The Pima Revolt, or the O'odham Uprising and the Pima Outbreak, was a
revolt of Pima native Americans in 1751 against colonial forces in
Spanish Arizona and one of the major northern frontier conflicts in
early New Spain.
3 After the conflict
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The revolt culminated from decades of violence by the local Spanish
settlers against Indians beginning in 1684. The period was
characterized by local Indians' gradual loss of autonomy and
territory. Treaties allowing the Spanish to mine and herd on Native
lands led to an influx of new settlers; by 1760 Spaniards and Mexicans
had become a substantial presence in the present-day American
Southwest. However, the colonial province of
Sonora was characterized
by a larger native population, and more frequent conflict between them
and the Spaniards. The Pima Indian Revolt was directly preceded by
the Seri Revolt of Seri Indians in Sonora.
Pima people had no central authority, the charismatic Luis
Oacpicagigua (Luis of Sáric) began the task of uniting—with varying
degrees of success—the disparate groups, numbering at least 15,000
people, under a single war plan. The initial act of rebellion was the
massacre of 18 settlers lured to Oacpicagigua's home in Sáric. In
the ensuing three months, Oacpicagigua and more than a hundred other
men attacked the mission at Tubutama, and other Spanish settlements,
and more than a hundred settlers were killed. Oacpicagigua surrendered
to Captain José Díaz del Carpio on March 18, 1752 after a negotiated
peace. When the Pima leaders laid the blame for the revolt on Jesuit
missionaries (who would be expelled from Spain and its colonies in
1767) they were pardoned by the colonial governor Ortiz Parrilla.
After the conflict
Small scale conflict soon began again, however, and Oacpicagigua
eventually died in a Spanish prison in 1755. The colonial government
founded three new presidios in
Sonora to control the Pima and Seri
populace in the years after the revolt: San Ignacio de Tubac, Santa
Gertrudis de Altar, and San Carlos de Buenavista, present-day Tubac,
Arizona, Altar, Sonora, and Buenavista, Sonora, respectively. While
intermittent rebellions continued, by the end of the eighteenth
century, Sonoran natives had been largely missionized or Hispanicized,
and the assimilated tribes of frontier
New Spain were absorbed into
the Spanish Empire.
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^ Ewing, Russell C. (October 1938). "The Pima Outbreak in November,
1751". New Mexico Historical Review. XIII (4): 337–46.
^ a b c Roberto Mario Salmón (July 1988). "A Marginal Man: Luis of
Saric and the
Pima Revolt of 1751". The Americas. The Americas, Vol.
45, No. 1. 45 (1): 61–77. doi:10.2307/1007327.
John Francis Bannon (July 1979). "The Mission as a Frontier
Institution: Sixty Years of Interest and Research". The Western
Historical Quarterly. The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 10, No.
3. 10 (3): 303–322. doi:10.2307/967373. JSTOR 967373.
New Spain portal
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal
Henry F. Dobyns (1999).
Tubac Through Four Centuries: An Historical
Resume and Analysis (full text). Arizona State Parks Board.
pp. "CHAPTER V: THE PIMA REVO