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Polyphemus
Polyphemus
(/ˌpɒlɪˈfiːməs/; Greek: Πολύφημος Polyphēmos) is the giant son of Poseidon
Poseidon
and Thoosa in Greek mythology, one of the Cyclopes described in Homer's Odyssey. His name means "abounding in songs and legends".[1] Polyphemus
Polyphemus
first appears as a savage man-eating giant in the ninth book of the Odyssey. Some later Classical writers link his name with the nymph Galatea and present him in a different light.

Contents

1 Odysseus
Odysseus
and Polyphemus

1.1 The Classical accounts 1.2 Artistic representations

2 Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Galatea

2.1 Literary accounts 2.2 Later European versions 2.3 Painting and sculpture

3 Other uses 4 Artistic depictions of Polyphemus 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Odysseus
Odysseus
and Polyphemus[edit] The Classical accounts[edit] In Homer's epic, Odysseus
Odysseus
lands on the island of the Cyclops
Cyclops
during his journey home from the Trojan War
Trojan War
and, together with some of his men, enters a cave filled with provisions. When the giant Polyphemus returns home with his flocks, he blocks the entrance with a great stone and, scoffing at the usual custom of hospitality, eats two of the men. Next morning, the giant kills and eats two more and leaves the cave to graze his sheep.

The blinding of Polyphemus, a reconstruction from the villa of Tiberius
Tiberius
at Sperlonga, 1st century AD

After the giant returns in the evening and eats two more of the men, Odysseus
Odysseus
offers Polyphemus
Polyphemus
some strong and undiluted wine given to him earlier on his journey. Drunk and unwary, the giant asks Odysseus
Odysseus
his name, promising him a guest-gift if he answers. Odysseus
Odysseus
tells him "Οὖτις", which means "nobody"[2] and Polyphemus
Polyphemus
promises to eat this "Nobody" last of all. With that, he falls into a drunken sleep. Odysseus
Odysseus
had meanwhile hardened a wooden stake in the fire and drives it into Polyphemus' eye. When Polyphemus
Polyphemus
shouts for help from his fellow giants, saying that "Nobody" has hurt him, they think Polyphemus
Polyphemus
is being afflicted by divine power and recommend prayer as the answer. In the morning, the blind Cyclops
Cyclops
lets the sheep out to graze, feeling their backs to ensure that the men are not escaping. However, Odysseus and his men have tied themselves to the undersides of the animals and so get away. As he sails off with his men, Odysseus
Odysseus
boastfully reveals his real name, an act of hubris that was to cause problems for him later. Polyphemus
Polyphemus
prays to his father, Poseidon, for revenge and casts huge rocks towards the ship, which Odysseus
Odysseus
barely escapes. The story reappears in later Classical literature. In Cyclops, the 5th century BC play by Euripides, a chorus of satyrs offers comic relief from the grisly story of how Polyphemus
Polyphemus
is punished for his impious behaviour in not respecting the rites of hospitality.[3] In his Latin epic, Virgil
Virgil
describes how Aeneas
Aeneas
observes blind Polyphemus
Polyphemus
as he leads his flocks down to the sea. They have encountered Achaemenides, who re-tells the story of how Odysseus
Odysseus
and his men escaped, leaving him behind. The giant is described as descending to the shore, using a “lopped pine tree” as a walking staff. Once Polyphemus
Polyphemus
reaches the sea, he washes his oozing, bloody eye socket and groans painfully. Achaemenides is taken aboard Aeneas’ vessel and they cast off with Polyphemus
Polyphemus
in chase. His great roar of frustration brings the rest of the Cyclopes down to the shore as Aeneas
Aeneas
draws away in fear.[4] Julien d'Huy speculates that the myth may be palaeolithic.[5] Elements of the story of Odysseus
Odysseus
and Polyphemus
Polyphemus
are recognizable in the folklore of many other European groups. Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
collected versions in Serbian, Romanian, Estonian, Finnish, Russian, and German.[6][7] Versions in Basque, Lappish, Lithuanian, Gascon, Syrian, and Celtic are also known.[7] Artistic representations[edit]

Amphora painting of Odysseus
Odysseus
and his men blinding Polyphemus
Polyphemus
(Eleusis museum)

The vivid nature of the Polyphemus
Polyphemus
episode made it a favorite theme of ancient Greek painted pottery, on which the scenes most often illustrated are the blinding of the Cyclops
Cyclops
and the ruse by which Odysseus
Odysseus
and his men escape.[8] One such episode, on a vase featuring the hero carried beneath a sheep, was used on a 27 drachma Greek postage stamp in 1983. The blinding was depicted in life-size sculpture, including a giant Polyphemus, in the Sperlonga sculptures
Sperlonga sculptures
probably made for the Emperor Tiberius. This may be an interpretation of an existing composition, and was apparently repeated in variations in later Imperial palaces by Claudius, Nero
Nero
and at Hadrian's Villa.[9]

Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, Ulysses Fleeing the Cave of Polyphemus, 1812, Princeton University Art Museum

Of the European painters of the subject, the Flemish Jacob Jordaens depicted Odysseus
Odysseus
escaping from the cave of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
in 1635 (see gallery below) and others chose the dramatic scene of the giant casting boulders at the escaping ship. In Guido Reni's painting of 1639/40 (see below), the furious giant is tugging a boulder from the cliff as Odysseus
Odysseus
and his men row out to the ship far below. Polyphemus
Polyphemus
is portrayed, as it often happens, with two empty eye sockets and his damaged eye located in the middle on his forehead. This convention goes back to Greek statuary and painting[10] and is reproduced in Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein's 1802 head and shoulders portrait of the giant (see below). Arnold Bocklin
Arnold Bocklin
pictures the giant as standing on rocks onshore and swinging one of them back as the men row desperately over a surging wave (see below), while Polyphemus
Polyphemus
is standing at the top of a cliff in Jean-Léon Gérôme's painting of 1902. He stands poised, having already thrown one stone, which barely misses the ship. The reason for his rage is depicted in J. M. W. Turner's painting, Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus
Polyphemus
(1829). Here the ship sails forward as the sun breaks free of clouds low on the horizon. The giant himself is an indistinct shape barely distinguished from the woods and smoky atmosphere high above. Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Galatea[edit] Main article: Acis and Galatea (mythology) Literary accounts[edit] Although there are some earlier references to the story of the love of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
for the sea-nymph Galatea and her preference for the human shepherd Acis, the best known source is a lost play by Philoxenus of Cythera, of which a few fragments and several accounts are left. Dating from about 400 BC, it links the love story to the arrival of Odysseus
Odysseus
and, according to ancient sources, had a witty contemporary subtext. Philoxenos had supposedly had an affair with the mistress of Dionysius I of Syracuse
Dionysius I of Syracuse
and as a consequence was condemned to work in the stone quarries. Here he is supposed to have composed The Cyclops, with the tyrant cast in the role of the giant, while the successful lovers are the poet and his Galatea.[11] The Hellenistic poet Theocritus
Theocritus
painted a more sympathetic picture of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
in the following century. The story is recast in the poet's pastoral style, which idealized the simple lives of shepherds. In Idyll XI
Idyll XI
Polyphemus
Polyphemus
becomes a young herdsman finding solace in song for his love of the sea-nymph. Its gist centres on the antinomies of earth and water that make them dissimilar and keep them apart, but it concludes on the thought that there are other girls on land who find him attractive.[12] A fragment of a lost idyll by Bion of Smyrna also portrays Polyphemus
Polyphemus
declaring his undying love for Galatea.[13] Referring back to this, an elegy on Bion’s death that was once attributed to Moschus
Moschus
takes the theme further in a piece of hyperbole. Where Polyphemus
Polyphemus
had failed, the poet declares, Bion’s greater artistry had won Galatea’s heart, drawing her from the sea to tend his herds.[14] However, there are indications that Polyphemus’ courtship had a more successful outcome. In one of the dialogues of Lucian
Lucian
of Samosata, one of Galatea’s sisters, Doris, spitefully congratulates her on her love conquest and she defends Polyphemus. From the conversation, one understands that Doris is chiefly jealous that her sister has a lover. Galatea admits that she does not love Polyphemus
Polyphemus
but is pleased to have been chosen by him in preference to all her companions.[15] In addition, a later development in the courtship is described by Theocritus
Theocritus
in his Idyll VI. Here two herdsmen engage in a musical competition, one of them playing the part of Polyphemus, who asserts that since he had adopted the ruse of ignoring Galatea, she has now become the one who pursues him.[16]

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
receives a love-letter from Galatea, a 1st-century AD fresco from Pompeii

The happy ending to their story was well known in the centuries that followed and is attested in both literature and the arts. In the course of a 1st-century BC love elegy on the power of music, the Latin poet Propertius
Propertius
mentions as one example that "Even Galatea, it’s true, below wild Etna, wheeled her brine-wet horses, Polyphemus, to your songs."[17] The division of contrary elements, in other words, is brought into harmony. That their conjunction was fruitful is brought out in a later Greek epic from the turn of the 5th century AD. In the course of his Dionysiaca, Nonnus
Nonnus
gives an account of the wedding of Poseidon
Poseidon
and Beroe, at which the Nereid
Nereid
"Galatea twangled a marriage dance and restlessly twirled in capering step, and she sang the marriage verses, for she had learnt well how to sing, being taught by Polyphemos with a shepherd’s syrinx."[18]

Offspring of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Galatea

In one of the murals rescued from the site of Pompeii, Polyphemus
Polyphemus
is pictured seated on a rock with a cithara (rather than a syrinx) by his side, holding out a hand to receive a love letter from Galatea, which is carried by a winged Cupid
Cupid
riding on a dolphin. In another fresco, also dating from the 1st century AD, the two stand locked in a naked embrace (see below). From their union came the ancestors of various wild and war-like races. According to some accounts, the Celts
Celts
(Galati in Latin, Γάλλοi in Greek) were descended from their son Galatos.[19] Other sources credit them with three children, Celtus, Illyrius
Illyrius
and Galas, from whom descend the Celts, the Illyrians
Illyrians
and the Gauls
Gauls
respectively. A different story appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses.[nb 1] At its start, the treatment of the story is an extended paraphrase of the two idylls of Theocritus.[20] But in the final passage, Polyphemus
Polyphemus
spies on the love-making of Acis and Galatea and jealously crushes Acis with a rock. Galatea, who had fled into her native element, returns and changes her dead lover into the spirit of the Sicilian river Acis. It was this account which was to have the greatest impact in later ages. Later European versions[edit] During Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque
Baroque
times Ovid's story emerged again as a popular theme. In Spain Luis de Góngora y Argote
Luis de Góngora y Argote
wrote the much admired narrative poem, Fábula de Polifemo
Polifemo
y Galatea, published in 1627. It is particularly noted for its depiction of landscape and for the sensual description of the love of Acis and Galatea.[21] It was written in homage to an earlier and rather shorter narrative with the same title by Luis Carillo y Sotomayor (1611).[nb 2] The story was also given operatic treatment in the very popular zarzuela of Antoni Lliteres Carrió (1708). The atmosphere here is lighter and enlivened by the inclusion of the clowns Momo and Tisbe. In France the story was condensed to the fourteen lines of Tristan L'Hermite's sonnet Polyphème en furie (1641). In it the giant expresses his fury upon viewing the loving couple, ultimately throwing the huge rock that kills Acis and even injures Galatea.[22] Later in the century, Jean-Baptiste Lully
Jean-Baptiste Lully
composed his opera Acis et Galatée (1686) on the theme.[nb 3]

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
discovers Galatea and Acis, statues by Auguste Ottin
Auguste Ottin
in the Jardin du Luxembourg's Médici Fountain, 1866

In Italy
Italy
Giovanni Bononcini
Giovanni Bononcini
composed the one-act opera Polifemo (1703). Shortly afterwards George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel
worked in that country and composed the cantata Aci, Galatea e Polifemo
Polifemo
(1708), laying as much emphasis on the part of Polifemo
Polifemo
as on the lovers. Written in Italian, Polifemo's deep bass solo Fra l'ombre e gl'orrori (From horrid shades) establishes his character from the start. After Handel's move to England, he gave the story a new treatment in his pastoral opera Acis and Galatea with an English libretto provided by John Gay.[nb 4] Initially composed in 1718, the work went through many revisions and was later to be given updated orchestrations by both Mozart
Mozart
and Mendelssohn.[23] As a pastoral work it is suffused with Theocritan atmosphere but largely centres on the two lovers. When Polyphemus
Polyphemus
declares his love in the lyric “O ruddier than the cherry”, the effect is almost comic.[24] Handel's rival for a while on the London scene, Nicola Porpora, also made the story the subject of his opera Polifemo
Polifemo
(1735). Later in the century Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
composed Acide e Galatea (1763) as his first opera while in Vienna.[nb 5] Designed for an imperial wedding, it was given a happy ending centred on the transformation scene after the murder of Acis as the pair declare their undying love.[25] Johann Gottlieb Naumann
Johann Gottlieb Naumann
was to turn the story into a comic opera, Aci e Galatea, with the subtitle i ciclopi amanti (the amorous cyclops). The work was first performed in Dresden in 1801 and its plot was made more complicated by giving Polifemo
Polifemo
a companion, Orgonte. There were also two other lovers, Dorinda and Lisia, with Orgonte Lisia's rival for Dorinda's love.[26] After John Gay's libretto in Britain, it was not until the 19th century that the subject was given further poetical treatment. In 1819 appeared "The Death of Acis" by Bryan Procter, writing under the name of Barry Cornwall.[27] A blank verse narrative with lyric episodes, it celebrates the musicianship of Polyphemus, which draws the lovers to expose themselves from their hiding place in a cave and thus brings about the death of Acis. At the other end of the century, there was Alfred Austin's dramatic poem "Polyphemus", which is set after the murder and transformation of the herdsman. The giant is tortured by hearing the happy voices of Galatea and Acis as they pursue their love duet.[28] Shortly afterwards Albert Samain
Albert Samain
wrote the 2-act verse drama Polyphème with the additional character of Lycas, Galatea’s younger brother. In this the giant is humanised; sparing the lovers when he discovers them, he blinds himself and wades to his death in the sea. The play was first performed posthumously in 1904 with incidental music by Raymond Bonheur.[29] On this the French composer Jean Cras based his operatic ‘lyric tragedy’, composed in 1914 and first performed in 1922. Cras took Samain's text almost unchanged, subdividing the play's two acts into four and cutting a few lines from Polyphemus' final speech.[30] There have also been two Spanish musical items that reference Polyphemus' name. Reginald Smith Brindle's four fragments for guitar, El Polifemo
Polifemo
de Oro (1956), takes its title from Federico Garcia Lorca's poem, “The riddle of the guitar”. That speaks of six dancing maidens (the guitar strings) entranced by ‘a golden Polyphemus’ (the one-eyed sound-hole).[31] The Spanish composer Andres Valero Castells takes the inspiration for his Polifemo
Polifemo
i Galatea from Gongora's work. Originally written for brass band in 2001, he rescored it for orchestra in 2006.[32] Painting and sculpture[edit] Paintings that include Polyphemus
Polyphemus
in the story of Acis and Galatea can be grouped according to their themes. Most notably the story takes place within a pastoral landscape in which the figures are almost incidental. This is particularly so in Nicholas Poussin's 1649 "Landscape with Polyphemus" (see gallery below) in which the lovers play a minor part in the foreground.[33] To the right, Polyphemus merges with a distant mountain top on which he plays his pipes. In an earlier painting by Poussin from 1630 (now housed at the Dublin National Gallery) the couple are among several embracing figures in the foreground, shielded from view of Polyphemus, who is playing his flute higher up the slope. Another variation on the theme was painted by Pietro Dandini
Pietro Dandini
during this period. An earlier fresco by Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
from 1528 seats Polyphemus
Polyphemus
against a rocky foreground with a lyre in his raised right hand. The lovers can just be viewed through a gap in the rock that gives onto the sea at the lower right. Corneille Van Clève (1681) represents a seated Polyphemus
Polyphemus
in his sculpture, except that in his version it is pipes that the giant holds in his lowered hand. Otherwise he has a massive club held across his body and turns to the left to look over his shoulder.

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
spies on the sleeping Galatea, Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau
(1880)

Other paintings take up the Theocritan theme of the pair divided by the elements with which they are identified, land and water. There are a series of paintings, often titled "The Triumph of Galatea", in which the nymph is carried through the sea by her Nereid
Nereid
sisters, while a minor figure of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
serenades her from the land. Typical examples of this were painted by François Perrier, Giovanni Lanfranco and Jean-Baptiste van Loo. A whole series of paintings by Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau
make the same point in a variety of subtle ways.[34] The giant spies on Galatea through the wall of a sea grotto or emerges from a cliff to adore her sleeping figure (see below). Again, Polyphemus
Polyphemus
merges with the cliff where he meditates in the same way that Galatea merges with her element within the grotto in the painting at Musée d'Orsay. The visionary interpretation of the story also finds its echo in Odilon Redon's painting of 1900 in which the giant towers over the slope on which Galatea sleeps.[35] French sculptors have also been responsible for some memorable versions. Auguste Ottin's separate figures are brought together in an 1866 fountain in the Luxembourg Garden. Above is crouched the figure of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
in weathered bronze, peering down at the white marble group of Acis and Galatea embracing below (see below). A little later Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
made a series of statues, centred on Polyphemus. Originally modelled in clay around 1888 and later cast in bronze, they may have been inspired by Ottin’s work.[36] A final theme is the rage that succeeds the moment of discovery. That is portrayed in earlier paintings of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
casting a rock at the fleeing lovers, such as those by Annibale Carracci, Lucas Auger and Carle van Loo. Jean-Francois de Troy's 18th-century version combines discovery with aftermath as the giant perched above the lovers turns to wrench up a rock. Other uses[edit] Polyphemus
Polyphemus
is mentioned in the "Entered Apprentice" chapter of Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma (1871). Within Scottish Rite Freemasonry he is regarded as a symbol for a civilization that harms itself using ill directed blind force.[37] The Polyphemus
Polyphemus
moth is so named because of the large eyespots in the middle of the hind wings.[38] A number of ships and English steam locomotives have also been named after the giant. The scientific name of the Gopher Tortoise
Gopher Tortoise
is Gopherus polyphemus. The Polyphemus
Polyphemus
episode was featured in the 1905 short film Ulysses and the Giant Polyphemus
Polyphemus
by Georges Méliès. This combines with the Calypso episode and employs special effects. Other films that include it have been the 1911 Odissea and the 1955 Ulysses (see external links below). Artistic depictions of Polyphemus[edit] Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Odysseus

Flemish Jacob Jordaens' depiction of Odysseus
Odysseus
escaping from the cave of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
(1635).

Guido Reni's painting of 1639/40.

Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein's 1802 head and shoulders portrait of the giant (Landesmuseum Oldenburg).

Arnold Bocklin's painting of Polyphemus
Polyphemus
standing on rocks onshore and swinging one of them back as the men row desperately over a surging wave.

Polyphemus, Galatea, and Acis

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
hears of the arrival of Galatea, Fourth Style, 45-79 AD

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Galatea, Roman mosaic from 2nd Century AD.

A fresco from 1st century AD depicting Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Galatea in a naked embrace.

A pastoral interpretation of the Acis and Galatea story is Nicholas Poussin's "Landscape with Polyphemus" (1649)

Poussin's 1630 painting of Acis and Galatea embracing in the foreground, shielded from view of Polyphemus, who is playing his flute higher up the slope.

Jean-Baptiste van Loo's contribution to "The Triumph of Galatea" series.

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
spies on Galatea through the wall of a sea grotto or emerges from a cliff to adore her sleeping figure.

See also[edit]

Telemus

Notes[edit]

^ Book XIII lines 738-897 ^ Spanish text online Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Excerpts from Jean-Baptiste Lully's 1686 opera, Acis et Galatée
Acis et Galatée
at PrestoClassical ^ The text is on the Stanford University site and there is a complete performance on YouTube ^ Brief excerpts at Classical Archives

References[edit]

^ πολύ-φημος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project ^ οὔτις and Οὖτις, Georg Autenrieth, A Homeric Dictionary, on Perseus ^ Translation online ^ Aeneid Book 3, lines 588-691 ^ Julien d'Huy, Polyphemus
Polyphemus
(Aa. Th. 1137) A phylogenetic reconstruction of a prehistoric tale, New Comparative Mythology, 1, 2013. ^ Grimm, Wilhelm (1857). Die Sage von Polyphem (in German). Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. pp. 1–30. Retrieved August 17, 2011.  ^ a b Pausanias (1898). Frazer, Sir James George, ed. Pausanias's Description of Greece. 5. Macmillan. p. 344.  ^ Klaus Junker, Interpreting the Images of Greek Myths: An Introduction, Cambridge University 2011, p.80 ^ Carey, Sorcha, "A Tradition of Adventures in the Imperial Grotto", Greece & Rome, Second Series, Vol. 49, No. 1 (Apr., 2002), pp. 44-61, Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association, JSTOR ^ Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology, New York 2010, “Polyphemus” entry, p.416 ^ The introduction to Ovid's Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
XIII, Cambridge University 2000, pp.35-6 ^ Text online ^ ’’The idylls of Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus’’, London 1870, Idyll XII, p.176 ^ ’’The idylls of Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus’’, p. 317 ^ Lucian
Lucian
of Samosata from the Greek, Volume 1, translated by William Tooke, London 1820, 15 confabulations of the sea deities, 1. The love of the Cyclops
Cyclops
Polyphemus
Polyphemus
for the Nereid
Nereid
Galatea, pp.338-40 ^ C.S.Calverly's translation at Guttenberg ^ Elegies 3.2, online translation by A. S. Kline ^ Online translation by W. H. D. Rouse, Loeb 1942, 43, lines 390-393 ^ David Rankins, "The Celts
Celts
through Classical eyes” in The Celtic World, London 2012, chapter 3 ^ A.H.F. Griffin, "Unrequited Love: Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Galatea in Ovid's Metamorphoses", Greece & Rome Second Series, Vol. 30.2 1983 ^ Selected Poems of Luis de Góngora, University of Chicago 2008, pp.176ff ^ French text ^ Roberta Montemorra Martin, “Handel’s Acis and Galatea” in Europe, Empire, and Spectacle in Nineteenth-century British Music, Ashgate Publishing 2006, p.250 ^ "Deep Play": John Gay
John Gay
and the Invention of Modernity, Dianne Dugaw, University of Delaware, 2001, p.154; there is a performance on YouTube ^ Rebecca Green, “Representing the Aristocracy”, in Haydn and his world, Princeton University 1997, pp.167-8 ^ Review by Robert Levine on Classics Today; there is a performance of Polifemo’s aria Fulmine che dal Cielo on YouTube ^ A Sicilian Story, second edition London 1820, pp. 107ff ^ Online archive ^ Paul-André Bempéchat, Jean Cras, Polymath of Music and Letters, Ashgate Publishing 2009, pp.279-282 ^ Excerpts at Classical Archives ^ The text and a performance can be found online ^ José Antonio Hernández Arce, "Reflexiones sobre Polifemo"; there is a performance on YouTube ^ Helen Langdon, "The Demosthenes of painting” in Translations of the Sublime, Leiden NL, 2012, p.169 ^ Article on “Galatea” in the Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology, New York 2010, p.175 ^ Article on “Odilon Redon” in Gardner's Art Through the Ages, Boston MA 2006, p.672 ^ Rodin’s Art, Oxford University 2003, pp.275-6 ^ Pike, Albert. Morals & Dogma. Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree. Charleston, SC: 1871. Sacred Texts ^ The article on the moth at the University of Florida site

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polyphemus.

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Galatea depicted in statues with a golden harpsichord by Michele Todini, Rome, 1675 at The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Specific artworks discussed above

Polyphemus
Polyphemus
standing at the top of a cliff, Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1902, at Wikipaintings " Odysseus
Odysseus
Deriding Polyphemus", J.M.W. Turner, 1829, at Wikipaintings Galatea Acis e Polifemo, Pietro Dandini, ca.1630, at Art Value fresco, Giulio Romano, 1528, at Webalice Polyphemus
Polyphemus
with a massive club, Corneille Van Clève, 1681, at Web Gallery of Art "The Triumph of Galatea", Francois Perrier, at Web Gallery of Art "The Triumph of Galatea", Giovanni Lanfranco, Art Clon The giant spies on Galatea, Gustave Moreau, at Muian Polyphemus
Polyphemus
meditates, at French Government culture site statue of Polyphemus, Auguste Rodin, 1888, at French Government culture site A wrathful Polyphemus, Annibale Carracci, at Web Gallery of Art A wrathful Polyphemus, Lucas Auger, at French Government culture site A wrathful Polyphemus, Carle van Loo, at First Art Gallery A wrathful Polyphemus, Jean-Francois de Troy, 18th-century, at Tribes

Specific opera and filmworks discussed above

A reenactment of Giovanni Bononcini's 1703 one-act opera, Polifemo
Polifemo
at YouTube A performance of Polifemo's solo, Fra l'ombre e gl'orrori from Bononcini's Polifemo
Polifemo
at You tube Ulysses and the Giant Polyphemus
Polyphemus
(1905) at YouTube Odissea (1911) at YouTube Ulysses (1955) at YouTube

v t e

Places visited by Odysseus
Odysseus
in Homer's Odyssey

Ismarus The island of Lotus-eaters The island of Polyphemus Aeolia Telepylos Aeaea The Underworld The Sirens Scylla and Charybdis Thrinacia Ogygia Scheria Ithaca

v t e

Characters in the Odyssey

House of Odysseus

Penelope
Penelope
(wife) Telemachus
Telemachus
(son) Ctimene (sister) Anticlea (mother) Laërtes (father) Autolycus (grandfather) Eurycleia
Eurycleia
(chief servant) Mentor (advisor) Phemius (musician) Eumaeus
Eumaeus
(swineherd) Philoetius (cowherd) Melanthius (goatherd) Argos (pet-dog)

Monarchs and royals

Alcinous
Alcinous
of Phaeacia Arete of Phaeacia Nestor of Pylos Menelaus
Menelaus
of Sparta Princess Nausicaa
Nausicaa
of Phaeacia Agamemnon
Agamemnon
of Mycenae

Gods

Athena Apollo Artemis Atlas Calypso Circe Hermes Poseidon Zeus Oceanus

Others

Achilles Aeolus Ajax Amphimedon Anticlus Antiphates Antiphus Aretus Cyclopes Demodocus Demoptolemus Deucalion Dolius Echephron Echetus Elpenor Eupeithes Euryalus Eurylochus Halitherses Helen Heracles Idomeneus Irus Kikonians Laodamas Laestrygones Medon Melantho Mentes Old Man of the Sea Peisistratus Perimedes Perseus Polites Polydamna Polyphemus Scylla and Charybdis Sirens Stratichus Tiresias Theoclymenus Thrasymedes

Suitors

Agelaus Amphinomus Antinous Ctesippus Eurymachus Leodes

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 172873171 GND: 11859559

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