A. f. fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825
A. f. styani Thomas, 1902
Range of the red panda
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red
bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern
Himalayas and southwestern China. It has reddish-brown fur, a long,
shaggy tail, and a waddling gait due to its shorter front legs; it is
roughly the size of a domestic cat, though with a longer body and
somewhat heavier. It is arboreal, feeds mainly on bamboo, but also
eats eggs, birds, and insects. It is a solitary animal, mainly active
from dusk to dawn, and is largely sedentary during the day.
The red panda has been classified as Endangered by the
its wild population is estimated at less than 10,000 mature
individuals and continues to decline due to habitat loss and
fragmentation, poaching, and inbreeding depression, although red
pandas are protected by national laws in their range countries.
The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus and the
family Ailuridae. It has been previously placed in the raccoon and
bear families, but the results of phylogenetic analysis provide strong
support for its taxonomic classification in its own family, Ailuridae,
which is part of the superfamily Musteloidea, along with the weasel,
raccoon and skunk families. Two subspecies are recognized. It is
not closely related to the giant panda, which is a basal ursid.
1 Physical characteristics
2 Distribution and habitat
2.1 Distribution of subspecies
3 Biology and behavior
5.1 In situ initiatives
5.2 In captivity
6 As pets
7.1 Evolutionary history
8 Local names
9 Cultural depictions
11 Further reading
12 External links
Red panda descending head first
Red panda skull
The head and body length of a red panda measures 50 to 64 cm (20
to 25 in), and its tail is 28 to 59 cm (11 to 23 in).
Males weigh 3.7 to 6.2 kg (8.2 to 13.7 lb) and females 3 to
6.0 kg (6.6 to 13.2 lb). They have long, soft,
reddish-brown fur on the upper parts, blackish fur on the lower parts,
and a light face with tear markings and robust cranio-dental features.
The light face has white badges similar to those of a raccoon, but
each individual can have distinctive markings. Their roundish heads
have medium-sized upright ears, black noses, and blackish eyes. Their
long, bushy tails with six alternating transverse ochre rings provide
balance and excellent camouflage against their habitat of moss- and
lichen-covered trees. The legs are black and short with thick fur on
the soles of the paws. This fur serves as thermal insulation on
snow-covered or icy surfaces and conceals scent glands, which are also
present on the anus.
The red panda is specialized as a bamboo feeder with strong, curved
and sharp semi-retractile claws standing inward for grasping narrow
tree branches, leaves, and fruit. Like the giant panda, it has a
“false thumb” which is an extension of the wrist bone. When
descending a tree head-first, the red panda rotates its ankle to
control its descent, one of the few climbing species to do so.
Distribution and habitat
Red panda sleeping
The red panda is endemic to the temperate forests of the Himalayas,
and ranges from the foothills of western
China in the
east. Its easternmost limit is the
Qinling Mountains of the
Shaanxi Province in China. Its range includes southern Tibet, Sikkim
Assam in India, Bhutan, the northern mountains of Burma, and in
south-western China, in the
Hengduan Mountains of
Sichuan and the
Gongshan Mountains in Yunnan. It may also live in south-west
northern Arunachal Pradesh, but this has not been documented.
Locations with the highest density of red pandas include an area in
Himalayas that has been proposed as having been a refuge for a
variety of endemic species in the Pleistocene. The distribution range
of the red panda should be considered disjunct, rather than
continuous. A disjunct population inhabits the Meghalaya Plateau of
During a survey in the 1970s, signs of red pandas were found in
Nepal's Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve. Their presence was confirmed in
spring 2007 when four red pandas were sighted at elevations ranging
from 3,220 to 3,610 m (10,560 to 11,840 ft). The
species' westernmost limit is in
Rara National Park
Rara National Park located farther
west of the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve. Their presence was
confirmed in 2008.
The red panda lives between 2,200 and 4,800 m (7,200 and
15,700 ft) altitude, inhabiting areas of moderate temperature
between 10 and 25 °C (50 and 77 °F) with little annual
change. It prefers mountainous mixed deciduous and conifer forests,
especially with old trees and dense understories of bamboo.
The red panda population in
Sichuan Province is larger and more stable
Yunnan population, suggesting a southward expansion from
Yunnan in the Holocene.
The red panda has become extirpated from the Chinese provinces of
Guizhou, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Qinghai.
Distribution of subspecies
Distribution of the red panda is disjointed, with two extant
Western red panda A. f. fulgens (Cuvier, 1825) lives in the western
part of its range, in Nepal, Assam, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
Styan's red panda A. f. styani lives in the east-north-eastern part of
its range, in southern
China and northern Burma.
A. f. styani has been described by Thomas in 1902 based on one skull
from a specimen collected in Sichuan. Pocock distinguished A. f.
styani from A. f. fulgens by its longer winter coat and greater
blackness of the pelage, bigger skull, more strongly curved forehead,
and more robust teeth. His description is based on skulls and skins
collected in Sichuan, Myitkyina close to the border of Yunnan, and
The Styan's red panda is supposedly larger and darker in color than
the Western member of the species, but with considerable variation in
both subspecies, and some individuals may be brown or yellowish brown
rather than red.
Brahmaputra River is often considered the natural division between
the two subspecies, where it makes a curve around the eastern end of
the Himalayas, although some authors suggest A. f. fulgens extends
farther eastward, into China.
Biology and behavior
Sounds of red panda twittering
The red panda is territorial; it is solitary except during mating
season. The species is generally quiet except for some twittering,
tweeting, and whistling communication sounds. It has been reported to
be both nocturnal and crepuscular, sleeping on tree branches or in
tree hollows during the day and increasing its activity in the late
afternoon and early evening hours. It sleeps stretched out on a branch
with legs dangling when it is hot, and curled up with its tail over
the face when it is cold. This animal is very heat sensitive, with
an optimal “well-being” temperature between 17 and 25 °C (63
and 77 °F), and cannot tolerate temperatures over 25 °C
Red panda standing
Shortly after waking, red pandas clean their fur somewhat like a cat
would, licking their front paws and then rubbing their backs, torsos,
and sides. They also rub their backs and bellies along the sides of
trees or rocks. Then they patrol their territories, marking with urine
and a weak musk-smelling secretion from their anal glands. They search
for food running along the ground or through the trees. Red pandas may
use their forepaws alternately to bring food to their mouths or place
food directly into their mouths.
Predators of the red panda include the snow leopard, mustelids, and
humans. If they feel threatened or sense danger, they may try to
escape by climbing a rock column or tree. If they can no longer flee,
they stand on their hind legs to make themselves appear larger and use
the sharp claws on their front paws to defend themselves. A red panda,
Futa, became a visitor attraction in
Japan for his ability to stand
upright for ten seconds at a time.
Red panda gnawing
Red pandas are excellent climbers, and forage largely in trees. They
eat mostly bamboo, and may eat small mammals, birds, eggs, flowers,
and berries. In captivity, they were observed to eat birds, flowers,
maple and mulberry leaves, and bark and fruits of maple, beech, and
Like the giant panda, they cannot digest cellulose, so they must
consume a large volume of bamboo to survive. Their diets consist of
about two-thirds bamboo, but they also eat mushrooms, roots, acorns,
lichens, and grasses. Occasionally, they supplement their diets with
fish and insects. They do little more than eat and sleep due to their
Red panda and its herbivore diet
Bamboo shoots are more easily digested than leaves, exhibiting the
highest digestibility in summer and autumn, intermediate digestibility
in the spring, and lowest digestibility in the winter. These
variations correlate with the nutrient contents in the bamboo. Red
pandas process bamboo poorly, especially the cellulose and cell wall
components. This implies microbial digestion plays only a minor role
in their digestive strategy. To survive on this poor-quality diet,
they have to eat the high-quality sections of the bamboo plant, such
as the tender leaves and shoots, in large quantities, over 1.5 kg
(3.3 lb) of fresh leaves and 4 kg (8.8 lb) of fresh
shoots daily. This food passes through the digestive tract fairly
rapidly (about 2–4 hr) so as to maximize daily nutrient intake.
Red pandas can taste artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, and are
the only nonprimates known to be able to do so.
Red panda tending its cub
Red pandas are able to reproduce at around 18 months of age, and are
fully mature at two to three years. Adults rarely interact in the wild
except to mate. Both sexes may mate with more than one partner during
the mating season from mid-January to early March. A few days
before birth, females begin to collect material, such as brushwood,
grass, and leaves, to build a nest, which is normally located in a
hollow tree or a rock crevice. After a gestation period of 112 to 158
days, the female gives birth in mid-June to late July to one to four
(usually 1–2) blind and deaf cubs weighing 110 to 130 g (3.9 to
4.6 oz) each.
After birth, the mother cleans the cubs, and can then recognize each
by its smell. At first, she spends 60% to 90% of her time with the
cubs. After the first week, the mother starts spending more time
outside the nest, returning every few hours to nurse and groom the
cubs. She moves the young frequently among several nests, all of which
she keeps clean. The cubs start to open their eyes at about 18 days of
age. By about 90 days, they achieve full adult fur and coloring, and
begin to venture out of the nest. They also start eating solid foods
at this point, weaning at around six to eight months of age. The cubs
stay with their mother until the next litter is born in the following
summer. Males rarely help raise the young, and only if they live in
pairs or in small groups.
A red panda's average lifespan is between eight and 10 years, but
individuals have been known to reach 15 years.
The primary threats to red pandas are direct harvest from the wild,
live or dead, competition with domestic livestock resulting in habitat
degradation, and deforestation resulting in habitat loss or
fragmentation. The relative importance of these factors is different
in each region, and is not well understood. For instance, in
India, the biggest threat seems to be habitat loss followed by
poaching, while in China, the biggest threat seems to be hunting and
poaching. A 40% decrease in red panda populations has been reported
China over the last 50 years, and populations in western Himalayan
areas are considered to be lower.
Deforestation can inhibit the spread of red pandas and exacerbate the
natural population subdivision by topography and ecology, leading to
severe fragmentation of the remaining wild population. Fewer than 40
animals in four separate groups share resources with humans in Nepal's
Langtang National Park, where only 6% of 1,710 km2
(660 sq mi) is preferred red panda habitat. Although direct
competition for food with domestic livestock is not significant,
livestock can depress bamboo growth by trampling.
Small groups of animals with little opportunity for exchange between
them face the risk of inbreeding, decreased genetic diversity, and
even extinction. In addition, clear-cutting for firewood or
agriculture, including hillside terracing, removes old trees that
provide maternal dens and decreases the ability of some species of
bamboo to regenerate.
In south-west China, red pandas are hunted for their fur, especially
for the highly valued bushy tails, from which hats are produced. In
these areas, the fur is often used for local cultural ceremonies. In
weddings, the bridegroom traditionally carries the hide. The
"good-luck charm" red panda-tail hats are also used by local
newly-weds. This practice may be quite old, as the red panda seems
to be depicted in a 13th-century Chinese pen-and-ink scroll showing a
hunting scene. Little or no mention of the red panda is made in the
culture and folklore of Nepal.
In the past, red pandas were captured and sold to zoos. Angela
Glatston reported she had personally handled 350 red pandas in 17
Due to CITES, this zoo harvest has decreased substantially in recent
years, but poaching continues, and red pandas are often sold to
private collectors at exorbitant prices. In some parts of
India, red pandas are kept as pets.
The red panda has a naturally low birth rate (usually one single or
twin birth per year), and a high death rate in the wild[citation
Closeup of red panda
Red panda resting on a tree
The red panda is listed in
CITES Appendix I. The species has been
classified as endangered in the
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List since 2008 because the
global population is estimated at about 10,000 individuals, with a
decreasing population trend; only about half of the total area of
potential habitat of 142,000 km2 (55,000 sq mi) is
actually being used by the species. Due to their shy and secretive
nature, and their largely nocturnal habits, observation of red pandas
is difficult. Therefore, population figures in the wild are determined
by population density estimates and not direct counts.
Worldwide population estimates range from fewer than 2,500 to
between 16,000 and 20,000 individuals. In 1999, the total
China was estimated at between 3,000 and 7,000
individuals. In 2001, the wild population in
India was estimated
at between 5,000 and 6,000 individuals. Estimates for Nepal
indicate only a few hundred individuals. No records from
Reliable population numbers are hard to find, partly because other
animals have been mistaken for the red panda. For instance, one report
Burma stated that red pandas were still fairly common in some
areas; however, the accompanying photographic proof of the "red panda"
is in fact a species of civet.
The red panda is protected in all range countries, and hunting is
illegal. Beyond this, conservation efforts are highly variable
China has 35 protected areas, covering about 42.4% of red panda
India has 20 protected areas with known or possible red panda
populations in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and
West Bengal such as
Khangchendzonga National Park, Namdapha National Park, and Singalila
National Park, and a coordinated conservation policy for the red
In Nepal, known populations occur in Langtang National Park,
Sagarmatha National Park, Makalu Barun National Park, Rara National
Park, Annapurna Conservation Area, Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, and
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve.
Bhutan has five protected areas that support red panda populations.
Burma has 26 protected areas, of which at least one hosts red panda
In situ initiatives
A community-managed forest in
Ilam District of eastern
Nepal is home
to 15 red pandas which generate household income through tourism
activities, including home stays. Villagers in the high-altitude areas
Arunachal Pradesh have formed the Pangchen Red Panda Conservation
Alliance comprising five villages with a community-conserved forest
area of 200 km2 (77 sq mi) at an altitude of
2,500 m (8,200 ft) to over 4,000 m
Red panda at Prospect Park Zoo, New York, US
The red panda is quite adaptable to living in captivity, and is common
in zoos worldwide. By 1992, more than 300 births had occurred in
captivity, and more than 300 individuals lived in 85 institutions
worldwide. By 2001, 182 individuals were in North American zoos
alone. As of 2006, the international studbook listed more than 800
individuals in zoos and parks around the world. Of these, 511
individuals of subspecies A. f. fulgens were kept in 173
institutions and 306 individuals of subspecies A. f. styani were
kept in 81 institutions.
The international studbook is currently managed at the Rotterdam Zoo
in the Netherlands. In cooperation with the International Red Panda
Management Group, they coordinate the
Species Survival Plan
Species Survival Plan in North
European Endangered Species Programme
European Endangered Species Programme in Europe, and
other captive-breeding programs in Australia, India, Japan, and
China. In 2009, Sarah Glass, curator of red pandas and special
exhibits at the Knoxville
Zoo in Knoxville, Tennessee, was appointed
as coordinator for the North American Red Panda Species Survival Plan.
Zoo has the largest number of captive red panda births
in the Western Hemisphere (101 as of August 2011). Only the Rotterdam
Zoo has had more captive births worldwide.
Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park
Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park in Darjeeling, India,
successfully released four captive-bred red pandas to the wild in
August and November 2003.
Three red panda cubs were born in captivity at Hamilton
Zoo in New
Zealand in December 2012, doubling the number held there.
Red panda in a ginkgo tree
The most often cited example of keeping red pandas as pets is the case
of former Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi. Pandas were presented
to her family as a gift, and they were then housed in "a special tree
Main article: Ailuridae
The taxonomic classification of the red panda has been controversial
since it was discovered. French zoologist
Frédéric Cuvier initially
described the red panda in 1825, and classified it as a close relative
of the raccoon (Procyonidae), though he gave it the genus name
Ancient Greek αἴλουρος, "cat"), based on
superficial similarities with domestic cats. The specific epithet is
Latin adjective fulgens, "shining". At various times, it has
been placed in the Procyonidae, Ursidae, with
Ailuropoda (giant panda)
Ailuropodinae (until this family was moved into the Ursidae),
and into its own family, the Ailuridae. This uncertainty comes from
difficulty in determining whether certain characteristics of Ailurus
are phylogenetically conservative or are derived and convergent with
species of similar ecological habits.
Red panda gnawing on an exfoliated bamboo bush
Evidence based on the fossil record, serology, karyology, behavior,
anatomy, and reproduction reflect closer affinities with Procyonidae
than Ursidae. However, ecological and foraging specializations and
distinct geographical distribution in relation to modern procyonids
support classification in the separate family Ailuridae.
Recent molecular systematic
DNA research also places the red panda
into its own family, Ailuridae, a part of the broad superfamily
Musteloidea that also includes the skunk, raccoon, and weasel
It is not a bear, nor closely related to the giant panda, nor a
raccoon, nor a lineage of uncertain affinities. Rather it is a basal
lineage of musteloid, with a long history of independence from its
closest relatives (skunks, raccoons, and otters/weasels/badgers).
— Flynn et al., Whence the Red Panda,  p. 197
The two subspecies are A. f. fulgens and A. f. styani. However, the
name Ailurus fulgens refulgens is sometimes incorrectly used for A. f.
styani. This stems from a lapsus made by
Henri Milne-Edwards in his
1874 paper "Recherches pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des
mammifères comprenant des considérations sur la classification de
ces animaux", making A. f. refulgens a nomen nudum. The
most recent edition of
Mammal Species of the World still shows the
subspecies as A. f. refulgens. This has been corrected in more
recent works, including A guide to the Mammals of China and
Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Volume 1: Carnivores.
Captive red panda
The red panda is considered a living fossil and only distantly related
to the giant panda (
Ailuropoda melanoleuca), as it is naturally more
closely related to the other members of the superfamily
which it belongs. The common ancestor of both pandas (which also was
an ancestor for all living bears; pinnipeds like seals and walruses;
and members of the family
Musteloidea like weasels and otters) can be
traced back to the Early
Tertiary period tens of millions of years
ago, with a wide distribution across Eurasia.
Fossils of the extinct red panda Parailurus anglicus have been
China in the east to Britain in the west. In 1977,
a single tooth of Parailurus was discovered in the
Formation of Washington. This first North American record is almost
identical to European specimens and indicates the immigration of this
species from Asia. In 2004, a tooth from a red panda species never
before recorded in North America was discovered at the Gray Fossil
Site in Tennessee. The tooth dates from 4.5–7 million years ago.
This species, described as Pristinailurus bristoli, indicates that a
second, more primitive ailurine lineage inhabited North America during
the Miocene. Cladistic analysis suggests that Parailurus and Ailurus
are sister taxa. Additional fossils of Pristinailurus bristoli
were discovered at the Gray
Fossil Site in 2010 and in 2012.
The frequency with which panda fossils are being found at Gray Fossil
Site suggests the species played a large role in the overall ecosystem
of the area.
The discovery in Spain of the postcranial remains of Simocyon
Miocene relative to the red panda, supports a
sister-group relationship between red pandas and bears. The discovery
suggests the red panda's "false thumb" was an adaptation to arboreal
locomotion — independent of the giant panda's adaptation to
manipulate bamboo — one of the most dramatic cases of
convergent evolution among vertebrates.
Captive red panda
The first known written record of the red panda occurs in a
13th-century Chinese scroll depicting a hunting scene between hunters
and the red panda.
Major General Thomas Hardwicke’s 1821 presentation of an article
titled "Description of a new Genus of the Class Mammalia, from the
Himalaya Chain of Hills Between Nepaul and the Snowy Mountains" at the
Linnean Society in London is usually regarded as the moment the red
panda became a bona fide species in Western science. Hardwicke
proposed the name "wha" and explained: "It is frequently discovered by
its loud cry or call, resembling the word ‘Wha’, often repeating
the same: hence is derived one of the local names by which it is
known. It is also called Chitwa." Hardwicke's paper was not published
until 1827, by which time
Frédéric Cuvier had published his
description and a figure. Hardwicke's originally proposed taxonomic
name was removed from the 1827 publication of his paper with his
permission, and naming credit is now given to Cuvier.
Frédéric Cuvier had received the specimen he described from his
brother's stepson, Alfred Duvaucel, who had sent it "from the
mountains north of India". He was the first to use both the
binomial name Ailurus fulgens and the vernacular name panda in his
description of the species published in 1825 in Histoire naturelle des
mammifères. Ailurus is adopted from the ancient Greek word
αἴλουρος (ailouros), meaning "cat". The specific epithet
Latin for "shining, bright". Panda is the French name
Roman goddess of peace and travellers, who was called upon
before starting a difficult journey. Whether this is the origin of
the French vernacular name panda remains uncertain. Later publications
claim the name was adopted from a Himalayan language.
In 1847, Hodgson described a red panda under the name Ailurus
ochraceus, of which Pocock concluded it represents the same type as
Ailurus fulgens, since the description of the two agree very closely.
He subordinated both types to the Himalayan red panda subspecies
Ailurus fulgens fulgens.
An illustration in the Chinese dictionary Zhonghua Da Zidian, 1915
The red panda's local names differ from place to place. The Lepcha
people call it sak nam. In Nepal, the species is called bhalu biralo
(bear-cat) and habre. The Sherpa people of
Sikkim call it ye
niglva ponva and wah donka. The word wậː is Sunuwari meaning
bear; in Tamang language, a small, red bear is called tāwām. In
the Kanchenjunga region of eastern Nepal, the Limbus know red pandas
as kaala, which literally means dark because of their underside
pelage; villagers of Tibetan origin call them hoptongar.
Additionally, Pocock lists the vernacular names ye and nigálya ponya
(Nepal); thokya and thongwa (Limbu); oakdonga or wakdonka and woker
(Bhotia); saknam sunam (Lepcha). Nigálya may originate from the
Nepali word निङालो niṅālo or nĩgālo meaning a
particular kind of small bamboo, namely
Arundinaria intermedia, but
also refers to a kind of small leopard, or cat-bear. The word
pónya may originate from the Nepali word पञ्जा pajā
meaning claw, or पौँजा paũjā meaning paw of an animal.
Nigálya pónya may translate to bamboo claw or paw.
Nigálya pónya, nyala ponga, and poonya are said to mean eater of
bamboo. The name panda could originate from panjā.
In modern Chinese, the red panda is called xiăoxióngmāo
(小熊猫/小熊貓, lesser or small panda), or
红熊猫/紅熊貓 (hóngxióngmāo, red panda). In contrast, the
giant panda is called dàxióngmāo (大熊猫/大熊貓, giant or big
panda), or simply xióngmāo (熊猫/熊貓, panda, literally
In English, the red panda is also called lesser panda, though "red" is
generally preferred. Many other languages also use
red or variations of shining/gold or lesser/small in their names for
this species. For instance, червена панда in Bulgarian,
panda roux in French, and panda rojo in Spanish all mean "red panda".
Since at least as far back as 1855, one of its French names has been
panda éclatant (shining panda). In Finnish, it is called
kultapanda (gold panda). Variations of lesser panda occur in French
petit panda (small panda), Spanish panda menor (lesser panda), Dutch
kleine panda (small panda), Russian малая панда (malaya
panda, "small panda"), Korean 애기판다 (aeki panda, "baby panda"),
and Japanese レッサーパンダ (ressā panda, a transliteration of
English "lesser panda").
Other names attributed to this species include fire cat, bright panda,
and common panda.
The red panda was recognized as the state animal of
Sikkim in the
early 1990s, and was the mascot of the
In 2005, Babu, a male red panda at
Birmingham Nature Centre
Birmingham Nature Centre in
Birmingham, England, escaped and briefly became a media
celebrity, before being recaptured. He was subsequently voted
Brummie of the Year", the first animal to receive this honor.
Rusty, a male red panda at the National
Zoo in Washington, DC,
similarly attracted media attention when he briefly escaped in
The name of the
Firefox web browser is said to have been derived from
a nickname of the red panda.
An anthropomorphic red panda was featured as Master Shifu, the kungfu
teacher, in the 2008 film Kung Fu Panda, and its sequels Kung Fu Panda
2 in 2011 and
Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda 3 in 2016. The red panda Futa inspired
the character of Pabu, the so-called "fire ferret" animal companion
(primarily of Bolin), in the U.S. animated TV series The Legend of
^ a b c d e f g h i j Glatston, A.; Wei, F.; Than Zaw & Sherpa, A.
(2015). "Ailurus fulgens". The
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
IUCN. 2015: e.T714A110023718.
doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T714A45195924.en. Retrieved 15 January
^ a b Thomas, O. (1902). "On the Panda of Sze-chuen". Annals and
Magazine of Natural History. Seventh Series. X. London: Gunther,
A.C.L.G., Carruthers, W., Francis, W. pp. 251–252.
^ a b c d Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.;
Mammal Species of the World: A
Taxonomic and Geographic
Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press.
pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
^ Glatston, A. R. (2010). Red Panda: Biology and Conservation of the
First Panda. William Andrew. ISBN 978-1-4377-7813-7.
^ a b c Flynn, J. J.; Nedbal, M. A.; Dragoo, J. W.; Honeycutt, R. L.
(2000). "Whence the Red Panda?" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and
Evolution. 17 (2): 190–199. doi:10.1006/mpev.2000.0819.
PMID 11083933. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Roberts, M. S.; Gittleman, J. L. (1984).
"Ailurus fulgens" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 222 (222): 1–8.
doi:10.2307/3503840. JSTOR 3503840.
Red panda (Ailurus fulgens). arkive.org
^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide
to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0-7894-7764-5
^ a b c d e Pocock, R.I. (1941). Fauna of British India, including
Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 2. London: Taylor and Francis.
^ Fisher, R. E.; Adrian, B.; Clay, E.; Hicks, M. (2008). "The
phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the
hindlimb". Journal of Anatomy. 213 (5): 607–28.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00987.x. PMC 2667555 .
^ a b c d e Glatston 1994:20
^ a b c Choudhury, A. (2001). "An overview of the status and
conservation of the red panda Ailurus fulgens in India, with reference
to its global status". Oryx. Flora & Fauna International. 35 (3):
^ Wegge, P. (1976) Himalayan shikar reserves: surveys and management
proposals. Field Document No. 5. FAO/NEP/72/002 Project, Kathmandu.
^ Sharma, H.P., Belant, J.L. (April 2009). "Distribution and
observations of Red Pandas Ailurus fulgens fulgens in Dhorpatan
Hunting Reserve, Nepal" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation. 40:
33–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2011. CS1
maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Date and year
^ Bolton, M. (1976) Lake
Rara National Park
Rara National Park management plan. Working
Document No. 3. FAO/UNDP National Parks and Wildlife Conservation
^ Sharma, H. P. (2008) Distribution and conservation status of Red
Panda (Ailurus fulgens) in Rara National Park, Nepal. Final Report to
People’s Trust for Endangered Species, London, UK
^ Bing Su; Yunxin Fu; Wang, Y.; Li Jin; Chakraborty, R. (2001).
"Genetic Diversity and Population History of the Red Panda (Ailurus
fulgens) as Inferred from Mitochondrial
DNA Sequence Variations".
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18 (6): 1070–1076.
doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003878. PMID 11371595.
^ a b c d Wei, F.; Feng, Z.; Wang, Z.; Hu, J. (1999). "Current
distribution, status and conservation of wild red pandas Ailurus
fulgens in China". Biological Conservation. 89 (89): 285–291.
^ a b Glover, A. M. (1938). The Mammals of
China and Mongolia. New
York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 314–317.
^ "Red Panda – Diet". Rochester Institute of Technology. Archived
from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ "Red Panda". Birmingham Zoo. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ Wei, F; Feng, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zhou, A.; Hu, J. (1999). "Use of the
nutrients in bamboo by the red panda Ailurus fulgens". Journal of
Zoology. 248 (4): 535–541.
^ "Pandas opt for low-cal sweeteners". BBC News. 16 April 2008.
Retrieved 8 May 2008.
^ a b Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker’s Mammals of the World. 2 (sixth
ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 695–696.
^ Yonzon, P. B.; Hunter Jr., M. L.; Shobrak; Habibi (1991).
"Conservation of the red panda Ailurus fulgens". Biological
Conservation. 58 (57): 85. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(91)90046-C.
^ a b c Glatston 1994
^ Glatston 1994:11
^ World Wildlife Fund. "I'm a good luck charm. That's my bad luck".
Archived from the original on 17 December 2009. Retrieved 26 September
^ "Appendices I, II and III". cites.org. CITES. Retrieved 8 December
^ Massicot, P. (2006). "
Animal Info: Red Panda". Retrieved 2 September
^ Glatston 1994:viii
^ Bhuju, U.R., Shakya, P.R., Basnet, T.B., Shrestha, S. (2007) Nepal
Biodiversity Resource Book. Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites, and World
Heritage Sites. International Centre for Integrated Mountain
Development, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, in
cooperation with United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office
for Asia and the Pacific. Kathmandu, ISBN 978-92-9115-033-5 pdf
^ Ghimire, N.; Bhatta, S. D., eds. (December 2010). "Red Pandas from
Choyatar". Headlines Himalaya. 138. CS1 maint: Date and year
^ a b c Roberts, M. (1992). "Red Panda: The Fire Cat". Archived from
the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
ARKive (2008). "Red Panda". Retrieved 2 September 2008.
^ a b Glatston, Angela (2007). Red Panda International Studbook -
Ailurus fulgens fulgens held in zoos in 2006 (PDF). Rotterdam Zoo.
Retrieved 13 September 2009.
^ a b c Glatston, Angela (2007). Red Panda International Studbook -
Ailurus fulgens styani held in zoos in 2006 (PDF). Rotterdam Zoo.
Retrieved 13 September 2009.
^ a b Srivastav, Anupam; et al. (July 2009). "National Studbook of Red
Panda (Ailurus fulgens) Data till May 2009" (PDF). Wildlife Institute
of India. Retrieved 26 September 2009. CS1 maint: Explicit use of
et al. (link)
^ "Public to name panda triplets". 3 News NZ. 23 April 2013.
^ Mahesh Rangarajan (2009). "Striving for a balance: Nature, power,
science and India's Indira Gandhi, 1917–1984". Conservation and
Society. 7 (4): 299–312. doi:10.4103/0972-4923.65175.
^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's
Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London:
Cassell Ltd. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
^ a b Flynn, J. J.; Finarelli, J. A.; Zehr, S; Hsu, J; Nedbal, M. A.
(2005). "Molecular phylogeny of the carnivora (mammalia): assessing
the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic
relationships". Systematic Biology. 54 (2): 317–337.
doi:10.1080/10635150590923326. PMID 16012099.
^ Flynn, J. J.; Nedbal, M. A. (1998). "Phylogeny of the Carnivora
(Mammalia): Congruence vs incompatibility among multiple data sets".
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 9 (3): 414–426.
doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0504. PMID 9667990.
^ Milne-Edwards, H. (1874). "Recherches pour servir à l'histoire
naturelle des mammifères comprenant des considérations sur la
classification de ces animaux". Nature. G. Masson, Paris. 11 (285):
394. Bibcode:1875Natur..11..463.. doi:10.1038/011463a0.
^ Smith, A. T.; Yan Xie, eds. (2008). A guide to the Mammals of China.
Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
^ Wilson, Don E.; Mittermeier, Russell A., eds. (2009). Handbook of
the Mammals of the World, Volume 1: Carnivores.
p. 503. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1.
^ a b Naish, Darrin (5 April 2008). "The once mighty red panda
empire". Tetrapod Zoology. Archived from the original on 2 September
2009. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
^ Tedford, R.H.; Gustafson, E.P. (1977). "First North American record
of the extinct panda Parailurus". Nature. 265 (5595): 621–623.
^ Wallace, Steven C.; Wang, Xiaoming (30 September 2004). "Two new
carnivores from an unusual late
Tertiary forest biota in eastern North
America". Nature. 431 (7008): 556–559. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..556W.
doi:10.1038/nature02819. PMID 15457257.
^ Exclusive: Traces of Red Panda Found in
Tennessee Archived 3 January
2011 at the Wayback Machine.. AOl News, 9 August 2010. Retrieved: 23
^ Barber, Rex (May 25, 2012). Second red panda skeleton uncovered at
Fossil Site. Johnson City Press. Retrieved: 2012-05-25.
^ Salesa, Manuel J.; Mauricio, Antón; Peigné, Stéphane; Morales,
Jorge (2006). "Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore
clarifies the evolution of pandas". PNAS. 103 (2): 379–382.
PMC 1326154 . PMID 16387860.
^ Hardwicke, T. (1827). "Description of a new Genus of the Class
Mammalia, from the
Himalaya Chain of Hills between Nepaul and the
Snowy Mountains". The Transactions of the
Linnean Society of London.
Latin and English).
Linnean Society of London. XV: 161–165.
^ Cuvier, G. (1829). Le règne animal distribué d'après son
organisation. Tome 1. Chez Déterville, Paris. pp. 138: Le Panda
^ Cuvier, F. (1825) "Ailurus. Ailurus fulgens. Panda." Archived 27
July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 3 pages, 1 plate. In: Geoffroy
Saint-Hilaire, E.; Cuvier, F. (eds.) Histoire naturelle des
mammifères, avec des figures originales, coloriées, dessinées
d'après des animaux vivans: publié sous l'autorité de
l'administration du Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (50). A. Belin, Paris
^ "Panda". NYPL Digital Gallery. 25 June 2010. Retrieved 26 November
^ Perseus Digital Library. Greek Dictionary αἴλουρος Headword
^ Perseus Digital Library.
Latin Dictionary fulgens Headword Search
^ Larousse, P. (1866–77) Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe
siècle : français, historique, géographique, mythologique,
bibliographique, littéraire, artistique, scientifique Panda ou
Pantica Larousse et Boyer, Paris
^ Shrestha, T. K. (2003) Wildlife of Nepal: a study of renewable
Nepal Himalayas. Steven Simpson Books.
^ Hale, Austin (ed.) (1973) Clause, sentence, and discourse patterns
in selected languages of
Nepal 4: Word lists. Summer Institute of
Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields, 40(4).
Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of Oklahoma.
vii, 314 p. online : see page 110 Archived 15 October 2012 at the
^ Yonzon, P.B. (1996) Status of wildlife in the Kanchenjunga region. A
reconnaissance study report. WWF
Nepal Program, Kathmandu
^ Turner, R.L. "A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the
Nepali Language". Retrieved 10 December 2010.
^ Turner, R.L. "A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the
Nepali Language". Retrieved 10 December 2010.
^ Heuvelmans, Bernard (1958). On the Track of Unknown Animals. London:
Rupert Hart-Davis. p. 48.
^ Glatston, Angela R. (2010). Red Panda: Biology and Conservation of
the First Panda. William Andrew. p. 61.
^ Catton, Chris (1990). Pandas. pp. 4–5.
^ "小熊貓". MDBG Chinese-English Dictionary. 2011.
^ "紅熊貓". MDBG Chinese-English Dictionary. 2011.
^ Gervais, M. Paul (1855). Histoire naturelle des mammifères avec
l'indication de leurs moeurs et de leurs rapports avec les arts, le
commerce et l'agriculture (in French). 2. L. Curmer. p. 23.
^ "The Official Website of the Government of Sikkim". Government of
Sikkim. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
^ a b c "
Red panda boosts visitor numbers". BBC Online. 24 January
2006. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
^ a b Bounds, Jon. "
Brummie of the Year 2005". Birmingham: It's Not
Shit. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
^ Gabriel, T. (24 June 2013). "A Panda Escapes From the Zoo, and
Social Media Swoop In With the Net". New York Times. Retrieved 25 June
^ Day, P. K. (24 June 2013). "Rusty the red panda went missing and ABC
News was on the case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 June
Firefox name FAQ". Mozilla. Archived from the original on 28
February 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
^ "Red panda". BBC Nature. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
^ Gorman, James (17 August 2015). "Red Pandas Are Adorable and in
Trouble". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
^ Konietzko, Bryan (28 September 2012). "Years ago, on the Avatar
production, ..." Retrieved 29 September 2012.
IUCN; SSC Mustelid, Viverrid & Procyonid Specialist Group (1994).
A. R. Glatston, ed. The Red Panda, Olingos, Coatis, Raccoons, and
Their Relatives (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
ISBN 2-8317-0046-9. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
ITIS (USDA Integrated
Taxonomic Information System). "Ailurus fulgens
(Taxonomical Serial No.: 621846)". Retrieved 24 October 2009.
Slattery, J. Pecon; O'Brien, S. J. (1995). "Molecular phylogeny of the
red panda (Ailurus fulgens)". The Journal of Heredity. Oxford
University Press. 86 (6): 413–22. PMID 8568209.
Mace, G.M. and Balmford, A. (2000). “Patterns and processes in
contemporary mammalian extinction.” In Priorities for the
Conservation of Mammalian Diversity. Has the Panda had its day?, A.
Entwhistle and N. Dunstone (eds). Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge. pp. 27–52.
Miyashiro (25 August 2006). "Background information on the question:
"Do Pandas Really Exist?"" (PDF). New Mexico Tech. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
Naish, Darren (3 April 2008). "Nigayla-ponya, firefox, true panda: its
life and times". Tetrapod Zoology. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ailurus fulgens (category)
Wikispecies has information related to Ailurus fulgens
Red Panda Network, USA – a non-profit organization dedicated to red
Red Panda Network, Nepal[permanent dead link]
Animal Diversity Web Ailurus fulgens
Animal Info: Red Panda
Birmingham Nature Centre
Birmingham Nature Centre – UK breeding program
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)