goddess
Roman goddess
of peace and travellers, who was called upon before starting a difficult journey.[59] Whether this is the origin of the French vernacular name panda remains uncertain. Later publications claim the name was adopted from a Himalayan language. In 1847, Hodgson described a red panda under the name Ailurus ochraceus, of which Pocock concluded it represents the same type as Ailurus fulgens, since the description of the two agree very closely. He subordinated both types to the Himalayan red panda subspecies Ailurus fulgens fulgens.[9] Local names

An illustration in the Chinese dictionary Zhonghua Da Zidian, 1915

The red panda's local names differ from place to place. The Lepcha people call it sak nam. In Nepal, the species is called bhalu biralo (bear-cat) and habre. The Sherpa people of Nepal
Nepal
and Sikkim
Sikkim
call it ye niglva ponva and wah donka.[60] The word wậː is Sunuwari meaning bear; in Tamang language, a small, red bear is called tāwām.[61] In the Kanchenjunga region of eastern Nepal, the Limbus know red pandas as kaala, which literally means dark because of their underside pelage; villagers of Tibetan origin call them hoptongar.[62] Additionally, Pocock lists the vernacular names ye and nigálya ponya (Nepal); thokya and thongwa (Limbu); oakdonga or wakdonka and woker (Bhotia); saknam sunam (Lepcha).[9] Nigálya may originate from the Nepali word निङालो niṅālo or nĩgālo meaning a particular kind of small bamboo, namely Arundinaria
Arundinaria
intermedia, but also refers to a kind of small leopard, or cat-bear.[63] The word pónya may originate from the Nepali word पञ्जा pajā meaning claw, or पौँजा paũjā meaning paw of an animal.[64] Nigálya pónya may translate to bamboo claw or paw. Nigálya pónya, nyala ponga,[65] and poonya are said to mean eater of bamboo.[66] The name panda could originate from panjā.[67] In modern Chinese, the red panda is called xiăoxióngmāo (小熊猫/小熊貓, lesser or small panda),[68] or 红熊猫/紅熊貓 (hóngxióngmāo, red panda).[69] In contrast, the giant panda is called dàxióngmāo (大熊猫/大熊貓, giant or big panda), or simply xióngmāo (熊猫/熊貓, panda, literally bear-cat). In English, the red panda is also called lesser panda, though "red" is generally preferred.[citation needed] Many other languages also use red or variations of shining/gold or lesser/small in their names for this species. For instance, червена панда in Bulgarian, panda roux in French, and panda rojo in Spanish all mean "red panda". Since at least as far back as 1855, one of its French names has been panda éclatant (shining panda).[70] In Finnish, it is called kultapanda (gold panda). Variations of lesser panda occur in French petit panda (small panda), Spanish panda menor (lesser panda), Dutch kleine panda (small panda), Russian малая панда (malaya panda, "small panda"), Korean 애기판다 (aeki panda, "baby panda"), and Japanese レッサーパンダ (ressā panda, a transliteration of English "lesser panda")[citation needed]. Other names attributed to this species include fire cat, bright panda, and common panda.[34] Cultural depictions The red panda was recognized as the state animal of Sikkim
Sikkim
in the early 1990s,[71] and was the mascot of the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Tea Festival.[26] In 2005, Babu, a male red panda at Birmingham Nature Centre
Birmingham Nature Centre
in Birmingham, England, escaped[72] and briefly became a media celebrity,[72][73] before being recaptured. He was subsequently voted " Brummie
Brummie
of the Year", the first animal to receive this honor.[72][73] Rusty, a male red panda at the National Zoo
Zoo
in Washington, DC, similarly attracted media attention when he briefly escaped in 2013.[74][75] The name of the Firefox
Firefox
web browser is said to have been derived from a nickname of the red panda.[76][77] An anthropomorphic red panda was featured as Master Shifu, the kungfu teacher, in the 2008 film Kung Fu Panda, and its sequels Kung Fu Panda 2 in 2011 and Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
3 in 2016.[78] The red panda Futa inspired the character of Pabu, the so-called "fire ferret" animal companion (primarily of Bolin), in the U.S. animated TV series The Legend of Korra.[79] References

^ a b c d e f g h i j Glatston, A.; Wei, F.; Than Zaw & Sherpa, A. (2015). "Ailurus fulgens". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T714A110023718. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T714A45195924.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ a b Thomas, O. (1902). "On the Panda of Sze-chuen". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Seventh Series. X. London: Gunther, A.C.L.G., Carruthers, W., Francis, W. pp. 251–252. doi:10.1080/00222930208678667  ^ a b c d Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic
Taxonomic
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China
and Mongolia. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 314–317.  ^ "Red Panda – Diet". Rochester Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ "Red Panda". Birmingham Zoo. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ Wei, F; Feng, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zhou, A.; Hu, J. (1999). "Use of the nutrients in bamboo by the red panda Ailurus fulgens". Journal of Zoology. 248 (4): 535–541. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01053.x.  ^ "Pandas opt for low-cal sweeteners". BBC News. 16 April 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2008.  ^ a b Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker’s Mammals of the World. 2 (sixth ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 695–696. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.  ^ Yonzon, P. B.; Hunter Jr., M. L.; Shobrak; Habibi (1991). "Conservation of the red panda Ailurus fulgens". Biological Conservation. 58 (57): 85. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(91)90046-C.  ^ a b c Glatston 1994 ^ Glatston 1994:11 ^ World Wildlife Fund. "I'm a good luck charm. That's my bad luck". Archived from the original on 17 December 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2009.  ^ "Appendices I, II and III". cites.org. CITES. Retrieved 8 December 2010.  ^ Massicot, P. (2006). " Animal
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Info: Red Panda". Retrieved 2 September 2008.  ^ Glatston 1994:viii ^ Bhuju, U.R., Shakya, P.R., Basnet, T.B., Shrestha, S. (2007) Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book. Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites, and World Heritage Sites. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, in cooperation with United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Kathmandu, ISBN 978-92-9115-033-5 pdf ^ Ghimire, N.; Bhatta, S. D., eds. (December 2010). "Red Pandas from Choyatar". Headlines Himalaya. 138. CS1 maint: Date and year (link) ^ a b c Roberts, M. (1992). "Red Panda: The Fire Cat". Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.  ^ ARKive
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(2008). "Red Panda". Retrieved 2 September 2008.  ^ a b Glatston, Angela (2007). Red Panda International Studbook - Ailurus fulgens fulgens held in zoos in 2006 (PDF). Rotterdam Zoo. Retrieved 13 September 2009.  ^ a b c Glatston, Angela (2007). Red Panda International Studbook - Ailurus fulgens styani held in zoos in 2006 (PDF). Rotterdam Zoo. Retrieved 13 September 2009.  ^ a b Srivastav, Anupam; et al. (July 2009). "National Studbook of Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) Data till May 2009" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Retrieved 26 September 2009. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ "Public to name panda triplets". 3 News NZ. 23 April 2013.  ^ Mahesh Rangarajan (2009). "Striving for a balance: Nature, power, science and India's Indira Gandhi, 1917–1984". Conservation and Society. 7 (4): 299–312. doi:10.4103/0972-4923.65175.  ^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin
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Lynx
Edicions. p. 503. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1.  ^ a b Naish, Darrin (5 April 2008). "The once mighty red panda empire". Tetrapod Zoology. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2010.  ^ Tedford, R.H.; Gustafson, E.P. (1977). "First North American record of the extinct panda Parailurus". Nature. 265 (5595): 621–623. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..621T. doi:10.1038/265621a0.  ^ Wallace, Steven C.; Wang, Xiaoming (30 September 2004). "Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America". Nature. 431 (7008): 556–559. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..556W. doi:10.1038/nature02819. PMID 15457257.  ^ Exclusive: Traces of Red Panda Found in Tennessee
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Archived 3 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. AOl News, 9 August 2010. Retrieved: 23 November 2011. ^ Barber, Rex (May 25, 2012). Second red panda skeleton uncovered at Gray Fossil
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Site. Johnson City Press. Retrieved: 2012-05-25. ^ Salesa, Manuel J.; Mauricio, Antón; Peigné, Stéphane; Morales, Jorge (2006). "Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas". PNAS. 103 (2): 379–382. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103..379S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0504899102. PMC 1326154 . PMID 16387860.  ^ Hardwicke, T. (1827). "Description of a new Genus of the Class Mammalia, from the Himalaya
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Bibliography

IUCN; SSC Mustelid, Viverrid & Procyonid Specialist Group (1994). A. R. Glatston, ed. The Red Panda, Olingos, Coatis, Raccoons, and Their Relatives (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. ISBN 2-8317-0046-9. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 

Further reading

ITIS (USDA Integrated Taxonomic
Taxonomic
Information System). "Ailurus fulgens (Taxonomical Serial No.: 621846)". Retrieved 24 October 2009.  Slattery, J. Pecon; O'Brien, S. J. (1995). "Molecular phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens)". The Journal of Heredity. Oxford University Press. 86 (6): 413–22. PMID 8568209.  Mace, G.M. and Balmford, A. (2000). “Patterns and processes in contemporary mammalian extinction.” In Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity. Has the Panda had its day?, A. Entwhistle and N. Dunstone (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 27–52. Miyashiro (25 August 2006). "Background information on the question: "Do Pandas Really Exist?"" (PDF). New Mexico Tech. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2010.  Naish, Darren (3 April 2008). "Nigayla-ponya, firefox, true panda: its life and times". Tetrapod Zoology. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Ailurus fulgens (category)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Ailurus fulgens

Red Panda Network, USA – a non-profit organization dedicated to red panda conservation Red Panda Network, Nepal[permanent dead link] Animal
Animal
Diversity Web Ailurus fulgens Animal
Animal
Info: Red Panda Birmingham Nature Centre
Birmingham Nature Centre
– UK breeding program

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech
Beech
marten (M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q41960 ADW: Ailurus_fulgens ARKive: ailurus-fulgens BioLib: 1813 EoL: 327984 Fossilworks: 157499 GBIF: 5219446 ITIS: 621846 IUCN: 714 MSW: 14001690 NCBI: 9649 Species+: 7583

Authority control

GND: 41641

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