A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. The taxa joined together in the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestor. Phylogenetic trees are central to the field of phylogenetics. In a rooted phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the inferred most recent common ancestor of the descendants, and the edge lengths in some trees may be interpreted as time estimates. Each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units, as they cannot be directly observed. Trees are useful in fields of biology such as bioinformatics, systematics, and phylogenetic comparative methods. Unrooted trees illustrate only the relatedness of the leaf nodes and do not require the ancestral root to be known or inferred.
1 History 2 Types
2.1 Rooted tree
2.2 Unrooted tree
2.3 Bifurcating tree
3 Construction 4 Limitations 5 See also
5.1 The "tree of life" 5.2 Fields of study 5.3 Software
6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
8.1 Images 8.2 General
The idea of a "tree of life" arose from ancient notions of a
ladder-like progression from lower into higher forms of life (such as
in the Great Chain of Being). Early representations of "branching"
phylogenetic trees include a "paleontological chart" showing the
geological relationships among plants and animals in the book
Elementary Geology, by Edward Hitchcock (first edition: 1840).
An unrooted phylogenetic tree for myosin, a superfamily of proteins.
Unrooted trees illustrate the relatedness of the leaf nodes without making assumptions about ancestry. They do not require the ancestral root to be known or inferred. Unrooted trees can always be generated from rooted ones by simply omitting the root. By contrast, inferring the root of an unrooted tree requires some means of identifying ancestry. This is normally done by including an outgroup in the input data so that the root is necessarily between the outgroup and the rest of the taxa in the tree, or by introducing additional assumptions about the relative rates of evolution on each branch, such as an application of the molecular clock hypothesis. Bifurcating tree Both rooted and unrooted phylogenetic trees can be either bifurcating or multifurcating, and either labeled or unlabeled. A rooted bifurcating tree has exactly two descendants arising from each interior node (that is, it forms a binary tree), and an unrooted bifurcating tree takes the form of an unrooted binary tree, a free tree with exactly three neighbors at each internal node. In contrast, a rooted multifurcating tree may have more than two children at some nodes and an unrooted multifurcating tree may have more than three neighbors at some nodes. A labeled tree has specific values assigned to its leaves, while an unlabeled tree, sometimes called a tree shape, defines a topology only. The number of possible trees for a given number of leaf nodes depends on the specific type of tree, but there are always more multifurcating than bifurcating trees, more labeled than unlabeled trees, and more rooted than unrooted trees. The last distinction is the most biologically relevant; it arises because there are many places on an unrooted tree to put the root. For labeled bifurcating trees, there are:
( 2 n − 3 ) ! ! =
( 2 n − 3 ) !
n − 2
( n − 2 ) !
n ≥ 2
displaystyle (2n-3)!!= frac (2n-3)! 2^ n-2 (n-2)! ,,, text for ,ngeq 2
total rooted trees and
( 2 n − 5 ) ! ! =
( 2 n − 5 ) !
n − 3
( n − 3 ) !
n ≥ 3
displaystyle (2n-5)!!= frac (2n-5)! 2^ n-3 (n-3)! ,,, text for ,ngeq 3
total unrooted trees, where
represents the number of leaf nodes. Among labeled bifurcating trees, the number of unrooted trees with
leaves is equal to the number of rooted trees with
n − 1
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A spindle diagram, showing the evolution of the vertebrates at class level, width of spindles indicating number of families. Spindle diagrams are often used in evolutionary taxonomy.
A highly resolved, automatically generated tree of life, based on completely sequenced genomes.
A dendrogram is a general name for a tree, whether phylogenetic or not, and hence also for the diagrammatic representation of a phylogenetic tree . A cladogram is a phylogenetic tree formed using cladistic methods. This type of tree only represents a branching pattern; i.e., its branch spans do not represent time or relative amount of character change . A phylogram is a phylogenetic tree that has branch spans proportional to the amount of character change . A chronogram is a phylogenetic tree that explicitly represents evolutionary time through its branch spans. A spindle diagram (often called a Romerogram after the American palaeontologist Alfred Romer) is the representation of the evolution and abundance of the various taxa through time. A Dahlgrenogram is a diagram representing a cross section of a phylogenetic tree A phylogenetic network is not strictly speaking a tree, but rather a more general graph, or a directed acyclic graph in the case of rooted networks. They are used to overcome some of the limitations inherent to trees.
Main article: Computational phylogenetics
Phylogenetic trees composed with a nontrivial number of input
sequences are constructed using computational phylogenetics methods.
Distance-matrix methods such as neighbor-joining or UPGMA, which
calculate genetic distance from multiple sequence alignments, are
simplest to implement, but do not invoke an evolutionary model. Many
sequence alignment methods such as
ClustalW also create trees by using
the simpler algorithms (i.e. those based on distance) of tree
efficiency (how long does it take to compute the answer, how much memory does it need?) power (does it make good use of the data, or is information being wasted?) consistency (will it converge on the same answer repeatedly, if each time given different data for the same model problem?) robustness (does it cope well with violations of the assumptions of the underlying model?) falsifiability (does it alert us when it is not good to use, i.e. when assumptions are violated?)
Tree-building techniques have also gained the attention of mathematicians. Trees can also be built using T-theory. Limitations
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Although phylogenetic trees produced on the basis of sequenced genes or genomic data in different species can provide evolutionary insight, they have important limitations. Most importantly, they do not necessarily accurately represent the evolutionary history of the included taxa. In fact, they are literally scientific hypotheses, subject to falsification by further study (e.g., gathering of additional data, analyzing the existing data with improved methods). The data on which they are based is noisy; the analysis can be confounded by genetic recombination, horizontal gene transfer, hybridisation between species that were not nearest neighbors on the tree before hybridisation takes place, convergent evolution, and conserved sequences. Also, there are problems in basing the analysis on a single type of character, such as a single gene or protein or only on morphological analysis, because such trees constructed from another unrelated data source often differ from the first, and therefore great care is needed in inferring phylogenetic relationships among species. This is most true of genetic material that is subject to lateral gene transfer and recombination, where different haplotype blocks can have different histories. In general, the output tree of a phylogenetic analysis is an estimate of the character's phylogeny (i.e. a gene tree) and not the phylogeny of the taxa (i.e. species tree) from which these characters were sampled, though ideally, both should be very close. For this reason, serious phylogenetic studies generally use a combination of genes that come from different genomic sources (e.g., from mitochondrial or plastid vs. nuclear genomes), or genes that would be expected to evolve under different selective regimes, so that homoplasy (false homology) would be unlikely to result from natural selection. When extinct species are included in a tree, they are terminal nodes, as it is unlikely that they are direct ancestors of any extant species. Skepticism might be applied when extinct species are included in trees that are wholly or partly based on DNA sequence data, because little useful "ancient DNA" is preserved for longer than 100,000 years, and except in the most unusual circumstances no DNA sequences long enough for use in phylogenetic analyses have yet been recovered from material over 1 million years old. The range of useful DNA materials has expanded with advances in extraction and sequencing technologies. Development of technologies able to infer sequences from smaller fragments, or from spatial patterns of DNA degradation products, would further expand the range of DNA considered useful. In some organisms, endosymbionts have an independent genetic history from the host. Phylogenetic networks are used when bifurcating trees are not suitable, due to these complications which suggest a more reticulate evolutionary history of the organisms sampled. See also
The "tree of life"
Evolutionary history of life, an overview of the major time periods of
life on earth
Life, the top level for articles on living species,
reflecting a diversity of classification systems.
Fields of study
Cladistics Comparative phylogenetics Computational phylogenetics Evolutionary taxonomy Evolutionary biology Generalized tree alignment Phylogenetic comparative methods Phylogenetics
List of phylogenetics software List of phylogenetic tree visualization software
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Associates: Sunderland, MA.
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Manuel Lima, The
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phylogenetic tree.
Human Y-Chromosome 2002 Phylogenetic Tree iTOL: Interactive Tree Of Life Phylogenetic Tree of Artificial Organisms Evolved on Computers Miyamoto and Goodman's Phylogram of Eutherian Mammals
An overview of different methods of tree visualization is available at
Page, R. D. M. (2011). "Space, time, form: Viewing the Tree of Life".
Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 27 (2): 113–120.
v t e
Topics in phylogenetics
Computational phylogenetics Molecular phylogenetics Cladistics Evolutionary taxonomy
Long branch attraction
Maximum parsimony Probabilistic methods
Maximum likelihood Bayesian inference
Neighbor-joining UPGMA Least squares
Phylogenetic comparative methods
Phylogenetic niche conservatism
Apomorphy Synapomorphy Autapomorphy
Monophyly Paraphyly Polyphyly
Phylogenetic nomenclature Crown group Sister group Basal Supertree
List of evolutionary biology topics Evolutionary biology
v t e
Origin of life
Abiogenesis Common descent Earliest known life forms Last universal ancestor Protocell Quasispecies model
Astrobiology Evolutionary biology Miller–Urey experiment Paleobiology
Clay hypothesis Iron–sulfur world PAH world Panspermia
Peptide-RNA world Primordial soup RNA world