RAúL MANUEL GRIJALVA (/rɑːˈuːl ɡrɪˈhælvə/ ; born February 19, 1948) is an American politician who currently serves as the U.S. Representative for Arizona\'s 3rd congressional district , serving since 2003. He is a member of the Democratic Party . The district, numbered as the 7th District from 2003 to 2013, includes the western third of Tucson , part of Yuma and Nogales , and some peripheral parts of metro Phoenix .
* 1 Early life, education and career
* 2 U.S. House of Representatives
* 2.1 Committee assignments * 2.2 Caucuses
* 3 Political positions
* 3.1 Abortion * 3.2 Budget proposals * 3.3 Deepwater Horizon and oil rig safety * 3.4 Education * 3.5 Environment * 3.6 Fossil fuel industry funding of climate change studies * 3.7 Gun control * 3.8 Health care * 3.9 Immigration * 3.10 Native Americans * 3.11 SB 1070 and the boycott controversy * 3.12 2004 voting irregularities * 3.13 Giffords shooting
* 4 Political campaigns * 5 Electoral history * 6 Personal life * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
EARLY LIFE, EDUCATION AND CAREER
Raúl Grijalva's father was a migrant worker from Mexico who entered
the United States in 1945 through the
In addition, he was an
In 1974, he was elected to the
Tucson Unified School District board
and served as a school board member until 1986. Grijalva Elementary
School in Tucson was named for him in 1987. From 1975 to 1986,
Grijalva was the director of the El Pueblo Neighborhood Center, and in
1987 he was Assistant Dean for Hispanic Student Affairs at the
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Arizona\'s 3rd congressional district , which Grijalva has represented since 2013.
* COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND THE WORKFORCE
* Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education * Subcommittee on Workforce Protections
* COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES (Ranking Member)
* Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands * Subcommittee on Water and Power
Grijalva is a member of several dozen caucuses. A full list is available at his Web site.
Congressional Progressive Caucus (Co-Chair)
Congressional Hispanic Caucus (1st Vice Chair)
LGBT Equality Caucus
Grijalva co-chairs the Congressional Progressive Caucus with Mark Pocan of Wisconsin and in 2008 was among 12 members rated by National Journal as tied for most liberal overall. On the ideological map of all House members at GovTrack's website, Grijalva is ranked farthest to the left . Liberal and progressive activist groups routinely give him high marks for his voting record. Grijalva received a 100 percent score from Americans for Democratic Action , Peace Action , the League of Conservation Voters , the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights , NARAL Pro-Choice America, Arab American Institute, and several other notable groups in recent years. With the start of the 114th Congress, Grijalva became the Ranking Member of the House Committee on Natural Resources.
Grijalva is an advocate of mining law reform and many other environmental causes. From his position on the House Committee on Natural Resources —where he has been the top Democrat on the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands since 2007—he has led Democratic efforts to strengthen federal offshore oil drilling oversight since before the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and introduced a successful bill to create a permanent National Landscape Conservation System at the Bureau of Land Management. He was a leading candidate for Secretary of the Interior when President Obama was elected, but the job eventually went to Ken Salazar —according to the Washington Post, President Obama made the decision in part because of Grijalva's stated preference for more environmental analysis before approving offshore drilling projects.
He has been a vocal opponent of Arizona\'s SB 1070 law that mandates
police checks of citizenship documentation for anyone subjected to a
legitimate law enforcement stop, detention or arrest as long as the
officer does not consider race, color or national origin during the
stop, detention or arrest. Shortly after the measure was signed by
He criticized the 2010 deployment of 1,200 National Guard troops to the U.S.-Mexico border as "political symbolism" that he believed would not adequately address the issues of immigration and border security.
Grijalva has frequently called for a withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan and Iraq, and supports the wider implementation of the National Solidarity Program as a way to improve Afghans' economic and educational infrastructure. The group Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America gave him an "A" rating for the 2007-2008 Congressional session.
Grijalva has a pro-choice voting record and voted against the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act . He was strongly critical of the Stupak-Pitts Amendment , which sought to place limits on taxpayer-funded abortions in the Affordable Health Care for America Act .
As co-chair of the Congressional Progressive Caucus, Rep. Grijalva has taken a leading role in shaping recent CPC "alternative budgets"—budget bills offered by various groups and caucuses in Congress other than the official majority or minority party plan. In 2011 the CPC introduced what it called the People's Budget, which reached budget balance in 10 years according to an assessment by the Economic Policy Institute based on nonpartisan government data. The proposal was noted approvingly by some of the world's leading economists, including Jeffrey Sachs —who called it "a bolt of hope . . . humane, responsible, and most of all sensible" —and Paul Krugman , who called it "genuinely courageous" for achieving budget balance "without dismantling the legacy of the New Deal.".
In 2012, again with Grijalva as co-chair, the Progressive Caucus introduced the Budget for All, which is similar to the People's Budget and includes several new features, including a novel proposal to institute a small personal wealth tax above $10 million in net worth phased in over a period of five years. The proposal received 78 votes, all from Democrats, when the House considered it on March 29, 2012.
DEEPWATER HORIZON AND OIL RIG SAFETY
On Feb 24, 2010, Grijalva wrote a letter signed by 18 other Representatives calling for an investigation of the BP Atlantis offshore drilling platform due to whistleblower allegations that it was operating without approved safety documents. He has called for Atlantis to be shut down. Since the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on April 20, 2010, Grijalva has written letters to the Minerals Management Service and the Department of the Interior questioning current offshore drilling regulations and calling for stronger oversight of the oil industry.
Grijalva has gained prominence as an outspoken critic of what he calls lax federal oversight of the oil drilling industry, and in late 2010 launched an investigation of the White House's handling of the Horizon spill and its aftermath. That investigation revealed that scientists at the Environmental Protection Agency and elsewhere in the federal government had voiced concerns about drafts of an official government report on the cause and scope of the spill, but were overruled because the report was meant as a "communications document".
In 2010, he introduced H.R. 5355 to eliminate the cap on oil company liability for the cost of environmental cleanups of spills.
Grijalva has sponsored numerous education bills during his time in Congress, including the Success in the Middle Act and the Graduation for All Act. Grijalva has long ties to the educational community from his time on the board of the Tucson Unified School District and his current position on the House Education and the Workforce Committee.
As a member and chairman of the Pima County Board of Supervisors, Grijalva was widely regarded as a central figure behind the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan, an ambitious County program for planned land-use and biodiversity conservation. He consistently supported endangered species and wilderness conservation on the Board of Supervisors and has continued to do so in Congress, introducing a bill in 2009 to make permanent the National Landscape Conservation System within the Bureau of Land Management . In 2008, Grijalva released a report called The Bush Administration's Assaults on Our National Parks, Forests and Public Lands, which accused the Bush administration of mismanaging public land and reducing barriers to commercial access.
FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY FUNDING OF CLIMATE CHANGE STUDIES
On February 24, 2015, as the ranking Democratic member of the United States House Committee on Natural Resources , Grijalva sent letters to seven institutions employing scientists who disagree with most other climate scientists on man-made climate change. The letters requested information on any funding from fossil fuel companies, as well as copies of all emails concerning the content of their congressional testimony. One of the recipients, University of Colorado Professor Roger Pielke Jr. , responded that he had already testified to Grijalva's committee that he has received no funding from fossil fuel interests, and characterized the letter as part of a politically motivated "'witch-hunt'".
The heads of some mainstream scientific organizations criticized Grijalva's letters. Margaret Leinen , the president of the American Geophysical Union posted in her AGU blog that in requiring information only of only a few scientists, based only on their scientific views, Grivalja's action was contrary to academic freedom: "We view the singling out of any individual or group of scientists by any entity – governmental, corporate or other – based solely on their interpretations of scientific research as a threat to that freedom." The executive director of the American Meteorological Society wrote in a letter to Grvalja that his action "sends a chilling message to all academic researchers," and "impinges on the free pursuit of ideas that is central to the concept of academic freedom."
In response to criticism that requesting communications was counter to principles of academic freedom , Grijalva said he was willing to eliminate that part of the request.
Grijalva supports increasing restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns and increasing enforcement of existing restrictions on gun purchase and possession. He was one of the 67 co-sponsors of the 2007 Assault Weapons Ban, HR 1022 . Grijalva has an F rating from the NRA .
As co-chair of the Progressive Caucus, Grijalva was a prominent supporter of a public option throughout the debate over the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act . The House-approved Affordable Health Care for America Act included a public option — however, the Senate version did not include a similar provision, and it was ultimately not a part of the final reform package. Grijalva has largely been supportive of the health care reform law since its passage and argued the Supreme Court should not overturn it during a segment with Republican Rep. Peter Roskam , who opposes the law, for the PBS NewsHour on March 28, 2012.
Grijalva has a long history in community health activism as an early supporter of Tucson's El Rio Community Health Center. He supports single-payer health care, but voted in favor of the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act because he felt it was a major improvement over the status quo.
Grijalva supports the
DREAM Act and the Comprehensive Immigration
Reform for America's Security and Prosperity Act (CIR ASAP) and has
recently come to greater prominence because of his role in promoting
immigration reform. He has opposed the expansion of a border fence,
citing cost effectiveness concerns and potential damage to sensitive
wildlife habitats. The CIR ASAP bill includes his Border Security and
Responsibility Act of 2009, which prioritizes remote cameras and other
border monitoring techniques with a relatively slight environmental
impact. The Immigrant Justice Advocacy Campaign gave him a 100 percent
score for the first session of the 111th Congress. In previous years
he voted against
H.R. 4437 and the Secure Fence Act , and opposed
Grijalva has criticized armed civilian groups that patrol the Mexican border, accusing them of being "racist" and has reportedly used demeaning language to describe them. In return, some supporters of the armed patrols have called him " MEChA boy" in retaliation.
Grijalva is a strong supporter of sovereignty and government-to-government relationships. In April 2010 he introduced the RESPECT Act, which mandates that federal agencies consult with Native tribes before taking a variety of major actions. The bill would codify a Clinton-era executive order that has never had the force of law.
SB 1070 AND THE BOYCOTT CONTROVERSY
After the passage in April 2010 of Arizona\'s controversial SB 1070
law , which he saw as opening the door to racial profiling and
granting traditionally federal immigration enforcement powers to local
authorities, Grijalva suggested that civic, religious, labor, Latino,
and other like-minded organizations refrain from using
When Judge Susan Bolton of the
"After this ruling, everybody has some responsibility to pause, and that includes me," said Grijalva, a Tucson Democrat. "The issue of economic sanctions is a moot point now and I will encourage national organizations I'm in contact with to come and lend a hand - not just economically, but to help us begin to educate people about how we need to fix this broken system."
He subsequently said that his economic strategy was not as effective as he hoped in changing other state lawmakers' minds, and that he would focus on legal remedies in the future. The issue became a focal point in the 2010 election, in which Grijalva ultimately defeated Republican challenger Ruth McClung by less than 10,000 votes.
2004 VOTING IRREGULARITIES
Concerned about allegations of voting irregularities purportedly
leading to disenfranchisement , in 2004 Grijalva joined Congresswoman
Eddie Bernice Johnson and several other House Democrats in requesting
After the General Election , Grijalva was one of 31 Representatives
who voted in the House not to count the electoral votes from
After the shooting of Gabrielle Giffords , Grijalva called it a consequence of the violent rhetoric that had been used by Tea Party members. Grijalva singled out Sarah Palin 's rhetoric as "contributing to this toxic climate" and stated that she needs to monitor her words and actions.
2000 United States Census ,
During the 2008 presidential campaign, Grijalva endorsed Barack Obama for President; his district, however, was won by Hillary Clinton .
During the 2010 midterms, Grijalva faced his toughest re-election
campaign yet, against Republican Ruth McClung. It was reported that
although Grijalva had decades of experience and McClung had none, and
although there were twice as many Democrats in the district as there
were Republicans, the two candidates were neck-and-neck in the polls.
The main reason was Grijalva's call for a boycott of
Grijalva's district was renumbered as the 3rd District after the 2010
census, and made somewhat more Democratic than its predecessor even
though it lost some of its share of Tucson to the 2nd District (the
reconfigured 8th). Co-chair of the
Congressional Progressive Caucus ,
Grijalva broke from many of his colleagues and announced his support
for Democratic presidential candidate
ARIZONA\'S 7TH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY ELECTION, 2002
PARTY CANDIDATE VOTES %
Democratic RAúL M. GRIJALVA 14,835 40.85
Democratic Elaine Richardson 7,589 20.89
Democratic Jaime Gutierrez 5,401 14.87
Democratic Lisa Otondo 2,302 6.34
Democratic Luis Armando Gonzales 2,105 5.80
Democratic Mark Fleisher 2,022 5.57
Democratic Sherry Smith 1,058 2.91
Democratic Jésus Romo 1,008 2.78
ARIZONA\'S 3RD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY ELECTION, 2012
PARTY CANDIDATE VOTES %
Democratic RAúL GRIJALVA* 24,044 65.63
Democratic Amanda Aguirre 9,484 25.89
Democratic Manny Arreguin 3,105 8.48
Arizona\'s 7th congressional district : Results 2002–2010 Arizona's 3rd Congressional District Results 2012 YEAR
DEMOCRATIC VOTES PCT
REPUBLICAN VOTES PCT
3RD PARTY PARTY VOTES PCT
3RD PARTY PARTY VOTES PCT
RAúL M. GRIJALVA 61,256 59.00%
Ross Hieb 38,474 37.06%
John L. Nemeth Libertarian 4,088 3.94%
RAúL M. GRIJALVA* 108,868 62.06%
Joseph Sweeney 59,066 33.67%
Dave Kaplan Libertarian 7,503 4.28%
RAúL M. GRIJALVA* 80,354 61.09%
Ron Drake 46,498 35.35%
Joe Michael Cobb Libertarian 4,673 3.55%
RAúL M. GRIJALVA* 124,304 63.26%
Joseph Sweeney 64,425 32.79%
Raymond Patrick Petrulsky Libertarian 7,755 3.95%
RAúL M. GRIJALVA* 79,935 50.23%
Ruth McClung 70,385 44.23%
Harley Meyer Independent 4,506 2.83%
George Keane Libertarian 4,318 2.71%
RAúL M. GRIJALVA* 98,468 58.36%
Gabriela Saucedo Mercer 62,663 37.14%
Bianca Guerra Libertarian 7,567 4.48%
RAúL M. GRIJALVA* 58,192 55.7%
Gabriela Saucedo Mercer 46,185 44.3%
RAúL M. GRIJALVA* 148,973 100%
Grijalva and his wife Ramona have three daughters.
* List of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States Congress
* Biography portal
* ^ "Congressman Raul M. Grijalva: Biography". Grijalva.house.gov.
October 29, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
* ^ A B Kammer, Jerry (October 2009). "Raul Grijalva: From Chicano
Radical to Congressman". Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved
July 31, 2012.
* ^ Armando Navarro, La Raza Unida Party, Philadelphia: Temple
University Press, 2000, pp. 204.
Grijalva Elementary School in TUSD
* ^ "Rep. Raul M. Grijalva Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Retrieved
November 2, 2010.
* ^ "Caucus and Task Force Membership". Grijalva.house.gov. October
29, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
* ^ Rep Grijalva's official website. "Congressional Progressive
Caucus Members". Congressional Progressive Caucus. Retrieved June 6,
* ^ National Journal Rankings 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
* ^ Rep. Raul Grijalva. GovTrack.
http://www.govtrack.us/congress/members/raul_grijalva/400162. July 29,
* ^ Rep. Raul M. Grijalva: Organization Ratings ">(PDF).
www.broncocreek.com. January 13, 2008. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
* ^ "Fearing second Gulf spill, House Dems press Interior to finish
probe of platform". The Hill. November 23, 2010. Retrieved March 22,
* ^ "Partial speech transcript on Omnibus Public Land Management
Act Of 2009". Project VoteSmart. March 11, 2009. Retrieved March 22,
* ^ "Grijalva In the Running". Voices.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved
November 2, 2010.
* ^ Leahy, Michael; Eilperin, Juliet (October 13, 2010). "Lifting
the drilling moratorium: How politics spilled into policy". Washington
Post. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
* ^ "
* ^ "Rep. Raul M. Grijalva Biography". Grijalva.house.gov. October
29, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
* ^ Rep. Grijalva on
* Videos of Grijalva discussing various issues Tucson Citizen, March 22, 2006 * A Report on the Bush Administration Assaults On Our National Parks, Forests and Public Lands, October 22, 2008 * Rep. Raul Grijalva, Vows to Bring Public Option to House Floor - video report by Democracy Now! , October 30, 2009 * Rep. Raul Grijalva: New Deployment of National Guard to US-Mexico Border Is Election-Year "Political Symbolism", May 28, 2010
* U.S. Congressman Raul