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v t e

Ramayana
Ramayana
(/rɑːˈmɑːjənə/;[1] Sanskrit: रामायणम्, Rāmāyaṇam [rɑːˈmɑːjəɳəm]) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama
Rama
to rescue his wife Sita
Sita
from the demon king Ravana. Along with the Mahabharata, it forms the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Itihasa. The epic, traditionally ascribed to the Hindu
Hindu
sage Valmiki, narrates the life of Rama, the legendary prince of the Kosala
Kosala
Kingdom. It follows his fourteen-year exile to the forest from the kingdom, by his father King Dasharatha, on request of his second wife Kaikeyi. His travels across forests in India
India
with his wife Sita
Sita
and brother Lakshmana, the kidnapping of his wife by Ravana, the demon king of Lanka, resulting in a war with him, and Rama's eventual return to Ayodhya
Ayodhya
to be crowned king. The Ramayana
Ramayana
is one of the largest ancient epics in world literature. It consists of nearly 24,000 verses (mostly set in the Shloka meter), divided into seven Kandas (books) and about 500 sargas (chapters). In Hindu
Hindu
tradition, it is considered to be the adi-kavya (first poem). It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king. Ramayana
Ramayana
was an important influence on later Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poetry and Hindu
Hindu
life and culture. Like Mahabharata, Ramayana is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu
Hindu
sages in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements. The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman, Shatrughna, and Ravana
Ravana
are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India, Nepal, Sri Lanka
Lanka
and south-east Asian countries such as Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia. There are many versions of Ramayana
Ramayana
in Indian languages, besides Buddhist, Sikh and Jain
Jain
adaptations. There are also Cambodian, Indonesian, Filipino, Thai, Lao, Burmese and Malaysian versions of the tale.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Textual history and structure 3 Period 4 Characters

4.1 Ikshvaku dynasty 4.2 Allies of Rama 4.3 Foes of Rama

5 Synopsis

5.1 Bala Kanda 5.2 Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Kanda 5.3 Aranya Kanda 5.4 Kishkindha
Kishkindha
Kanda 5.5 Sundara Kanda 5.6 Yuddha Kanda 5.7 Uttara Kanda

6 Versions

6.1 India

6.1.1 Buddhist Version 6.1.2 Jain
Jain
version 6.1.3 Sikh Version

6.2 Nepal 6.3 Southeast Asian

6.3.1 Cambodia 6.3.2 Indonesia 6.3.3 Laos 6.3.4 Malaysia 6.3.5 Myanmar 6.3.6 Philippines 6.3.7 Thailand

6.4 Critical edition

7 Influence on culture and art 8 Religious significance 9 Ramayana
Ramayana
in popular culture

9.1 Stage 9.2 Movies 9.3 Animated movies 9.4 Plays 9.5 Exihibitions 9.6 Books 9.7 TV series

10 Citations 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Ramayana
Ramayana
is a tatpuruṣa compound of the name Rāma. Textual history and structure[edit]

An artist's impression of Valmiki
Valmiki
Muni composing the Ramayana

According to Hindu
Hindu
tradition, and the Ramayana
Ramayana
itself, the epic belongs to the genre of itihasa like Mahabharata. The definition of itihāsa is a narrative of past events (purāvṛtta) which includes teachings on the goals of human life. According to Hindu
Hindu
tradition, Ramayana
Ramayana
takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga.[2] In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
is an epic poem of some 24,000 verses. The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of which is a palm-leaf manuscript found in Nepal
Nepal
and dated to the 11th century CE. A Times of India
India
report dated 18 December 2015 informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana
Ramayana
at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata.[3] The Ramayana
Ramayana
text has several regional renderings,recensions and sub recensions. Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman differentiates two major regional revisions: the northern (n) and the southern (s). Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt
Romesh Chunder Dutt
writes that "the Ramayana, like the Mahabharata, is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind." There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last volumes (bala kandam and uttara kandam) of Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
were composed by the original author. Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book.[4] Retellings include Kamban's Ramavataram
Ramavataram
in Tamil (c. 11th–12th century), Gona Budda Reddy's Ramayanam in Telugu (c. 13th century), Madhava Kandali's Saptakanda Ramayana
Saptakanda Ramayana
in Assamese (c. 14th century), Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan
Krittivasi Ramayan
(also known as Shri Rama
Rama
Panchali) in Bengali (c. 15th century), Sarala Das' Vilanka Ramayana
Vilanka Ramayana
(c. 15th century)[5][6][7][8] and Balaram Das' Dandi Ramayana (also known as the Jagamohan Ramayana) (c. 16th century) both in Odia, sant Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayan
Bhavarth Ramayan
(c. 16th century) in Marathi, Tulsidas' Ramcharitamanas
Ramcharitamanas
(c. 16th century) in Awadhi (which is an eastern form of Hindi) and Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan's Adhyathmaramayanam
Adhyathmaramayanam
in Malayalam. Period[edit]

Rama
Rama
(left third from top) depicted in the Dashavatara, the ten avatars of Vishnu. Painting from Jaipur, now at the Victoria and Albert Museum

Some cultural evidence, such as the presence of sati in Mahabharata but not in the main body of Ramayana, suggests that Ramayana
Ramayana
predates Mahabharata. However, the general cultural background of Ramayana
Ramayana
is one of the post-urbanization periods of the eastern part of north India
India
and Nepal, while Mahabharata
Mahabharata
reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period. By tradition, the text belongs to the Treta Yuga, second of the four eons (yuga) of Hindu
Hindu
chronology. Rama
Rama
is said to have been born in the Treta yuga to king Dasharatha
Dasharatha
in the Ikshvaku dynasty. The names of the characters (Rama, Sita, Dasharatha, Janaka, Vashista, Vishwamitra) are all known in late Vedic literature. However, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki. According to the modern academic view, Vishnu, who, according to bala kanda, was incarnated as Rama, first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further, during the puranic period of the later 1st millennium CE. Also, in the epic Mahabharata, there is a version of Ramayana
Ramayana
known as Ramopakhyana. This version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira. Books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books ( Bala Kanda
Bala Kanda
and Uttara Kanda, respectively) are later additions, as some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book.[4] The author or authors of Bala Kanda
Bala Kanda
and Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Kanda appear to be familiar with the eastern Gangetic basin
Gangetic basin
region of northern India
India
and with the Kosala, Mithila and Magadha
Magadha
regions during the period of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, based on the fact that the geographical and geopolitical data accords with what is known about the region. Characters[edit]

Rama
Rama
seated with Sita, fanned by Lakshmana, while Hanuman
Hanuman
pays his respects

Ikshvaku dynasty[edit]

Dasharatha
Dasharatha
is king of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and father of Rama. He has three queens, Kausalya, Kaikeyi
Kaikeyi
and Sumitra, and three other sons: Bharata, and twins Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Shatrughna. Kaikeyi, Dasharatha's favourite queen, forces him to make their son Bharata crown prince and send Rama
Rama
into exile. Dasharatha
Dasharatha
dies heartbroken after Rama
Rama
goes into exile. Rama
Rama
is the main protagonist of the tale. Portrayed as the seventh avatar of god Vishnu, he is the eldest and favourite son of Dasharatha, the king of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and his Chief Queen, Kausalya. He is portrayed as the epitome of virtue. Dasharatha
Dasharatha
is forced by Kaikeyi
Kaikeyi
to command Rama
Rama
to relinquish his right to the throne for fourteen years and go into exile. Rama
Rama
kills the evil demon Ravana, who abducted his wife Sita, and later returns to Ayodhya
Ayodhya
to form an ideal state.

Rama
Rama
and the monkey chiefs

Sita
Sita
is another of the tale's protagonists. She is a daughter of Mother Earth, adopted by King Janaka, and Rama's beloved wife. Rama went to Mithila and got a chance to marry her by breaking the Shiv Dhanush (bow) while trying to tie a knot to it in a competition organized by King Janaka
Janaka
of Mithila in Dhanusa. The competition was to find the most suitable husband for Sita
Sita
and many princes from different states competed to win her. Sita
Sita
is the avatara of goddess Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu. Sita
Sita
is portrayed as the epitome of female purity and virtue. She follows her husband into exile and is abducted by the demon king Ravana. She is imprisoned on the island of Lanka, until Rama
Rama
rescues her by defeating Ravana. Later, she gives birth to twin boys Luv and Kusha. Bharata is the son of Dasharatha
Dasharatha
and Queen Kaikeyi. When he learns that his mother Kaikeyi
Kaikeyi
has forced Rama
Rama
into exile and caused Dasharatha
Dasharatha
to die brokenhearted, he storms out of the palace and goes in search of Rama
Rama
in the forest. When Rama
Rama
refuses to return from his exile to assume the throne, Bharata obtains Rama's sandals and places them on the throne as a gesture that Rama
Rama
is the true king. Bharata then rules Ayodhya
Ayodhya
as the regent of Rama
Rama
for the next fourteen years, staying outside the city of Ayodhya. He was married to Mandavi. Lakshmana
Lakshmana
is a younger brother of Rama, who chose to go into exile with him. He is the son of King Dasharatha
Dasharatha
and Queen Sumitra
Sumitra
and twin of Shatrughna. Lakshmana
Lakshmana
is portrayed as an avatar of Shesha, the nāga associated with the god Vishnu. He spends his time protecting Sita
Sita
and Rama, during which time he fights the demoness Surpanakha. He is forced to leave Sita, who was deceived by the demon Maricha
Maricha
into believing that Rama
Rama
was in trouble. Sita
Sita
is abducted by Ravana
Ravana
upon his leaving her. He was married to Sita's younger sister Urmila. Shatrughna
Shatrughna
is a son of Dasharatha
Dasharatha
and his second wife Queen Sumitra. He is the youngest brother of Rama
Rama
and also the twin brother of Lakshmana. He was married to Shrutakirti.

Allies of Rama[edit]

The vanaras constructing the Rama
Rama
Setu Bridge to Lanka, makaras and fish also aid the construction. A 9th century Prambanan
Prambanan
bas-relief, Central Java, Indonesia.

Vanara

Hanuman
Hanuman
is a vanara belonging to the kingdom of Kishkindha. He is an ideal bhakta of Rama. He is born as son of Kesari, a Vanara
Vanara
king in Sumeru region and the goddess Añjanā. He plays an important part in locating Sita
Sita
and in the ensuing battle. He is believed to live until our modern world. Sugriva, a vanara king who helped Rama
Rama
regain Sita
Sita
from Ravana. He had an agreement with Rama
Rama
through which Vali – Sugriva's brother and king of Kishkindha
Kishkindha
– would be killed by Rama
Rama
in exchange for Sugriva's help in finding Sita. Sugriva
Sugriva
ultimately ascends the throne of Kishkindha
Kishkindha
after the slaying of Vali and fulfills his promise by putting the Vanara
Vanara
forces at Rama's disposal. Angada
Angada
is a vanara who helped Rama
Rama
find his wife Sita
Sita
and fight her abductor, Ravana, in Ramayana. He was son of Vali and Tara and nephew of Sugriva. Angada
Angada
and Tara are instrumental in reconciling Rama
Rama
and his brother, Lakshmana, with Sugriva
Sugriva
after Sugriva
Sugriva
fails to fulfill his promise to help Rama
Rama
find and rescue his wife. Together they are able to convince Sugriva
Sugriva
to honour his pledge to Rama
Rama
instead of spending his time carousing and drinking.

Riksha

Jambavan/Jamvanta is known as Riksharaj (King of the Rikshas). Rikshas are bears. In the epic Ramayana, Jambavantha helped Rama
Rama
find his wife Sita
Sita
and fight her abductor, Ravana. It is he who makes Hanuman realize his immense capabilities and encourages him to fly across the ocean to search for Sita
Sita
in Lanka.

Griddha

Jatayu, son of Aruṇa
Aruṇa
and nephew of Garuda. A demi-god who has the form of a vulture that tries to rescue Sita
Sita
from Ravana. Jatayu
Jatayu
fought valiantly with Ravana, but as Jatayu
Jatayu
was very old, Ravana
Ravana
soon got the better of him. As Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
chanced upon the stricken and dying Jatayu
Jatayu
in their search for Sita, he informs them of the direction in which Ravana
Ravana
had gone. Sampati, son of Aruna, brother of Jatayu. Sampati's role proved to be instrumental in the search for Sita.

Rakshasa

Vibhishana, youngest brother of Ravana. He was against the abduction of Sita
Sita
and joined the forces of Rama
Rama
when Ravana
Ravana
refused to return her. His intricate knowledge of Lanka
Lanka
was vital in the war and he was crowned king after the fall of Ravana.

Ramayana
Ramayana
stamps issued by India
India
post

Foes of Rama[edit]

Rakshasas

Ravana, a rakshasa, is the king of Lanka. He was son of a sage named Vishrava and daitya princess Kaikesi. After performing severe penance for ten thousand years he received a boon from the creator-god Brahma: he could henceforth not be killed by gods, demons, or spirits. He is portrayed as a powerful demon king who disturbs the penances of rishis. Vishnu
Vishnu
incarnates as the human Rama
Rama
to defeat him, thus circumventing the boon given by Brahma. Indrajit
Indrajit
or Meghnadha, the eldest son of Ravana
Ravana
who twice defeated Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
in battle, before succumbing to Lakshmana. An adept of the magical arts, he coupled his supreme fighting skills with various stratagems to inflict heavy losses on Vanara
Vanara
army before his death. Kumbhakarna, brother of Ravana, famous for his eating and sleeping. He would sleep for months at a time and would be extremely ravenous upon waking up, consuming anything set before him. His monstrous size and loyalty made him an important part of Ravana's army. During the war he decimated the Vanara
Vanara
army before Rama
Rama
cut off his limbs and head. Surpanakha, Ravana's demoness sister who fell in love with Rama
Rama
and had the magical power to take any form she wanted.

Vanara

Vali, was king of Kishkindha, husband of Tara, a son of Indra, elder brother of Sugriva
Sugriva
and father of Angada. Vali was famous for the boon that he had received, according to which anyone who fought him in single-combat lost half his strength to Vali, thereby making Vali invulnerable to any enemy. He was killed by Lord Rama, an Avatar
Avatar
of Vishnu.

Synopsis[edit] Bala Kanda[edit] Main article: Bala Kanda

The marriage of the four sons of Dasharatha
Dasharatha
with the four daughters of Siradhvaja and Kushadhvaja Janakas. Rama
Rama
and Sita, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Urmila, Bharata and Mandavi
Mandavi
and Shatrughna
Shatrughna
with Shrutakirti.

Dasharatha
Dasharatha
was the king of Ayodhya. He had three wives: Kaushalya, Kaikeyi
Kaikeyi
and Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and anxious to produce an heir, so he performs a fire sacrifice known as putra-kameshti yagya. As a consequence, Rama
Rama
is first born to Kaushalya, Bharata is born to Kaikeyi, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Shatrughna
Shatrughna
are born to Sumitra. These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence of the Supreme Trinity Entity Vishnu; Vishnu
Vishnu
had opted to be born into mortality to combat the demon Ravana, who was oppressing the gods, and who could only be destroyed by a mortal. The boys are reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare from Vashistha. When Rama
Rama
is 16 years old, sage Vishwamitra
Vishwamitra
comes to the court of Dasharatha
Dasharatha
in search of help against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites. He chooses Rama, who is followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story. Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra
Vishwamitra
and proceed to destroy the demons. Janaka
Janaka
was the king of Mithila. One day, a female child was found in the field by the king in the deep furrow dug by his plough. Overwhelmed with joy, the king regarded the child as a "miraculous gift of god". The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for furrow. Sita
Sita
grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. The king had decided that who ever could lift and wield the heavy bow, presented to his ancestors by Shiva, could marry Sita. Sage Vishwamitra
Vishwamitra
takes Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
to Mithila to show the bow. Then Rama
Rama
desires to lift it and goes on to wield the bow and when he draws the string, it breaks.[9] Marriages are arranged between the sons of Dasharatha
Dasharatha
and daughters of Janaka. Rama
Rama
gets married to Sita, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
to Urmila, Bharata to Mandavi
Mandavi
and Shatrughna
Shatrughna
to Shrutakirti. The weddings are celebrated with great festivity in Mithila and the marriage party returns to Ayodhya. Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Kanda[edit]

Rama
Rama
leaving for fourteen years of exile from Ayodhya

After Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
have been married for twelve years, an elderly Dasharatha
Dasharatha
expresses his desire to crown Rama, to which the Kosala assembly and his subjects express their support. On the eve of the great event, Kaikeyi
Kaikeyi
– her jealousy aroused by Manthara, a wicked maidservant – claims two boons that Dasharatha
Dasharatha
had long ago granted her. Kaikeyi
Kaikeyi
demands Rama
Rama
to be exiled into the wilderness for fourteen years, while the succession passes to her son Bharata. The heartbroken king, constrained by his rigid devotion to his given word, accedes to Kaikeyi's demands. Rama
Rama
accepts his father's reluctant decree with absolute submission and calm self-control which characterises him throughout the story. He is joined by Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana. When he asks Sita
Sita
not to follow him, she says, "the forest where you dwell is Ayodhya
Ayodhya
for me and Ayodhya
Ayodhya
without you is a veritable hell for me." After Rama's departure, King Dasharatha, unable to bear the grief, passes away. Meanwhile, Bharata who was on a visit to his maternal uncle, learns about the events in Ayodhya. Bharata refuses to profit from his mother's wicked scheming and visits Rama
Rama
in the forest. He requests Rama
Rama
to return and rule. But Rama, determined to carry out his father's orders to the letter, refuses to return before the period of exile. However, Bharata carries Rama's sandals and keeps them on the throne, while he rules as Rama's regent.[citation needed] Aranya Kanda[edit] Main article: Aranya Kanda

Ravana
Ravana
fights Jatayu
Jatayu
as he carries off the kidnapped Sita. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma

After thirteen years of exile, Rama, Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
journey southward along the banks of river Godavari, where they build cottages and live off the land. At the Panchavati
Panchavati
forest they are visited by a rakshasi named Surpanakha, sister of Ravana. She tries to seduce the brothers and, after failing, attempts to kill Sita. Lakshmana
Lakshmana
stops her by cutting off her nose and ears. Hearing of this, her brother Khara organises an attack against the princes. Rama
Rama
defeats Khara and his raskshasas. When the news of these events reach Ravana, he resolves to destroy Rama
Rama
by capturing Sita
Sita
with the aid of the rakshasa Maricha. Maricha, assuming the form of a golden deer, captivates Sita's attention. Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita
Sita
pleads with Rama
Rama
to capture it. Rama, aware that this is the ploy of the demons, cannot dissuade Sita
Sita
from her desire and chases the deer into the forest, leaving Sita under Lakshmana's guard. After some time, Sita
Sita
hears Rama
Rama
calling out to her; afraid for his life, she insists that Lakshmana
Lakshmana
rush to his aid. Lakshmana
Lakshmana
tries to assure her that Rama
Rama
is invincible and that it is best if he continues to follow Rama's orders to protect her. On the verge of hysterics, Sita
Sita
insists that it is not she but Rama
Rama
who needs Lakshmana's help. He obeys her wish but stipulates that she is not to leave the cottage or entertain any stranger. He draws a chalk outline, the Lakshmana
Lakshmana
rekha, around the cottage and casts a spell on it that prevents anyone from entering the boundary but allows people to exit. With the coast finally clear, Ravana
Ravana
appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita's hospitality. Unaware of her guest's plan, Sita
Sita
is tricked into leaving the rekha and is then forcibly carried away by Ravana.[10] Jatayu, a vulture, tries to rescue Sita, but is mortally wounded. At Lanka, Sita
Sita
is kept under the guard of rakshasis. Ravana
Ravana
asks Sita
Sita
to marry him, but she refuses, being eternally devoted to Rama. Meanwhile, Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
learn about Sita's abduction from Jatayu and immediately set out to save her. During their search, they meet Kabandha
Kabandha
and the ascetic Shabari, who direct them towards Sugriva
Sugriva
and Hanuman. Kishkindha
Kishkindha
Kanda[edit]

A stone bas-relief at Banteay Srei in Cambodia
Cambodia
depicts the combat between Vali and Sugriva
Sugriva
(middle). To the right, Rama
Rama
fires his bow. To the left, Vali lies dying.

Kishkindha
Kishkindha
Kanda is set in the ape (Vanara) citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
meet Hanuman, the biggest devotee of Rama, greatest of ape heroes and an adherent of Sugriva, the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha. Rama
Rama
befriends Sugriva
Sugriva
and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kishkindha, in exchange for helping Rama
Rama
to recover Sita. However Sugriva
Sugriva
soon forgets his promise and spends his time in enjoying his powers. The clever former ape queen Tara (wife of Vali) calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana
Lakshmana
from destroying the ape citadel. She then eloquently convinces Sugriva
Sugriva
to honour his pledge. Sugriva
Sugriva
then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west. The southern search party under the leadership of Angada
Angada
and Hanuman
Hanuman
learns from a vulture named Sampati
Sampati
(elder brother of Jatayu), that Sita
Sita
was taken to Lanka.

Sundara Kanda[edit] Main article: Sundara Kanda

Ravana
Ravana
is meeting Sita
Sita
at Ashokavana. Hanuman
Hanuman
is seen on the tree.

Sundara Kanda
Sundara Kanda
forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman's adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman
Hanuman
assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka. On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities. He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Lord Hanuman
Hanuman
assistance and offers him rest. Lord Hanuman
Hanuman
refuses because there is little time remaining to complete the search for Sita. After entering into Lanka, he finds a demon, Lankini, who protects all of Lanka. Hanuman
Hanuman
fights with her and subjugates her in order to get into Lanka. In the process Lankini, who had an earlier vision/warning from the gods that the end of Lanka
Lanka
nears if someone defeats Lankini. Here, Hanuman
Hanuman
explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita
Sita
in Ashoka grove, where she is being wooed and threatened by Ravana
Ravana
and his rakshasis to marry Ravana. Hanuman
Hanuman
reassures Sita, giving Rama's signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita
Sita
back to Rama; however, she refuses and says that it is not the dharma, stating that Ramayana
Ramayana
will not have significance if Hanuman carries her to Rama
Rama
– "When Rama
Rama
is not there Ravana
Ravana
carried Sita forcibly and when Ravana
Ravana
was not there, Hanuman
Hanuman
carried Sita
Sita
back to Rama". She says that Rama
Rama
himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction. Hanuman
Hanuman
then wreaks havoc in Lanka
Lanka
by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana's warriors. He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana
Ravana
to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island. The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha
Kishkindha
with the news. Yuddha Kanda[edit]

The Battle at Lanka, Ramayana
Ramayana
by Sahibdin. It depicts the monkey army of the protagonist Rama
Rama
(top left, blue figure) fighting Ravana—the demon-king of the Lanka—to save Rama's kidnapped wife, Sita. The painting depicts multiple events in the battle against the three-headed demon general Trisiras, in bottom left. Trisiras is beheaded by Hanuman, the monkey-companion of Rama.

Also known as Lanka
Lanka
Kanda, this book describes the Ramayana
Ramayana
War between the army of Rama
Rama
and the army of Ravana. Having received Hanuman's report on Sita, Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
proceed with their allies towards the shore of the southern sea. There they are joined by Ravana's renegade brother Vibhishana. The apes named Nala
Nala
and Nila construct a floating bridge (known as Rama
Rama
Setu)[11] across the sea, using stones that floated on water because they had Rama's name written on them. The princes and their army cross over to Lanka. A lengthy war ensues. During a battle, Ravana's son Indrajit
Indrajit
hurls a powerful weapon at Lakshmana, who is badly wounded and is nearly killed.[citation needed] So Hanuman
Hanuman
assumes a gigantic form and flies from Lanka
Lanka
to the Himalayas. Upon reaching Mount Sumeru, Hanuman
Hanuman
was unable to identify the herb that could cure Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and so decided to bring the entire mountain back to Lanka. Eventually, the war ends when Rama
Rama
kills Ravana. Rama
Rama
then installs Vibhishana
Vibhishana
on the throne of Lanka. On meeting Sita, Rama
Rama
asks her to undergo an Agni
Agni
Pariksha (test of fire) to prove her chastity, as he wants to get rid of the rumors surrounding her purity. When Sita
Sita
plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni, lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her innocence. The episode of Agni
Agni
Pariksha varies in the versions of Ramayana
Ramayana
by Valmiki
Valmiki
and Tulsidas. In earlier versions, this event does not occur and many scholars consider it to have been added later as society became more patriarchal.[citation needed] In Tulsidas's Ramacharitamanas, Sita
Sita
was under the protection of Agni
Agni
(see Maya Sita) so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama. At the expiration of his term of exile, Rama
Rama
returns to Ayodhya
Ayodhya
with Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana, where the coronation is performed. This is the beginning of Ram Rajya, which implies an ideal state with good morals. Ramayan is not only the story about how truth defeats the evil, it also teaches us to forget all the evil and arrogance that resides inside ourselves.[12] Uttara Kanda[edit] Main article: Uttara Kanda

Sita
Sita
in the hermitage of Valmiki

Uttara Kanda
Uttara Kanda
is regarded to be a later addition to the original story by Valmiki
Valmiki
and concerns the final years of Rama, Sita
Sita
and Rama's brothers. After being crowned king, Rama
Rama
passes time pleasantly with Sita. After some time, Sita
Sita
gets pregnant with twin children. However, despite Agni
Agni
Pariksha ("fire ordeal") of Sita, rumours about her "purity" are spreading among the populace of Ayodhya. Rama
Rama
yields to public opinion and reluctantly banishes Sita
Sita
to the forest, where the sage Valmiki
Valmiki
provides shelter in his ashrama ("hermitage"). Here, she gives birth to twin boys, Lava
Lava
and Kusha, who become pupils of Valmiki and are brought up in ignorance of their identity. Valmiki
Valmiki
composes the Ramayana
Ramayana
and teaches Lava
Lava
and Kusha to sing it. Later, Rama
Rama
holds a ceremony during the Ashwamedha
Ashwamedha
yagna, which sage Valmiki, with Lava
Lava
and Kusha, attends. Lava
Lava
and Kusha sing the Ramayana
Ramayana
in the presence of Rama
Rama
and his vast audience. When Lava
Lava
and Kusha recite about Sita's exile, Rama
Rama
becomes grief-stricken and Valmiki
Valmiki
produces Sita. Sita
Sita
calls upon the Earth, her mother, to receive her and as the ground opens, she vanishes into it. Rama
Rama
then learns that Lava
Lava
and Kusha are his children. Many years later, a messenger from the Gods appears and informs Rama
Rama
that the mission of his incarnation is over. Rama
Rama
returns to his celestial abode along with his brothers. It was dramatised as Uttararamacarita by the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet Bhavabhuti. Versions[edit] See also: Versions of Ramayana

The epic story of Ramayana
Ramayana
was adopted by several cultures across Asia. Shown here is a Thai historic artwork depicting the battle which took place between Rama
Rama
and Ravana.

Relief
Relief
with part of the Ramayana
Ramayana
epic, shows Rama
Rama
killed the golden deer that turn out to be the demon Maricha
Maricha
in disguise. Prambanan Trimurti
Trimurti
temple near Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia.

As in many oral epics, multiple versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
survive. In particular, the Ramayana
Ramayana
related in north India
India
differs in important respects from that preserved in south India
India
and the rest of southeast Asia. There is an extensive tradition of oral storytelling based on Ramayana
Ramayana
in Indonesia, Cambodia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Maldives. Father Kamil Bulke, author of Ramakatha, has identified over 300 variants of the Ramayana. India[edit] There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
written by various authors in India. Some of them differ significantly from each other. During the 12th century, Kamban wrote Ramavataram, known popularly as Kambaramayanam
Kambaramayanam
in Tamil. A Telugu version, Ranganatha Ramayanam, was written by Gona Budda Reddy in the 14th century. The earliest translation to a regional Indo-Aryan language is the early 14th century Saptakanda Ramayana
Saptakanda Ramayana
in Assamese by Madhava Kandali. Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
inspired Sri Ramacharit Manas
Sri Ramacharit Manas
by Tulsidas
Tulsidas
in 1576, an epic Awadhi (a dialect of Hindi) version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu
Hindu
literature, that of bhakti; it is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana. Gujarati poet Premanand wrote a version of the Ramayana
Ramayana
in the 17th century. Other versions include Krittivasi Ramayan, a Bengali version by Krittibas Ojha
Krittibas Ojha
in the 15th century; Vilanka Ramayana
Vilanka Ramayana
by 15th century poet Sarala Dasa[13] and Dandi Ramayana (also known as Jagamohana Ramayana) by 16th century poet Balarama
Balarama
Dasa, both in Odia; a Torave Ramayana
Ramayana
in Kannada
Kannada
by 16th-century poet Narahari; Adhyathmaramayanam, a Malayalam
Malayalam
version by Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan in the 16th century; in Marathi by Sridhara in the 18th century; in Maithili by Chanda Jha in the 19th century; and in the 20th century, Rashtrakavi Kuvempu's Sri Ramayana Darshanam
Sri Ramayana Darshanam
in Kannada. There is a sub-plot to the Ramayana, prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahiravan
Ahiravan
and Mahi Ravana, evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman
Hanuman
in the story. Hanuman rescues Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-Mahi Ravana
Ravana
at the behest of Ravana
Ravana
and held prisoner in a subterranean cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali. Adbhuta Ramayana
Adbhuta Ramayana
is a version that is obscure but also attributed to Valmiki
Valmiki
– intended as a supplementary to the original Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana. In this variant of the narrative, Sita
Sita
is accorded far more prominence, such as elaboration of the events surrounding her birth – in this case to Ravana's wife, Mandodari
Mandodari
as well as her conquest of Ravana's older brother in her Mahakali
Mahakali
form. Mappillapattu – a genre of song popular among the Muslims belonging to Kerala
Kerala
and Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
– has incorporated some episodes from the Ramayana
Ramayana
into its songs. These songs, known as mappila ramayana, have been handed down from one generation to the next orally. In mappila ramayana, the story of Ramayana
Ramayana
has been changed into that of a sultan and there are no major changes in the names of characters except for that of Rama
Rama
which is Laman in many places. The language and the imagery projected in the Mappilapattu are in accordance with the social fabric of the earlier Muslim
Muslim
community. Buddhist Version[edit] In the Buddhist variant of the Ramayana
Ramayana
(Dasarathajātaka, #467), Dasharatha
Dasharatha
was king of Benares
Benares
and not Ayodhya. Rama
Rama
(called Rāmapaṇḍita in this version) was the son of Kaushalya, first wife of Dasharatha. Lakṣmaṇa (Lakkhaṇa) was a sibling of Rama
Rama
and son of Sumitra, the second wife of Dasharatha. Sita
Sita
was the wife of Rama. To protect his children from his wife Kaikeyi, who wished to promote her son Bharata, Dasharatha
Dasharatha
sent the three to a hermitage in the Himalayas for a twelve-year exile. After nine years, Dasharatha
Dasharatha
died and Lakkhaṇa and Sita
Sita
returned; Rāmapaṇḍita, in deference to his father's wishes, remained in exile for a further two years. This version does not include the abduction of Sītā.There is no Ravan in this version i.e. no Ram-ravan war. In the explanatory commentary on Jātaka, Rāmapaṇḍita is said to have been a previous incarnation of Buddha, and Sita
Sita
an incarnation of Yasodharā. But, Ravana
Ravana
appears in other Buddhist literature, Lankavatar Sutta. Jain
Jain
version[edit] Main articles: Rama
Rama
in Jainism and Salakapurusa

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Jain
Jain
versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
can be found in the various Jain
Jain
agamas like Ravisena's Padmapurana (story of Padmaja and Rama, Padmaja being the name of Sita), Hemacandra's Trisastisalakapurusa charitra (hagiography of 63 illustrious persons), Sanghadasa's Vasudevahindi and Uttarapurana by Gunabhadara. According to Jain
Jain
cosmology, every half time cycle has nine sets of Balarama, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and prativasudeva. Rama, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Ravana
Ravana
are the eighth baladeva, vasudeva and prativasudeva respectively. Padmanabh Jaini
Padmanabh Jaini
notes that, unlike in the Hindu
Hindu
puranas, the names Baladeva and Vasudeva
Vasudeva
are not restricted to Balarama
Balarama
and Krishna
Krishna
in Jain
Jain
Puranas. Instead they serve as names of two distinct classes of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half time cycle and jointly rule half the earth as half-chakravartins. Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the jinacharitra (lives of jinas) by Acharya Bhadrabahu
Acharya Bhadrabahu
(3d–4th century BCE). In the Jain
Jain
epic of Ramayana, it is not Rama
Rama
who kills Ravana
Ravana
as told in the Hindu
Hindu
version. Perhaps this is because Rama, a liberated Jain Soul in his last life, is unwilling to kill.[14] Instead, it is Lakshmana
Lakshmana
who kills Ravana. [14]In the end, Rama, who led an upright life, renounces his kingdom, becomes a Jain
Jain
monk and attains moksha. On the other hand, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Ravana
Ravana
go to Hell. However, it is predicted that ultimately they both will be reborn as upright persons and attain liberation in their future births. According to Jain
Jain
texts, Ravana
Ravana
will be the future Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(omniscient teacher) of Jainism. The Jain
Jain
versions have some variations from Valmiki's Ramayana. Dasharatha, the king of Saketa had four queens: Aparajita, Sumitra, Suprabha and Kaikeyi. These four queens had four sons. Aparajita's son was Padma and he became known by the name of Rama. Sumitra's son was Narayana: he came to be known by another name, Lakshmana. Kaikeyi's son was Bharata and Suprabha's son was Shatrughna. Furthermore, not much was thought of Rama's fidelity to Sita. According to the Jain version, Rama
Rama
had four chief queens: Maithili, Prabhavati, Ratinibha, and Sridama. Furthermore, Sita
Sita
takes renunciation as a Jain
Jain
ascetic after Rama
Rama
abandons her and is reborn in heaven. Rama, after Lakshmana's death, also renounces his kingdom and becomes a Jain
Jain
monk. Ultimately, he attains Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
omniscience and finally liberation. Rama
Rama
predicts that Ravana
Ravana
and Lakshmana, who were in the fourth hell, will attain liberation in their future births. Accordingly, Ravana
Ravana
is the future tirthankara of the next half ascending time cycle and Sita
Sita
will be his Ganadhara. Sikh Version[edit] In Guru Granth Sahib, there is a description of two types of Ramayana. One is a spiritual Ramayana
Ramayana
which is the actual subject of Guru Granth Sahib, in which Ravana
Ravana
is ego, Sita
Sita
is budhi (intellect), Rama
Rama
is inner soul and Laxman is mann (attention, mind). Guru Granth Sahib also believes in the existence of Dashavatara
Dashavatara
who were kings of their times which tried their best to restore order to the world. King Rama (Ramchandra) was one of those who is not covered in Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
states:

ਹੁਕਮਿ ਉਪਾਏ ਦਸ ਅਉਤਾਰਾ॥ हुकमि उपाए दस अउतारा॥ By hukam (supreme command), he created his ten incarnations

This version of the Ramayana
Ramayana
was written by Guru Gobind Singh, which is part of Dasam Granth. He also said that the almighty, invisible, all prevailing God created great numbers of Indras, Moons and Suns, Deities, Demons and sages, and also numerous saints and Brahmanas (enlightened people). But they too were caught in the noose of death (Kaal) (transmigration of the soul). This is similar to the explanation in Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
which is part of the Mahabharata.[citation needed] Nepal[edit] Besides being the site of discovery of the oldest surviving manuscript of the Ramayana, Nepal
Nepal
gave rise to two regional variants in mid 19th – early 20th century. One, written by Bhanubhakta Acharya, is considered the first epic of Nepali language, while the other, written by Siddhidas Mahaju
Siddhidas Mahaju
in Nepal
Nepal
Bhasa was a foundational influence in the Nepal
Nepal
Bhasa renaissance. Ramayana
Ramayana
written by Bhanubhakta Acharya
Bhanubhakta Acharya
is one of the most popular verses in Nepal. The popularization of the Ramayana
Ramayana
and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta. Mainly because of his writing of Nepali Ramayana, Bhanubhakta is also called Aadi Kavi or The Pioneering Poet. Southeast Asian[edit] Cambodia[edit]

Cambodian classical dancers as Sita
Sita
and Ravana, the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh (c. 1920s)

The Cambodian version of the Ramayana, Reamker
Reamker
(Khmer: រាមកេរ្ដិ៍ - Glory of Rama), is the most famous story of Khmer literature since the Kingdom of Funan
Kingdom of Funan
era. It adapts the Hindu
Hindu
concepts to Buddhist themes and shows the balance of good and evil in the world. The Reamker
Reamker
has several differences from the original Ramayana, including scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman
Hanuman
and Sovanna Maccha, a retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions. Reamker
Reamker
in Cambodia
Cambodia
is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dance, theatre known as lakhorn luang (the foundation of the royal ballet), poetry and the mural and bas-reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda
Silver Pagoda
and Angkor Wat. Indonesia[edit]

Lakshmana, Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
during their exile in Dandaka Forest depicted in Javanese dance

Indonesia
Indonesia
has some adaptations of Ramayana, including Kakawin Ramayana of Java,[15][16] and Ramakavaca of Bali
Bali
(Indonesia).[17] Javanese version of Ramayana
Ramayana
has some differences if compared with the original Hindu
Hindu
version. The first half of Kakawin Ramayana
Kakawin Ramayana
is similar to the original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version, while the latter half is very different from the original Ramayana. One of the recognizable modification in Javanese version of Ramayana
Ramayana
is the inclusion of the indigenous Javanese guardian god, Semar, and his misshapen sons, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong who make up the numerically significant four Punokawan
Punokawan
or "clown servants". Kakawin Ramayana
Kakawin Ramayana
is believed to have been written in Central Java
Java
circa 870 AD during the reign of Mpu Sindok in Medang Kingdom.[18]:128 The Javanese Kakawin Ramayana
Kakawin Ramayana
is not based on Valmiki's epic, which was then the most famous version of Rama's story, but based on Ravanavadha or the " Ravana
Ravana
massacre", which is the sixth or seventh century poetry by Indian poets Bhattikavya.[19] Kakawin Ramayana
Kakawin Ramayana
has also become the reference of Ramayana
Ramayana
in the neighboring island of Bali
Bali
which developed the Balinese Ramakavaca. The bas reliefs of Ramayana
Ramayana
and Krishnayana scenes are carved on balustrades wall of 9th century Prambanan
Prambanan
temples in Yogyakarta,[20] as well as in East Java
Java
14th century bas-relief of Penataran temple.[21] In Indonesia, Ramayana
Ramayana
has been integrated into local culture especially those of Javanese, Balinese and Sundanese people, and has become the source of moral and spiritual guidance as well as aesthetic expression and also for entertainment, like in wayang and traditional dances.[22] The Balinese kecak dance drama for example, represent the story taken from Ramayana
Ramayana
episodes, where dancers that play as Rama, Sita, Lakhsmana, Jatayu, Hanuman, Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Indrajit, performed and surrounded by a troupe of over 50 bare-chested men who serve as the chorus chanting "cak" chant. The performance also include a fire show to describe the burning of Lanka by Hanuman.[23] In Yogyakarta, the Wayang
Wayang
Wong Javanese dance
Javanese dance
drama also performed a Javanese rendering of Ramayana
Ramayana
episodes. The most spectacular Ramayana
Ramayana
performance in Java
Java
would be the Ramayana
Ramayana
Ballet performed on the Trimurti
Trimurti
Prambanan
Prambanan
open air stage, with backdrop view of the three main prasad spires of Prambanan
Prambanan
Hindu
Hindu
temple.[24] Laos[edit] Phra Lak Phra Lam
Phra Lak Phra Lam
is a Lao language
Lao language
version, whose title comes from Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Rama. The story of Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Rama
Rama
is told as the previous life of Gautama buddha. Malaysia[edit] The Hikayat Seri Rama
Rama
of Malaysia
Malaysia
incorporated element of both Hindu and Islamic mythology.[25][26][27] For example, Dasharatha
Dasharatha
is the great-grandson of the Prophet Adam. Ravana
Ravana
receives boons from Allah instead of Brahma. Myanmar[edit]

Rama
Rama
(Yama) and Sita
Sita
(Me Thida) in Yama Zatdaw, the Burmese version of Ramayana

Yama Zatdaw
Yama Zatdaw
is Burmese version of Ramayana. It also considered as Myanmar
Myanmar
unofficial national epic. There are nine known pieces of the Yama Zatdaw
Yama Zatdaw
in Myanmar. The Burmese name for the story itself is Yamayana, while zatdaw refers to the acted play or being part of jataka tales of Theravada Buddhism. This Burmese version also heavily influenced by Ramakien
Ramakien
(Thai version of Ramayana) which resulted from various invasion by Konbaung Dynasty
Konbaung Dynasty
king toward Ayutthaya Kingdom. Philippines[edit] Main article: Maharadia Lawana The Maharadia Lawana, an epic poem of the Maranao people
Maranao people
of the Philippines, has been regarded as an indigenized version of the Ramayana
Ramayana
since it was documented and translated into English by Professor Juan R. Francisco and Nagasura Madale in 1968.[28](p"264")[29] The poem, which had not been written down before Francisco and Madale's translation,[28](p"264") narrates the adventures of the monkey-king, Maharadia Lawana, whom the Gods have gifted with immortality.[28] Francisco, an indologist from the University of the Philippines Manila, believed that the Ramayana
Ramayana
narrative arrived in the Philippines
Philippines
some time between the 17th to 19th centuries, via interactions with Javanese and Malaysian cultures which traded extensively with India.[30](p101) By the time it was documented in the 1960s, the character names, place names, and the precise episodes and events in Maharadia Lawana's narrative already had some notable differences from those of the Ramayana. Francisco believed that this was a sign of "indigenization", and suggested that some changes had already been introduced in Malaysia
Malaysia
and Java
Java
even before the story was heard by the Maranao, and that upon reaching the Maranao homeland, the story was "further indigenized to suit Philippine cultural perspectives and orientations."[30](p"103") Thailand[edit]

The Thai retelling of the tale—Ramakien—is popularly expressed in traditional regional dance theatre

Thailand's popular national epic Ramakien (Thai:รามเกียรติ์., from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
rāmakīrti, glory of Rama) is derived from the Hindu
Hindu
epic. In Ramakien, Sita
Sita
is the daughter of Ravana
Ravana
and Mandodari
Mandodari
(thotsakan and montho). Vibhishana
Vibhishana
(phiphek), the astrologer brother of Ravana, predicts the death of Ravana
Ravana
from the horoscope of Sita. Ravana
Ravana
has thrown her into the water, but she is later rescued by Janaka
Janaka
(chanok). [14]:149 While the main story is identical to that of Ramayana, many other aspects were transposed into a Thai context, such as the clothes, weapons, topography and elements of nature, which are described as being Thai in style. It has an expanded role for Hanuman
Hanuman
and he is portrayed as a lascivious character. Ramakien
Ramakien
can be seen in an elaborate illustration at Wat Phra Kaew
Wat Phra Kaew
in Bangkok. Critical edition[edit] A critical edition of the text was compiled in India
India
in the 1960s and 1970s, by the Oriental Institute at Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India, utilizing dozens of manuscripts collected from across India
India
and the surrounding region.[31] An English language translation of the critical edition was completed in November 2016 by Sanskrit scholar Robert P. Goldman of the University of California, Berkeley.[32] Influence on culture and art[edit] See also: Ramayana
Ramayana
Ballet

A Ramlila
Ramlila
actor wears the traditional attire of Ravana.

One of the most important literary works of ancient India, the Ramayana
Ramayana
has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia with the lone exception of Vietnam. The story ushered in the tradition of the next thousand years of massive-scale works in the rich diction of regal courts and Hindu temples. It has also inspired much secondary literature in various languages, notably Kambaramayanam
Kambaramayanam
by Tamil poet Kambar of the 12th century, Telugu language
Telugu language
Molla Ramayanam by poet Molla and Ranganatha Ramayanam by poet Gona Budda Reddy, 14th century Kannada
Kannada
poet Narahari's Torave Ramayana
Ramayana
and 15th century Bengali poet Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan, as well as the 16th century Awadhi version, Ramacharitamanas, written by Tulsidas. Ramayanic scenes have also been depicted through terracottas, stone sculptures, bronzes and paintings.[33] These include the stone panel at Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
depicting Bharata's meeting with Rama
Rama
at Chitrakuta (3rd century CE).[33] The Ramayana
Ramayana
became popular in Southeast Asia during 8th century and was represented in literature, temple architecture, dance and theatre. Today, dramatic enactments of the story of the Ramayana, known as Ramlila, take place all across India
India
and in many places across the globe within the Indian diaspora.

Hanuman
Hanuman
discovers Sita
Sita
in her captivity in Lanka, as depicted in Balinese dance.

In Indonesia, especially Java
Java
and Bali, Ramayana
Ramayana
has become a popular source of artistic expression for dance drama and shadow puppet performance in the region. Sendratari Ramayana
Ramayana
is Javanese traditional ballet of wayang orang genre, routinely performed in Prambanan Trimurti
Trimurti
temple and in cultural center of Yogyakarta.[34] Balinese dance drama of Ramaya also performed routinely in Balinese temples, especially in temples in Ubud
Ubud
and Uluwatu, where scenes from Ramayana is integrap part of kecak dance performance. Javanese wayang kulit purwa also draws its episodes from Ramayana
Ramayana
or Mahabharata. Ramayana
Ramayana
has also been depicted in many paintings, most notably by the Malaysian artist Syed Thajudeen
Syed Thajudeen
in 1972. The epic tale was picturized on canvas in epic proportions measuring 152 x 823 cm in 9 panels. The painting depicts three prolific parts of the epic, namely The Abduction of Sita, Hanuman
Hanuman
visits Sita
Sita
and Hanuman
Hanuman
Burns Lanka. The painting is currently in the permanent collection of the Malaysian National Visual Arts Gallery.

A depiction of Ramayana
Ramayana
by Syed Thajudeen

Religious significance[edit]

Deities Sita
Sita
(far right), Rama
Rama
(center), Lakshmana
Lakshmana
(far left) and Hanuman
Hanuman
(below, seated) at Bhaktivedanta Manor, Watford, England

Rama, the hero of the Ramayana, is one of the most popular deities worshipped in the Hindu
Hindu
religion. Each year, many devout pilgrims trace their journey through India
India
and Nepal, halting at each of the holy sites along the way. The poem is not seen as just a literary monument, but serves as an integral part of Hinduism
Hinduism
and is held in such reverence that the mere reading or hearing of it or certain passages of it, is believed by Hindus to free them from sin and bless the reader or listener. According to Hindu
Hindu
tradition, Rama
Rama
is an incarnation (Avatar) of god Vishnu. The main purpose of this incarnation is to demonstrate the righteous path (dharma) for all living creatures on earth. Ramayana
Ramayana
in popular culture[edit] Multiple modern, English-language adaptations of the epic exist, namely Ram Chandra Series by Amish Tripathi, Ramayana
Ramayana
Series by Ashok Banker and a mythopoetic novel, Asura: Tale of the Vanquished by Anand Neelakantan. Another Indian author, Devdutt Pattanaik, has published three different retellings and commentaries of Ramayana
Ramayana
titled Sita, The Book Of Ram and Hanuman's Ramayan. A number of plays, movies and television serials have also been produced based upon the Ramayana. Stage[edit] Starting in 1978 and under the supervision of Baba Hari Dass, Ramayana has been performed every year by Mount Madonna School in Watsonville, California. Currently, it is the largest yearly, Western version of the epic being performed. It takes the form of a colorful musical with custom costumes, sung and spoken dialog, jazz-rock orchestration and dance. This performance takes place in a large audience theater setting usually in June, in San Jose, CA. Baba Hari Dass
Baba Hari Dass
has taught acting arts, costume-attire design, mask making and choreography to bring alive characters of Sri Ram, Sita, Hanuman, Lakshmana, Shiva, Parvati, Vibhishan, Jatayu, Sugriva, Surpanakha, Ravana
Ravana
and his rakshasa court, Meghnadha, Kumbhakarna
Kumbhakarna
and the army of monkeys and demons. Movies[edit]

Sampoorna Ramayanam – a Telugu/Tamil bilingual film starring N. T. Rama
Rama
Rao (1958) Sampoorna Ramayana
Sampoorna Ramayana
– a Hindi
Hindi
film directed by Babubhai Mistry (1961) Lava Kusha
Lava Kusha
– a Uttara Kanda-based bilingual Telugu movie
Telugu movie
and Tamil movie starring N. T. Rama
Rama
Rao (1963) Sampoorna Ramayanamu
Sampoorna Ramayanamu
– a Telugu film
Telugu film
directed by Bapu, starring Sobhan Babu, Chandrakala, S V Ranga Rao
S V Ranga Rao
(1971) Kanchana Sita
Sita
– a Malayalam
Malayalam
film by G. Aravindan (1977) Ramayana: The Legend of Prince Rama
Rama
– a Japanese animated film released in the Hindi, Japanese and English languages (1992) A Little Princess
A Little Princess
(1995) – an American film chronicling the time of an orphaned child during WWI in an all-girl's boarding school. The story of Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
is told by the main character to the other girls and is constantly referenced throughout the plot. Opera Jawa
Opera Jawa
– an Indonesian-Austrian film in the Indonesian language; inspired by the story of the abduction of Sita
Sita
(2008) Sita
Sita
Sings the Blues – an independent animated film (2008). Lava
Lava
Kusa: The Warrior Twins – animated film based on Uttara Kanda (2010) Ramayana: The Epic – a Warner Bros. Indian animated film (2010) Sri Rama
Rama
Rajyam – based on Uttara Kanda, a Telugu film
Telugu film
starring Nandamuri Balakrishna
Nandamuri Balakrishna
(2011). Yak: The Giant King – a re-interpretation of Ramayana, the Thai animation film tells the story of a giant robot, Na Kiew, who is left wandering in a barren wasteland after a great war. Na Kiew meets Jao Phuek, a puny tin robot who has lost his memory and is now stuck with his new big friend. Together they set out across the desert populated by metal scavengers, to look for Ram, the creator of all robots. (2012). Mumbai Musical
Mumbai Musical
– DreamWorks Animation (2016) Mahayoddha Rama
Rama
– an animated version of Ramayana
Ramayana
from the perspective of Ravana, the demon king of Lanka

Animated movies[edit]

Sons Of Ram by Kushal Ruia , its about the life of Sita
Sita
with her sons Luv and Kush.

Plays[edit]

Kanchana Sita, Saketham and Lankalakshmi – award-winning trilogy by Malayalam
Malayalam
playwright C. N. Sreekantan Nair Lankeswaran – a play by the award-winning Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
actor R. S. Manohar King's Dharma
Dharma
– a multi-media production produced by Ben Kahan and Andreas Canning (2016)[35]

Exihibitions[edit]

Gallery Nucleus: Ramayana
Ramayana
Exhibition -Part of the art of the book Ramayana:Divine Loophole by Sanjay Patel. The Rama
Rama
epic:Hero.Heroine,Ally,Foe by The Asian Art Museum.

Books[edit]

"The Ramayana" by R.K. Narayan "A tale of Gods and Demons:Ramayana" by R Prime "The Song of Rama" by Vanamali "Ramayana" by Krishna
Krishna
Dharma "Ramayana" by William Buck
William Buck
and S Triest "Arrow of the Blue-Skinned God" by Jonah Blank "Indian Odyssey" by Martin Buckley "Ramayana:Divine Loophole" by Sanjay Patel "Sita´s Ramayana" by Samhita Arni & Moyna Chitrakar "Sita: An Illustrate Retelling of the Ramayana" By Devdutt Pattanaik

TV series[edit]

Ramayan – originally broadcast on Doordarshan, produced by Ramanand Sagar in 1987 Jai Hanuman
Hanuman
– originally broadcast on Doordarshan, produced and directed by Sanjay Khan Ramayan (2002) – originally broadcast on Zee TV, produced by BR Films Ramayan (2008) – originally broadcast on Imagine TV, produced by Ramanand Sagar Ramayan (2012) – a remake of the 1987 series and aired on Zee TV Antariksh (2004) – a sci-fi version of Ramayan. Originally broadcast on Star Plus Raavan – series on life of Ravana
Ravana
based on Ramayana. Originally broadcast on Zee TV Sankatmochan Mahabali Hanuman
Hanuman
– 2015 series based on the life of Hanuman
Hanuman
presently broadcasting on Sony TV Siya Ke Ram
Siya Ke Ram
– a series on Star Plus, originally broadcast from November 16, 2015 to November 4, 2016

Citations[edit]

^ "Ramayana". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Ramayana
Ramayana
By William Buck ^ Mukherjee Pandey, Jhimli (18 Dec 2015). "6th-century Ramayana
Ramayana
found in Kolkata, stuns scholars". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. TNN. Retrieved 20 December 2015.  ^ a b Uma Singh, Senu Singh (16 January 2013). "Ramayan as a complete life of real human" (PDF). Indian Journal of Arts. 1 (1): 2. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ Mukherjee, P. (1981). The History of Medieval Vaishnavism in Orissa. Asian Educational Services. p. 74. ISBN 9788120602298. Retrieved 6 January 2017.  ^ Living Thoughts of the Ramayana. Jaico Publishing House. 2002. ISBN 9788179920022. Retrieved 6 January 2017.  ^ Krishnamoorthy, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sahitya Akademi (1991). A Critical Inventory of Rāmāyaṇa Studies in the World: Foreign languages. Sahitya Akademi in collaboration with Union Academique Internationale, Bruxelles. ISBN 9788172015077. Retrieved 6 January 2017.  ^ Bulcke, C.; Prasāda, D. (2010). Rāmakathā and Other Essays. Vani Prakashan. p. 116. ISBN 9789350001073. Retrieved 6 January 2017.  ^ CANTO LXVII.: THE BREAKING OF THE BOW. sacredtexts.com. Retrieved 25 January 2016.  ^ Rajarajan, R.K.K. (2001) Sītāpaharaṇam: Changing thematic Idioms in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Tamil. In Dirk W. Lonne ed. Tofha-e-Dil: Festschrift Helmut Nespital, Reinbeck, 2 vols., pp. 783-97. ISBN 3-88587-033-9. https://www.academia.edu/2514821/S%C4%ABt%C4%81pahara%E1%B9%89am_Changing_thematic_Idioms_in_Sanskrit_and_Tamil ^ Rajarajan, R.K.K. (2014) Reflections on “Rāma-Setu” in South Asian Tradition. The Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. 105.3: 1–14, ISSN 0047-8555. https://www.academia.edu/8779702/Reflections_on_R%C4%81ma-Setu_in_South_Asian_Tradition ^ "Shrimad Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayan Hindi
Hindi
Books PDF". hindibookspdf.com. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (1 January 2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9780816075645.  ^ a b c Ramanujan, A.K (2004). The Collected Essays of A.K. Ramanujan (PDF) (4. impr. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 145.  ^ " Ramayana
Ramayana
Kakawin Vol. 1". archive.org.  ^ "The Kakawin Ramayana
Kakawin Ramayana
-- an old Javanese rendering of the …". www.nas.gov.sg. Retrieved 2017-12-13.  ^ Bhalla, Prem P. (2017-08-22). ABC of Hinduism. Educreation Publishing. p. 277.  ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ Ardianty, Dini (8 June 2015). "Perbedaan Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabarata dalam Kesusastraan Jawa Kuna dan India" (in Indonesian).  ^ " Prambanan
Prambanan
- Taman Wisata Candi". borobudurpark.com. Retrieved 2017-12-15.  ^ Indonesia, Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
/ National Library of. "Panataran Temple (East Java) - Temples of Indonesia". candi.pnri.go.id. Retrieved 2017-12-15.  ^ Joefe B. Santarita (2013), Revisiting Swarnabhumi/dvipa: Indian Influences in Ancient Southeast Asia ^ Planet, Lonely. " Bali
Bali
Kecak
Kecak
Dance, Fire Dance and Sanghyang Dance Evening Tour in Indonesia". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2017-12-13.  ^ "THE KEEPERS: CNN Introduces Guardians of Indonesia's Rich Cultural Traditions". www.indonesia.travel. Retrieved 2017-12-13.  ^ Fang, Liaw Yock (2013). A History of Classical Malay Literature. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia. p. 142. ISBN 9789794618103.  ^ Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1898. pp. 107–.  ^ Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1898. pp. 143–.  ^ a b c Guillermo, Artemio R. (2011-12-16). Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810875111.  ^ Francisco, Juan R. "Maharadia Lawana" (PDF).  ^ a b FRANCISCO, JUAN R. (1989). "The Indigenization of the Rama
Rama
Story in the Philippines". Philippine Studies. 37 (1): 101–111. doi:10.2307/42633135.  ^ " Ramayana
Ramayana
Translation Project turns its last page, after four decades of research Berkeley News". news.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 6 January 2017.  ^ "UC Berkeley researchers complete decades-long translation project The Daily Californian". dailycal.org. Retrieved 6 January 2017.  ^ a b B. B. Lal (2008). Rāma, His Historicity, Mandir, and Setu: Evidence of Literature, Archaeology, and Other Sciences. Aryan Books. ISBN 978-81-7305-345-0.  ^ Donald Frazier (11 February 2016). "On Java, a Creative Explosion in an Ancient City". The New York Times.  ^ "Welcome". King's Dharma. Retrieved 10 October 2016. 

References[edit]

Arya, Ravi Prakash (ed.). Ramayana
Ramayana
of Valmiki: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Text and English Translation. (English translation according to M. N. Dutt, introduction by Dr. Ramashraya Sharma, 4-volume set) Parimal Publications: Delhi, 1998, ISBN 81-7110-156-9 Bhattacharji, Sukumari (1998). Legends of Devi. Orient Blackswan. p. 111. ISBN 978-81-250-1438-6.  Brockington, John (2003). "The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Epics". In Flood, Gavin. Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 116–128. ISBN 0-631-21535-2.  Buck, William; van Nooten, B. A. (2000). Ramayana. University of California Press. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-520-22703-3.  Dutt, Romesh C. (2004). Ramayana. Kessinger Publishing. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-4191-4387-8.  Dutt, Romesh Chunder (2002). The Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
condensed into English verse. Courier Dover Publications. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-486-42506-1.  Fallon, Oliver (2009). Bhatti's Poem: The Death of Rávana (Bhaṭṭikāvya). New York: New York University Press, Clay Sanskrit Library. ISBN 978-0-8147-2778-2.  Keshavadas, Sadguru Sant (1988). Ramayana
Ramayana
at a Glance. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.,. p. 211. ISBN 978-81-208-0545-3.  Goldman, Robert P. (1990). The Ramayana
Ramayana
of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India: Balakanda. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01485-2.  Goldman, Robert P. (1994). The Ramayana
Ramayana
of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India: Kiskindhakanda. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-06661-5.  Goldman, Robert P. (1996). The Ramayana
Ramayana
of Valmiki: Sundarakanda. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-06662-2.  B. B. Lal (2008). Rāma, His Historicity, Mandir, and Setu: Evidence of Literature, Archaeology, and Other Sciences. Aryan Books. ISBN 978-81-7305-345-0.  Mahulikar, Dr. Gauri. Effect Of Ramayana
Ramayana
On Various Cultures And Civilisations, Ramayan Institute Rabb, Kate Milner, National Epics, 1896 – see eText in Project Gutenburg Murthy, S. S. N. (November 2003). "A note on the Ramayana" (PDF). Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. New Delhi. 10 (6): 1–18. ISSN 1084-7561. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2012.  Prabhavananda, Swami (1979). The Spiritual Heritage of India. Vedanta Press. p. 374. ISBN 978-0-87481-035-6.  (see also article on book) Raghunathan, N. (transl.), Srimad Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayanam, Vighneswara Publishing House, Madras (1981) Rohman, Todd (2009). "The Classical Period". In Watling, Gabrielle; Quay, Sara. Cultural History of Reading: World literature. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33744-4.  Sattar, Arshia (transl.) (1996). The Rāmāyaṇa by Vālmīki. Viking. p. 696. ISBN 978-0-14-029866-6.  Sundararajan, K.R. (1989). "The Ideal of Perfect Life : The Ramayana". In Krishna
Krishna
Sivaraman; Bithika Mukerji. Hindu
Hindu
spirituality: Vedas
Vedas
through Vedanta. The Crossroad Publishing Co. pp. 106–126. ISBN 978-0-8245-0755-8.  A different Song – Article from "The Hindu" 12 August 2005 – "The Hindu : Entertainment Thiruvananthapuram / Music : A different song". Hinduonnet.com. 12 August 2005. Archived from the original on 27 October 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.  Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
illustrated with Indian miniatures from the 16th to the 19th century, 2012, Editions Diane de Selliers, ISBN 9782903656768

Further reading[edit]

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text

Electronic version of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text, input by Muneo Tokunaga Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text on GRETIL

Translations

Jain
Jain
Ramayana
Ramayana
of Hemchandra English translation; seventh book of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra; 1931 Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana
Ramayana
verse translation by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao, K. M. K. Murthy et al. Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana
Ramayana
translated by Ralph T. H. Griffith (1870–1874) (Project Gutenberg) The Ramayana
Ramayana
condensed into English verse by R. C. Dutt (1899) at archive.org Prose translation of the complete Ramayana
Ramayana
by M. N. Dutt (1891–1894): Balakandam, Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Kandam, Aranya Kandam, Kishkindha Kandam, Sundara Kandam, Yuddha Kandam, Uttara Kandam Rāma the Steadfast: an early form of the Rāmāyaṇa translated by J. L. Brockington and Mary Brockington. Penguin, 2006. ISBN 0-14-044744-X.

Secondary Sources

Jain, Meenakshi. (2013). Rama
Rama
and Ayodhya. Aryan Books International, 2013.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ramayan

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ramayana

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ramayana

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Ramayana
Ramayana
(category)

A condensed verse translation by Romesh Chunder Dutt
Romesh Chunder Dutt
sponsored by the Liberty Fund The Ramayana
Ramayana
as a Monomyth from UC Berkeley (archived)

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Ramayana
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