HOME
ListMoto - Plato


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Plato
Plato
(/ˈpleɪtoʊ/;[a][1] Greek: Πλάτων[a] Plátōn, pronounced [plá.tɔːn] in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423[b] – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece
Classical Greece
and the founder of the Academy
Academy
in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition.[2] Unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries, Plato's entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years.[3] Others believe that the oldest extant manuscript dates to around AD 895, 1100 years after Plato's death. This makes it difficult to know exactly what Plato
Plato
wrote.[4][5] Along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato
Plato
laid the foundations of Western philosophy
Western philosophy
and science.[6] Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead
once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato."[7] In addition to being a foundational figure for Western science, philosophy, and mathematics, Plato
Plato
has also often been cited as one of the founders of Western religion and spirituality.[8] Plato
Plato
was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy. Plato
Plato
appears to have been the founder of Western political philosophy, with his Republic, and Laws among other dialogues, providing some of the earliest extant treatments of political questions from a philosophical perspective. Plato's own most decisive philosophical influences are usually thought to have been Socrates, Parmenides, Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and Pythagoras, although few of his predecessors' works remain extant and much of what we know about these figures today derives from Plato
Plato
himself.[9] The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
describes Plato
Plato
as "...one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of philosophy. ... He was not the first thinker or writer to whom the word “philosopher” should be applied. But he was so self-conscious about how philosophy should be conceived, and what its scope and ambitions properly are, and he so transformed the intellectual currents with which he grappled, that the subject of philosophy, as it is often conceived—a rigorous and systematic examination of ethical, political, metaphysical, and epistemological issues, armed with a distinctive method—can be called his invention. Few other authors in the history of Western philosophy
Western philosophy
approximate him in depth and range: perhaps only Aristotle
Aristotle
(who studied with him), Aquinas and Kant would be generally agreed to be of the same rank."[10]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life

1.1.1 Birth and family 1.1.2 Name 1.1.3 Education

1.2 Later life 1.3 Death

2 Intellectual influences on Plato

2.1 Pythagoras 2.2 Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and Parmenides 2.3 Socrates

3 Plato's use of myth 4 Philosophy

4.1 Recurrent themes 4.2 Metaphysics 4.3 Theory of Forms 4.4 Epistemology 4.5 The state 4.6 Unwritten doctrines 4.7 Dialectic

5 Dialogues

5.1 Writings of doubted authenticity

5.1.1 Spurious writings

5.2 Composition of the dialogues 5.3 Narration of the dialogues 5.4 Trial of Socrates 5.5 Unity and diversity of the dialogues 5.6 Platonic scholarship 5.7 Textual sources and history 5.8 Modern editions

6 Plato
Plato
in the arts 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Citations 10 References

10.1 Primary sources (Greek and Roman) 10.2 Secondary sources

11 Further reading 12 External links

Biography Early life Main article: Early life of Plato Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about Plato's early life and education. The philosopher came from one of the wealthiest and most politically active families in Athens. Ancient sources describe him as a bright though modest boy who excelled in his studies. His father contributed all which was necessary to give to his son a good education, and, therefore, Plato must have been instructed in grammar, music, gymnastics and philosophy by some of the most distinguished teachers of his era. Birth and family The exact time and place of Plato's birth are unknown, but it is certain that he belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina[c] between 429 and 423 BC. His father was Ariston. According to a disputed tradition, reported by Diogenes Laertius, Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus, and the king of Messenia, Melanthus.[11] Plato's mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker and lyric poet Solon.[12] Perictione
Perictione
was sister of Charmides and niece of Critias, both prominent figures of the Thirty Tyrants, the brief oligarchic regime, which followed on the collapse of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(404–403 BC).[13] Besides Plato
Plato
himself, Ariston and Perictione
Perictione
had three other children; these were two sons, Adeimantus and Glaucon, and a daughter Potone, the mother of Speusippus
Speusippus
(the nephew and successor of Plato
Plato
as head of his philosophical Academy).[13] The brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon
Glaucon
are mentioned in the Republic
Republic
as sons of Ariston,[14] and presumably brothers of Plato, but some have argued they were uncles.[15] But in a scenario in the Memorabilia, Xenophon
Xenophon
confused the issue by presenting a Glaucon
Glaucon
much younger than Plato.[16] The traditional date of Plato's birth (428/427) is based on a dubious interpretation of Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, who says, "When [Socrates] was gone, [Plato] joined Cratylus the Heracleitean and Hermogenes, who philosophized in the manner of Parmenides. Then, at twenty-eight, Hermodorus says, [Plato] went to Euclides in Megara." As Debra Nails argues, "The text itself gives no reason to infer that Plato
Plato
left immediately for Megara
Megara
and implies the very opposite."[17] In his Seventh Letter, Plato
Plato
notes that his coming of age coincided with the taking of power by the Thirty, remarking, "But a youth under the age of twenty made himself a laughingstock if he attempted to enter the political arena." Thus, Nails dates Plato's birth to 424/423.[18] According to some accounts, Ariston tried to force his attentions on Perictione, but failed in his purpose; then the god Apollo
Apollo
appeared to him in a vision, and as a result, Ariston left Perictione unmolested.[19] Another legend related that, when Plato
Plato
was an infant, bees settled on his lips while he was sleeping: an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse about philosophy.[20] Ariston appears to have died in Plato's childhood, although the precise dating of his death is difficult.[21] Perictione
Perictione
then married Pyrilampes, her mother's brother,[22] who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, the leader of the democratic faction in Athens.[23] Pyrilampes
Pyrilampes
had a son from a previous marriage, Demus, who was famous for his beauty.[24] Perictione
Perictione
gave birth to Pyrilampes' second son, Antiphon, the half-brother of Plato, who appears in Parmenides.[25] In contrast to reticence about himself, Plato
Plato
often introduced his distinguished relatives into his dialogues, or referred to them with some precision: Charmides has a dialogue named after him; Critias speaks in both Charmides and Protagoras; and Adeimantus and Glaucon take prominent parts in the Republic.[26] These and other references suggest a considerable amount of family pride and enable us to reconstruct Plato's family tree. According to Burnet, "the opening scene of the Charmides is a glorification of the whole [family] connection ... Plato's dialogues are not only a memorial to Socrates, but also the happier days of his own family."[27] Name According to Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, the philosopher was named Aristocles (Ἀριστοκλῆς) after his grandfather.[28] It was common in Athenian society for boys to be named after grandfathers (or fathers). But there is only one inscriptional record of an Aristocles, an early Archon of Athens in 605/4 BC. There is no record of a line from Aristocles to Plato's father, Ariston. However, if Plato
Plato
was not named after an ancestor named Plato
Plato
(there is no record of one), then the origin of his renaming as Plato
Plato
becomes a conundrum.[29] The sources of Diogenes
Diogenes
account for this fact by claiming that his wrestling coach, Ariston of Argos, dubbed him Platon, meaning "broad," on account of his robust figure[30] or that Plato
Plato
derived his name from the breadth (πλατύτης, platytēs) of his eloquence, or else because he was very wide (πλατύς, platýs) across the forehead.[31] Recently a scholar has argued that even the name Aristocles for Plato
Plato
was a much later invention.[32] Although Platon was a fairly common name (31 instances are known from Athens alone[33]), the name does not occur in Plato's known family line. Another scholar, however, claims that "there is good reason for not dismissing [the idea that Aristocles was Plato's given name] as a mere invention of his biographers", noting how prevalent that account is in our sources.[29] The fact that the philosopher in his maturity called himself Platon is indisputable, but the origin of this naming must remain moot unless the record is made to yield more information. Education

Bust excavated at the Villa of the Papyri, attributed to Dionysus, Plato
Plato
or Poseidon. The bust may represent an idealized imagining of what Plato
Plato
might have looked like at middle age.

Apuleius
Apuleius
informs us that Speusippus
Speusippus
praised Plato's quickness of mind and modesty as a boy, and the "first fruits of his youth infused with hard work and love of study".[34] Plato
Plato
must have been instructed in grammar, music, and gymnastics by the most distinguished teachers of his time.[35] Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
went so far as to say that Plato
Plato
wrestled at the Isthmian games.[36] Plato
Plato
had also attended courses of philosophy; before meeting Socrates, he first became acquainted with Cratylus (a disciple of Heraclitus, a prominent pre-Socratic Greek philosopher) and the Heraclitean doctrines.[37] Ambrose
Ambrose
believed that Plato
Plato
met Jeremiah
Jeremiah
in Egypt
Egypt
and was influenced by his ideas. Augustine
Augustine
initially accepted this claim, but later rejected it, arguing in "The City of God", that " Plato
Plato
was born a hundred years after Jeremiah
Jeremiah
prophesied." [38] Hebrew-language chronology works[by whom?] argue that, based on seder hadoroth chronology, Jeremiah's final year of prophecy was 411 BCE (3350 HC), at which time Plato
Plato
was a teenager[39] and that he initially perceived Jeremiah
Jeremiah
to be absurd.[40][need quotation to verify] Later life Plato
Plato
may have traveled in Italy, Sicily, Egypt
Egypt
and Cyrene.[41] Said to have returned to Athens at the age of forty, Plato
Plato
founded one of the earliest known organized schools in Western Civilization on a plot of land in the Grove of Hecademus or Academus.[42] The Academy
Academy
was a large enclosure of ground about six stadia outside of Athens proper. One story is that the name of the Academy
Academy
comes from the ancient hero, Academus; still another story is that the name came from a supposed former owner of the plot of land, an Athenian citizen whose name was (also) Academus; while yet another account is that it was named after a member of the army of Castor and Pollux, an Arcadian named Echedemus.[43] The Academy
Academy
operated until it was destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 84 BC. Neoplatonists revived the Academy
Academy
in the early 5th century but there was no institutional continuity with Plato's school, and it operated until 529 AD, when it was closed by Justinian I
Justinian I
of Byzantium.[44] Many intellectuals were schooled in the Academy, the most prominent one being Aristotle.[45][46] Throughout his later life, Plato
Plato
became entangled with the politics of the city of Syracuse. According to Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Plato
Plato
initially visited Syracuse while it was under the rule of Dionysius.[47] During this first trip Dionysius's brother-in-law, Dion of Syracuse, became one of Plato's disciples, but the tyrant himself turned against Plato. Plato
Plato
almost faced death, but he was sold into slavery. Then Anniceris[48] bought Plato's freedom for twenty minas,[49] and sent him home. After Dionysius's death, according to Plato's Seventh Letter, Dion requested Plato
Plato
return to Syracuse to tutor Dionysius II and guide him to become a philosopher king. Dionysius II seemed to accept Plato's teachings, but he became suspicious of Dion, his uncle. Dionysius expelled Dion and kept Plato
Plato
against his will. Eventually Plato
Plato
left Syracuse. Dion would return to overthrow Dionysius and ruled Syracuse for a short time before being usurped by Calippus, a fellow disciple of Plato. Death A variety of sources have given accounts of Plato's death. One story, based on a mutilated manuscript,[50] suggests Plato
Plato
died in his bed, whilst a young Thracian
Thracian
girl played the flute to him.[51] Another tradition suggests Plato
Plato
died at a wedding feast. The account is based on Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius's reference to an account by Hermippus, a third-century Alexandrian.[52] According to Tertullian, Plato
Plato
simply died in his sleep.[52] Intellectual influences on Plato Pythagoras

Bust of Pythagoras
Pythagoras
based on traditional iconography at the Museum Capitolini, Rome.

See also: Pythagoreanism Although Socrates
Socrates
influenced Plato
Plato
directly as related in the dialogues, the influence of Pythagoras
Pythagoras
upon Plato
Plato
also appears to have significant discussion in the philosophical literature. Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the work of Plato. According to R. M. Hare, this influence consists of three points: (1) The platonic Republic
Republic
might be related to the idea of "a tightly organized community of like-minded thinkers", like the one established by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
in Croton. (2) There is evidence that Plato
Plato
possibly took from Pythagoras
Pythagoras
the idea that mathematics and, generally speaking, abstract thinking is a secure basis for philosophical thinking as well as "for substantial theses in science and morals". (3) Plato
Plato
and Pythagoras
Pythagoras
shared a "mystical approach to the soul and its place in the material world". It is probable that both were influenced by Orphism.[53][54] Pythagoras
Pythagoras
held that all things are number, and the cosmos comes from numerical principles. The physical world of becoming is an imitation of the mathematical world of being. This ideas were very influential in Heraclitus, Parmenides
Parmenides
and Plato.[55] Aristotle
Aristotle
claimed that the philosophy of Plato
Plato
closely followed the teachings of the Pythagoreans,[56] and Cicero
Cicero
repeats this claim: "They say Plato
Plato
learned all things Pythagorean" (Platonem ferunt didicisse Pythagorea omnia).[57] George Karamanolis notes that

Numenius accepted both Pythagoras
Pythagoras
and Plato
Plato
as the two authorities one should follow in philosophy, but he regarded Plato's authority as subordinate to that of Pythagoras, whom he considered to be the source of all true philosophy—including Plato's own. For Numenius it is just that Plato
Plato
wrote so many philosophical works, whereas Pythagoras' views were originally passed on only orally.[58]

Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and Parmenides

Heraclitus
Heraclitus
(1628) by Hendrick ter Brugghen

Bust of Parmenides
Parmenides
from Velia

See also: Metaphysics These two philosophers, following the way initiated by the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, particularly Pythagoras, depart from the mythological tradition, and initiate the metaphysical philosophical approach, that strongly influenced Plato
Plato
and has arrived till our days.[55] Heraclitus
Heraclitus
thinking specially remarked the fact that all things are continuously changing, or becoming. It is well known his image of the river, with ever-changing waters. Plato
Plato
received the ideas of this philosopher through Cratylus, that emphasized even more than his teacher the idea of change; and considered that this vision of continuous change leads to skepticism, since we can not define a thing that has not a permanent nature.[59] Parmenides
Parmenides
adopted an altogether contrary vision, and emphasized the idea of changeless Being, and considered that change is an illusion of the senses.[55] John Palmer notes "Parmenides’ distinction among the principal modes of being and his derivation of the attributes that must belong to what must be, simply as such, qualify him to be seen as the founder of metaphysics or ontology as a domain of inquiry distinct from theology."[60] These ideas about change and permanence, or becoming and Being, was the influence that led Plato
Plato
to formulate his theory of forms. According to it, there is a world of perfect, eternal and changeless forms, the realm of Being, and an imperfect sensible world of becoming that partakes the qualities of the forms, and is its instantiation in the sensible world.[59] Socrates Main article: Socratic problem

Bust of Socrates
Socrates
at the Louvre.

The precise relationship between Plato
Plato
and Socrates
Socrates
remains an area of contention among scholars. Plato
Plato
makes it clear in his Apology of Socrates
Socrates
that he was a devoted young follower of Socrates. In that dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
is presented as mentioning Plato
Plato
by name as one of those youths close enough to him to have been corrupted, if he were in fact guilty of corrupting the youth, and questioning why their fathers and brothers did not step forward to testify against him if he was indeed guilty of such a crime (33d–34a). Later, Plato
Plato
is mentioned along with Crito, Critobolus, and Apollodorus as offering to pay a fine of 30 minas on Socrates' behalf, in lieu of the death penalty proposed by Meletus (38b). In the Phaedo, the title character lists those who were in attendance at the prison on Socrates' last day, explaining Plato's absence by saying, " Plato
Plato
was ill". ( Phaedo
Phaedo
59b) Plato
Plato
never speaks in his own voice in his dialogues. In the Second Letter, it says, "no writing of Plato
Plato
exists or ever will exist, but those now said to be his are those of a Socrates
Socrates
become beautiful and new" (341c); if the Letter is Plato's, the final qualification seems to call into question the dialogues' historical fidelity. In any case, Xenophon
Xenophon
and Aristophanes
Aristophanes
seem to present a somewhat different portrait of Socrates
Socrates
from the one Plato
Plato
paints. Some have called attention to the problem of taking Plato's Socrates
Socrates
to be his mouthpiece, given Socrates' reputation for irony and the dramatic nature of the dialogue form.[61] Aristotle
Aristotle
attributes a different doctrine with respect to Forms to Plato
Plato
and Socrates
Socrates
( Metaphysics
Metaphysics
987b1–11). Aristotle
Aristotle
suggests that Socrates' idea of forms can be discovered through investigation of the natural world, unlike Plato's Forms that exist beyond and outside the ordinary range of human understanding. Plato's use of myth Mythos and logos are terms that evolved along classical Greece history. In the times of Homer
Homer
and Hesiod
Hesiod
(8th century BC) they were quite synonyms, and contained the meaning of tale or history. Later came historians like Herodotus
Herodotus
and Thucydides, as well as philosophers as Parmenides
Parmenides
and other Presocratics that introduced a distinction between both terms, and mythos became more a nonverifiable account, and logos a rational account.[62] Plato, being a disciple of Socrates, and a strong partisan of philosophy based on logos, it seems that should have avoided the use of myth-telling. Instead he made an abundant use of it. This fact has produced analytical and interpretative work, in order to clarify the reasons and purposes for that use. Plato, in general, distinguished between three types of myth.[d] First there were the false myths, like those based on stories of gods subject to passions and sufferings, because reason teaches that God is perfect. Then came the myths based on true reasoning, and therefore also true. Finally there were those non verifiable because beyond of human reason, but containing some truth in them. Regarding the subjects of Plato's myths they are of two types, those dealing with the origin of the universe, and those about morals and the origin and fate of the soul.[63] It is generally agreed that the main purpose for Plato
Plato
in using myths was didactic. He considered that only a few people were capable or interested in following a reasoned philosophical discourse, but men in general are attracted by stories and tales. Consequently then, he used the myth to convey the conclusions of the philosophical reasoning. Some of Plato's myths were based in traditional ones, others were modifications of them, and finally he also invented altogether new myths.[64] Philosophy

As old man, Plato
Plato
(left) and Aristotle
Aristotle
(right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle
Aristotle
gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
in his hand. Plato
Plato
holds his Timaeus and gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms.

Recurrent themes Plato
Plato
often discusses the father-son relationship and the question of whether a father's interest in his sons has much to do with how well his sons turn out. In ancient Athens, a boy was socially located by his family identity, and Plato
Plato
often refers to his characters in terms of their paternal and fraternal relationships. Socrates
Socrates
was not a family man, and saw himself as the son of his mother, who was apparently a midwife. A divine fatalist, Socrates
Socrates
mocks men who spent exorbitant fees on tutors and trainers for their sons, and repeatedly ventures the idea that good character is a gift from the gods. Plato's dialogue Crito
Crito
reminds Socrates
Socrates
that orphans are at the mercy of chance, but Socrates
Socrates
is unconcerned. In the Theaetetus, he is found recruiting as a disciple a young man whose inheritance has been squandered. Socrates
Socrates
twice compares the relationship of the older man and his boy lover to the father-son relationship (Lysis 213a, Republic 3.403b), and in the Phaedo, Socrates' disciples, towards whom he displays more concern than his biological sons, say they will feel "fatherless" when he is gone. In several of Plato's dialogues, Socrates
Socrates
promulgates the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection, and not of learning, observation, or study.[65] He maintains this view somewhat at his own expense, because in many dialogues, Socrates
Socrates
complains of his forgetfulness. Socrates
Socrates
is often found arguing that knowledge is not empirical, and that it comes from divine insight. In many middle period dialogues, such as the Phaedo, Republic
Republic
and Phaedrus Plato advocates a belief in the immortality of the soul, and several dialogues end with long speeches imagining the afterlife. More than one dialogue contrasts knowledge and opinion, perception and reality, nature and custom, and body and soul. Several dialogues tackle questions about art: Socrates
Socrates
says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness (drunkenness, eroticism, and dreaming) in the Phaedrus (265a–c), and yet in the Republic
Republic
wants to outlaw Homer's great poetry, and laughter as well. In Ion, Socrates
Socrates
gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer
Homer
that he expresses in the Republic. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad
Iliad
functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literature that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. Socrates
Socrates
and his company of disputants had something to say on many subjects, including politics and art, religion and science, justice and medicine, virtue and vice, crime and punishment, pleasure and pain, rhetoric and rhapsody, human nature and sexuality, as well as love and wisdom. Metaphysics Main article: Platonic realism "Platonism" is a term coined by scholars to refer to the intellectual consequences of denying, as Plato's Socrates
Socrates
often does, the reality of the material world. In several dialogues, most notably the Republic, Socrates
Socrates
inverts the common man's intuition about what is knowable and what is real. While most people take the objects of their senses to be real if anything is, Socrates
Socrates
is contemptuous of people who think that something has to be graspable in the hands to be real. In the Theaetetus, he says such people are eu amousoi (εὖ ἄμουσοι), an expression that means literally, "happily without the muses" (Theaetetus 156a). In other words, such people live without the divine inspiration that gives him, and people like him, access to higher insights about reality. Socrates' idea that reality is unavailable to those who use their senses is what puts him at odds with the common man, and with common sense. Socrates
Socrates
says that he who sees with his eyes is blind, and this idea is most famously captured in his Allegory of the Cave, and more explicitly in his description of the divided line. The Allegory of the Cave (begins Republic
Republic
7.514a) is a paradoxical analogy wherein Socrates
Socrates
argues that the invisible world is the most intelligible ("noeton") and that the visible world ("(h)oraton") is the least knowable, and the most obscure. Socrates
Socrates
says in the Republic
Republic
that people who take the sun-lit world of the senses to be good and real are living pitifully in a den of evil and ignorance. Socrates
Socrates
admits that few climb out of the den, or cave of ignorance, and those who do, not only have a terrible struggle to attain the heights, but when they go back down for a visit or to help other people up, they find themselves objects of scorn and ridicule. According to Socrates, physical objects and physical events are "shadows" of their ideal or perfect forms, and exist only to the extent that they instantiate the perfect versions of themselves. Just as shadows are temporary, inconsequential epiphenomena produced by physical objects, physical objects are themselves fleeting phenomena caused by more substantial causes, the ideals of which they are mere instances. For example, Socrates
Socrates
thinks that perfect justice exists (although it is not clear where) and his own trial would be a cheap copy of it. The Allegory of the Cave
Allegory of the Cave
(often said by scholars to represent Plato's own epistemology and metaphysics) is intimately connected to his political ideology (often said to also be Plato's own), that only people who have climbed out of the cave and cast their eyes on a vision of goodness are fit to rule. Socrates
Socrates
claims that the enlightened men of society must be forced from their divine contemplations and be compelled to run the city according to their lofty insights. Thus is born the idea of the "philosopher-king", the wise person who accepts the power thrust upon him by the people who are wise enough to choose a good master. This is the main thesis of Socrates
Socrates
in the Republic, that the most wisdom the masses can muster is the wise choice of a ruler.[66] Theory of Forms Main article: Theory of Forms The theory of Forms (or theory of Ideas) typically refers to the belief that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an "image" or "copy" of the real world. In some of Plato's dialogues, this is expressed by Socrates, who spoke of forms in formulating a solution to the problem of universals. The forms, according to Socrates, are archetypes or abstract representations of the many types of things, and properties we feel and see around us, that can only be perceived by reason (λογική). (That is, they are universals.) In other words, Socrates
Socrates
was able to recognize two worlds: the apparent world, which constantly changes, and an unchanging and unseen world of forms, which may be the cause of what is apparent. Epistemology Main article: Platonic epistemology Many have interpreted Plato
Plato
as stating—even having been the first to write—that knowledge is justified true belief, an influential view that informed future developments in epistemology.[67] This interpretation is partly based on a reading of the Theaetetus wherein Plato
Plato
argues that knowledge is distinguished from mere true belief by the knower having an "account" of the object of her or his true belief (Theaetetus 201c–d). And this theory may again be seen in the Meno, where it is suggested that true belief can be raised to the level of knowledge if it is bound with an account as to the question of "why" the object of the true belief is so ( Meno
Meno
97d–98a).[68] Many years later, Edmund Gettier famously demonstrated the problems of the justified true belief account of knowledge. That the modern theory of justified true belief as knowledge which Gettier addresses is equivalent to Plato's is accepted by some scholars but rejected by others.[69] Plato
Plato
himself also identified problems with the justified true belief definition in the Theaetetus, concluding that justification (or an "account") would require knowledge of differentness, meaning that the definition of knowledge is circular (Theaetetus 210a–b).[70] Later in the Meno, Socrates
Socrates
uses a geometrical example to expound Plato's view that knowledge in this latter sense is acquired by recollection. Socrates
Socrates
elicits a fact concerning a geometrical construction from a slave boy, who could not have otherwise known the fact (due to the slave boy's lack of education). The knowledge must be present, Socrates
Socrates
concludes, in an eternal, non-experiential form. In other dialogues, the Sophist, Statesman, Republic, and the Parmenides, Plato
Plato
himself associates knowledge with the apprehension of unchanging Forms and their relationships to one another (which he calls "expertise" in Dialectic), including through the processes of collection and division.[71] More explicitly, Plato
Plato
himself argues in the Timaeus that knowledge is always proportionate to the realm from which it is gained. In other words, if one derives one's account of something experientially, because the world of sense is in flux, the views therein attained will be mere opinions. And opinions are characterized by a lack of necessity and stability. On the other hand, if one derives one's account of something by way of the non-sensible forms, because these forms are unchanging, so too is the account derived from them. That apprehension of forms is required for knowledge may be taken to cohere with Plato's theory in the Theaetetus and Meno.[72] Indeed, the apprehension of Forms may be at the base of the "account" required for justification, in that it offers foundational knowledge which itself needs no account, thereby avoiding an infinite regression.[73] The state Main article: The Republic
Republic
(Plato)

Oxyrhynchus Papyri, with fragment of Plato's Republic

Some of Plato's most famous doctrines are contained in the Republic
Republic
as well as in the Laws and the Statesman. Because these doctrines are not spoken directly by Plato
Plato
and vary between dialogues, they cannot be straightforwardly assumed as representing Plato's own views. Socrates
Socrates
asserts that societies have a tripartite class structure corresponding to the appetite/spirit/reason structure of the individual soul. The appetite/spirit/reason are analogous to the castes of society.[74]

Productive (Workers) – the labourers, carpenters, plumbers, masons, merchants, farmers, ranchers, etc. These correspond to the "appetite" part of the soul. Protective (Warriors or Guardians) – those who are adventurous, strong and brave; in the armed forces. These correspond to the "spirit" part of the soul. Governing (Rulers or Philosopher
Philosopher
Kings) – those who are intelligent, rational, self-controlled, in love with wisdom, well suited to make decisions for the community. These correspond to the "reason" part of the soul and are very few.

In the Timaeus, Socrates
Socrates
locates the parts of the soul within the human body: Reason
Reason
is located in the head, spirit in the top third of the torso, and the appetite in the middle third of the torso, down to the navel.[75][76] According to this model, the principles of Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
(as it existed in his day) are rejected as only a few are fit to rule. Instead of rhetoric and persuasion, Socrates
Socrates
says reason and wisdom should govern. As Socrates
Socrates
puts it:

"Until philosophers rule as kings or those who are now called kings and leading men genuinely and adequately philosophise, that is, until political power and philosophy entirely coincide, while the many natures who at present pursue either one exclusively are forcibly prevented from doing so, cities will have no rest from evils,... nor, I think, will the human race." ( Republic
Republic
473c–d)

Plato
Plato
in his academy, drawing after a painting by Swedish painter Carl Johan Wahlbom

Socrates
Socrates
describes these "philosopher kings" as "those who love the sight of truth" ( Republic
Republic
475c) and supports the idea with the analogy of a captain and his ship or a doctor and his medicine. According to him, sailing and health are not things that everyone is qualified to practice by nature. A large part of the Republic
Republic
then addresses how the educational system should be set up to produce these philosopher kings. In addition, the ideal city is used as an image to illuminate the state of one's soul, or the will, reason, and desires combined in the human body. Socrates
Socrates
is attempting to make an image of a rightly ordered human, and then later goes on to describe the different kinds of humans that can be observed, from tyrants to lovers of money in various kinds of cities. The ideal city is not promoted, but only used to magnify the different kinds of individual humans and the state of their soul. However, the philosopher king image was used by many after Plato
Plato
to justify their personal political beliefs. The philosophic soul according to Socrates
Socrates
has reason, will, and desires united in virtuous harmony. A philosopher has the moderate love for wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. Wisdom
Wisdom
is knowledge about the Good or the right relations between all that exists. Wherein it concerns states and rulers, Socrates
Socrates
asks which is better—a bad democracy or a country reigned by a tyrant. He argues that it is better to be ruled by a bad tyrant, than by a bad democracy (since here all the people are now responsible for such actions, rather than one individual committing many bad deeds.) This is emphasised within the Republic
Republic
as Socrates
Socrates
describes the event of mutiny on board a ship.[77] Socrates
Socrates
suggests the ship's crew to be in line with the democratic rule of many and the captain, although inhibited through ailments, the tyrant. Socrates' description of this event is parallel to that of democracy within the state and the inherent problems that arise. According to Socrates, a state made up of different kinds of souls will, overall, decline from an aristocracy (rule by the best) to a timocracy (rule by the honorable), then to an oligarchy (rule by the few), then to a democracy (rule by the people), and finally to tyranny (rule by one person, rule by a tyrant).[78] Aristocracy in the sense of government (politeia) is advocated in Plato's Republic. This regime is ruled by a philosopher king, and thus is grounded on wisdom and reason. The aristocratic state, and the man whose nature corresponds to it, are the objects of Plato's analyses throughout much of the Republic, as opposed to the other four types of states/men, who are discussed later in his work. In Book VIII, Socrates
Socrates
states in order the other four imperfect societies with a description of the state's structure and individual character. In timocracy the ruling class is made up primarily of those with a warrior-like character.[79] Oligarchy is made up of a society in which wealth is the criterion of merit and the wealthy are in control.[80] In democracy, the state bears resemblance to ancient Athens with traits such as equality of political opportunity and freedom for the individual to do as he likes.[81] Democracy
Democracy
then degenerates into tyranny from the conflict of rich and poor. It is characterized by an undisciplined society existing in chaos, where the tyrant rises as popular champion leading to the formation of his private army and the growth of oppression.[82][78][83] Unwritten doctrines Main article: Plato's unwritten doctrines For a long time, Plato's unwritten doctrine[84][85][86] had been controversial. Many modern books on Plato
Plato
seem to diminish its importance; nevertheless, the first important witness who mentions its existence is Aristotle, who in his Physics (209 b) writes: "It is true, indeed, that the account he gives there [i.e. in Timaeus] of the participant is different from what he says in his so-called unwritten teachings (ἄγραφα δόγματα)." The term "ἄγραφα δόγματα" literally means unwritten doctrines and it stands for the most fundamental metaphysical teaching of Plato, which he disclosed only orally, and some say only to his most trusted fellows, and which he may have kept secret from the public. The importance of the unwritten doctrines does not seem to have been seriously questioned before the 19th century. A reason for not revealing it to everyone is partially discussed in Phaedrus (276 c) where Plato
Plato
criticizes the written transmission of knowledge as faulty, favoring instead the spoken logos: "he who has knowledge of the just and the good and beautiful ... will not, when in earnest, write them in ink, sowing them through a pen with words, which cannot defend themselves by argument and cannot teach the truth effectually." The same argument is repeated in Plato's Seventh Letter (344 c): "every serious man in dealing with really serious subjects carefully avoids writing." In the same letter he writes (341 c): "I can certainly declare concerning all these writers who claim to know the subjects that I seriously study ... there does not exist, nor will there ever exist, any treatise of mine dealing therewith." Such secrecy is necessary in order not "to expose them to unseemly and degrading treatment" (344 d). It is, however, said that Plato
Plato
once disclosed this knowledge to the public in his lecture On the Good (Περὶ τἀγαθοῦ), in which the Good (τὸ ἀγαθόν) is identified with the One (the Unity, τὸ ἕν), the fundamental ontological principle. The content of this lecture has been transmitted by several witnesses. Aristoxenus
Aristoxenus
describes the event in the following words: "Each came expecting to learn something about the things that are generally considered good for men, such as wealth, good health, physical strength, and altogether a kind of wonderful happiness. But when the mathematical demonstrations came, including numbers, geometrical figures and astronomy, and finally the statement Good is One seemed to them, I imagine, utterly unexpected and strange; hence some belittled the matter, while others rejected it."[87] Simplicius quotes Alexander of Aphrodisias, who states that "according to Plato, the first principles of everything, including the Forms themselves are One and Indefinite Duality (ἡ ἀόριστος δυάς), which he called Large and Small (τὸ μέγα καὶ τὸ μικρόν)", and Simplicius reports as well that "one might also learn this from Speusippus
Speusippus
and Xenocrates
Xenocrates
and the others who were present at Plato's lecture on the Good".[32] Their account is in full agreement with Aristotle's description of Plato's metaphysical doctrine. In Metaphysics
Metaphysics
he writes: "Now since the Forms are the causes of everything else, he [i.e. Plato] supposed that their elements are the elements of all things. Accordingly the material principle is the Great and Small [i.e. the Dyad], and the essence is the One (τὸ ἕν), since the numbers are derived from the Great and Small by participation in the One" (987 b). "From this account it is clear that he only employed two causes: that of the essence, and the material cause; for the Forms are the cause of the essence in everything else, and the One is the cause of it in the Forms. He also tells us what the material substrate is of which the Forms are predicated in the case of sensible things, and the One in that of the Forms—that it is this the duality (the Dyad, ἡ δυάς), the Great and Small (τὸ μέγα καὶ τὸ μικρόν). Further, he assigned to these two elements respectively the causation of good and of evil" (988 a). The most important aspect of this interpretation of Plato's metaphysics is the continuity between his teaching and the neoplatonic interpretation of Plotinus[88] or Ficino[89] which has been considered erroneous by many but may in fact have been directly influenced by oral transmission of Plato's doctrine. A modern scholar who recognized the importance of the unwritten doctrine of Plato
Plato
was Heinrich Gomperz who described it in his speech during the 7th International Congress of Philosophy
Philosophy
in 1930.[90] All the sources related to the ἄγραφα δόγματα have been collected by Konrad Gaiser and published as Testimonia Platonica.[91] These sources have subsequently been interpreted by scholars from the German Tübingen School of interpretation such as Hans Joachim Krämer or Thomas A. Szlezák.[92] Dialectic The role of dialectic in Plato's thought is contested but there are two main interpretations: a type of reasoning and a method of intuition.[93] Simon Blackburn
Simon Blackburn
adopts the first, saying that Plato's dialectic is "the process of eliciting the truth by means of questions aimed at opening out what is already implicitly known, or at exposing the contradictions and muddles of an opponent's position."[93] A similar interpretation has been put forth by Louis Hartz, who suggests that elements of the dialectic are borrowed from Hegel.[94] According to this view, opposing arguments improve upon each other, and prevailing opinion is shaped by the synthesis of many conflicting ideas over time. Each new idea exposes a flaw in the accepted model, and the epistemological substance of the debate continually approaches the truth. Hartz's is a teleological interpretation at the core, in which philosophers will ultimately exhaust the available body of knowledge and thus reach "the end of history." Karl Popper, on the other hand, claims that dialectic is the art of intuition for "visualising the divine originals, the Forms or Ideas, of unveiling the Great Mystery behind the common man's everyday world of appearances."[95] Dialogues See also: Stephanus pagination Thirty-five dialogues and thirteen letters (the Epistles) have traditionally been ascribed to Plato, though modern scholarship doubts the authenticity of at least some of these. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts. The usual system for making unique references to sections of the text by Plato
Plato
derives from a 16th-century edition of Plato's works by Henricus Stephanus. An overview of Plato's writings according to this system can be found in the Stephanus pagination
Stephanus pagination
article.

Volume 3, pages 32–33, of the 1578 Stephanus edition of Plato, showing a passage of Timaeus with the Latin translation and notes of Jean de Serres

One tradition regarding the arrangement of Plato's texts is according to tetralogies. This scheme is ascribed by Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
to an ancient scholar and court astrologer to Tiberius
Tiberius
named Thrasyllus. The works are usually grouped into Early (sometimes by some into Transitional), Middle, and Late period.[96][97] This choice to group chronologically is thought worthy of criticism by some (Cooper et al),[98] given that it's recognised that there is no absolute agreement as to the true chronologicity, since the facts of the temporal order of writing are not confidently ascertained.[99] Early: Apology (of Socrates), Charmides, Crito, Euthyphro, Gorgias, (Lesser) Hippias (minor), (Greater) Hippias (major), Ion, Laches, Lysis, Protagoras Middle/Transitional: Cratylus, Euthydemus, Meno, Parmenides, Phaedo, Phaedrus, Republic, Symposium, Middle/Late: Theaetetus Late: Critias, Sophist, Statesman / Politicus, Timaeus, Philebus, Laws Chronologicity was not a consideration in ancient times, in that grouping of this nature are virtually absent (Tarrant) in the extant writings of ancient Platonists.[100] Writings of doubted authenticity Jowett mentions in his Appendix to Menexenus, that works which bore the character of a writer were attributed to that writer even when the actual author was unknown.[101] For below: (*) if there is no consensus among scholars as to whether Plato
Plato
is the author, and (‡) if most scholars agree that Plato
Plato
is not the author of the work.[102] First Alcibiades
First Alcibiades
(*), Second Alcibiades
Second Alcibiades
(‡), Clitophon (*), Epinomis (‡), Epistles (*), Hipparchus
Hipparchus
(‡), Menexenus (*), Minos (‡), (Rival) Lovers (‡), Theages
Theages
(‡) Spurious writings The following works were transmitted under Plato's name, most of them already considered spurious in antiquity, and so were not included by Thrasyllus in his tetralogical arrangement. These works are labelled as Notheuomenoi ("spurious") or Apocrypha.

Axiochus, Definitions, Demodocus, Epigrams, Eryxias, Halcyon, On Justice, On Virtue, Sisyphus.

Composition of the dialogues No one knows the exact order Plato's dialogues were written in, nor the extent to which some might have been later revised and rewritten. A significant distinction of the early Plato
Plato
and the later Plato
Plato
has been offered by scholars such as E.R. Dodds and has been summarized by Harold Bloom in his book titled Agon: "E.R. Dodds is the classical scholar whose writings most illuminated the Hellenic descent (in) The Greeks and the Irrational [...] In his chapter on Plato
Plato
and the Irrational Soul
Soul
[...] Dodds traces Plato's spiritual evolution from the pure rationalist of the Protagoras
Protagoras
to the transcendental psychologist, influenced by the Pythagoreans and Orphics, of the later works culminating in the Laws."[103] Lewis Campbell was the first[104] to make exhaustive use of stylometry to prove objectively that the Critias, Timaeus, Laws, Philebus, Sophist, and Statesman were all clustered together as a group, while the Parmenides, Phaedrus, Republic, and Theaetetus belong to a separate group, which must be earlier (given Aristotle's statement in his Politics[105] that the Laws was written after the Republic; cf. Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
Lives 3.37). What is remarkable about Campbell's conclusions is that, in spite of all the stylometric studies that have been conducted since his time, perhaps the only chronological fact about Plato's works that can now be said to be proven by stylometry is the fact that Critias, Timaeus, Laws, Philebus, Sophist, and Statesman are the latest of Plato's dialogues, the others earlier.[106] Increasingly in the most recent Plato
Plato
scholarship, writers are skeptical of the notion that the order of Plato's writings can be established with any precision,[107] though Plato's works are still often characterized as falling at least roughly into three groups.[108] The following represents one relatively common such division.[109] It should, however, be kept in mind that many of the positions in the ordering are still highly disputed, and also that the very notion that Plato's dialogues can or should be "ordered" is by no means universally accepted. Among those who classify the dialogues into periods of composition, Socrates
Socrates
figures in all of the "early dialogues" and they are considered the most faithful representations of the historical Socrates.[110] They include The Apology of Socrates, Charmides, Crito, Euthyphro, Ion, Laches, Lesser Hippias, Lysis, Menexenus, and Protagoras
Protagoras
(often considered one of the last of the "early dialogues"). Three dialogues are often considered "transitional" or "pre-middle": Euthydemus, Gorgias, and Meno. Whereas those classified as "early dialogues" often conclude in aporia, the so-called "middle dialogues" provide more clearly stated positive teachings that are often ascribed to Plato
Plato
such as the theory of Forms. These dialogues include Cratylus, Phaedo, Phaedrus, Republic, Symposium, Parmenides, and Theaetetus. Proponents of dividing the dialogues into periods often consider the Parmenides
Parmenides
and Theaetetus to come late in this period and be transitional to the next, as they seem to treat the theory of Forms critically (Parmenides) or only indirectly (Theaetetus).[111] Ritter's stylometric analysis places Phaedrus as probably after Theaetetus and Parmenides,[112] although it does not relate to the theory of Forms in the same way. The first book of the Republic
Republic
is often thought to have been written significantly earlier than the rest of the work, although possibly having undergone revisions when the later books were attached to it.[111] The remaining dialogues are classified as "late" and are generally agreed to be difficult and challenging pieces of philosophy. This grouping is the only one proven by stylometric analysis.[106] While looked to for Plato's "mature" answers to the questions posed by his earlier works, those answers are difficult to discern. Some scholars[110] indicate that the theory of Forms is absent from the late dialogues, its having been refuted in the Parmenides, but there isn't total consensus that the Parmenides
Parmenides
actually refutes the theory of Forms.[113] The so-called "late dialogues" include Critias, Laws, Philebus, Sophist, Statesman, and Timaeus.[110] Narration of the dialogues Plato
Plato
never presents himself as a participant in any of the dialogues, and with the exception of the Apology, there is no suggestion that he heard any of the dialogues firsthand. Some dialogues have no narrator but have a pure "dramatic" form (examples: Meno, Gorgias, Phaedrus, Crito, Euthyphro), some dialogues are narrated by Socrates, wherein he speaks in first person (examples: Lysis, Charmides, Republic). One dialogue, Protagoras, begins in dramatic form but quickly proceeds to Socrates' narration of a conversation he had previously with the sophist for whom the dialogue is named; this narration continues uninterrupted till the dialogue's end.

Painting of a scene from Plato's Symposium (Anselm Feuerbach, 1873)

Two dialogues Phaedo
Phaedo
and Symposium also begin in dramatic form but then proceed to virtually uninterrupted narration by followers of Socrates. Phaedo, an account of Socrates' final conversation and hemlock drinking, is narrated by Phaedo
Phaedo
to Echecrates in a foreign city not long after the execution took place.[114] The Symposium is narrated by Apollodorus, a Socratic disciple, apparently to Glaucon. Apollodorus assures his listener that he is recounting the story, which took place when he himself was an infant, not from his own memory, but as remembered by Aristodemus, who told him the story years ago. The Theaetetus is a peculiar case: a dialogue in dramatic form embedded within another dialogue in dramatic form. In the beginning of the Theaetetus (142c–143b), Euclides says that he compiled the conversation from notes he took based on what Socrates
Socrates
told him of his conversation with the title character. The rest of the Theaetetus is presented as a "book" written in dramatic form and read by one of Euclides' slaves (143c). Some scholars take this as an indication that Plato
Plato
had by this date wearied of the narrated form.[115] With the exception of the Theaetetus, Plato
Plato
gives no explicit indication as to how these orally transmitted conversations came to be written down. Trial of Socrates Main article: Trial of Socrates The trial of Socrates
Socrates
is the central, unifying event of Plato's dialogues. Because of this, Apology is among the most frequently read of his works. In the Apology, Socrates
Socrates
tries to dismiss rumors that he is a sophist and defends himself against charges of disbelief in the gods and corruption of the young. Socrates
Socrates
insists that long-standing slander will be the real cause of his demise, and says the legal charges are essentially false. Socrates
Socrates
famously denies being wise, and explains how his life as a philosopher was launched by the Oracle at Delphi. He says that his quest to resolve the riddle of the oracle put him at odds with his fellow man, and that this is the reason he has been mistaken for a menace to the city-state of Athens. If Plato's important dialogues do not refer to Socrates' execution explicitly, they allude to it, or use characters or themes that play a part in it. Five dialogues foreshadow the trial: In the Theaetetus (210d) and the Euthyphro
Euthyphro
(2a–b) Socrates
Socrates
tells people that he is about to face corruption charges. In the Meno
Meno
(94e–95a), one of the men who brings legal charges against Socrates, Anytus, warns him about the trouble he may get into if he does not stop criticizing important people. In the Gorgias, Socrates
Socrates
says that his trial will be like a doctor prosecuted by a cook who asks a jury of children to choose between the doctor's bitter medicine and the cook's tasty treats (521e–522a). In the Republic
Republic
(7.517e), Socrates
Socrates
explains why an enlightened man (presumably himself) will stumble in a courtroom situation. The Apology is Socrates' defense speech, and the Crito
Crito
and Phaedo
Phaedo
take place in prison after the conviction. In the Protagoras, Socrates
Socrates
is a guest at the home of Callias, son of Hipponicus, a man whom Socrates
Socrates
disparages in the Apology as having wasted a great amount of money on sophists' fees. Unity and diversity of the dialogues Two other important dialogues, the Symposium and the Phaedrus, are linked to the main storyline by characters. In the Apology (19b, c), Socrates
Socrates
says Aristophanes
Aristophanes
slandered him in a comic play, and blames him for causing his bad reputation, and ultimately, his death. In the Symposium, the two of them are drinking together with other friends. The character Phaedrus is linked to the main story line by character (Phaedrus is also a participant in the Symposium and the Protagoras) and by theme (the philosopher as divine emissary, etc.) The Protagoras is also strongly linked to the Symposium by characters: all of the formal speakers at the Symposium (with the exception of Aristophanes) are present at the home of Callias in that dialogue. Charmides and his guardian Critias are present for the discussion in the Protagoras. Examples of characters crossing between dialogues can be further multiplied. The Protagoras
Protagoras
contains the largest gathering of Socratic associates. In the dialogues Plato
Plato
is most celebrated and admired for, Socrates
Socrates
is concerned with human and political virtue, has a distinctive personality, and friends and enemies who "travel" with him from dialogue to dialogue. This is not to say that Socrates
Socrates
is consistent: a man who is his friend in one dialogue may be an adversary or subject of his mockery in another. For example, Socrates
Socrates
praises the wisdom of Euthyphro
Euthyphro
many times in the Cratylus, but makes him look like a fool in the Euthyphro. He disparages sophists generally, and Prodicus specifically in the Apology, whom he also slyly jabs in the Cratylus for charging the hefty fee of fifty drachmas for a course on language and grammar. However, Socrates
Socrates
tells Theaetetus in his namesake dialogue that he admires Prodicus
Prodicus
and has directed many pupils to him. Socrates' ideas are also not consistent within or between or among dialogues. Platonic scholarship

"The safest general characterisation of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." (Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality, 1929).

Although their popularity has fluctuated over the years, the works of Plato
Plato
have never been without readers since the time they were written.[116] Plato's thought is often compared with that of his most famous student, Aristotle, whose reputation during the Western Middle Ages so completely eclipsed that of Plato
Plato
that the Scholastic philosophers referred to Aristotle
Aristotle
as "the Philosopher". However, in the Byzantine Empire, the study of Plato
Plato
continued. The only Platonic work known to western scholarship was Timaeus, until translations were made at a time post the fall of Constantinople, which occurred during 1453,[117] George Gemistos Plethon
George Gemistos Plethon
brought Plato's original writings from Constantinople
Constantinople
in the century of its fall. It is believed that Plethon passed a copy of the Dialogues to Cosimo de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
when in 1438 the Council of Ferrara, called to unify the Greek and Latin Churches, was adjourned to Florence, where Plethon then lectured on the relation and differences of Plato
Plato
and Aristotle, and fired Cosimo with his enthusiasm;[118] Cosimo would supply Marsilio Ficino
Ficino
with Plato's text for translation to Latin. During the early Islamic era, Persian and Arab scholars translated much of Plato into Arabic and wrote commentaries and interpretations on Plato's, Aristotle's and other Platonist
Platonist
philosophers' works (see Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Averroes, Hunayn ibn Ishaq). Many of these comments on Plato were translated from Arabic into Latin and as such influenced Medieval scholastic philosophers.[119] During the Renaissance, with the general resurgence of interest in classical civilization, knowledge of Plato's philosophy would become widespread again in the West. Many of the greatest early modern scientists and artists who broke with Scholasticism
Scholasticism
and fostered the flowering of the Renaissance, with the support of the Plato-inspired Lorenzo (grandson of Cosimo), saw Plato's philosophy as the basis for progress in the arts and sciences. His political views, too, were well-received: the vision of wise philosopher-kings of the Republic matched the views set out in works such as Machiavelli's The Prince. More problematic was Plato's belief in metempsychosis, transmigration of the soul, as well as his ethical views (on polyamory and euthanasia in particular), which did not match those of Christianity. It was Plethon's student Bessarion who reconciled Plato
Plato
with Christian theology, arguing that Plato's views were only ideals, unattainable due to the fall of man.[120] By the 19th century, Plato's reputation was restored, and at least on par with Aristotle's. Notable Western philosophers have continued to draw upon Plato's work since that time. Plato's influence has been especially strong in mathematics and the sciences. He helped to distinguish between pure and applied mathematics by widening the gap between "arithmetic", now called number theory and "logistic", now called arithmetic. He regarded "logistic" as appropriate for business men and men of war who "must learn the art of numbers or he will not know how to array his troops," while "arithmetic" was appropriate for philosophers "because he has to arise out of the sea of change and lay hold of true being."[121] Plato's resurgence further inspired some of the greatest advances in logic since Aristotle, primarily through Gottlob Frege
Gottlob Frege
and his followers Kurt Gödel, Alonzo Church, and Alfred Tarski. Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
suggested that the scientist who takes philosophy seriously would have to avoid systematization and take on many different roles, and possibly appear as a Platonist
Platonist
or Pythagorean, in that such a one would have "the viewpoint of logical simplicity as an indispensable and effective tool of his research."[122] Many recent philosophers have diverged from what some would describe as the ontological models and moral ideals characteristic of traditional Platonism. A number of these postmodern philosophers have thus appeared to disparage Platonism
Platonism
from more or less informed perspectives. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
notoriously attacked Plato's "idea of the good itself" along with many fundamentals of Christian morality, which he interpreted as " Platonism
Platonism
for the masses" in one of his most important works, Beyond Good and Evil
Beyond Good and Evil
(1886). Martin Heidegger argued against Plato's alleged obfuscation of Being
Being
in his incomplete tome, Being
Being
and Time
Time
(1927), and the philosopher of science Karl Popper
Karl Popper
argued in The Open Society
Society
and Its Enemies (1945) that Plato's alleged proposal for a utopian political regime in the Republic
Republic
was prototypically totalitarian. The political philosopher and professor Leo Strauss
Leo Strauss
is considered by some as the prime thinker involved in the recovery of Platonic thought in its more political, and less metaphysical, form. Strauss' political approach was in part inspired by the appropriation of Plato
Plato
and Aristotle
Aristotle
by medieval Jewish and Islamic political philosophers, especially Maimonides
Maimonides
and Al-Farabi, as opposed to the Christian metaphysical tradition that developed from Neoplatonism. Deeply influenced by Nietzsche and Heidegger, Strauss nonetheless rejects their condemnation of Plato
Plato
and looks to the dialogues for a solution to what all three latter day thinkers acknowledge as 'the crisis of the West.' Textual sources and history

First page of the Euthyphro, from the Clarke Plato
Plato
(Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39), 895 AD. The text is Greek minuscule.

See also: List of manuscripts of Plato's dialogues Some 250 known manuscripts of Plato
Plato
survive.[123] The texts of Plato as received today apparently represent the complete written philosophical work of Plato
Plato
and are generally good by the standards of textual criticism.[124] No modern edition of Plato
Plato
in the original Greek represents a single source, but rather it is reconstructed from multiple sources which are compared with each other. These sources are medieval manuscripts written on vellum (mainly from 9th to 13th century AD Byzantium), papyri (mainly from late antiquity in Egypt), and from the independent testimonia of other authors who quote various segments of the works (which come from a variety of sources). The text as presented is usually not much different from what appears in the Byzantine manuscripts, and papyri and testimonia just confirm the manuscript tradition. In some editions however the readings in the papyri or testimonia are favoured in some places by the editing critic of the text. Reviewing editions of papyri for the Republic
Republic
in 1987, Slings suggests that the use of papyri is hampered due to some poor editing practices.[125] In the first century AD, Thrasyllus of Mendes had compiled and published the works of Plato
Plato
in the original Greek, both genuine and spurious. While it has not survived to the present day, all the extant medieval Greek manuscripts are based on his edition.[126] The oldest surviving complete manuscript for many of the dialogues is the Clarke Plato
Plato
(Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39, or Codex Boleianus MS E.D. Clarke 39), which was written in Constantinople
Constantinople
in 895 and acquired by Oxford University
Oxford University
in 1809.[127] The Clarke is given the siglum B in modern editions. B contains the first six tetralogies and is described internally as being written by "John the Calligrapher" on behalf of Arethas of Caesarea. It appears to have undergone corrections by Arethas himself.[128] For the last two tetralogies and the apocrypha, the oldest surviving complete manuscript is Codex Parisinus graecus 1807, designated A, which was written nearly contemporaneously to B, circa 900 AD.[129] A must be a copy of the edition edited by the patriarch, Photios, teacher of Arethas.[130][131][132]A probably had an initial volume containing the first 7 tetralogies which is now lost, but of which a copy was made, Codex Venetus append. class. 4, 1, which has the siglum T. The oldest manuscript for the seventh tetralogy is Codex Vindobonensis 54. suppl. phil. Gr. 7, with siglum W, with a supposed date in the twelfth century.[133] In total there are fifty-one such Byzantine manuscripts known, while others may yet be found.[134] To help establish the text, the older evidence of papyri and the independent evidence of the testimony of commentators and other authors (i.e., those who quote and refer to an old text of Plato
Plato
which is no longer extant) are also used. Many papyri which contain fragments of Plato's texts are among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. The 2003 Oxford Classical Texts edition by Slings even cites the Coptic translation of a fragment of the Republic
Republic
in the Nag Hammadi library as evidence.[135] Important authors for testimony include Olympiodorus the Younger, Plutarch, Proclus, Iamblichus, Eusebius, and Stobaeus. During the early Renaissance, the Greek language
Greek language
and, along with it, Plato's texts were reintroduced to Western Europe by Byzantine scholars. In September or October 1484 Filippo Valori and Francesco Berlinghieri printed 1025 copies of Ficino's translation, using the printing press at the Dominican convent S.Jacopo di Ripoli.[136][137] Cosimo had been influenced toward studying Plato
Plato
by the many Byzantine Platonists in Florence during his day, including George Gemistus Plethon. The 1578 edition [138] of Plato's complete works published by Henricus Stephanus (Henri Estienne) in Geneva
Geneva
also included parallel Latin translation and running commentary by Joannes Serranus (Jean de Serres). It was this edition which established standard Stephanus pagination, still in use today.[139] Modern editions The Oxford Classical Texts offers the current standard complete Greek text of Plato's complete works. In five volumes edited by John Burnet, its first edition was published 1900-1907, and it is still available from the publisher, having last been printed in 1993.[140][141] The second edition is still in progress with only the first volume, printed in 1995, and the Republic, printed in 2003, available. The Cambridge Greek and Latin Texts and Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries series includes Greek editions of the Protagoras, Symposium, Phaedrus, Alcibiades, and Clitophon, with English philological, literary, and, to an extent, philosophical commentary.[142][143] One distinguished edition of the Greek text is E. R. Dodds' of the Gorgias, which includes extensive English commentary.[144][145] The modern standard complete English edition is the 1997 Hackett Plato, Complete Works, edited by John M. Cooper.[146][147] For many of these translations Hackett offers separate volumes which include more by way of commentary, notes, and introductory material. There is also the Clarendon Plato
Plato
Series by Oxford University
Oxford University
Press which offers English translations and thorough philosophical commentary by leading scholars on a few of Plato's works, including John McDowell's version of the Theaetetus.[148] Cornell University Press has also begun the Agora
Agora
series of English translations of classical and medieval philosophical texts, including a few of Plato's.[149] Plato
Plato
in the arts Plato's Academy
Academy
mosaic was created in the villa of T. Siminius Stephanus in Pompeii, around 100 BC to 100 CE. The School of Athens fresco by Raphael
Raphael
features Plato
Plato
also as a central figure. See also

Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

Cambridge Platonists List of speakers in Plato's dialogues Plato's Problem Plato's unwritten doctrines Plato's views on women Platonic love Ellen Francis Mason, translator of Plato Allegorical interpretations of Plato Harold F. Cherniss, major Plato
Plato
scholar Archestratus of Phrearrhi, Plato’s next door neighbour

Notes

a. ^ Plato
Plato
is a nickname from the adjective πλατύς platýs "broad". Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
mentions three possible meanings of the nickname:[150]

ἐγυμνάσατο δὲ παρὰ Ἀρίστωνι τῷ Ἀργείῳ παλαιστῇ· ἀφ' οὗ καὶ Πλάτων διὰ τὴν εὐεξίαν μετωνομάσθη, πρότερον Ἀριστοκλῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ πάππου καλούμενος [ὄνομα], καθά φησιν Ἀλέξανδρος ἐν Διαδοχαῖς. ἔνιοι δὲ διὰ τὴν πλατύτητα τῆς ἑρμηνείας οὕτως ὀνομασθῆναι· ἢ ὅτι πλατὺς ἦν τὸ μέτωπον, ὥς φησι Νεάνθης. "And he learnt gymnastics under Ariston, the Argive wrestler. And from him he received the name of Plato
Plato
on account of his robust figure, in place of his original name which was Aristocles, after his grandfather, as Alexander informs us in his Successions of Philosophers. But others affirm that he got the name Plato
Plato
from the breadth of his style, or from the breadth of his forehead, as suggested by Neanthes."

Seneca mentions the meaning of Plato's name in connection to a moral lesson:[151]

Illud simul cogitemus, si mundum ipsum, non minus mortalem quam nos sumus, providentia periculis eximit, posse aliquatenus nostra quoque providentia longiorem prorogari huic corpusculo moram, si voluptates, quibus pars maior perit, potuerimus regere et coercere. Plato
Plato
ipse ad senectutem se diligentia protulit. Erat quidem corpus validum ac forte sortitus et illi nomen latitudo pectoris fecerat, sed navigationes ac pericula multum detraxerant viribus; parsimonia tamen et eorum quae aviditatem evocant modus et diligens sui tutela perduxit illum ad senectutem multis prohibentibus causis. "Let us at the same time reflect, seeing that Providence rescues from its perils the world itself, which is no less mortal than we ourselves, that to some extent our petty bodies can be made to tarry longer upon earth by our own providence, if only we acquire the ability to control and check those pleasures whereby the greater portion of mankind perishes. Plato
Plato
himself, by taking pains, advanced to old age. To be sure, he was the fortunate possessor of a strong and sound body (his very name was given him because of his broad chest); but his strength was much impaired by sea voyages and desperate adventures. Nevertheless, by frugal living, by setting a limit upon all that rouses the appetites, and by painstaking attention to himself, he reached that advanced age in spite of many hindrances."

b. ^ The grammarian Apollodorus of Athens argues in his Chronicles that Plato
Plato
was born in the first year of the eighty-eighth Olympiad (427 BC), on the seventh day of the month Thargelion; according to this tradition the god Apollo
Apollo
was born this day.[152] According to another biographer of him, Neanthes, Plato
Plato
was eighty-four years of age at his death.[152] If we accept Neanthes' version, Plato
Plato
was younger than Isocrates
Isocrates
by six years, and therefore he was born in the second year of the 87th Olympiad, the year Pericles
Pericles
died (429 BC).[153] According to the Suda, Plato
Plato
was born in Aegina
Aegina
in the 88th Olympiad amid the preliminaries of the Peloponnesian war, and he lived 82 years.[154] Sir Thomas Browne
Sir Thomas Browne
also believes that Plato
Plato
was born in the 88th Olympiad.[155] Renaissance
Renaissance
Platonists celebrated Plato's birth on November 7.[156] Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
estimates that Plato
Plato
was born when Diotimos was archon eponymous, namely between July 29, 428 BC and July 24, 427 BC.[157] Greek philologist Ioannis Kalitsounakis believes that the philosopher was born on May 26 or 27, 427 BC, while Jonathan Barnes regards 428 BC as year of Plato's birth.[6][158] For her part, Debra Nails asserts that the philosopher was born in 424/423 BC.[156] According to Seneca Plato
Plato
died at the age of 81 on the same day he was born.[159] c. ^ Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
mentions that Plato
Plato
"was born, according to some writers, in Aegina
Aegina
in the house of Phidiades the son of Thales". Diogenes
Diogenes
mentions as one of his sources the Universal History of Favorinus. According to Favorinus, Ariston, Plato's family, and his family were sent by Athens to settle as cleruchs (colonists retaining their Athenian citizenship), on the island of Aegina, from which they were expelled by the Spartans after Plato's birth there.[160] Nails points out, however, that there is no record of any Spartan expulsion of Athenians from Aegina
Aegina
between 431–411 BC.[161] On the other hand, at the Peace
Peace
of Nicias, Aegina
Aegina
was silently left under Athens' control, and it was not until the summer of 411 that the Spartans overran the island.[162] Therefore, Nails concludes that "perhaps Ariston was a cleruch, perhaps he went to Aegina
Aegina
in 431, and perhaps Plato
Plato
was born on Aegina, but none of this enables a precise dating of Ariston's death (or Plato's birth).[161] Aegina
Aegina
is regarded as Plato's place of birth by Suda
Suda
as well.[154] d. ^ Some editors use the term allegory instead of myth. This is in accordance with the practice in the specialized literature, in which it is common to find that the terms allegory and myth are used as synonyms. Nevertheless, there is a trend among modern scholars to use the term myth and avoid the term allegory, as it is considered more appropriate to modern interpretation of Plato's writings. One of the first to initiate this trend was the Oxford University
Oxford University
professor John Alexander Stewart, in his work The Myths of Plato.

Citations

^ Jones 2006. ^ "...the subject of philosophy, as it is often conceived—a rigorous and systematic examination of ethical, political, metaphysical, and epistemological issues, armed with a distinctive method—can be called his invention" (Kraut, Richard (11 September 2013). Zalta, Edward N., ed. "Plato". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 3 April 2014. ) ^ Cooper, John M.; Hutchinson, D. S., eds. (1997): "Introduction". ^ "The Oldest Surviving Manuscript of Plato's Tetralogies", historyofinformation.co, accessed June 5, 2017: http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=1880. ^ Brumbaugh, Robert Sherrick, " Plato
Plato
for the Modern Age", University Press of America: Lanham, Maryland (1991), p. 199. ^ a b Plato
Plato
at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Whitehead 1978, p. 39. ^ Michel Foucault, The Hermeneutics of the Subject ^ "Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates
Socrates
is usually the main character in many of Plato's writings, he was also influenced by Heraclitus, Parmenides, and the Pythagoreans" (http://www.iep.utm.edu/plato/). ^ Kraut, Richard (11 September 2013). Zalta, Edward N., ed. "Plato". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, III • Nails 2002, p. 53 • Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 2005, p. 46 ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, I ^ a b Guthrie 1986, p. 10 • Taylor 2001, p. xiv • Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 2005, p. 47 ^ Plato, Republic
Republic
368a • Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 2005, p. 47 ^ According to James Adam, some have held that " Glaucon
Glaucon
and Adeimantus were uncles of Plato, but Zeller decides for the usual view that they were brothers" (source). ^ Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.6.1 ^ Nails 2002, p. 247. ^ Nails 2002, p. 246. ^ Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, 1 • Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, I • "Plato". Suda.  ^ Cicero, De Divinatione, I, 36 ^ Nails 2002, p. 53 • Taylor 2001, p. xiv ^ Plato, Charmides 158a • Nails 2003, pp. 228–229 ^ Plato, Charmides 158a • Plutarch, Pericles, IV ^ Plato, Gorgias
Gorgias
481d and Gorgias
Gorgias
513b • Aristophanes, Wasps, 97 ^ Plato, Parmenides
Parmenides
126c ^ Guthrie 1986, p. 11. ^ Kahn 2004, p. 186. ^ Laërtius 1925, § 4. ^ a b David Sedley, Plato's Cratylus, Cambridge University Press 2003, pp. 21–22. ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, IV ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, IV • Notopoulos 1939, p. 135 ^ a b see Tarán 1981, p. 226. ^ Guthrie 1986, p. 12 (footnote). ^ Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, 2 ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, IV • Smith 1870, p. 393 ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, V ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, 1.987a ^ Craig, Edward (ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge. p. 432. ISBN 0415073103.  ^ Jeremiah’s ministry was active from the thirteenth year of Josiah, king of Judah (3298 HC, 463 BCE, until after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon’s Temple
Solomon’s Temple
in 403 BCE (3358 HC.[original research?] ^ Torath Ha'ola (http://hebrewbooks.org/11920, Rabbi Meir Isserles, p. Prague 1570 ch. 1, par. 11. Seder HaDoroth year 3300 (HC). Ma'var Yabok (A. Berekiah), ch. 33 p. 234 ^ McEvoy 1984. ^ Cairns 1961, p. xiii. ^ Robinson 1827, p. 16. ^ Lindberg, David C. 2007. "The Beginnings of Western Science". The University of Chicago Press. page 70 ^ Dillon 2003, pp. 1–3. ^ Press 2000, p. 1. ^ Riginos 1976, p. 73. ^ Not to be confused with Anniceris the Cyrenaic philosopher. ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Book iii, 20 ^ Riginos 1976, p. 194. ^ Schall 1996. ^ a b Riginos 1976, p. 195. ^ R.M. Hare, Plato
Plato
in C.C.W. Taylor, R.M. Hare and Jonathan Barnes, Greek Philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999 (1982), 103–189, here 117–9. ^ Russell, Bertrand (1991). History of Western Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 120–124. ISBN 0-415-07854-7.  ^ a b c McFarlane, Thomas J. "Plato's Parmenides". Integralscience. Retrieved 12 February 2017.  ^ Metaphysics, 1.6.1 (987a) ^ Tusc. Disput. 1.17.39. ^ George Karamanolis (2013). "Numenius". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Research Lab, Stanford University.  ^ a b Large, William. "Heraclitus". Arasite. Retrieved 3 March 2017.  ^ John Palmer. "Parmenides". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ Strauss 1964, pp. 50–51. ^ Chappel, Timothy. "Mythos and Logos
Logos
in Plato". Open University. Retrieved 20 August 2017.  ^ Edelstein, Ludwig (October 1949). "The Function of the Myth in Plato's Philosophy". Journal of the History of Ideas. X (4): 463–481.  ^ Partenie, Catalin. "Plato's Myths". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 29 October 2017.  ^ Baird & Kaufmann 2008. ^ "Plato's The Allegory of the Cave: Meaning and Interpretation". Bachelor and Master. Retrieved February 25, 2017.  ^ Fine 2003, p. 5. ^ McDowell 1973, p. 230. ^ Fine 1979, p. 366. ^ McDowell 1973, p. 256. ^ Taylor 2011, pp. 176–187. ^ Lee 2011, p. 432. ^ Taylor 2011, p. 189. ^ Blössner 2007, pp. 345–349. ^ Plato, Timaeus 44d & Timaeus 70 ^ Dorter 2006, p. 360. ^ Plato, Republic
Republic
488 ^ a b Blössner 2007, p. 350. ^ Republic
Republic
550b ^ Republic
Republic
554a ^ Republic
Republic
561a–b ^ Republic
Republic
571a ^ Dorter 2006, pp. 253–267. ^ Rodriguez-Grandjean 1998. ^ Reale 1990. Cf. p. 14 and onwards. ^ Krämer 1990. Cf. pp. 38–47. ^ Elementa harmonica II, 30–31; quoted in Gaiser 1980, p. 5. ^ Plotinus
Plotinus
describes this in the last part of his final Ennead (VI, 9) entitled On the Good, or the One (Περὶ τἀγαθοῦ ἢ τοῦ ἑνός). Jens Halfwassen states in Der Aufstieg zum Einen' (2006) that "Plotinus' ontology—which should be called Plotinus' henology—is a rather accurate philosophical renewal and continuation of Plato's unwritten doctrine, i.e. the doctrine rediscovered by Krämer and Gaiser." ^ In one of his letters (Epistolae 1612) Ficino
Ficino
writes: "The main goal of the divine Plato
Plato
... is to show one principle of things, which he called the One (τὸ ἕν)", cf. Montoriola 1926, p. 147. ^ Gomperz 1931. ^ Gaiser 1998. ^ For a brief description of the problem see for example Gaiser 1980. A more detailed analysis is given by Krämer 1990. Another description is by Reale 1997 and Reale 1990. A thorough analysis of the consequences of such an approach is given by Szlezak 1999. Another supporter of this interpretation is the German philosopher Karl Albert, cf. Albert 1980 or Albert 1996. Hans-Georg Gadamer
Hans-Georg Gadamer
is also sympathetic towards it, cf. Grondin 2010 and Gadamer 1980. Gadamer's final position on the subject is stated in Gadamer 1997. ^ a b Blackburn 1996, p. 104. ^ Hartz, Louis. 1984. A Synthesis of World History. Zurich: Humanity Press ^ Popper 1962, p. 133. ^ CDC Reeve (Delta Kappa Epsilon Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), A Plato Reader: Eight Essential Dialogues (p. vi), Hackett Publishing, 2012 ISBN 1603849173. ^ Robin Barrow (Professor of Philosophy
Philosophy
of Education
Education
at Simon Fraser University, Canada and Fellow of The Royal Society
Society
of Canada), Plato: Appendix 2: Notes on the authenticity and Groupings of Plato's works, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014 ISBN 1472504852. ^ Platonic Writings/Platonic Readings (page x) (edited by CL Griswold Jr), Penn State Press, 2010 ISBN 0271044810. ^ JM Cooper (Stuart Professor of Philosophy, Princeton University, 1997); DS Hutchinson, Complete Works (p. xii), Hackett Publishing, 1997. ^ H Tarrant (Professor of Classics at the University of Newcastle, New South Wales), Plato's First Interpreters, Cornell University Press, 2000 ISBN 080143792X. ^ B Jowett, Menexenus: Appendix I (1st paragraph). ^ The extent to which scholars consider a dialogue to be authentic is noted in Cooper 1997, pp. v–vi. ^ Bloom 1982, p. 5. ^ Burnet 1928b, p. 9. ^ Aristotle, Politics
Politics
1264b24-27. ^ a b Cooper 1997, p. xiv. ^ Kraut 2013; Schofield 2002; and Rowe 2006. ^ Brickhouse & Smith. ^ See Guthrie 1986; Vlastos 1991; Penner 1992; Kahn 1996; Fine 1999b. ^ a b c Dodds 2004. ^ a b Brandwood 1990, p. 251. ^ Brandwood 1990, p. 77. ^ Meinwald 1991. ^ "The time is not long after the death of Socrates; for the Pythagoreans [Echecrates & co.] have not heard any details yet" (Burnet 1911, p. 5). ^ Burnet 1928a, §177. ^ Cooper 1997, p. vii. ^ C. U. M. Smith - Brain, Mind
Mind
and Consciousness in the History of Neuroscience (page 1) Springer Science
Science
& Business, 1 Jan 2014, 374 pages, Volume 6 of History, philosophy and theory of the life sciences SpringerLink : Bücher ISBN 9401787743 [Retrieved 2015-06-27] ^ Lackner 2001, p. 21. ^ See Burrell 1998 and Hasse 2002, pp. 33–45. ^ Harris, Jonathan (2002). "Byzantines in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy". ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. College of Staten Island, City University of New York. Archived from the original on 30 September 2003. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ Boyer 1991, p. 86: ' Plato
Plato
is important in the history of mathematics largely for his role as inspirer and director of others, and perhaps to him is due the sharp distinction in ancient Greece between arithmetic (in the sense of the theory of numbers) and logistic (the technique of computation). Plato
Plato
regarded logistic as appropriate for the businessman and for the man of war, who "must learn the art of numbers or he will not know how to array his troops." The philosopher, on the other hand, must be an arithmetician "because he has to arise out of the sea of change and lay hold of true being."' ^ Einstein 1949, pp. 683–684. ^ Brumbaugh & Wells 1989. ^ Irwin 2011, pp. 64 & 74. See also Slings 1987, p. 34: "... primary MSS. together offer a text of tolerably good quality" (this is without the further corrections of other sources). ^ Slings 1987, p. 31. ^ Cooper 1997, pp. viii–xii. ^ "Manuscripts – Philosophy
Philosophy
Faculty Library". 2 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Dodds 1959, pp. 35–36. ^ Dodds 1959, p. 37. ^ RD McKirahan, Philosophy
Philosophy
Before Socrates: An Introduction with Texts and Commentary (2nd ed.), Hackett Publishing, 2011, p. 1 ISBN 1603846123. ^ RS Brumbaugh, Plato
Plato
for the Modern Age (p. 199), University Press of America, 1991 ISBN 0819183563. ^ J Duffy Byzantine Philosophy
Philosophy
and Its Ancient Sources: "The lonely mission of Michael Psellos" edited by K Ierodiakonou (Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0199269718. ^ Dodds 1959, p. 39. ^ Irwin 2011, p. 71. ^ Slings 2003, p. xxiii. ^ J Hankins, Plato
Plato
in the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
Vol. 1 (p. 300), BRILL, 1990 ISBN 9004091610. ^ Allen 1975, p. 12. ^ Platonis opera quae extant omnia edidit Henricus Stephanus, Genevae, 1578. ^ Suzanne 2009. ^ Cooper 1997, pp. xii & xxvii. ^ Oxford Classical Texts – Classical Studies & Ancient History Series. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press ^ Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics – Series. Cambridge University Press ^ Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries. Cambridge University Press ^ Irwin 1979, pp. vi & 11. ^ Dodds 1959. ^ Fine 1999a, p. 482. ^ Complete Works – Philosophy ^ Clarendon Plato
Plato
Series – Philosophy
Philosophy
Series. Oxford University Press ^ Cornell University Press : Agora
Agora
Editions ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, 3.4; translation by Robert Drew Hicks ^ Seneca, Epistulae, VI 58:29-30; translation by Robert Mott Gummere ^ a b Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, II ^ Nietzsche 1967, p. 32. ^ a b "Plato". Suda.  ^ Browne 1672. ^ a b Nails 2006, p. 1. ^ Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 2005, p. 46. ^ "Plato". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios Volume V (in Greek). 1952.  ^ Seneca, Epistulae, VI, 58, 31: natali suo decessit et annum umum atque octogensimum. ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius, Life of Plato, III ^ a b Nails 2002, p. 54. ^ Thucydides, 5.18 • Thucydides, 8.92

References Primary sources (Greek and Roman)

Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, I. See original text in Latin Library. Aristophanes, The Wasps. See original text in Perseus program. Aristotle, Metaphysics. See original text in Perseus program. Cicero, De Divinatione, I. See original text in Latin library.  Laërtius, Diogenes
Diogenes
(1925). "Plato". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 1:3. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library.  Plato.  Charmides. Jowett, Benjamin (translator). Wikisource.  See original text in Perseus program. Plato.  Gorgias. Jowett Benjamin (translator). Wikisource.  See original text in Perseus program. Plato
Plato
(1903). Parmenides. Translated by Burnet, John. Oxford University.  republished by: Crane, Gregory (ed.). "Perseus Digital Library Project".  Plato.  The Republic. Jowett Benjamin (translator). Wikisource.  See original text in Perseus program. Plutarch
Plutarch
(1683) [written in the late 1st century]. " Pericles". Lives. Dryden, John (translator). Wikisource.  See original text in Perseus program. Seneca the Younger.   Moral Letters to Lucilius: Letter 58. Translated by Richard Mott Gummere. Wikisource.  See original text in Latin Library. Thucydides.  History of the Peloponnesian War. Crawley, Richard (translator). Wikisource. , V, VIII. See original text in Perseus program. Xenophon, Memorabilia. See original text in Perseus program.

Secondary sources

Albert, Karl (1980). Griechische Religion und platonische Philosophie. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.  Albert, Karl (1996). Einführung in die philosophische Mystik. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.  Allen, Michael J. B. (1975). "Introduction". Marsilio Ficino: The Philebus
Philebus
Commentary. University of California Press. pp. 1–58.  Baird, Forrest E.; Kaufmann, Walter, eds. (2008). Philosophic Classics: From Plato
Plato
to Derrida (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6.  Blackburn, Simon (1996). The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford University Press.  Bloom, Harold (1982). Agon. Oxford: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Blössner, Norbert (2007). "The City- Soul
Soul
Analogy". In Ferrari, G. R. F. The Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic. Translated from the German by G. R. F. Ferrari. Cambridge University Press.  Borody, W. A. (1998). "Figuring the Phallogocentric Argument with Respect to the Classical Greek Philosophical Tradition". Nebula, A Netzine of the Arts and Science. 13: 1–27.  Boyer, Carl B. (1991). Merzbach, Uta C., ed. A History of Mathematics (Second ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-54397-7.  Brandwood, Leonard (1990). The Chronology of Plato's Dialogues. Cambridge University Press.  Brickhouse, Thomas; Smith, Nicholas D. Fieser, James; Dowden, Bradley, eds. "Plato". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  Browne, Sir Thomas (1672). "XII". Pseudodoxia Epidemica. IV (6th ed.).  Brumbaugh, Robert S.; Wells, Rulon S. (October 1989). "Completing Yale's Microfilm Project". The Yale University Library Gazette. 64 (1/2): 73–75. JSTOR 40858970.  Burnet, John (1911). Plato's Phaedo. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Burnet, John (1928a). Greek Philosophy: Part I: Thales
Thales
to Plato. MacMillan.  Burnet, John (1928b). Platonism. University of California Press.  Cairns, Huntington (1961). "Introduction". In Hamilton, Edith; Cairns, Huntington. The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters. Princeton University Press.  Burrell, David (1998). " Platonism
Platonism
in Islamic Philosophy". In Craig, Edward. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 7. Routledge. pp. 429–430.  Cooper, John M.; Hutchinson, D. S., eds. (1997). Plato: Complete Works. Hackett Publishing.  Dillon, John (2003). The Heirs of Plato: A Study of the Old Academy. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Dodds, E. R. (1959). Plato
Plato
Gorgias. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Dodds, E. R. (2004) [1951]. The Greeks and the Irrational. University of California Press.  Dorter, Kenneth (2006). The Transformation of Plato's Republic. Lexington Books.  Einstein, Albert (1949). "Remarks to the Essays Appearing in this Collective Volume". In Schilpp. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. The Library of Living Philosophers. 7. MJF Books. pp. 663–688.  Fine, Gail (July 1979). " Knowledge
Knowledge
and Logos
Logos
in the Theaetetus". Philosophical Review. 88 (3).  Reprinted in Fine 2003. Fine, Gail (1999a). "Selected Bibliography". Plato
Plato
1: Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Epistemology. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. pp. 481–494.  Fine, Gail (1999b). "Introduction". Plato
Plato
2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. pp. 1–33.  Fine, Gail (2003). "Introduction". Plato
Plato
on Knowledge
Knowledge
and Forms: Selected Essays. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Gadamer, Hans-Georg (1980) [1968]. "Plato's Unwritten Dialectic". Dialogue
Dialogue
and Dialectic. Yale University Press. pp. 124–155.  Gadamer, Hans-Georg (1997). "Introduzione". In Girgenti, Giuseppe. La nuova interpretazione di Platone. Milan: Rusconi Libri.  Gaiser, Konrad (1980). "Plato's Enigmatic Lecture 'On the Good'". Phronesis. 25 (1): 5–37. doi:10.1163/156852880x00025.  Gaiser, Konrad (1998). Reale, Giovanni, ed. Testimonia Platonica: Le antiche testimonianze sulle dottrine non scritte di Platone. Milan: Vita e Pensiero.  First published as "Testimonia Platonica. Quellentexte zur Schule und mündlichen Lehre Platons" as an appendix to Gaiser's Platons Ungeschriebene Lehre, Stuttgart, 1963. Gomperz, H. (1931). "Plato's System of Philosophy". In Ryle, G. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Philosophy. London. pp. 426–431.  Reprinted in Gomperz, H. (1953). Philosophical Studies. Boston: Christopher Publishing House 1953, pp. 119–24. Grondin, Jean (2010). "Gadamer and the Tübingen School". In Gill, Christopher; Renaud, François. Hermeneutic Philosophy
Philosophy
and Plato: Gadamer's Response to the Philebus. Academia Verlag. pp. 139–156.  Guthrie, W.K.C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy: Volume 4, Plato: The Man and His Dialogues: Earlier Period. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31101-2.  Hasse, Dag Nikolaus (2002). " Plato
Plato
arabico-latinus". In Gersh; Hoenen. The Platonic Tradition in the Middle Ages: A Doxographic Approach. De Gruyter. pp. 33–66.  Irwin, T. H. (1979). Plato: Gorgias. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Irwin, T. H. (2011). "The Platonic Corpus". In Fine, G. The Oxford Handbook of Plato. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Jones, Daniel (2006). Roach, Peter; Hartman, James; Setter, Jane, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (17 ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Kahn, Charles H. (1996). Plato
Plato
and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64830-0.  Kierkegaard, Søren (1992). "Plato". The Concept
Concept
of Irony. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-02072-3.  Krämer, Hans Joachim (1990). Catan, John R., ed. Plato
Plato
and the Foundations of Metaphysics: A Work on the Theory of the Principles and Unwritten Doctrines of Plato
Plato
with a Collection of the Fundamental Documents. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0433-1.  Lee, M.-K. (2011). "The Theaetetus". In Fine, G. The Oxford Handbook of Plato. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. pp. 411–436.  Kraut, Richard (11 September 2013). Zalta, Edward N., ed. "Plato". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  Lackner, D. F. (2001). "The Camaldolese Academy: Ambrogio Traversari, Marsilio Ficino
Ficino
and the Christian Platonic Tradition". In Allen; Rees. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy. Brill.  Meinwald, Constance Chu (1991). Plato's Parmenides. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  McDowell, J. (1973). Plato: Theaetetus. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  McEvoy, James (1984). " Plato
Plato
and The Wisdom
Wisdom
of Egypt". Irish Philosophical Journal. Belfast: Dept. of Scholastic Philosophy, Queen's University of Belfast. 1 (2). ISSN 0266-9080. Archived from the original on 2007-12-05. Retrieved 2007-12-03.  Montoriola, Karl Markgraf von (1926). Briefe Des Mediceerkreises Aus Marsilio Ficino's Epistolarium. Berlin: Juncker.  Nails, Debra (2002). The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato
Plato
and Other Socratics. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-564-9.  Nails, Debra (2006). "The Life of Plato
Plato
of Athens". In Benson, Hugh H. A Companion to Plato. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1521-1.  Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1967). "Vorlesungsaufzeichnungen". Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe (in German). Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-013912-X.  Notopoulos, A. (April 1939). "The Name of Plato". Classical Philology. The University of Chicago Press. 34 (2): 135–145. doi:10.1086/362227.  Penner, Terry (1992). " Socrates
Socrates
and the Early Dialogues". In Kraut, Richard. The Cambridge Companion to Plato. Cambridge University Press. pp. 121–169.  Plato
Plato
at Encyclopædia Britannica "Plato". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios Volume XVI (in Greek). 1952.  "Plato". Suda. 10th century.  Popper, K. (1962). The Open Society
Society
and its Enemies. 1. London: Routledge.  Press, Gerald Alan (2000). "Introduction". In Press, Gerald Alan. Who Speaks for Plato?: Studies in Platonic Anonymity. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 1–14.  Reale, Giovanni (1990). Catan, John R., ed. Plato
Plato
and Aristotle. A History of Ancient Philosophy. 2. State University of New York Press.  Reale, Giovanni (1997). Toward a New Interpretation of Plato. Washington, D.C.: CUA Press.  Riginos, Alice (1976). Platonica : the anecdotes concerning the life and writings of Plato. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-04565-1.  Robinson, John (1827). Archæologica Græca (Second ed.). London: A. J. Valpy. Archived from the original on 2014-07-01. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  Rodriguez-Grandjean, Pablo (1998). Philosophy
Philosophy
and Dialogue: Plato's Unwritten Doctrines from a Hermeneutical Point of View. Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy. Boston.  Rowe, Christopher (2006). "Interpreting Plato". In Benson, Hugh H. A Companion to Plato. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 13–24.  Schall, James V. (Summer 1996). "On the Death of Plato". The American Scholar. 65.  Schofield, Malcolm (23 August 2002). Craig, Edward, ed. "Plato". Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  Sedley, David (2003). Plato's Cratylus. Cambridge University Press.  Slings, S. R. (1987). "Remarks on Some Recent Papyri of the Politeia". Mnemosyne. Fourth. 40 (1/2): 27–34. doi:10.1163/156852587x00030.  Slings, S. R. (2003). Platonis Rempublicam. Oxford University Press.  Smith, William (1870). "Plato". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.  Strauss, Leo (1964). The City and the Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  Suzanne, Bernard (8 March 2009). "The Stephanus edition". Plato
Plato
and his dialogues. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  Szlezak, Thomas A. (1999). Reading Plato. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18984-5.  Tarán, Leonardo (1981). Speusippus
Speusippus
of Athens. Brill Publishers.  Tarán, Leonardo (2001). "Plato's Alleged Epitaph". Collected Papers 1962-1999. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004123040.  Taylor, Alfred Edward (2001) [1937]. Plato: The Man and His Work. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41605-4.  Taylor, C. C. W. (2011). "Plato's Epistemology". In Fine, G. The Oxford Handbook of Plato. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. pp. 165–190.  Vlastos, Gregory (1991). Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Cambridge University Press.  Whitehead, Alfred North (1978). Process and Reality. New York: The Free Press.  Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von (2005) [1917]. Plato: His Life and Work (translated in Greek by Xenophon
Xenophon
Armyros). Kaktos. ISBN 960-382-664-2. 

Further reading

Alican, Necip Fikri (2012). Rethinking Plato: A Cartesian Quest for the Real Plato. Amsterdam and New York: Editions Rodopi B.V. ISBN 978-90-420-3537-9.  Allen, R. E. (1965). Studies in Plato's Metaphysics
Metaphysics
II. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0710036264 Ambuel, David (2007). Image and Paradigm in Plato's Sophist. Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-04-9 Arieti, James A. Interpreting Plato: The Dialogues as Drama, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-8476-7662-5 Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales
Thales
to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 Barrow, Robin (2007). Plato: Continuum Library of Educational Thought. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-8408-5.  Cadame, Claude (1999). Indigenous and Modern Perspectives on Tribal Initiation Rites: Education
Education
According to Plato, pp. 278–312, in Padilla, Mark William (editor), "Rites of Passage in Ancient Greece: Literature, Religion, Society", Bucknell University
Bucknell University
Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8387-5418-X Cooper, John M.; Hutchinson, D.S., eds. (1997). Plato: Complete Works. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 0-87220-349-2.  Corlett, J. Angelo (2005). Interpreting Plato's Dialogues. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-02-5 Durant, Will (1926). The Story of Philosophy. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-69500-2.  Derrida, Jacques (1972). La dissémination, Paris: Seuil. (esp. cap.: La Pharmacie de Platon, 69–199) ISBN 2-02-001958-2 Field, G. C. (1969). The Philosophy
Philosophy
of Plato
Plato
(2nd ed. with an appendix by Cross, R. C. ed.). London: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-888040-5.  Fine, Gail (2000). Plato
Plato
1: Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Epistemology
Epistemology
Oxford University Press, US, ISBN 0-19-875206-7 Finley, M. I. (1969). Aspects of antiquity: Discoveries and Controversies The Viking Press, Inc., USA Garvey, James (2006). Twenty Greatest Philosophy
Philosophy
Books. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-9053-0.  Guthrie, W. K. C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy (Plato – The Man & His Dialogues – Earlier Period), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-31101-2 Guthrie, W. K. C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy
Philosophy
(Later Plato & the Academy) Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-31102-0 Havelock, Eric (2005). Preface to Plato
Plato
(History of the Greek Mind), Belknap Press, ISBN 0-674-69906-8 Hamilton, Edith; Cairns, Huntington, eds. (1961). The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters. Princeton Univ. Press. ISBN 0-691-09718-6.  Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press
publishes the hardbound series Loeb Classical Library, containing Plato's works in Greek, with English translations on facing pages. Irvine, Andrew David (2008). Socrates
Socrates
on Trial: A play based on Aristophanes' Clouds and Plato's Apology, Crito, and Phaedo, adapted for modern performance. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  ISBN 978-0-8020-9783-5 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-8020-9538-1 (paper) Hermann, Arnold (2010). Plato's Parmenides: Text, Translation & Introductory Essay, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-71-1 Irwin, Terence (1995). Plato's Ethics, Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, USA, ISBN 0-19-508645-7 Jackson, Roy (2001). Plato: A Beginner's Guide. London: Hoder & Stroughton. ISBN 0-340-80385-1.  Jowett, Benjamin (1892). [The Dialogues of Plato. Translated into English with analyses and introductions by B. Jowett.], Oxford Clarendon Press, UK, UIN:BLL01002931898 Kochin, Michael S. (2002). Gender and Rhetoric
Rhetoric
in Plato's Political Thought. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-80852-9.  Kraut, Richard, ed. (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Plato. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43610-9.  Lilar, Suzanne (1954), Journal de l'analogiste, Paris, Éditions Julliard; Reedited 1979, Paris, Grasset. Foreword by Julien Gracq Lilar, Suzanne (1963), Le couple, Paris, Grasset. Translated as Aspects of Love
Love
in Western Society
Society
in 1965, with a foreword by Jonathan Griffin London, Thames and Hudson. Lilar, Suzanne (1967) A propos de Sartre et de l'amour , Paris, Grasset. Lundberg, Phillip (2005). Tallyho - The Hunt for Virtue: Beauty, Truth and Goodness Nine Dialogues by Plato: Pheadrus, Lysis, Protagoras, Charmides, Parmenides, Gorgias, Theaetetus, Meno
Meno
& Sophist. Authorhouse. ISBN 1-4184-4977-6.  Márquez, Xavier (2012) A Stranger's Knowledge: Statesmanship, Philosophy
Philosophy
& Law
Law
in Plato's Statesman, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-79-7 Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-19-517510-7.  Miller, Mitchell (2004). The Philosopher
Philosopher
in Plato's Statesman. Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-16-2 Mohr, Richard D. (2006). God and Forms in Plato
Plato
- and other Essays in Plato's Metaphysics. Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-01-8 Mohr, Richard D. (Ed.), Sattler, Barbara M. (Ed.) (2010) One Book, The Whole Universe: Plato's Timaeus Today, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-32-2 Moore, Edward (2007). Plato. Philosophy
Philosophy
Insights Series. Tirril, Humanities-Ebooks. ISBN 978-1-84760-047-9 Nightingale, Andrea Wilson. (1995). "Genres in Dialogue: Plato
Plato
and the Construct of Philosophy", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48264-X Oxford University
Oxford University
Press publishes scholarly editions of Plato's Greek texts in the Oxford Classical Texts series, and some translations in the Clarendon Plato
Plato
Series. Patterson, Richard (Ed.), Karasmanis, Vassilis (Ed.), Hermann, Arnold (Ed.) (2013) Presocratics & Plato: Festschrift at Delphi
Delphi
in Honor of Charles Kahn, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-75-9 Sallis, John (1996). Being
Being
and Logos: Reading the Platonic Dialogues. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21071-2.  Sallis, John (1999). Chorology: On Beginning in Plato's "Timaeus". Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21308-8.  Sayre, Kenneth M. (2005). Plato's Late Ontology: A Riddle Resolved. Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-09-4 Seung, T. K. (1996). Plato
Plato
Rediscovered: Human Value and Social Order. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8112-2 Smith, William. (1867). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. University of Michigan/Online version.  Stewart, John. (2010). Kierkegaard and the Greek World – Socrates
Socrates
and Plato. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-6981-4 Thesleff, Holger (2009). Platonic Patterns: A Collection of Studies by Holger Thesleff, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-29-2 Thomas Taylor has translated Plato's complete works. Thomas Taylor (1804). The Works of Plato, viz. His Fifty-Five Dialogues and Twelve Epistles 5 vols Vlastos, Gregory (1981). Platonic Studies, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-10021-7 Vlastos, Gregory (2006). Plato's Universe – with a new Introducution by Luc Brisson, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-13-1 Zuckert, Catherine (2009). Plato's Philosophers: The Coherence of the Dialogues, The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-99335-5

External links

Find more aboutPlatoat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Greek Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Platon

Works available on-line:

Works by Plato
Plato
at Perseus Project – Greek & English hyperlinked text Works of Plato
Plato
(Jowett, 1892) Works by Plato
Plato
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Plato
Plato
at Internet Archive Works by Plato
Plato
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Plato
Plato
complete works, annotated and searchable, at ELPENOR Quick Links to Plato's Dialogues (English, Greek, French, Spanish) The Dialogues of Plato
Plato
with Apocryphal Works from Loeb Classical Library edition (1925–1968)

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

Plato Plato's Organicism Plato's Phaedo Plato's Political
Political
Philosophy Plato's Republic Plato's Theaetetus Plato's Academy Middle Platonism Neoplatonism

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

Plato Plato's Ethics Plato's Ethics
Ethics
and Politics
Politics
in The Republic Friendship
Friendship
and Eros Middle Period Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Epistemology Plato
Plato
on Utopia Rhetoric
Rhetoric
and Poetry

Other resources:

Plato
Plato
at the Indiana Philosophy
Philosophy
Ontology
Ontology
Project Plato
Plato
at PhilPapers  " Plato
Plato
and Platonism". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.  Website on Plato
Plato
and his works: Plato
Plato
and his dialogues by Bernard Suzanne Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

v t e

Plato

Life

Early life Platonism Platonic epistemology Platonic idealism Platonic realism Platonic love Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
and Gnosticism Platonism
Platonism
in the Renaissance Demiurge Theory of Forms Transcendentals Form of the Good Third man argument Euthyphro
Euthyphro
dilemma Five regimes Philosopher
Philosopher
king Unwritten doctrines Cultural influence of Plato's Republic

Works

Uncontested

Apology Charmides Cratylus Critias Crito Euthydemus Euthyphro Gorgias Hippias Minor Ion Laches

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 228

Laws

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 23

Lysis Menexenus Meno Parmenides Phaedo

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 229

Phaedrus Philebus Protagoras Republic Sophist Statesman Symposium Theaetetus Timaeus

Of doubtful authenticity

Axiochus Clitophon Definitions Demodocus Epigrams Epinomis Epistles

Letter I Letter II Letter IV Letter V Letter VI Letter VII Letter IX Letter X Letter XI Letter XII

Eryxias First Alcibiades Halcyon Hipparchus Hippias Major Minos On Justice On Virtue Rival Lovers Second Alcibiades Sisyphus Theages

Allegories and metaphors

Atlantis Ring of Gyges The Cave The Divided Line The Sun Ship of State Myth of Er The Chariot Allegorical interpretations of Plato

Related

Commentaries The Academy
Academy
in Athens Socratic problem Middle Platonism Neoplatonism

and Christianity

Poitier Meets Plato List of speakers in Plato's dialogues

Plato's Dream

Family

Ariston of Athens
Ariston of Athens
(father) Pyrilampes
Pyrilampes
(stepfather) Perictione
Perictione
(mother) Adeimantus of Collytus
Adeimantus of Collytus
(brother) Glaucon
Glaucon
(brother) Potone
Potone
(sister) Speusippus
Speusippus
(nephew)

Articles related to Plato

v t e

Platonists

Academics

Old

Plato Speusippus Heraclides Ponticus Menedemus of Pyrrha Eudoxus of Cnidus Philip of Opus Xenocrates Crantor Polemon Crates of Athens

Middle

Arcesilaus Lacydes Telecles Evander Hegesinus

New

Carneades Clitomachus Charmadas Philo
Philo
of Larissa

Middle Platonists

Antiochus Philo
Philo
of Alexandria Plutarch Albinus Alcinous Atticus Maximus of Tyre Numenius of Apamea Longinus Origen the Pagan

Neoplatonists

Ammonius Saccas Plotinus Disciples of Plotinus Amelius Porphyry Iamblichus Sopater Sosipatra Aedesius Dexippus Chrysanthius Julian Sallustius Maximus of Ephesus Eusebius
Eusebius
of Myndus Antoninus Hypatia Plutarch
Plutarch
of Athens Macrobius Asclepigenia Hierocles Syrianus Hermias Aedesia Proclus Ammonius Hermiae Asclepiodotus Marinus Zenodotus Hegias Isidore Damascius Simplicius Priscian Olympiodorus John Philoponus

v t e

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
schools of philosophy

Pre-Socratic

Schools

Atomism Eleatics Ionian

Ephesian Milesian

Pluralism Pythagoreanism Sophistic

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Democritus Empedocles Heraclitus Leucippus Melissus Parmenides Protagoras Pythagoras Thales Zeno of Elea

Socratic

Schools

Cynicism Cyrenaics Eretrian school Megarian school Peripateticism Platonism

Philosophers

Antisthenes Aristippus Aristotle Diogenes
Diogenes
of Sinope Euclid
Euclid
of Megara Phaedo
Phaedo
of Elis Plato Socrates

Hellenistic

Schools

Epicureanism Neoplatonism Neopythagoreanism Pyrrhonism Stoicism

Philosophers

Apollonius of Tyana Augustine Epictetus Epicurus John Philoponus Lucretius Plotinus Proclus Pyrrho Sextus Empiricus Zeno of Citium

v t e

Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography

Periods

Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece

Geography

Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies

City states Politics Military

City states

Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes

Politics

Boeotarch Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League

Athenian

Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphē paranómōn Heliaia Ostracism

Spartan

Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost

Macedon

Synedrion Koinon

Military

Wars Athenian military Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston

People

List of ancient Greeks

Rulers

Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes
Diogenes
of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno

Authors

Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon

Others

Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles

Groups

Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants

By culture

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes Thracian
Thracian
Greeks Ancient Macedonians

Society Culture

Society

Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine

Arts and science

Architecture

Greek Revival architecture

Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music

Musical system

Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre

Religion

Funeral and burial practices Mythology

mythological figures

Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld

Sacred places

Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia

Structures

Athenian Treasury Lion Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos

Temples

Aphaea Artemis Athena Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia

Language

Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian

Koine

Writing

Linear A Linear B Cypriot syllabary Greek alphabet Greek numerals Attic numerals

Lists

Cities

in Epirus

People Place names Stoae Temples Theatres

Category Portal

v t e

Aristotelianism

Overview

Peripatetic school Physics Biology Ethics Logic Theology (unmoved mover)

Ideas and interests

Correspondence theory of truth Hexis Virtue
Virtue
ethics (golden mean) Four causes Telos Phronesis Eudaimonia Arete Temporal finitism Antiperistasis Philosophy
Philosophy
of nature (sublunary sphere) Potentiality and actuality Universals (substantial form) Hylomorphism Mimesis Catharsis Substance (hypokeimenon, ousia, transcendentals) Essence–accident Category of being Minima naturalia Magnanimity Sensus communis Rational animal Genus–differentia Mythos

Corpus Aristotelicum

Physics Organon Nicomachean Ethics Politics Metaphysics On the Soul Rhetoric Poetics

Followers

Alexander the Great Theophrastus Avicenna Averroes Maimonides Thomas Aquinas Mortimer Adler Alasdair MacIntyre Martha Nussbaum

Related topics

Platonism Commentaries on Aristotle Recovery of Aristotle Scholasticism Conimbricenses Pseudo-Aristotle Views on women Aristotle's wheel paradox Aristotle's razor

Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

v t e

Metaphysics

Metaphysicians

Parmenides Plato Aristotle Plotinus Duns Scotus Thomas Aquinas Francisco Suárez Nicolas Malebranche René Descartes John Locke David Hume Thomas Reid Immanuel Kant Isaac Newton Arthur Schopenhauer Baruch Spinoza Georg W. F. Hegel George Berkeley Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Henri Bergson Friedrich Nietzsche Charles Sanders Peirce Joseph Maréchal Ludwig Wittgenstein Martin Heidegger Alfred N. Whitehead Bertrand Russell Dorothy Emmet G. E. Moore Jean-Paul Sartre Gilbert Ryle Hilary Putnam P. F. Strawson R. G. Collingwood Adolph Stöhr Rudolf Carnap Saul Kripke Willard V. O. Quine G. E. M. Anscombe Donald Davidson Michael Dummett David Malet Armstrong David Lewis Alvin Plantinga Peter van Inwagen Derek Parfit more ...

Theories

Abstract object theory Action theory Anti-realism Determinism Dualism Enactivism Essentialism Existentialism Free will Idealism Libertarianism Liberty Materialism Meaning of life Monism Naturalism Nihilism Phenomenalism Realism Physicalism Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality Platonic idealism Relativism Scientific realism Solipsism Subjectivism Substance theory Type theory

Concepts

Abstract object Anima mundi Being Category of being Causality Choice Cogito ergo sum Concept Embodied cognition Entity Essence Existence Experience Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Identity and change Information Insight Intelligence Intention Linguistic modality Matter Meaning Memetics Mental representation Mind Motion Necessity Notion Object Pattern Perception Physical body Principle Property Qualia Quality Reality Soul Subject Substantial form Thought Time Truth Type–token distinction Universal Unobservable Value more ...

Related topics

Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Meta- Ontology Philosophy
Philosophy
of mind Philosophy
Philosophy
of psychology Philosophy
Philosophy
of self Philosophy
Philosophy
of space and time Teleology Theoretical physics

Category Portal

v t e

Epistemology

Epistemologists

Thomas Aquinas Augustine
Augustine
of Hippo William Alston Robert Audi A. J. Ayer George Berkeley Laurence BonJour René Descartes John Dewey Fred Dretske Edmund Gettier Roger Gibson Alvin Goldman Nelson Goodman Paul Grice David Hume Immanuel Kant Søren Kierkegaard Saul Kripke David Lewis John Locke G. E. Moore Robert Nozick Alvin Plantinga Plato Hilary Putnam Thomas Reid Gilbert Ryle P. F. Strawson Willard Van Orman Quine Bertrand Russell Baruch Spinoza Timothy Williamson Ludwig Wittgenstein Nicholas Wolterstorff Vienna Circle

Theories

Coherentism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Determinism Empiricism Evolutionary epistemology Fallibilism Feminist epistemology Fideism Foundationalism Genetic epistemology Holism Infinitism Innatism Internalism and externalism Naïve realism Naturalized epistemology Phenomenalism Positivism Reductionism Reliabilism Representative realism Rationalism Skepticism Theory of forms Transcendental idealism Uniformitarianism

Concepts

A priori knowledge Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction Belief Causality Common sense Descriptive knowledge Exploratory thought Gettier problem Justification Knowledge Induction Objectivity Problem of induction Problem of other minds Perception Proposition Regress argument Simplicity Speculative reason Truth more...

Related articles

Outline of epistemology Alethiology Faith and rationality Formal epistemology Meta-epistemology Philosophy
Philosophy
of perception Philosophy
Philosophy
of science Social epistemology

Portal Category Task Force Stubs Discussion

v t e

Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy
Philosophy
and economics Philosophy
Philosophy
of education Philosophy
Philosophy
of history Philosophy
Philosophy
of love Philosophy
Philosophy
of sex Philosophy
Philosophy
of social science Political
Political
ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

v t e

The Seven Virtues in Christian ethics

Great Commandment; "All the Law
Law
and the Prophets hang on these two commandments." – Matthew 22:35-40

Four Cardinal virtues

Prudence
Prudence
(Prudentia) Justice
Justice
(Iustitia) Fortitude (Fortitudo) Temperance (Temperantia)

Sources: Plato

Republic, Book IV

Cicero Ambrose Augustine
Augustine
of Hippo Thomas Aquinas

Three Theological virtues

Faith (Fides) Hope (Spes) Love
Love
(Caritas)

Sources: Paul the Apostle

1 Corinthians 13

Seven deadly sins

Lust
Lust
(Luxuria) Gluttony
Gluttony
(Gula) Greed
Greed
(Avaritia) Sloth (Acedia) Wrath (Ira) Envy
Envy
(Invidia) Pride
Pride
(Superbia)

Source: Prudentius, Psychomachia

People: Evagrius Ponticus John Cassian Pope Gregory I Dante Alighieri Peter Binsfeld

Related concepts

Ten Commandments Eschatology Sin

Original sin

Old Covenant Hamartiology

Christian ethics Christian philosophy Christianity portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

v t e

Ethics

Theories

Casuistry Consequentialism Deontology

Kantian ethics

Ethics
Ethics
of care Existentialist ethics Meta-ethics Particularism Pragmatic ethics Role ethics Virtue
Virtue
ethics

Concepts

Autonomy Axiology Belief Conscience Consent Equality Care Free will Good and evil Happiness Ideal Justice Morality Norm Freedom Principles Suffering
Suffering
or Pain Stewardship Sympathy Trust Value Virtue Wrong full index...

Philosophers

Laozi Plato Aristotle Diogenes Valluvar Cicero Confucius Augustine
Augustine
of Hippo Mencius Mozi Xunzi Thomas Aquinas Baruch Spinoza David Hume Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Søren Kierkegaard Henry Sidgwick Friedrich Nietzsche G. E. Moore Karl Barth Paul Tillich Dietrich Bonhoeffer Philippa Foot John Rawls John Dewey Bernard Williams J. L. Mackie G. E. M. Anscombe William Frankena Alasdair MacIntyre R. M. Hare Peter Singer Derek Parfit Thomas Nagel Robert Merrihew Adams Charles Taylor Joxe Azurmendi Christine Korsgaard Martha Nussbaum more...

Applied ethics

Bioethics Business ethics Discourse ethics Engineering ethics Environmental ethics Legal ethics Media ethics Medical ethics Nursing ethics Professional ethics Sexual ethics Ethics
Ethics
of eating meat Ethics
Ethics
of technology

Related articles

Christian ethics Descriptive ethics Ethics
Ethics
in religion Evolutionary ethics Feminist ethics History of ethics Ideology Islamic ethics Jewish ethics Normative ethics Philosophy
Philosophy
of law Political
Political
philosophy Population ethics Social philosophy

Portal Category

v t e

Philosophy
Philosophy
of language

Philosophers

Plato
Plato
(Cratylus) Gorgias Confucius Xunzi Aristotle Stoics Pyrrhonists Scholasticism Ibn Rushd Ibn Khaldun Thomas Hobbes Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Johann Herder Ludwig Noiré Wilhelm von Humboldt Fritz Mauthner Paul Ricœur Ferdinand de Saussure Gottlob Frege Franz Boas Paul Tillich Edward Sapir Leonard Bloomfield Zhuangzi Henri Bergson Lev Vygotsky Ludwig Wittgenstein

Philosophical Investigations Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Bertrand Russell Rudolf Carnap Jacques Derrida

Of Grammatology Limited Inc

Benjamin Lee Whorf Gustav Bergmann J. L. Austin Noam Chomsky Hans-Georg Gadamer Saul Kripke A. J. Ayer G. E. M. Anscombe Jaakko Hintikka Michael Dummett Donald Davidson Roger Gibson Paul Grice Gilbert Ryle P. F. Strawson Willard Van Orman Quine Hilary Putnam David Lewis John Searle Joxe Azurmendi Scott Soames Stephen Yablo John Hawthorne Stephen Neale Paul Watzlawick

Theories

Causal theory of reference Contrast theory of meaning Contrastivism Conventionalism Cratylism Deconstruction Descriptivist theory of names Direct reference theory Dramatism Expressivism Linguistic determinism Logical atomism Logical positivism Mediated reference theory Nominalism Non-cognitivism Phallogocentrism Quietism Relevance theory Semantic externalism Semantic holism Structuralism Supposition theory Symbiosism Theological noncognitivism Theory of descriptions Verification theory

Concepts

Ambiguity Linguistic relativity Meaning Language Truth-bearer Proposition Use–mention distinction Concept Categories Set Class Intension Logical form Metalanguage Mental representation Principle
Principle
of compositionality Property Sign Sense and reference Speech act Symbol Entity Sentence Statement more...

Related articles

Analytic philosophy Philosophy
Philosophy
of information Philosophical logic Linguistics Pragmatics Rhetoric Semantics Formal semantics Semiotics

Category Task Force Discussion

v t e

Philosophy
Philosophy
of science

Concepts

Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science

Metatheory of science

Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological
Epistemological
anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism

Philosophy
Philosophy
of

Physics

thermal and statistical Motion

Chemistry Biology Environment Geography Social science Technology

Engineering Artificial intelligence Computer science

Information Mind Psychiatry Psychology Perception Space and time

Related topics

Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric
Rhetoric
of science Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance

Philosophers of science by era

Ancient

Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans

Medieval

Averroes Avicenna Roger Bacon William of Ockham Hugh of Saint Victor Dominicus Gundissalinus Robert Kilwardby

Early modern

Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes René Descartes Galileo Galilei Pierre Gassendi Isaac Newton David Hume

Classical modern

Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

Portal Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108159964 LCCN: n79139459 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 469X GND: 118594893 SELIBR: 196943 SUDOC: 027076164 BNF: cb11920019p (data) BIBSYS: 90059026 ULAN: 500248317 MusicBrainz: f414935c-7ea7-45d7-b243-d7c0990158d8 NLA: 35425332 NDL: 00452937 NKC: jn19981001996 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV07350 BNE: XX1155

.