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QUEENSLAND (abbreviated as QLD, or less frequently Q) is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
, South Australia
South Australia
and New South Wales
New South Wales
to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland
Queensland
is bordered by the Coral Sea
Coral Sea
and Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The state is the world's sixth largest sub-national entity , with an area of 1,852,642 km2.

Queensland
Queensland
has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast and particularly in the state's South East . The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia's third largest city . Often referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland
Queensland
is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third largest economy . Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry.

Queensland
Queensland
was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians
Aboriginal Australians
and Torres Strait Islanders . The first European to land in Queensland
Queensland
(and Australia) was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon
Willem Janszoon
in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula
Cape York Peninsula
near present-day Weipa . In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook
James Cook
claimed the east coast of Australia
Australia
for the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
. The colony of New South Wales
New South Wales
was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip
Arthur Phillip
at Sydney; New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania
Tasmania
. Queensland
Queensland
was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane
Brisbane
in 1824 by John Oxley . Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842.

The state was named in honour of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales
New South Wales
. The 6th of June is now celebrated annually statewide as Queensland Day . Queensland
Queensland
was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia
Australia
with federation on 1 January 1901.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Arrival of Aborigines * 1.2 European arrival (1606) * 1.3 Frontier War * 1.4 Colony of Queensland
Queensland
* 1.5 20th century * 1.6 21st century

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Age and population * 3.2 Religious affiliation

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Tourism

* 5 Transport

* 6 Governance

* 6.1 Local government

* 7 Universities * 8 Sport * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Queensland

The history of Queensland
Queensland
spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch, Spanish and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook
James Cook
in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants (which did not result in any settlement or treaty), as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding ". The Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland
Queensland
and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland
Queensland
can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree , in the collection of the National Museum of Australia
National Museum of Australia
.

ARRIVAL OF ABORIGINES

Main article: History of Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians

The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland
Queensland
is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait
Torres Strait
, and became divided into over 90 different language groups.

During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests.

EUROPEAN ARRIVAL (1606)

In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon
Willem Janszoon
landed near the site of what is now Weipa , on the western shore of Cape York . This was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it also marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was also explored by French and Spanish explorers (commanded by Louis Antoine de Bougainville
Louis Antoine de Bougainville
and Luís Vaez de Torres , respectively) prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island , naming Eastern Australia , including Queensland, 'New South Wales'.

The Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. (There has been controversy regarding the origins of smallpox in Australia; while many sources have claimed that it originated with British settlers, this theory has been contradicted by scientific evidence. There is circumstantial evidence that Macassan mariners visiting Arnhem Land introduced smallpox to Australia. )

In 1823, John Oxley , a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney
Sydney
to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone (then Port Curtis ) and Moreton Bay . At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River . He returned in 1824 and established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe. The settlement, initially known as Edenglassie, was then transferred to the current location of the Brisbane
Brisbane
city centre . Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane
Brisbane
River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane
Brisbane
penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port. The first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia , in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton.

FRONTIER WAR

Main article: Australian frontier wars Fighting between Burke and Wills 's supply party and Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
at Bulla in 1861

A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland. The Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia, perhaps due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their allies (consisting of Chinese, Aboriginal and Melanesian assistants), were killed in frontier skirmishes during the nineteenth century. Casualties among the Aboriginal people may have exceeded 30,000. The "Native Police Force", employed by the Queensland
Queensland
government, was key in the oppression of the indigenous people.

On 27 October 1857, aborigines of Martha Fraser's Hornet Bank station on the Dawson River killed eleven Europeans. This was the largest massacre of Australian colonists by aborigines. One author estimates 24,000 Aboriginal men, women and children died at the hands of the Native Police in colonial Queensland
Queensland
between 1859 and 1897 alone. See also: Hornet Bank massacre
Hornet Bank massacre

COLONY OF QUEENSLAND

A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider the proposed separation of Queensland
Queensland
from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859, Queen Victoria signed Letters Patent to form the separate colony of what is now Queensland. Brisbane
Brisbane
was appointed as the capital city. On 10 December 1859, a proclamation was read by British author George Bowen , whereby Queensland
Queensland
was formally separated from the state of New South Wales
New South Wales
. As a result, Bowen became the first Governor of Queensland. On 22 May 1860 the first Queensland
Queensland
election was held and Robert Herbert , Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first Premier of Queensland
Queensland
. Queensland
Queensland
also became the first Australian colony to establish its own parliament rather than spending time as a Crown Colony. In 1865, the first rail line in the state opened between Ipswich and Grandchester
Grandchester
.

Queensland's economy expanded rapidly in 1867 after James Nash discovered gold on the Mary River near the town of Gympie
Gympie
, sparking a gold rush. While still significant, they were on a much smaller scale than the gold rushes of Victoria and New South Wales. During the period from the 1860s till the early 20th century, many labourers, known at the time as Kanakas , were brought to Queensland
Queensland
from neighbouring Pacific Island nations to work in the state's sugar cane fields. Some of these people had been kidnapped under a process known as blackbirding or press ganging, and their employment conditions amounted to indentured labour or even slavery. During the Australian federation of 1901, the White Australia policy came into effect, which saw all foreign workers in Australia
Australia
deported under the Pacific Island Labourers Act of 1901, which saw the Pacific Islander population of the state decrease rapidly.

20TH CENTURY

On 1 January 1901, Australia
Australia
was federated following a proclamation by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
. During this time, Queensland
Queensland
had a population of half a million people. Brisbane
Brisbane
was subsequently proclaimed a city in 1902. In 1905, women voted in state elections for the first time, and the University of Queensland
University of Queensland
was established in 1909. In 1911, The first alternative treatments for polio were pioneered in Queensland and remain in use across the world today.

World War I
World War I
had a major impact on Queensland
Queensland
. Over 58,000 Queenslanders fought in World War I
World War I
and over 10,000 of them died.

Australia's first major airline, Qantas
Qantas
, was founded in 1920 to serve outback Queensland.

In 1922, Queensland
Queensland
abolished the Upper House , becoming the only State with a unicameral State Parliament in Australia.

In 1935, cane toads were deliberately introduced to Queensland
Queensland
from Hawaii
Hawaii
in a poorly-thought-out and unsuccessful attempt to reduce the number of French's cane and greyback cane beetles that were destroying the roots of sugar cane plants, which are integral to Queensland's economy. In 1962, the first commercial production of oil in Queensland and Australia
Australia
began at Moonie .

The humid climate —regulated by the availability of air conditioning—saw Queensland
Queensland
become a more accommodating place to work and live for Australian migrants. To this day, it is one of Australia's economic powerhouses and the third most populous state in the country.

21ST CENTURY

In 2009, Queensland
Queensland
celebrated Q150 , its 150th anniversary as an independent colony and state. The Queensland
Queensland
government and other Queensland
Queensland
organisations commemorated the occasion with many events and publications, including the announcement of the top 150 icons of Queensland
Queensland
by the Queensland Premier Anna Bligh
Anna Bligh
, and the creation of monuments at significant survey points in Queensland's history to honour the many early explorer/surveyors who mapped the state.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Queensland Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
, which extends along most of Queensland's coastline Commonly designated regions of Queensland
Queensland

Queensland
Queensland
borders the Torres Strait
Torres Strait
to the north, with Boigu Island off the coast of New Guinea
New Guinea
representing the absolute northern extreme of its territory. The triangular Cape York Peninsula
Cape York Peninsula
, which points toward New Guinea, is the northernmost part of the state's mainland. West of the peninsula's tip, northern Queensland
Queensland
is bordered by the Gulf of Carpentaria , while the Coral Sea
Coral Sea
, an arm of the Pacific Ocean, borders Queensland
Queensland
to the east. To the west, Queensland
Queensland
is bordered by the Northern Territory, at the 138°E longitude , and to the southwest by the northeastern corner of South Australia.

In the south, there are three sections that constitute its border: the watershed from Point Danger to the Dumaresq River ; the river section involving the Dumaresq, the Macintyre and the Barwon ; and 29°S latitude (including some minor historical encroachments below the 29th parallel) over to the South Australian border.

The state capital is Brisbane
Brisbane
, located on the coast 100 kilometres (60 mi) by road north of the New South Wales
New South Wales
border. The state is divided into several officially recognised regions . Other smaller geographical regions of note include the Atherton Tablelands , the Granite Belt , and the Channel Country in the far southwest.

Queensland
Queensland
has many areas of natural beauty, including the Sunshine Coast and the Gold Coast, home to some of the state's most popular beaches; the Bunya Mountains and the Great Dividing Range
Great Dividing Range
, with numerous lookouts, waterfalls and picnic areas; Carnarvon Gorge ; Whitsunday Islands
Whitsunday Islands
; and Hinchinbrook Island . The state contains six World Heritage -listed preservation areas: Australian Fossil Mammal Sites at Riversleigh in the Gulf Country , Gondwana Rainforests of Australia
Australia
, Fraser Island , Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
, Lamington National Park and the Wet Tropics of Queensland .

*

Mangrove
Mangrove
swampland in Cape Tribulation *

Noosa Main Beach *

Mossman River during the wet season *

Glasshouse Mountains

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types in Queensland
Queensland
Great Sandy Strait from orbit

Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. Low rainfall and hot humid summers are typical for the inland and west, a monsoonal "wet" season in the far north, and warm, temperate conditions along the coastal strip. Elevated areas in the south-east inland can experience temperatures well below freezing in mid-winter. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall.

Natural disasters are often a threat in Queensland; severe tropical cyclones can impact the coast and cause severe damage, with recent examples including Larry , Yasi , Ita and Debbie . Flooding from rain-bearing systems can also be severe and can occur anywhere in Queensland. One of the deadliest and most damaging floods in the history of the state occurred in early 2011 . Droughts and bushfires can also occur; however, the latter are generally less severe than those that occur in southern states. Severe springtime thunderstorms generally affect the south-east and inland of the state and can bring damaging winds, torrential rain, large hail and even tornadoes . The strongest tornado ever recorded in Australia
Australia
occurred in Queensland near Bundaberg .

There are five predominant climatic zones in Queensland, based on temperature and humidity:

* hot humid summer, warm dry winter (far north and coastal): Cairns , Townsville , Mackay * hot humid summer, mild dry winter (coastal elevated areas and coastal south-east): Brisbane
Brisbane
, Bundaberg , Rockhampton
Rockhampton
* hot dry summer, mild dry winter (central inland and north-west): Mt Isa , Emerald , Longreach * hot dry summer, cool dry winter (southern inland): Roma , Charleville , Goondiwindi * warm humid summer, cold dry winter (elevated south-eastern areas): Toowoomba
Toowoomba
, Warwick , Stanthorpe
Stanthorpe

Dickson's Inlet, Port Douglas, Queensland during the dry season

However, most of the Queensland
Queensland
populace experience two weather seasons: a "winter" period of mild to warm temperatures and minimal rainfall, and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and higher levels of rainfall.

The coastal far north of the state is the wettest place in Australia, with Mount Bellenden Ker , south of Cairns, holding many Australian rainfall records with its annual average rainfall of over 8 metres. It is not uncommon for locations in this area to receive more rain in 24 hours during the wet season than the majority of Queensland receives in a year. Snow
Snow
is rare in Queensland, although it does fall with some regularity along the far southern border with New South Wales, predominantly in the Stanthorpe
Stanthorpe
district although on rare occasions further north and west. The most northerly snow ever recorded in Australia
Australia
occurred near Mackay ; however, this was exceptional.

The annual mean statistics for some Queensland
Queensland
centres are shown below:

CITY MIN. TEMP MAX. TEMP NO. CLEAR DAYS RAINFALL

Brisbane
Brisbane
15.7 °C (60.3 °F) 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) 113.1 1,149.1 mm (45.24 in)

Mackay 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) 26.4 °C (79.5 °F) 123.0 1,570.7 mm (61.84 in)

Cairns
Cairns
20.8 °C (69.4 °F) 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) 89.7 2,006.3 mm (78.99 in)

Townsville 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) 120.9 1,136.7 mm (44.75 in)

The highest official maximum temperature recorded in the state was 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) at Birdsville Police Station on 24 December 1972, although the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite measured a ground surface temperature of 69.3 °C (156.7 °F). This temperature was the hottest value worldwide measured by MODIS in 2003. Queensland
Queensland
has the highest average maximums of any Australian state, and Toowoomba
Toowoomba
, Stanthorpe
Stanthorpe
, Hervey Bay , Mackay , Atherton , Weipa and Thursday Island are the only large population centres not to have recorded a temperature above 40 °C (104 °F).

The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at Stanthorpe
Stanthorpe
on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage (near Warwick ) on 12 July 1965. Temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are, however, generally uncommon over the majority of populated Queensland.

CLIMATE DATA FOR QUEENSLAND

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 49.0 (120.2) 47.2 (117) 46.7 (116.1) 41.7 (107.1) 39.3 (102.7) 36.0 (96.8) 36.1 (97) 38.5 (101.3) 42.4 (108.3) 45.1 (113.2) 48.7 (119.7) 49.5 (121.1) 49.5 (121.1)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 5.4 (41.7) 3.3 (37.9) −0.2 (31.6) −3.5 (25.7) −6.8 (19.8) −10.6 (12.9) −10.6 (12.9) −9.4 (15.1) −5.6 (21.9) −3.6 (25.5) 0.0 (32) 2.2 (36) −10.6 (12.9)

Source #1: Bureau of Meteorology
Bureau of Meteorology

Source #2: Bureau of Meteorology
Bureau of Meteorology

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Demographics of Australia
Demographics of Australia

QUEENSLAND POPULATION BY YEAR

1901 498,129

1954 1,318,259

1961 1,518,828

1971 1,851,485

1981 2,345,208

1991 3,029,950

2001 3,628,946

2011 4,516,200

State capital and most populous city, Brisbane
Brisbane
, located in southeast Queensland. Queensland
Queensland
has a less centralised population than other states, with significant populations in regional cities such as Townsville (above).

AGE AND POPULATION

Queensland
Queensland
is less centralised than most other Australian states, with 50% of the population living outside the state capital, and 25% living outside the South East Queensland urban agglomeration . Queensland
Queensland
is home to many regional cities, the most populous being the Gold Coast , the Sunshine Coast , Townsville , Cairns
Cairns
, Toowoomba , Mackay , Rockhampton
Rockhampton
and Bundaberg . For decades, Queensland
Queensland
has consistently been the fastest growing state in Australia, while Western Australia
Western Australia
has grown faster in the 2010s. At its peak growth in 2007, it was estimated that over 1,500 people moved to the state per week including 1,000 to the southern part of the state alone.

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

The 2016 census showed that the majority of Queenslanders are Christians (2.64 million; 56.0%), including 1.02 million Roman Catholics (21.7%), 720,000 Anglicans (15.3%), and 240,000 Uniting Church Protestants (5.1%). There are also 1.40 million people who follow no religion (29.7%), and 470,000 who did not state their religion (9.9%). The largest distinct religious minorities consist of those who follow Buddhism (70,000; 1.5%), Hinduism (46,000; 1.0%), and Islam (45,000; 1.0%). The percentage of Christians in Queensland, and particularly non-Catholic Christians, is therefore greater than the Australian average , while representation of non-Christian minority religions is lower than the national average.

ECONOMY

Main articles: Economy of Queensland
Economy of Queensland
and Australian economy Sugar cane
Sugar cane
fields south of Childers . Queensland's climate is ideal for growing the crop.

In the 1880s and 1890s, sea ports were established on the coast, adjacent to the mouth of the Fitzroy River. Broadmount was on the northern side and Port Alma on the south. Railways were subsequently constructed to carry goods to the wharves at these locations, the railway to Broadmount opening on 1 January 1898 and the line to Port Alma opened on 16 October 1911. Maintenance on the Broadmount line ceased in August 1929. The following month, the wharf caught fire and the line was effectively closed in July 1930. The line to Port Alma closed on 15 October 1986. Queensland's economy has enjoyed a boom in the tourism and mining industries over the past 20 years. A sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the state's economic growth. The 2008–09 saw the expansion slow to just 0.8%, the state's worst performance in 18 years.

Between 1992 and 2002, the growth in the gross state product of Queensland
Queensland
outperformed that of all the other states and territories. In that period Queensland's GSP grew 5.0% each year, while growth in Australia's gross domestic product (GDP) rose on average 3.9% each year. Queensland's contribution to the Australian GDP increased by 10.4% in that period, one of only three states to do so.

In 2003 Brisbane
Brisbane
had the lowest cost of living of all Australia's capital cities. In late 2005 Brisbane
Brisbane
was the third most expensive capital for housing after Sydney
Sydney
and Canberra and just ahead of Melbourne by $15,000.

Primary industries include: bananas, pineapples , peanuts, a wide variety of other tropical and temperate fruit and vegetables, grain crops, wineries, cattle raising, cotton, sugar cane, wool and a mining industry including bauxite, coal, silver, lead, zinc, gold, and copper. Secondary industries are mostly further processing of the above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by sea from Weipa and converted to alumina at Gladstone . There is also copper refining and the refining of sugar cane to sugar at a number of mills along the eastern coastline. Major tertiary industries are the retail trade and tourism.

Interests in Crown land in Queensland
Queensland
are primarily regulated by the Land Act 1994.

TOURISM

Summer at Burleigh Heads beach with the Gold Coast skyline in the distance. Gold Coast beaches are world-renowned.

Tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of interstate and overseas visitors flocking to the Sunshine State each year. The industry generates $4.0 billion annually, accounting for 4.5% of Queensland's GSP. Queensland
Queensland
is a state of many landscapes which range from sunny tropical coastal areas, lush rainforests to dry inland areas and temperate highland ranges.

The main tourist destinations of Queensland
Queensland
include, Brisbane, Cairns, Port Douglas and the Daintree Rainforest
Daintree Rainforest
, Gold Coast , the Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
, Hervey Bay and nearby Fraser Island , Townsville, Magnetic Island, North Stradbroke Island and South Stradbroke Island , Sunshine Coast , Hamilton Island , Daydream Island and the Whitsundays known for Airlie Beach and Whitehaven Beach .

Cairns
Cairns
is renowned as the "Gateway to the Barrier Reef" and the heritage listed Daintree Rainforests. The Gold Coast of Queensland
Queensland
is also sometimes referred to as "Australia's Theme Park Capital", with five major amusement parks. These are Dreamworld , Movie World , Sea World , Wet \'n\' Wild and WhiteWater World .

There are numerous wildlife parks in Queensland. On the Gold Coast there is Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary
at Currumbin and David Fleay Wildlife Park at Burleigh Heads . On the Sunshine Coast there is UnderWater World at Mooloolaba and Australia Zoo
Australia Zoo
near Beerwah /Glass House Mountains , home of Steve Irwin
Steve Irwin
until his death in 2006.

Lone Pine Koala
Koala
Sanctuary at Fig Tree Pocket and Brisbane
Brisbane
Forest Park at The Gap are located in Brisbane. North of Brisbane
Brisbane
is Alma Park Zoo which is relocating to Logan City and Kumbartcho Wildlife Sanctuary which was originally called Bunya Park Wildlife Sanctuary.

Accommodation in Queensland
Queensland
caters for nearly 22% of the total expenditure, followed by restaurants/meals (15%), airfares (11%), fuel (11%) and shopping/gifts (11%). See also: Tourism in Brisbane
Brisbane

TRANSPORT

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See also: Transportation in Australia A QR ( Queensland
Queensland
Rail) EMU series train on the South East Queensland rail network

Queensland
Queensland
is served by a number of National Highways and, particularly in South East Queensland, motorways such as the M1 . The Department of Transport "> Parliament House, Brisbane (photo taken in 2003)

The Queensland
Queensland
Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, is unicameral . It is the only Australian state with a unicameral legislature . A bicameral system existed until 1922, when the Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor members' "suicide squad", so called because they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own offices. The Parliament is housed in the 19th century Parliament House and 20th century Parliamentary Annexe in Brisbane. The state's politics are traditionally regarded as being conservative relative to other states.

There are several factors that differentiate Queensland's government from other Australian states. The legislature has no upper house . For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that heavily favoured rural electorates. This, combined with the already decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales , formerly operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections. This is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, and in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot (similar to the ballot used in the UK), which some say is to the detriment of minor parties. The next Queensland
Queensland
election will use instant-runoff voting.

These conditions have had notable practical ramifications for politics in Queensland. The lack of an upper house for substantial legislative review has meant that Queensland
Queensland
has had a tradition of domination by strong-willed, populist premiers, often with arguably authoritarian tendencies, holding office for long periods.

The judicial system of Queensland
Queensland
consists of the Supreme Court and the District Court , established by the Constitution of Queensland, and various other courts and tribunals established by ordinary Acts of the Queensland
Queensland
Parliament.

In 2001 Queensland
Queensland
adopted a new codified constitution, repealing most of the assorted Acts of Parliament that had previously made up the constitution. The new constitution took effect on 6 June 2002, the anniversary of the formation of the colony of Queensland
Queensland
by the signing of Letters patent
Letters patent
by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in 1859.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Main article: Local government in Queensland

Local government is the mechanism by which towns and districts can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act 1993–2007. Queensland
Queensland
is divided into 73 local government areas which may be called Cities, Towns, Shires or Regions.

Each area has a council which is responsible for providing a range of public services and utilities, and derives its income from both rates and charges on resident ratepayers, and grants and subsidies from the State and Commonwealth governments.

UNIVERSITIES

The Great Court, University of Queensland
University of Queensland

The state's first university, The University of Queensland
University of Queensland
, was established in 1909. It was moved to St Lucia in 1945, where it remains today. The University of Queensland
University of Queensland
ranks amongst the top 60 universities in all major global rankings.

James Cook
James Cook
University was set up in 1970 to become the first tertiary education institution in North Queensland. Griffith University was established in the Brisbane
Brisbane
suburb of Nathan in 1971. In 1989, the Queensland University of Technology was opened (previously the Queensland
Queensland
Institute of Technology) in the Brisbane
Brisbane
central business district at Gardens Point . These Universities all have more than one campus, and all are recognised as leading Australian universities.

Bond University
Bond University
was established in 1989 as a private not-for-profit university, the first of its type in Queensland
Queensland
and is located at Robina on the Gold Coast . In 1992, the Central Queensland University and University of Southern Queensland gained university status from previously operating and Institutes of Technologies, and the new University of the Sunshine Coast was established in 1994.

In 1997 the National Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts (ACPA) was established and in 2010 Southern Cross University opened a new campus at the southern part of the Gold Coast. The Australian Catholic University also operates a campus in Brisbane.

SPORT

The Queensland Bulls take part in Australia's domestic cricket tournaments Main article: Sport in Queensland

The state of Queensland
Queensland
is represented in all of Australia's national sporting competitions and is also host to a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular winter and summer team sports are Rugby league
Rugby league
, Rugby union
Rugby union
and cricket , respectively. Rugby league
Rugby league
's annual State of Origin series
State of Origin series
is a major event in the Queensland
Queensland
sporting calendar, with the Queensland
Queensland
Maroons in 2013 winning a record eighth series in a row.

The Brisbane
Brisbane
Broncos are the state's most successful team of any sport, having won 3 premierships in the NRL rugby league era and 6 in total during their 23-year existence. The Brisbane
Brisbane
Broncos participated in the 2015 NRL Grand Final losing to the North Queensland
Queensland
Cowboys 17–16 in extra time, claiming their first premiership in its history. It is considered one of the greatest Grand Finals in NRL history. The other two NRL teams in Queensland
Queensland
are the North Queensland Cowboys and Gold Coast Titans .

Queensland's dominance is not restricted to rugby league. The early part of this century saw the AFL's Brisbane
Brisbane
Lions claim a hat-trick of premierships between 2001 and 2003 inclusive, whilst in soccer, Brisbane
Brisbane
Roar FC won back to back A-League titles in the 2010/11 and 2011/12 season, and also set an Australian sporting record of 36 consecutive games unbeaten. Just four years after being branded "the joke of rugby union", the Queensland Reds won its first Super Rugby title in July 2011. In netball the Queensland Firebirds went undefeated in the 2011 season as they went on to win the Grand Final. Other sports teams are the Brisbane
Brisbane
Bullets and the Cairns
Cairns
Taipans , who compete in the National Basketball League .

Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with a majority of Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the state. At the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
, Queensland
Queensland
swimmers won all six of Australia\'s gold medals , all swimmers on Australia's three female (finals) relays teams were from Queensland, two of which won gold.

Events include:

* Gold Coast 600 (motorsport; since 1994) * Gold Coast Marathon (athletics; since 1979) * Ipswich Super Sprint (motorsport; since 2003) * NRL All Stars Game (rugby league; since 2010) * Townsville 400 (motorsport; since 2009) * Quicksilver Pro and Roxy Pro (surfing) * Australian PGA Championship (golf; since 2000)

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Oceania portal * Commonwealth realms portal * Australia
Australia
portal * Queensland
Queensland
portal

* Outline of Australia
Outline of Australia
* Index of Australia-related articles * Australia
Australia
– book * Queensland Day

REFERENCES

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Australia
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Queensland
Treasury. Retrieved 28 October 2011. * ^ "Documenting Democracy". Foundingdocs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010. * ^ " Queensland
Queensland
Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages World War One commemorative death certificates Queensland\'s World War 1 Centenary". blogs.slq.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 20 January 2016. * ^ Lowe, Ian (2012). Bigger Or Better?: Australia's Population Debate. University of Queensland
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Queensland
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Brisbane
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Queensland Government
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Queensland
Cyclones". Emergency Management Queensland. Retrieved 4 June 2014. * ^ " Queensland
Queensland
Floods Summary". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 4 June 2014. * ^ " Queensland
Queensland
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Bureau of Meteorology
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Cairns
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Bureau of Meteorology
. Retrieved 26 September 2010. * ^ " Townsville Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology
Bureau of Meteorology
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– Census 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2017. * ^ THE PORT RAILWAYS OF ROCKHAMPTON Kerr, John Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin , August 2001 pp283-306 * ^ Tom Dusevic (17 December 2009). " Queensland
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Queensland
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Queensland
perspective, 2010. * ^ Land Act 1994, Long title An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the administration and management of non-freehold land and deeds of grant in trust and the creation of freehold land, and for related purposes * ^ "About TQ – Profile". Tourism Queensland. Archived from the original on 14 September 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2010. * ^ Lonely Planet Writer (1 September 2015). "The Great Barrier Reef and beyond: a beginner’s guide to Queensland’s coast". Lonely Planet Writer. LonelyPlanet.com. Retrieved 20 October 2016. * ^ Kristof Haines (19 August 2015). "Earth\'s Top Travel Destinations Revealed". Writer for AirportRentals.com. AirportRentals.com. Retrieved 20 October 2016. * ^ TravelTreks (8 September 2016). "Australia’s Top 50 Small Towns". www.DiscountMyFlights.com.au. Stapylton, Queensland, Australia: www.DiscountMyFlights.com.au. Retrieved 20 October 2016. * ^ "Tourism related information and statistics". Discoverqueensland.com.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010. * ^ Wanna, John (2003). "Queensland". In Moon, Campbell; Sharman, Jeremy. Australian Politics and Government: The Commonwealth, the States and Territories. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-521-82507-5 . Retrieved 15 November 2011. * ^ Daly, Margo (2003). The Rough Guide To Australia. Rough Guides Ltd. p. 397. ISBN 978-1-84353-090-9 . * ^ Penrith, Deborah (2008). Live & Work in Australia. Crimson Publishing. p. 478. ISBN 978-1-85458-418-2 . * ^ "Why Labor struggles in Queensland". * ^ George Megalogenis, "The Green and the Grey", Quarterly Essay, Vol. 40, 2010, p69. * ^ " Australia
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EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to Queensland
Queensland
at Wikimedia Commons * Queensland
Queensland
travel guide from

.