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Raja
Raja
(/ˈrɑːdʒɑː/; also spelled rajah, from Sanskrit राजन् rājan-), is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia. The female form Rani (sometimes spelled Ranee) applies equally to the wife of a Raja
Raja
(or of an equivalent style such as Rana), usually as queen consort and occasionally as regent. The title has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia, being attested from the Rigveda, where a rājan- is a ruler, see for example the dāśarājñá, the "Battle of Ten Kings".

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Related titles and variations

2.1 Compound titles

3 Raja-ruled Indian states 4 Usage outside India 5 Rajadharma 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Sources and external links

Etymology[edit] Further information: Reich § Etymology, and Reiks Sanskrit rājan- is cognate to Latin
Latin
rēx (genitive rēgis) 'king' (as in pre-republican Rome), Gaulish
Gaulish
rīx, Gaelic rí (genitive ríg), etc., originally denoting heads of petty kingdoms and city states. It is believed to be ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European *h3rēǵs, a vrddhi formation to the root *h3reǵ- "to straighten, to order, to rule". The Sanskrit n-stem is secondary in the male title, apparently adapted from the female counterpart rājñī which also has an -n- suffix in related languages, compare Old Irish rígain and Latin
Latin
regina. Cognates
Cognates
of the word rājan in other Indo-European languages include English reign and German Reich. The alternative English form 'rajah' is an example of the common error of inappropriately adding an 'h' to any final 'a', since masculine Sanskrit words ending in 'a' take the termination 'h' in the singular nominative case. It is to be deprecated, as being based on a false etymology. Related titles and variations[edit] Rather common, practically equivalent variants in Rajasthani, Marathi and Hindi, used as equivalent royal style in parts of India
India
include Rana, Rao, Rai, Roy, Raol, Rawal and rawat (regional equivalents of Raja) and Yuv(a)raj(a/u) 'prince heir'. Maharaja, or "great king", is literally a title for more significant rulers in India, but after some inflation of titles over time, there is no clear hierarchy between the terms. Hence during the British raj, precedence was rather determined by the gun salute. Raja, Thakore and many variations, compounds and derivations including either of these were used in and around South Asia
South Asia
by most Hindu, and some Muslim, Buddhist, Bhumihar Brahmin, Jain and Sikh rulers, and still is commonly used in India, but Muslim
Muslim
princes rather used unrelated titles of Arabic/Persian origin like Nawab, Amir
Amir
or Sultan.

Raja
Raja
රජ means King
King
in Sri Lanka. Rajamanthri (රාජමන්ත්රී) is the Prince
Prince
(රජ කුමරැ) lineage of King's generation in Sri Lanka. Rajamanthri title is aristocracy of the Kandiyan Kingdom මහනුවර in Sri Lanka.

Compound titles[edit]

Badan Singh (d. 1756) was styled Raja
Raja
Mahendra and founded the city and state Bharatpur, which his dynasty ruled as Maharajas. Raja
Raja
Sahib was the royal style in Bansda (at least since 1701) until its upgrade from c.1829 to higher 'counterpart' Maharaja
Maharaja
Sahib. Raja-i Rajgan was notably the royal style of :

the former Rajas of J(h)ind from * until their 1911 upgrade to Maharaja. the former Rajas (originally Sardars) of Kapurthala from 1861 until their 1911 upgrade to Maharaja. two consecutive rulers of Patiala, the first of which was originally styled Maharaja, while the second 'upgraded back' to higher 'counterpart' Maharaja
Maharaja
Rajgan.

Raja
Raja
Bahadur (literally 'higher then' Raja) :

(perhaps from the start) and remained the rulers of Raigarh. as 1763 upgrade from the family title Raja Sar Desai in Maratha state Savantvadi.

Raja-ruled Indian states[edit]

Princely state

Salute state British paramountcy Chamber of Princes Jagir Agencies of British India Residencies of British India‎ Doctrine of lapse Political pensioner Privy Purse Standstill agreement Instrument of Accession

Individual residencies

Hyderabad Indore (Holkar) Jammu and Kashmir Mysore (Maisur) Quilon Sikkim

Agencies

Bagelkhand Baluchistan Baroda and Gujarat States Baroda, Western India
India
and Gujarat States Bhopawar Bundelkhand Central India Deccan States Eastern States Gilgit Gwalior Residency Jaipur Residency Madras States Mahi Kantha Malwa Mewar (Udaipur) Residency and Western Rajputana Agency North-West Frontier Palanpur Punjab States Rajputana Rewa Kantha Western India
India
States

Lists

States by region States by name Rajput States Maratha States

v t e

While most of the Hindu
Hindu
salute states were ruled by a Maharaja
Maharaja
(or variation; some promoted from an earlier Raja- or equivalent style), even exclusively from 13 guns up, a number had Rajas :

Hereditary salutes of 11-guns 

the Raja
Raja
of Rajouri the Raja
Raja
of Ali Rajpur the Raja
Raja
of Bilaspur the Raja
Raja
of Chamba the Raja
Raja
of Faridkot the Raja
Raja
of Jhabua the Raja
Raja
of Mandi the Raja
Raja
of Manipur the Raja
Raja
of Narsinghgarh the Raja
Raja
of Pudukkottai the Raja
Raja
of Rajgarh the Raja
Raja
of Sailana the Raja
Raja
of Samthar the Raja
Raja
of Sitamau the Raja
Raja
of Suket

Hereditary salutes of 9-guns (11-guns personal) 

the Raja
Raja
of Dharampur the Raja
Raja
of Sangli

Hereditary salute of 9-guns (11-guns local) 

the Raja
Raja
of Savantwadi

Hereditary salutes of 9-guns 

the Raja
Raja
of Baraundha the Raja
Raja
of Bhor the Raja
Raja
of Chhota Udepur the Raja
Raja
of Khilchipur the Raja
Raja
of Maihar the Raja
Raja
of Mudhol the Raja
Raja
of Nagod(h)(e) the Raja
Raja
of Sant the Raja
Raja
of Shahpura

Personal salute of 9-guns 

the Raja
Raja
of Bashahr

There were many more Rajas (and variations) among the native rulers (of Chieftains) non-salute states, i.e. less prestigious princely states, often upgraded from a lower title and/or to a higher one (sometimes even becoming salute state), while less obvious shifts also occurred, including :

Ajaygarh (Ajaigarh), from 1877 Sawai Maharaja; Hereditary salute of 11-guns Akalkot, invariable (even since 1708 founding as fief of Satara) Alirajpur(Ali Rajpur, since 1911, previously (equivalent) Rana; Hereditary salute of 11-guns Angul State in Orissa until 1948 British annexation Athgarh State Athmallik State
Athmallik State
(also until 1874 as a feudaotor jagir) etcetera

Raja
Raja
is also frequently used as (confusing) rendering of other native regal titles, such as Swargadeo (Ahom language: Chao-Pha) of the Ahom Kingdom (alias Assam), where Charing Raja, Tipam Raja
Raja
and Namrup Raja were the title for the first, second viz. third prince in line for succession. There were many more Rajas (and variations) among the feudatory (e)states, such as jagirs.[citation needed] Usage outside India[edit]

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A Chinese depiction of a Raha (the Spanish pronunciation of Rajah) or Hari in Boxer Codex
Boxer Codex
(c. 1595). Raja
Raja
was a title used by the Royalties in the Classical Period of pre-colonial Philippines.

In Pakistan, Raja
Raja
is still used by Muslim
Muslim
Rajput clans as hereditary titles. Raja
Raja
is also used as a given name by Hindus and Sikhs. Most notably Raja
Raja
is used in Hazara division of Pakistan
Pakistan
for the descendants of a Turkic dynasty. These Rajas ruled that part of Pakistan
Pakistan
for decades and they still possess huge land in Hazara division of Pakistan
Pakistan
and actively participate in the politics of the region. In Bangladesh, the royal families of indigenous people in the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
remain. Raja
Raja
Debashish Roy is the current titular Raja
Raja
of the Chakma Circle in Rangamati Hill District. His ancestor is Tridev Roy. Raja
Raja
U Cho Prue Marma is the current titular Raja
Raja
of the Bohmong Circle in Bandarban Hill District
Bandarban Hill District
and Raja
Raja
Saching Prue Chowdhury is the current titular Raja
Raja
of the Mong Circle in Khagrachhari Hill District. In Sinhalese, the title 'Raja' means King
King
of (part of Ceylon, now) Sri Lanka. Rajamanthri is the Prince
Prince
lineage of King's generation especially Rajamanthri is aristocracy of the Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
in Sri Lanka history. Indonesian has the word raja for "king". Leaders of local tribes and old Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms had that title before Indonesia
Indonesia
became an independent nation. Various traditional princely states in Indonesia still style their ruler Raja, or did so until their abolition. In the Malay language, the word raja also means "king". In Malaysia, the ruler of the state of Perlis
Perlis
is titled the Raja
Raja
of Perlis, which literally means the ' King
King
of Perlis'. Most of the other state rulers are titled sultans. Nevertheless, the raja has an equal status with the other rulers and is one of the electors who designate one of their number as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
every five years. In the state of Perak, the title 'Raja' means 'Prince'. The White Rajahs
White Rajahs
( Raja
Raja
Putih) of Sarawak
Sarawak
in Borneo
Borneo
were James Brooke
James Brooke
and his dynasty. In the Philippines, the title was used during the pre-colonial classical period to refer to sovereign kings (Rajahnate of Cebu, Rajahnate of Maynila, King
King
of Butuan). The Italian historian Antonio Pigafetta, in his account of the voyage of the first circumnavigation, recounted that when the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
reached the island-port of Limasawa/Mazaua in LeyteMindanao, on 28 March 1521, he was met by Raja
Raja
Siaiu, the King
King
of Mazaua. Later, he encountered Raja
Raja
Colambu of the neighboring King
King
of Butuan These are still on debate among historians. Magellan entered into the first recorded blood compact (cassi cassi - the Malay term used by Magellan) with Raja
Raja
Siaiu. A few decades thereafter, when the Spanish fleet led by Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
arrived in the Philippine Archipelago, Rajah Tupas was ruling the Rajahnate of Cebu, and Rajah Sulaiman III
Rajah Sulaiman III
and Rajah Matanda were in power in the Kingdom of Maynila. In Khmer, រជ្ជ (Reajjea) is used as a direct loanword from Sanskrit and by keeping its original meaning it is being used to indicate royalty when combined with other words.

Rajadharma[edit]

Raja
Raja
Dhrub Dev assesses a horse, by Nainsukh, c. 1740s; it was usual for horses to be shown off in front of a white sheet, to better appreciate their form

See also: Dharma
Dharma
and Dharmaraja Rajadharma is the dharma which applies to the king, or the Raja. Dharma
Dharma
is that which upholds, supports, or maintains the order of the universe and is based on truth.[1] It is of central importance in achieving order and balance within the world and does this by demanding certain necessary behaviors from people. The king served two main functions as the Raja: Secular and Religious.[2] The religious functions involved certain acts for propitiating gods, removing dangers, and guarding dharma, among other things. The secular functions involved helping prosperity (such as during times of famine), dealing out even-handed justice, and protecting people and their property. Once he helped the Vibhore to reach his goal by giving the devotion of his power in order to reduce the poverty from his kingdom.[2] Protection of his subjects was seen as the first and foremost duty of the king. This was achieved by punishing internal aggression, such as thieves among his people, and meeting external aggression, such as attacks by foreign entities.[3] Moreover, the king possessed executive, judicial, and legislative dharmas, which he was responsible for carrying out. If he did so wisely, the king believed that he would be rewarded by reaching the pinnacle of the abode of the sun, or heaven.[4] However, if the king carried out his office poorly, he feared that he would suffer hell or be struck down by a deity.[5] As scholar Charles Drekmeier notes, "dharma stood above the king, and his failure to preserve it must accordingly have disastrous consequences". Because the king's power had to be employed subject to the requirements of the various castes' dharma, failure to "enforce the code" transferred guilt on to the ruler, and according to Drekmeier some texts went so far as to justify revolt against a ruler who abused his power or inadequately performed his dharma. In other words, Danda as both the king's tool of coercion and power, yet also his potential downfall, "was a two-edged sword".[6] The executive duty of the king was primarily to carry out punishment, or danda.[7] For instance, a judge who would give an incorrect verdict out of passion, ignorance, or greed is not worthy of the office, and the king should punish him harshly.[8] Another executive dharma of the king is correcting the behavior of brahmanas that have strayed from their dharma, or duties, through the use of strict punishment.[9] These two examples demonstrated how the king was responsible for enforcing the dharmas of his subjects, but also was in charge of enforcing rulings in more civil disputes.[10] Such as if a man is able to repay a creditor but does not do so out of mean-spiritedness, the king should make him pay the money and take five percent for himself.[11] The judicial duty of the king was deciding any disputes that arose in his kingdom and any conflicts that arose between dharmasastra and practices at the time or between dharmasastra and any secular transactions.[12] When he took the judgment seat, the king was to abandon all selfishness and be neutral to all things.[13] The king would hear cases such as thefts, and would use dharma to come to a decision.[14] He was also responsible for making sure that the witnesses were honest and truthful by way of testing them.[8] If the king conducted these trials according to dharma, he would be rewarded with wealth, fame, respect, and an eternal place in heaven, among other things.[15] However, not all cases fell upon the shoulders of the king. It was also the king's duty to appoint judges that would decide cases with the same integrity as the king.[16] The king also had a legislative duty, which was utilized when he would enact different decrees, such as announcing a festival or a day of rest for the kingdom.[17] Rajadharma largely portrayed the king as an administrator above all else.[18] The main purpose for the king executing punishment, or danda, was to ensure that all of his subjects were carrying out their own particular dharmas.[7] For this reason, rajadharma was often seen as the root of all dharma and was the highest goal.[19] The whole purpose of the king was to make everything and everyone prosper.[20] If they were not prospering, the king was not fulfilling his dharma.[21] He had to carry out his duties as laid down in the science of government and "not act at his sweet will."[18] Indeed, in the major writings on dharma (i.e. dharmasastra, etc.), the dharma of the king was regarded as the "capstone" of the other castes' dharma both due to the king's goal of securing the happiness and prosperity of his people[22] as well as his ability to act as the "guarantor" of the whole social structure through the enforcement of Danda (Hindu Punishment).[23] In contemporary India, an idea pervades various levels of Hindu society: the "Ramrajya", or a kind of Hindu
Hindu
Golden Age
Golden Age
in which through his strict adherence to rajadharma as outline in the Hindu epics and elsewhere, Rama
Rama
serves as the ideal model of the perfect Hindu
Hindu
king. As Derrett put it, "everyone lives at peace" because "everyone knows his place" and could easily be forced into that place if necessary.[10] Ram's actions with regards to his wife Sita
Sita
at the end of the Ramayana
Ramayana
arguably serve as the best example of his utmost regard for his dharma as king, although other actions of his both before and after his defeat of Ravana
Ravana
are equally revered. See also[edit]

King Kshatriya Maharaja Monarchy in ancient India Shah Sultan

Notes[edit]

^ Lariviere, 1989 ^ a b Kane, p.101 ^ Kane, p.56 ^ Lariviere, p.19 ^ Kane, p.96 ^ Drekmeier, p.10 ^ a b Kane, p.21 ^ a b Lariviere, p.18 ^ Lariviere, p.48 ^ a b Derrett, p.598 ^ Lariviere, p.67 ^ Kane, p.9 ^ Lariviere, p.10 ^ Lariviere, p.8 ^ Lariviere, p.9 ^ Lariviere, p.20 ^ Kane, p.98 ^ a b Kane, p.31 ^ Kane, p.3 ^ Kane, p.11 ^ Kane, p.62 ^ Derret, p.599 ^ Drekmeier, p.10-11

References[edit]

Derrett, J.D.M. "Rajadharma." In The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Aug., 1976), pp. 597–609 Drekmeier, Charles. Kingship and Community in Early India. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1962. Kane, Pandurang Vaman. 1968. History
History
of Dharmaśāstra: (ancient and Mediæval Religious and Civil Law In India). [2d ed.] rev. and enl. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Lariviere, Richard W. 1989. "The Naradasmrti." University of Pennsylvania Studies on South Asia.

Sources and external links[edit]

Royal Ark - India
India
(most elaborate, on a limited number of dynasties) WorldStatesmen- Indian princely states, here K-Z; see also A-J; none for Pakistan

v t e

Gun salute
Gun salute
Princely states during the British Raj

21-gun salute

Baroda Gwalior Hyderabad Jammu & Kashmir Mysore

19-gun salute

Bhopal Indore Kalat Kolhapur Travancore Udaipur

17-gun salute

Bahawalpur Bharatpur Bikaner Bundi Cochin Cutch Jaipur Jodhpur Karauli Kota Patiala Pudukkottai Rewa Tonk

15-gun salute

Alwar Banswara Datia Dewas Dhar Dholpur Dungarpur Idar Jaisalmer Khairpur Kishangarh Orchha Pratapgarh Rampur Sikkim Sirohi

13-gun salute

Benares Bhavnagar Cooch Behar Dhrangadhra Jaora Jhalawar Jind Junagadh Kapurthala Nabha Nawanagar Palanpur Porbandar Rajpipla Ratlam Tripura

11-gun salute

Ajaigarh Alirajpur Baoni Barwani Bijawar Bilaspur Cambay Chamba Charkhari Chhatarpur Chitral Faridkot Tehri Garhwal Gondal Janjira/Jafrabad Jhabua Malerkotla Mandi Manipur Morvi Narsinghgarh Panna Radhanpur Rajgarh Sailana Samthar Sirmur Sitamau Suket Wankaner

9-gun salute

Balasinor Banganapalle Bansda Baraundha Baria Bhor Chhota Udaipur Danta Dharampur Dhrol Jawhar Kalahandi Khilchipur Limbdi Loharu Lunavada Maihar Mayurbhanj Mudhol Nagod Palitana Patna Rajkot Sachin Sangli Sant Sawantwadi Shahpura Sonepur Wadhwan Yawnghwe

List of princely states of British India
India
(alphabetical) Salute state

v t e

Heads of state and government of Indonesia

Current

President (list) Vice President (list)

Defunct

Governor General (Dutch) Military Governor of Java
Military Governor of Java
/ Military Governor of Sumatra
Military Governor of Sumatra
(Japanese) Prime Minister

Historic

Rajahs Sultans

v t e

Head offices of state and government of the Philippines

Current

President

Government recognized Non-Government recognized

Defunct

Gobernador General ( Spain
Spain
and United Kingdom) Military Governor / Civil Governor ( United States
United States
and Japan) Prime Minister

Aguinaldo / Marcos

Sultan

of Lanao of Maguindanao of Sulu

Historic (Royal titles)

Datus Rajahs Lakan Senapati Huang Apo Dayang

.