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Pylos
Pylos
((UK: /ˈpaɪlɒs/, US: /ˈpaɪloʊs/; Greek: Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.[2] It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos
Pylos
has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos
Pylos
5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2.[3] Pylos
Pylos
has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic
Neolithic
times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos
Pylos
in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos
Pylos
is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle
Old Navarino castle
on the site. Pylos
Pylos
came under the control of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos
Pylos
and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress
New Navarino fortress
there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.

Contents

1 The name of Navarino 2 Geography 3 Flora and fauna 4 History

4.1 Prehistoric and Mycenaean Pylos 4.2 Classical Pylos 4.3 Middle Ages 4.4 First Venetian and first Ottoman periods 4.5 Second Venetian period, Ottoman reconquest and Greek Independence 4.6 The modern town

5 Historical population 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

The name of Navarino[edit] Pylos
Pylos
retained its ancient name down to Byzantine
Byzantine
times, but appears after the Frankish conquest in the early 13th century under two names:[4]

a French one, Port-de-Jonc ("Rush Harbour") or Port-de-Junch, with some variants and derivatives: in Italian Porto-Junco, Zunchio or Zonchio, in medieval Catalan Port Jonc, in Latin Iuncum, Zonglon/Zonglos (Ζόγγλον/ς or Ζόγκλον/ς) in Greek, etc. It takes that name from the marshes surrounding the place.[4][5] a Greek one, Avarinos (Ἀβαρῖνος), later shortened to Varinos (Βαρῖνος) or lengthened to Anavarinos (Ἀναβαρῖνος) by epenthesis, which became Navarino in Italian (probably by rebracketing) and Navarin in French.[4] Its etymology is not certain. A traditional etymology, proposed by the early 15th-century traveller Nompar de Caumont and repeated as late as the works of Karl Hopf, ascribed the name to the Navarrese Company, but this clearly an error as the name was in use long before the Navarrese presence in Greece. In 1830 Fallmereyer proposed that it could originate from a body of Avars who settled there, a view adopted by a few later scholars like William Miller;[6] modern scholarship on the other hand considers it more likely that it originates from a Slavic name meaning "place of maples".[7][4][5] The name of Avarinos/Navarino, although in use before the Frankish period, came into widespread use, and eclipsed the French name of Port-de-Jonc and its derivations, only in the 15th century, i.e., after the collapse of the Frankish Principality of Achaea.[4]

In the late 14th or early 15th centuries, when it was held by the Navarrese Company, it was also known as Château Navarres, and called Spanochori (Σπανοχώρι, "village of the Spaniards") by the local Greeks.[8] Under Ottoman rule (1498–1685, 1715–1821), the Turkish name was Anavarin[o]. After the construction of the new Ottoman fortress (Anavarin kalesi) in 1571/2, it became known as Neokastro (Νεόκαστρο or Νιόκαστρο, "new castle") among the local Greeks, while the old Frankish castle became known as Palaiokastro (Παλαιόκαστρο or Παλιόκαστρο, "old castle").[8] Geography[edit]

Pylos
Pylos
from the north

The soil about Navarino is of a red colour, and is remarkable for the production of an abundance of squills, which are used in medicine. The rocks, which show themselves in every direction through a scanty but rich soil, are limestone, and present a general appearance of unproductiveness round the castle of Navarino; and the absence of trees is ill compensated by the profusion of sage, brooms, cistus, and other shrubs which start from the innumerable cavities of the limestone. The remains of Navarino, consist of a fort, covering the summit of a hill sloping quickly to the south, but falling in abrupt precipices to the north and east. The town was built on the southern declivity, and was surrounded by a wall, which, allowing for the natural irregularities of the soil, represented a triangle, with the castle at the summit—a form observable in many of the ancient cities of Greece. Flora and fauna[edit] The Gialova wetland is a regional blessing of nature. It is one of 10 major lagoons in Greece.[9] and has been classified as one of the important bird areas in Europe.[10] It has also been listed as a 1500-acre archaeological site, lying between Gialova and the bay of Voidokilia. Its alternative name of Vivari is Latin, meaning 'fishponds'. With a depth, at its deepest point, of no more than four meters, it is the southernmost stopover of birds migrating from the Balkans to Africa, giving shelter to no fewer than 225 bird species, among them heron, cormorant, lesser kestrel, Audouin's gull, flamingo, osprey and imperial eagle.[11] It is Gialova, too, which plays host to a very rare species, nearing extinction throughout Europe, the African chameleon. The observation post of the Greek Ornithological Society allows visitors to find out more and to watch the shallow brackish waters of the lake; they can walk the paths that circumscribe Gialova's different ecosystems.[12] History[edit]

Nestor's Palace

Mycenean tomb

Location of Ancient Pylos
Pylos
("pu-ro")

Prehistoric and Mycenaean Pylos[edit] Main article: Palace of Nestor Pylos
Pylos
has evidence of continuous human presence dating back to the Neolithic
Neolithic
Age. In Mycenaean times, it was an important centre often referred to as Nestor's kingdom of "sandy Pylos" and described by Homer
Homer
in Book 17 of the Odyssey
Odyssey
when Telemachus
Telemachus
says:[13]

we went to Pylos
Pylos
and to Nestor, the shepherd of the people, and he received me in his lofty house and gave me kindly welcome, as a father might his own son who after a long time had newly come from afar: even so kindly he tended me with his glorious sons.

The Mycenaean state of Pylos
Pylos
(1600–1100 BC) covered an area of 2,000 sq km and had a minimum population of 50,000 according to the Linear B
Linear B
tablets discovered there, or even perhaps as large as 80,000–120,000.[14][15] It included the important regional capital of Iklaina
Iklaina
(ca. 1600-1100 BC).[16] The Pylos
Pylos
site was excavated by Carl Blegen
Carl Blegen
between 1939 and 1952. It is located at modern Ano Englianos, about 9 km north-east of the bay 37°01′41″N 21°41′42″E / 37.028°N 21.695°E / 37.028; 21.695. Blegen identified the remains found there as the great "Palace of Nestor" described in the Homeric poems. Linear B
Linear B
tablets found by Blegen clearly demonstrate that the site itself was called Pylos
Pylos
(Pulos in Mycenaean Greek; attested in Linear B
Linear B
as 𐀢𐀫, pu-ro) by its Mycenaean inhabitants. This site was abandoned sometime after the 8th century BC and burned to the ground. The ruins of a crude stone fortress on nearby Sphacteria
Sphacteria
Island, apparently of Mycenaean origin, were used by the Spartans during the Peloponnesian War. ( Thucydides
Thucydides
iv. 31) Classical Pylos[edit] According to the Greek historian Thucydides
Thucydides
in his History of the Peloponnesian War, in the 5th century BCE
BCE
the area was "together with most of the country round, unpopulated" (iv, 3). The ancient city was not located at the modern Pylos, but north of the isle of Sphacteria. In 425 BC the Athenian politician Cleon sent an expedition to Pylos
Pylos
where the Athenians fortified the rocky promontory now known as Koryphasion or Old Pylos
Pylos
at the northern edge of the bay, near the Gialova Lagoon, and after a conflict with Spartan ships in the Battle of Pylos, seized and occupied the bay. A little later the Athenians captured a number of Spartan troops besieged on the adjacent island of Sphacteria
Sphacteria
(see Battle of Sphacteria). Spartan anxiety over the return of the prisoners, who were taken to Athens as hostages, contributed to their acceptance of the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC. Middle Ages[edit]

Old Navarino castle

Little is known of Pylos
Pylos
under Byzantine
Byzantine
rule, except for a mention of raids by Cretan Saracens
Cretan Saracens
in the area c. 872/3.[17] In the 12th century, the Muslim geographer al-Idrisi mentioned it as the "commodious port" of Irūda in his Nuzhat al-Mushtaq.[17] In 1204, following the Fourth Crusade, the Peloponnese became the Principality of Achaea, a Crusader state. Pylos
Pylos
fell quickly to the Crusaders according to a brief reference in the Chronicle of the Morea, but it is not until the 1280s that it is mentioned again. According to the French and Greek versions of the Chronicle, Nicholas II of Saint Omer, the lord of Thebes, who in c. 1281 received extensive lands in Messenia
Messenia
in exchange for his wife's possessions of Kalamata
Kalamata
and Chlemoutsi, erected a castle at Navarino. According to the Greek version, he intended this as a future fief for his nephew, Nicholas III, although the Aragonese version attributes the construction to Nicholas III himself, a few years later. According to A. Bon, a construction under Nicholas II in the 1280s is more likely, possibly in the period 1287–89 when he served as the viceroy (bailli) of Achaea.[18] Despite Nicholas II's intentions, however, it is unclear whether his nephew did indeed inherit Navarino. If he did, it remained his until his death in 1317, when it and all the Messenian lands of the family reverted to the princely domain, as Nicholas III had no children.[18] The fortress remained relatively unimportant thereafter, except for the naval battle in 1354 between Venice and Genoa,[17] and an episode in 1364, during the conflict between Mary of Bourbon and the Prince Philip of Taranto, due to Mary's attempt to claim the Principality following the death of her husband, Robert of Taranto. Mary had been given possession of Navarino (along with Kalamata
Kalamata
and Mani) by Robert in 1358, and the local castellan, loyal to Mary, briefly imprisoned the new Prince's bailli, Simon del Poggio. Mary retained control of Navarino until her death in 1377.[19] At about this time, Albanians settled in the area, while in 1381/2, Navarrese, Gascon and Italian mercenaries were active there.[17] From the early years of the 15th century, Venice set its eyes on the fortress of Navarino, fearing lest its rivals the Genoese seize it and use it as a base for attacks against the Venetian outposts of Modon and Coron. In the event, the Venetians seized the fortress themselves in 1417 and, after prolonged diplomatic manoeuvring, succeeded in legitimizing their new possession in 1423.[17][20] First Venetian and first Ottoman periods[edit] In 1423, Navarino, like the rest of the Peloponnese, suffered its first Ottoman raid, led by Turakhan Bey, which was repeated in 1452.[8] It was also at Navarino that Emperor John VIII Palaiologos embarked in 1437, heading for the Council of Ferrara, and where the last Despot of the Morea, Thomas Palaiologos, embarked with his family in 1460, following the Ottoman conquest of the Despotate of the Morea.[8] After 1460, the fortress, along with the other Venetian outposts and Monemvasia
Monemvasia
and the Mani Peninsula, were the only Christian-held areas in the peninsula.[8][17] Venetian control over Navarino survived the First Ottoman–Venetian War
First Ottoman–Venetian War
(1463–79), but not the Second (1499–1503): following the Venetian defeat in the Battle of Modon in August 1500, the 3,000-strong garrison surrendered, although it was well provisioned for a siege. The Venetians nevertheless recaptured it shortly after, on 3/4 December, but on 20 May 1501, a joint Ottoman land and sea attack under Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
and Hadım Ali Pasha retook it.[8][17]

The new fortress (Neokastro)

The Ottomans used Navarino (which they called Anavarin or Avarna) as a naval base, either for piratical raids or for major fleet operations in the Ionian and Adriatic seas.[17] In 1572/3, the Ottoman chief admiral (Kapudan Pasha) Uluç Ali Reis
Uluç Ali Reis
built a new fortress at Navarino (Anavarin-i Cedid, "New Navarino", or Neokastro in Greek), to replace the outdated Frankish castle.[17] The Venetians briefly captured Navarino in the 1650s during the Cretan War.[17] In 1668, Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
described the city in his Seyahatname:

Anavarin-i Atik is an unequalled castle... the harbor is a safe anchorage... in most streets of Anavarin-i Cedid there are many fountains of running water... The city is embellished with trees and vines so that the sun does not beat into the fine marketplace at all, and all the city notables sit here, playing backgammon, chess, various kinds of draughts, and other board games....

Second Venetian period, Ottoman reconquest and Greek Independence[edit]

Surrender of Neocastro during the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
by Peter von Hess

The Naval Battle of Navarino, by Ambroise Louis Garneray

Monument to the Battle of Navarino

Ancient aqueduct

In 1685, during the early stages of the Morean War, the Venetians under Francesco Morosini
Francesco Morosini
and Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck
Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck
invaded the Peloponnese and captured most of it, successfully storming the two fortresses of Navarino in the process. With the peninsula safely in Venetian hands, Navarino became an administrative centre in the new "Kingdom of the Morea", as the Venetian province was called, until 1715, when the Ottomans recovered the Peloponnese.[17] The Venetian census of 1689 gave the population as 1,413, while twenty years later it had risen to 1,797 inhabitants.[17] After the Ottoman reconquest, Navarino became the centre of a kaza in the Sanjak of the Morea.[17] On 10 April 1770, after a six-day siege, the fortress of New Navarino surrendered to the Russians during the Orlov Revolt. The Ottoman garrison was allowed to depart for Crete, while the Russians repaired the fortress to make it their base. On 1 June, however, the Russians left, and the Ottomans re-entered the fort and burned and partially demolished it.[17] Meanwhile, the population gathered there had escaped to nearby Sphacteria, where Albanian mercenaries of the Ottomans slaughtered most of them.[21] After the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
in mid-March 1821, Navarino was besieged by the local Greeks on 29 March. The garrison, augmented by the local Muslim population of Kyparissia, held out until the first week of August, when they were forced to capitulate. Despite their promise for safe conduct, the Greeks massacred them all.[17] The Turks under Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
retook most of the Peloponnese in 1825, including the Pylos
Pylos
area, overcoming the Greek defenders at the battles of Sphacteria
Sphacteria
(29 April) and Neokastro (11 May). The fortress remained in Ottoman hands until the spring 1828, but in October 1827, the combined Ottoman–Egyptian fleets were defeated in the bay at the Battle of Navarino
Battle of Navarino
by the allied navies of the United Kingdom, France and Russia. This event negated Ibrahim's successes, and in autumn 1828 his troops withdrew from the Peloponnese.[17] The modern town[edit] The framework of the modern town of Pylos, outside the walls of Neokastro, was built by the troops of General Maison during the subsequent French Morea expedition
Morea expedition
of 1828–1833.[17] The western end of Greek National Road 82
Greek National Road 82
begins in downtown Pylos. The highway runs west to east and links Pylos
Pylos
with Kalamata
Kalamata
and Sparta. The area enjoys a favorable climate, with especially mild winters. Historical population[edit] [citation needed]

Year Town population Municipality population

1981 2,594 -

1991 2,014 5,340

2001 2,104 5,402

2011 2,767 5,287

See also[edit]

Enkheljāwōn, a person whom modern scholars regard as a possible king of Mycenaean Pylos List of settlements in Messenia

References[edit]

^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ Kallikratis law Greece
Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.  ^ a b c d e Bon, Antoine (1969). La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe (in French). Paris: De Boccard. pp. 415–416.  ^ a b Savvides, Alexis G. K. (1991). "On Pylos-Navarino-Zonklon in the Byzantine
Byzantine
period, late 6th-early 13th centuries". Vyzantina. Thessaloniki. 16: 335–338.  ^ Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea, Vol. I, p. 188. ^ Max Vasmer, Die Slaven in Griechenland, 1941. ^ a b c d e f Savvides, Alexis G. K. (1992). "Notes on Navarino in the Frankish, Venetian and early Ottoman periods". Ekklisiastikos Faros. Alexandria and Johannesburg. 74: 68–72.  ^ "Cultural Corridors of South East Europe : South East Europe". seecorridors.eu. Retrieved 2014-12-07.  ^ "Mediterranean Wetlands Conference, June 5th-9th 1996, Venice, Italy". Imbc.gr. Retrieved 2013-08-30.  ^ "Surfbirds Birding Trip Report: Gialova Lagoon, near Pylos, Greece". Surfbirds.com. Retrieved 2013-08-30.  ^ "EUROPA - Youth - European Voluntary Service - Accredited organisations". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2013-08-30.  ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
XVII 108-112 ^ Schwartz, G.M.; Nichols, J.J. (2010). After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies. University of Arizona Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780816529360. Retrieved 2014-12-07.  ^ Wachsmann, S.; Bass, G.F. (2008). Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. Texas A&M University Press. p. 359. ISBN 9781603440806. Retrieved 2014-12-07.  ^ The Iklaina
Iklaina
Project. http://www.iklaina.org/ ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Bées, N.; Savvides, A. (1993). "Navarino". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VII: Mif–Naz. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 1037–1039. ISBN 90-04-09419-9.  ^ a b Bon, Antoine (1969). La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe (in French). Paris: De Boccard. p. 416.  ^ Bon, Antoine (1969). La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe (in French). Paris: De Boccard. pp. 408–410, 416–417.  ^ Bon, Antoine (1969). La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe (in French). Paris: De Boccard. pp. 284, 417.  ^ Nikolaou, Georgios (1997). "Islamisations et Christianisations dans le Peloponnese (1715- 1832)". didaktorika.gr. Universite des Sciences Humaines - Strasbourg II: 183. doi:10.12681/eadd/8139. Retrieved 9 December 2015. A suivi l'abandon de Navarin. La flotille russe quitta le Péloponnèse entre le 26 mai et le 6 juin, n'emmenant avec elle que les chefs de la révolte: quelques évêques et des notables. La foule, qui implorait en vain leur aide, fut contrainte de se réfugier dans l'îlot voisin de Sphaktiria pour se sauver. La plupart d'entre eux furent exterminés par les Albanais 

Sources[edit]

John Bennet, Jack L. Davis, Fariba Zarinebaf-Shahr, " Pylos
Pylos
Regional Archaeological Project, Part III: Sir William Gell's Itinerary in the Pylia and Regional Landscapes in the Morea in the Second Ottoman Period", Hesperia 69:3:343-380 (July–September 2000) at JSTOR Fariba Zarinebaf, John Bennet, and Jack L. Davis, A Historical and Economic Geography of Ottoman Greece: The Southwestern Morea in the 18th century, Hesperia Supplement 34, Princeton, 2005. ISBN 0-87661-534-5. A study combining archaeological and survey results with information from the Ottoman archives. Diana Gilliland Wright, book review of Zarinebaf et al., Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies 8:10:1-16 (2005). A very complete summary of Zarinebaf. PDF. Jack L. Davis (ed.), Sandy Pylos. An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino. Second edition. Princeton, NJ: ASCSA Publications, 2008. Pp. lix, 342; figs. 135.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pylos.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pylos.

Official site for Pylos
Pylos
(in Greek) Pylos
Pylos
Regional Archaeological Project (PRAP) – University of Cincinnati

PRAP: Tour of Hall 64 and its Environs – QuickTime reconstruction and tour of Hall 64 and surroundings

Perseus on Pylos The Pylos
Pylos
Project – University of Minnesota Pylos
Pylos
(Epano Englianos) – Metis QTVR collection of QT panoramas relating to the site Παλαιό Ναυαρίνο (Old Navarino), Greek Ministry of Culture (in Greek) Νιόκαστρο (New Navarino), Greek Ministry of Culture (in Greek)

Places adjacent to Pylos

Nestoras Papaflessas, Chiliochoria

Ionian Sea

Pylos

Petalidi

Methoni Aipeia

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Pylos-Nestoras

Municipal unit of Chiliochoria

Chandrinos Koukkounara Kremmydia Mesopotamos Soulinari

Municipal unit of Koroni

Akritochori Charakopio Chrysokellaria Falanthi Kaplani Kompoi Koroni Vasilitsi Vounaria Yameia

Municipal unit of Methoni

Evangelismos Foiniki Foinikounta Kainourgio Chorio Lachanada Methoni

Municipal unit of Nestoras

Ampelofyto Chora Flesias Koryfasi Metaxada Myrsinochorio Palaio Loutro Romanos

Municipal unit of Papaflessas

Maniaki Margeli Metamorfosi Papaflessas Vlachopoulo

Municipal unit of Pylos

Ampelokipoi Chomatada Glyfada Iklaina Kallithea Kynigos Mesochori Pappoulia Pidasos Pyla Pylos

v t e

Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
of the Republic of Venice

Adriatic Sea

Istria
Istria
(10th century – 1797) Dalmatia (11th century – 1797) Durazzo (Durrës) (1392–1501) Venetian Albania
Venetian Albania
(1420–1797)

Ionian Islands and dependencies

Cerigo (Cythera) and Cerigotto (Anticythera) (1363–1797) Corfu
Corfu
and Paxi
Paxi
(1386–1797) Parga
Parga
(1401–1797) Zante (Zakynthos) (1479–1797) Cephalonia
Cephalonia
(1500–1797) Ithaca
Ithaca
(1500–1797) Santa Maura (Leucas) (1684–1797) Vonitsa
Vonitsa
(1684–1797) Preveza
Preveza
(1717–1797)

Mainland Greece

Modon and Coron (1207–1500) Negroponte (Euboea) (1209/1390–1470) Pteleos
Pteleos
(1322–1470) Napoli di Romania (Nafplio) (1388–1540) Argos
Argos
(1394–1463) Lepanto (Naupactus) (1407–1540) Patras
Patras
(1408–1413) Athens (1395–1402) Thessalonica (1423–30) Navarino (1417–1500) Monemvasia
Monemvasia
(1463–1540) Kingdom of the Morea
Kingdom of the Morea
(1687–1715)

Aegean Islands

Hydra (1204-1566) Spezia (1220-1460) Crete (1205–1669), then only Souda, Gramvousa
Gramvousa
and Spinalonga
Spinalonga
(until 1715) Mykonos
Mykonos
(1390–1537) Duchy of the Archipelago
Duchy of the Archipelago
(1383–1537/79), then only Sifnos (1383–1617) and Tinos
Tinos
(1390–1715) Skiathos, Skopelos
Skopelos
and Alonissos
Alonissos
(1453–1538) Aegina
Aegina
(1451–1537/1687–1715) Poros
Poros
(1484–1715)

Other

Constantinople
Constantinople
(1204–61) Gallipoli
Gallipoli
(1204-35) Rodosto (1204-35) Soldaia (Sudak) (13th century – 1365) Cyprus (1489–1571)

Related articles

Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
& Frankokratia Ottoman–Venetian Wars Venetian–Genoese Wars

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137309960 GND: 4103392-9 BNF:

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