A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people;
it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons
or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or
pests', for a certain period of time. This is often used in
connection to disease and illness, such as those who may possibly have
been exposed to a communicable disease. The term is often
erroneously used to mean medical isolation, which is "to separate ill
persons who have a communicable disease from those who are
healthy". The word comes from an Italian variant
(seventeenth-century Venetian) of 'quaranta giorni', meaning forty
days, the period that all ships were required to be isolated before
passengers and crew could go ashore during the
Black Death plague
Quarantine can be applied to humans, but also to animals
of various kinds, and both as part of border control as well as within
1 In practice
3 International conventions
4 Signals and flags
7 Hong Kong
8 United Kingdom
8.1 British quarantine rules after 1711
9 United States
9.1 United States – history
10 Other uses
11 Notable quarantines
12 See also
12.1 List of quarantine services in the world
15 External links
The quarantining of people often raises questions of civil rights,
especially in cases of long confinement or segregation from society,
such as that of
Mary Mallon (aka
Typhoid Mary), a typhoid fever
carrier who spent the last 24 years and 7 months her life under
Quarantine periods can be very short, such as in the case of a
suspected anthrax attack, in which persons are allowed to leave as
soon as they shed their potentially contaminated garments and undergo
a decontamination shower. For example, an article entitled "Daily News
workers quarantined" describes a brief quarantine that lasted until
people could be showered in a decontamination tent. (Kelly Nankervis,
The February/March 2003 issue of HazMat Magazine suggests that people
be "locked in a room until proper decon could be performed", in the
event of "suspect anthrax".
Standard-Times senior correspondent Steve Urbon (14 February 2003)
describes such temporary quarantine powers:
Civil rights activists in some cases have objected to people being
rounded up, stripped and showered against their will. But Capt. Chmiel
said local health authorities have "certain powers to quarantine
The purpose of such quarantine-for-decontamination is to prevent the
spread of contamination, and to contain the contamination such that
others are not put at risk from a person fleeing a scene where
contamination is suspect. It can also be used to limit exposure, as
well as eliminate a vector.
The first astronauts to visit the
Moon were quarantined upon their
return at the specially built Lunar Receiving Laboratory.
New developments for quarantine include new concepts in quarantine
vehicles such as the ambulance bus, mobile hospitals, and
lockdown/invacuation (inverse evacuation) procedures, as well as
docking stations for an ambulance bus to dock to a facility that's
The quarantine ship Rhin, at large in Sheerness. Source: National
Maritime Museum of Greenwich, London
The word "quarantine" originates from the Venetian dialect form of the
Italian quaranta giorni, meaning 'forty days'. This is due to the
40-day isolation of ships and people before entering the city-state of
Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik, Croatia). This was practiced as a measure
of disease prevention related to the Black Death. Between 1348 and
Black Death wiped out an estimated 30% of Europe's
population, and a significant percentage of Asia's population. The
original document from 1377, which is kept in the Archives of
Dubrovnik, states that before entering the city, newcomers had to
spend 30 days (a trentine) in a restricted place (originally nearby
islands) waiting to see whether the symptoms of
Black Death would
develop. Later, isolation was prolonged to 40 days and was called
Other diseases lent themselves to the practice of quarantine before
and after the devastation of the plague. Those afflicted with leprosy
were historically isolated from society, as were the attempts to check
the invasion of syphilis in northern Europe in about 1490, the advent
of yellow fever in Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, and the
Asiatic cholera in 1831.
Venice took the lead in measures to check the spread of plague, having
appointed three guardians of public health in the first years of the
Black Death (1348). The next record of preventive measures comes from
Modena in 1374. The first lazaret was founded by Venice in
1403, on a small island adjoining the city. In 1467, Genoa followed
the example of Venice, and in 1476 the old leper hospital of Marseille
was converted into a plague hospital. The great lazaret of Marseilles,
perhaps the most complete of its kind, was founded in 1526 on the
island of Pomègues. The practice at all the Mediterranean lazarets
was not different from the English procedure in the Levantine and
North African trade. On the approach of cholera in 1831 some new
lazarets were set up at western ports, notably a very extensive
establishment near Bordeaux, afterwards turned to another use.
Since 1852 several conferences were held involving European powers,
with a view to uniform action in keeping out infection from the East
and preventing its spread within Europe. All but that of 1897 were
concerned with cholera. No result came of those at Paris (1852),
Constantinople (1866), Vienna (1874), and Rome (1885), but each of the
subsequent ones doctrine of constructive infection of a ship as coming
from a scheduled port, and an approximation to the principles
advocated by Great Britain for many years. The principal countries
which retained the old system at the time were Spain, Portugal,
Turkey, Greece and Russia (the British possessions at the time,
Gibraltar, Malta and Cyprus, being under the same influence). The aim
of each international sanitary convention had been to bind the
governments to a uniform minimum of preventive action, with further
restrictions permissible to individual countries. The minimum
specified by international conventions was very nearly the same as the
British practice, which had been in turn adapted to continental
opinion in the matter of the importation of rags.
Isolating a village in
Romania whose inhabitants believe that doctors
poison those suspected of cholera.
The Venice convention of 30 January 1892 dealt with cholera by the
Suez Canal route; that of Dresden of 15 April 1893, with cholera
within European countries; that of Paris of 3 April 1894, with cholera
by the pilgrim traffic; and that of Venice, on 19 March 1897, was in
connection with the outbreak of plague in the East, and the conference
met to settle on an international basis the steps to be taken to
prevent, if possible, its spread into Europe. An additional convention
was signed in Paris on 3 December 1903.
A multilateral international sanitary convention was concluded at
Paris on 17 January 1912. This convention was most comprehensive
and was designated to replace all previous conventions on that matter.
It was signed by 40 countries, and consisted of 160 articles.
Ratifications by 16 of the signatories were exchanged in Paris on 7
October 1920. Another multilateral convention was signed in Paris on
21 June 1926, to replace that of 1912. It was signed by 58 countries
worldwide, and consisted of 172 articles.
In Latin America, a series of regional sanitary conventions were
concluded. Such a convention was concluded in Rio de Janeiro on 12
June 1904. A sanitary convention between the governments of Argentina,
Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay was concluded in Montevideo on 21 April
1914. The convention covers cases of Asiatic cholera, oriental
plague and yellow fever. It was ratified by the Uruguayan government
on 13 October 1914, by the Paraguayan government on 27 September 1917
and by the Brazilian government on 18 January 1921.
Sanitary conventions were also concluded between European states. A
Soviet-Latvian sanitary convention was signed on 24 June 1922, for
which ratifications were exchanged on 18 October 1923. A bilateral
sanitary convention was concluded between the governments of Latvia
and Poland on 7 July 1922, for which ratifications were exchanged on 7
April 1925. Another was concluded between the governments of
Germany and Poland in Dresden on 18 December 1922, and entered into
effect on 15 February 1923. Another one was signed between the
governments of Poland and
Romania on 20 December 1922. Ratifications
were exchanged on 11 July 1923. The Polish government also
concluded such a convention with the Soviet government on 7 February
1923, for which ratifications were exchanged on 8 January 1924. A
sanitary convention was also concluded between the governments of
Poland and Czechoslovakia on 5 September 1925, for which ratifications
were exchanged on 22 October 1926. A convention was signed between
the governments of Germany and Latvia on 9 July 1926, for which
ratifications were exchanged on 6 July 1927.
One of the first points to be dealt with in 1897 was to settle the
incubation period for this disease, and the period to be adopted for
administrative purposes. It was admitted that the incubation period
was, as a rule, a comparatively short one, namely, of some three or
four days. After much discussion ten days was accepted by a very large
majority. The principle of disease notification was unanimously
adopted. Each government had to notify to other governments on the
existence of plague within their several jurisdictions, and at the
same time state the measures of prevention which are being carried out
to prevent its diffusion. The area deemed to be infected was limited
to the actual district or village where the disease prevailed, and no
locality was deemed to be infected merely because of the importation
into it of a few cases of plague while there has been no diffusion of
the malady. As regards the precautions to be taken on land frontiers,
it was decided that during the prevalence of plague every country had
the inherent right to close its land frontiers against traffic. As
regards the Red Sea, it was decided after discussion that a healthy
vessel could pass through the Suez Canal, and continue its voyage in
the Mediterranean during the period of incubation of the disease the
prevention of which is in question. It was also agreed that vessels
passing through the Canal in quarantine might, subject to the use of
the electric light, coal in quarantine at Port Said by night as well
as by day, and that passengers might embark in quarantine at that
port. Infected vessels, if these carry a doctor and are provided with
a disinfecting stove, have a right to navigate the Canal, in
quarantine, subject only to the landing of those who were suffering
Signals and flags
Signal flag "Quebec, " also called the "Yellow Jack" is a simple
yellow flag that was historically used to signal quarantine (it stands
for Q), but in modern use indicates the opposite, as a signal of a
ship free of disease that requests boarding and inspection.
Plain yellow, green, and even black flags have been used to symbolize
disease in both ships and ports, with the color yellow having a longer
historical precedent, as a color of marking for houses of infection,
previous to its use as a maritime marking color for disease. The
present flag used for the purpose is the "Lima" (L) flag, which is a
mixture of yellow and black flags previously used. It is sometimes
called the "yellow jack" but this was also a name for yellow fever,
which probably derives its common name from the flag, not the color of
the victims (cholera ships also used a yellow flag). The plain
yellow flag ("Quebec" or Q in international maritime signal flags)
probably derives its letter symbol for its initial use in quarantine,
but this flag in modern times indicates the opposite—a ship that
declares itself free of quarantinable disease, and requests boarding
and routine port inspection.
Australia has perhaps the world's strictest quarantine standards.
Quarantine in northern Australia is important because of its proximity
to South-east Asia and the Pacific, which have many pests and diseases
not present in Australia. For this reason, the region from Cairns to
Broome—including the Torres Strait—is the focus for many important
quarantine activities that protect all Australians. As Australia
has been geographically isolated from other major continents for
millions of years, there is an endemically unique ecosystem free of
several severe pests and diseases that are present in many parts of
the world. If other products are brought inside along with pests
and diseases, it would damage the ecosystem seriously and add millions
of costs in the local agricultural businesses.
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service is responsible for
border-inspection of any products which are brought into Australia,
and assess the potential risks the products might harm Australian
environment. Visitors are required to fill in the information card
truthfully before arriving in Australia, and declare what food and any
products made of wood and other natural materials they have processed.
If the visitor fails to do so, usually a quarantine fine of 220
Australian dollars are to be paid as quarantine infringement notice,
and if not, the visitor may face criminal convictions of fining
100,000 Australian dollars and 10 years imprisonment.
There are three quarantine
Acts of Parliament
Acts of Parliament in Canada: Quarantine
Act (humans) and Health of Animals Act (animals) and Plant Protection
Act (vegetations). The first legislation is enforced by the Canada
Border Services Agency after a complete rewrite in 2005. The second
and third legislations are enforced by the Canadian Food Inspection
Agency. If a health emergency exists, the Governor in Council can
prohibit importation of anything that it deems necessary under the
Quarantine Act, all travellers must submit to screening and
if they believe they might have come into contact with communicable
diseases or vectors, they must disclose their whereabouts to a Border
Services Officer. If the officer has reasonable grounds to believe
that the traveller is or might have been infected with a communicable
disease or refused to provide answers, a quarantine officer (QO) must
be called and the person is to be isolated. If a person refuses to be
isolated, any peace officer may arrest without warrant.
A QO who has reasonable grounds to believe that the traveller has or
might have a communicable disease or is infested with vectors, after
the medical examination of a traveller, can order him/her into
treatment or measures to prevent the person from spreading the
disease. QO can detain any traveller who refuses to comply with
his/her orders or undergo health assessments as required by law.
Under the Health of Animals Act and Plant Protection Act, inspectors
can prohibit access to an infected area, dispose or treat any infected
or suspected to be infected animals or plants. The Minister can order
for compensation to be given if animals/plants were destroyed pursuant
to these acts.
Each province also enacts its own quarantine/environmental health
Under the Prevention and Control of Disease Ordinance (HK Laws. Chap
599), a health officer may seize articles he/she believes to be
infectious or contains infectious agents. All travellers, if
requested, must submit themselves to a health officer. Failure to do
so is against the law and is subject to arrest and prosecution.
The law allows for a health officer who have reasonable grounds to
detain, isolate, quarantine anyone or anything believed to be infected
and to restrict any articles from leaving a designated quarantine
area. He/she may also order the Civil Aviation Department to prohibit
the landing or leaving, embarking or disembarking of an aircraft. This
power also extends to land, sea or air crossings.
Under the same ordinance, any police officer, health officer, members
Civil Aid Service
Civil Aid Service or
Auxiliary Medical Service
Auxiliary Medical Service can arrest a
person who obstructs or escape from detention.
To reduce the risk of introducing rabies from continental Europe, the
United Kingdom used to require that dogs, and most other animals
introduced to the country, spend six months in quarantine at an HM
Customs and Excise pound; this policy was abolished in 2000 in favour
of a scheme generally known as Pet Passports, where animals can avoid
quarantine if they have documentation showing they are up to date on
their appropriate vaccinations.
British quarantine rules after 1711
The plague had disappeared from England, never to return, for more
than thirty years before the practice of quarantine against it was
definitely established by the
Quarantine Act 1710 (9 Ann.) The first
act was called for, owing to an alarm, lest plague should be imported
from Poland and the Baltics; the second act of 1721 was due to the
disastrous prevalence of plague at
Marseille and other places in
Provence, France; it was renewed in 1733 owing to a fresh outbreak of
the malady on the continent of Europe, and again in 1743, owing to the
disastrous epidemic at Messina. In 1752 a rigorous quarantine clause
was introduced into an act regulating the Levantine trade; and various
arbitrary orders were issued during the next twenty years to meet the
supposed danger of infection from the Baltics. Although no plague
cases ever came to England all those years, the restrictions on
traffic became more and more stringent (following the movements of
medical dogma), and in 1788 a very oppressive
Quarantine Act was
passed, with provisions affecting cargoes in particular. The first
year of the nineteenth century marked the turning-point in quarantine
legislation; a parliamentary committee sat on the practice, and a more
reasonable act arose on their report. In 1805 there was another new
act, and in 1823–24 again an elaborate inquiry followed by an act
making the quarantine only at discretion of the privy council, and at
the same time recognizing yellow fever or other highly infectious
disorder as calling for quarantine measures along with plague. The
steady approach of cholera in 1831 was the last occasion in England of
a thoroughgoing resort to quarantine restrictions. The pestilence
invaded every country of Europe despite all efforts to keep it out. In
England the experiment of hermetically sealing the ports was not
seriously tried when cholera returned in 1849, 1853 and 1865–66. In
1847 the privy council ordered all arrivals with clean bills from the
Black Sea and the Levant to be admitted to free pratique, provided
there had been no case of plague during the voyage; and therewith the
last remnant of the once formidable quarantine practice against plague
may be said to have disappeared.
For a number of years after the passing of the first
(1710) the protective practices in England were of the most haphazard
and arbitrary kind. In 1721 two vessels laden with cotton goods from
Cyprus, then a seat of plague, were ordered to be burned with their
cargoes, the owners receiving as indemnity. By the clause in the
Levant Trade Act of 1752 vessels for the United Kingdom with a foul
bill (i.e. coming from a country where plague existed) had to repair
to the lazarets of Malta, Venice, Messina, Livorno, Genoa or
Marseille, to perform their quarantine or to have their cargoes
sufficiently opened and aired. Since 1741 Stangate Creek (on the
Medway) had been made the quarantine station at home; but it would
appear from the above clause that it was available only for vessels
with clean bills. In 1755 lazarets in the form of floating hulks were
established in England for the first time, the cleansing of cargo
(particularly by exposure to dews) having been done previously on the
ship's deck. There was no medical inspection employed, but the whole
routine left to the officers of customs and quarantine. In 1780, when
plague was in Poland, even vessels with grain from the Baltic had to
lie forty days in quarantine, and unpack and air the sacks; but owing
to remonstrances, which came chiefly from Edinburgh and Leith, grain
was from that date declared to be a non-susceptible article. About
1788 an order of the council required every ship liable to quarantine,
in case of meeting any vessel at sea, or within four leagues of the
coast of Great Britain or Ireland, to hoist a yellow flag in the
daytime and show a light at the main topmast head at night, under a
penalty of[clarification needed] After 1800, ships from
plague-countries (or with foul bills) were enabled to perform their
quarantine on arrival in the
Medway instead of taking a Mediterranean
port on the way for that purpose; and about the same time an extensive
lazaret was built on Chetney Hill near Chatham at an expense of which
was almost at once condemned owing to its marshy foundations, and the
materials sold for[clarification needed] The use of floating hulks as
lazarets continued as before. In 1800 two ships with hides from
Mogador (Morocco) were ordered to be sunk with their cargoes at the
Nore, the owners receiving[clarification needed] About this period it
was merchandise that was chiefly suspected: there was a long schedule
of susceptible articles, and these were first exposed on the ship's
deck for twenty-one days or less (six days for each instalment of the
cargo), and then transported to the lazaret, where they were opened
and aired forty days more. The whole detention of the vessel was from
sixty to sixty-five days, including the time for reshipment of her
cargo. Pilots had to pass fifteen days on board a convalescent ship.
The expenses may be estimated from one or two examples. In 1820 the
Asia, 763 tons, arrived in the
Medway with a foul bill from
Alexandria, laden with linseed; her freight was[clarification needed]
and her quarantine dues[clarification needed] The same year the
Pilato, 495 tons, making the same voyage, paid quarantine dues on a
freight of[clarification needed] In 1823 the expenses of the
quarantine service (at various ports) were[clarification needed] and
the dues paid by shipping (nearly all with clean bills)[clarification
needed] A return for the United Kingdom and colonies in 1849 showed,
among other details, that the expenses of the lazaret at Malta for ten
years from 1839 to 1848 had been[clarification needed] From 1846
onwards the establishments in the United Kingdom were gradually
reduced, while the last vestige of the British quarantine law was
removed by the Public Health Act 1896, which repealed the Quarantine
Act 1825 (with dependent clauses of other acts), and transferred from
the privy council to the Local Government Board the powers to deal
with ships arriving infected with yellow fever or plague, the powers
to deal with cholera ships having been already transferred by the
Public Health Act 1875.
The British regulations of 9 November 1896 applied to yellow fever,
plague and cholera. Officers of the Royal Customs, as well as of Royal
Coast Guard and
Board of Trade
Board of Trade (for signalling), were empowered to
take the initial steps. They certified in writing the master of a
supposed infected ship, and detained the vessel provisionally for not
more than twelve hours, giving notice meanwhile to the port sanitary
authority. The medical officer of the port boarded the ship and
examined every person in it. Every person found infected was certified
of the fact, removed to a hospital provided (if his condition allow),
and kept under the orders of the medical officer. If the sick could be
removed, the vessel remained under his orders. Every person suspected
(owing to his or her immediate attendance on the sick) could be
detained on board for 48 hours or removed to the hospital for a
similar period. All others were free to land on giving the addresses
of their destinations to be sent to the respective local authorities,
so that the dispersed passengers and crew could be kept individually
under observation for a few days. The ship was then disinfected, dead
bodies buried at sea, infected clothing, bedding, etc., destroyed or
disinfected, and bilge-water and water-ballast (subject to exceptions)
pumped out at a suitable distance before the ship entered a dock or
basin. Mail was subject to no detention. A stricken ship within 3
miles of the shore had to fly at the main mast a yellow and black flag
borne quarterly from sunrise to sunset.
The United States puts immediate quarantines on imported products if
the disease can be traced back to a certain shipment or product. All
imports will also be quarantined if the diseases breakout in other
countries. According to Title 42 U.S.C. §§264 and 266, these
statutes provide the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human
Services ("the Secretary") peacetime and wartime authority,
respectively, to control the movement of persons into and within the
United States to prevent the spread of communicable disease.
Communicable diseases for which apprehension, detention, or
conditional release of persons are authorized must be specified in
Executive Orders of the President. Executive Order 13295 (Revised
List of Quarantinable Communicable Diseases, April 4, 2003) and its
amendments (executive orders 13375 and 13674) specify the following
infectious diseases: (1) cholera, (2) diphtheria, (3) infectious
tuberculosis, (4) plague, (5) smallpox, (6) yellow fever, (7) viral
hemorrhagic fevers (Lassa, Marburg, Ebola, Crimean-Congo, South
American, and others not yet isolated or named), (8) severe acute
respiratory syndromes, and (9) influenza, from a novel or re-emergent
source. In the event of conflict of federal, state, local, and/or
tribal health authorities in the use of legal quarantine power,
federal law is supreme.
The Division of Global Migration and
Quarantine (DGMQ) of the US
Center for Disease Control
Center for Disease Control (CDC) operates small quarantine facilities
at a number of US ports of entry. As of 2014, these included one land
crossing (in El Paso, Texas) and 19 international airports.
New York JFK
Washington, D.C. (Dulles)
Besides the port of entry where it is located, each station is also
responsible for quarantining potentially infected travelers entering
through any ports of entry in its assigned region. These facilities
are fairly small; each one is operated by a few staff members and
capable of accommodating 1-2 travelers for a short observation
period. Cost estimates for setting up a temporary larger facility,
capable of accommodating 100 to 200 travelers for several weeks, have
been published by the Airport Cooperative Research Program in
United States – history
Quarantine law began in Colonial America in 1663, when in an attempt
to curb an outbreak of smallpox, the city of New York established a
quarantine. In the 1730s, the city built a quarantine station on the
Bedloe's Island. The
Philadelphia Lazaretto was the first
quarantine hospital in the United States, built in 1799, in Tinicum
Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania. There are similar
national landmarks such as
Swinburne Island and Angel Island (a much
more famous historic site, Ellis Island, is often mistakenly assumed
to have been a quarantine station, however its marine hospital only
qualified as a contagious disease facility to handle less virulent
diseases like measles, trachoma and less advanced stages of
tuberculosis and diphtheria; persons afflicted with smallpox, yellow
fever, cholera, leprosy or typhoid fever, could neither be received
nor treated there). During the 1918 flu pandemic, people were also
quarantined. Most commonly suspect cases of infectious diseases are
requested to voluntarily quarantine themselves, and Federal and local
quarantine statutes only have been uncommonly invoked since then,
including for a suspected smallpox case in 1963.
Also other TB carriers who refuse to wear a mask in public have been
indefinitely involuntarily committed to regular jails, and cut off
from contacting the world.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy euphemistically referred to the U.S.
Navy's interdiction of shipping en route to Cuba during the Cuban
Missile Crisis as a "quarantine" rather than a blockade, because a
quarantine is a legal act in peacetime, whereas a blockade is defined
as an act of aggression under the U.N. Charter.
In computer science, "quarantining" describes putting files infected
by computer viruses into a special directory, so as to eliminate the
threat they pose, without irreversibly deleting them.
Quarantine of the convict ship Surry on the North Shore of Sydney
Harbour in 1814, the first quarantine in Australia
Eyam was a village in Britain that chose to isolate itself to stop the
spread of the plague northward in 1665. They were hindered in this by
the limited knowledge of the disease at the time: what caused it, what
forms infection took, what animal vectors carried it, how it spread.
On 28 July 1814, the convict ship Surry arrived in Sydney Harbour from
England. Over 40 persons had died of typhoid during the voyage,
including 36 convicts, and the ship was placed in quarantine on the
North Shore. Convicts were landed, and a camp was established in the
immediate vicinity of what is now
Jeffrey Street in Kirribilli. This
was the first site in Australia to be used for quarantine
During the 1918 flu pandemic, the then Governor of American Samoa,
John Martin Poyer, imposed a full quarantine of the islands from all
incoming ships, successfully achieving zero deaths within the
territory. In contrast, the neighboring New Zealand-controlled Western
Samoa was among the hardest hit, with a 90% infection rate and over
20% of its adults dying from the disease. This failure by the New
Zealand government to prevent and contain the Spanish Flu subsequently
rekindled Samoan anti-colonial sentiments that led to its eventual
In 1942, during World War II, British forces tested out their
biological weapons programme on
Gruinard Island and infected it with
anthrax. The quarantine was lifted in 1990, when the island was
declared safe, and a flock of sheep was released onto the island.
In 1969, the astronauts of
Apollo 11 and lunar samples were
quarantined for a couple of weeks in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory,
to prevent interplanetary contamination by back contamination from the
1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia
1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia was the final outbreak of
smallpox in Europe. The
WHO fought the outbreak with extensive
quarantine, and the government instituted martial law.
In 2014, Kaci Hickox, a
Doctors Without Borders
Doctors Without Borders nurse from Maine,
legally battled 21-day quarantines imposed by the states of New Jersey
and Maine after returning home from treating
Ebola patients in Sierra
Leone. "Hickox was sequestered in a medical tent for days because
New Jersey announced new
Ebola regulations the day she arrived. She
eventually was allowed to travel to Maine, where the state sought to
impose a 'voluntary quarantine' before trying and failing to create a
buffer between her and others. A state judge rejected attempts to
restrict her movements, saying she posed no threat as long as she
wasn't demonstrating any symptoms of Ebola. Hickox said health care
professionals like those at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention - not politicians like New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie and
Maine Gov. Paul LePage - should be in charge of making decisions that
are grounded in science, not fear."
Extra-Terrestrial Exposure Law
Isolation (health care)
List of quarantine services in the world
Quarantine and Inspection Service
Quarantine Service, in the New Zealand
Quarantine, Western Australia[permanent dead link] for the Western
Quarantine Service, in the West Samoa
Racehorse & Equine
Quarantine Services, A Company Build &
Developed by Frankie Thevarasa Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and
Human Welfare, a Federal
Quarantine Service of Russian Federal
^ Merriam Webster definition
^ (Cited from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
^ Cited from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
^ Ronald Eccles, Olaf Weber, eds. (2009). Common cold (Online-Ausg.
ed.). Basel: Birkhäuser. p. 210.
ISBN 978-3-7643-9894-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
^ Tognotti, E. "Lessons from the history of quarantine, from plague to
influenza A". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013 Feb.
^ Qureshi, Adnan (2016).
Ebola Virus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak.
London: Academic Press. p. 62. ISBN 0128042303.
^ a b Sehdev, Paul S. (2002). "The Origin of Quarantine". Clinical
Infectious Diseases. 35 (9): 1071–1072. doi:10.1086/344062.
^ Text of the 1903 convention, from the website of the British Foreign
and Commonwealth Office Archived 26 September 2012 at the Wayback
^ Text in League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 4, pp. 282–413.
^ Text in League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 78, pp. 230–349.
^ Text in League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 5, pp. 394–441.
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In fact, until this recent situation, the CDC hadn't issued such an
order since 1963, when it quarantined a woman for smallpox exposure.
Even during the SARS epidemic in 2003, officials relied mostly on
voluntary isolation and quarantine. And the last large-scale
quarantine in the U.S. took place during the Spanish flu epidemic of
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Quarantine".
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quarantine.
Look up quarantine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Ayliffe GAJ, English MP, Hospital infection, From Miasmas to MRSA,
Cambridge University Press, 2003
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until the age of George Armmenius-Baglivi. Med Secoli.
Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol.8, No.1
History of quarantine (from PBS NOVA)
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